Sample records for study pregnant women

  1. Characteristics of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women physicians: findings from the women physicians’ health study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Frank; K Cone

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Many young physicians are women, and many are in their childbearing years. Knowing pregnant physicians’ status is useful for epidemiological and workforce reasons, yet no studies have compared pregnant with same-age, non-pregnant physicians, an especially appropriate comparison group. Study design: Data from the Women Physicians’ Health Study, a national questionnaire-based survey. We compare 87 pregnant with 1148 non-pregnant women

  2. [Serological study on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women from Franceville, Gabon].

    PubMed

    Mpiga Mickoto, R; Akue, J-P; Bisvigou, U; Mayi Tsonga, S; Nkoghe, D

    2010-02-01

    The serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was studied among 839 pregnant women in two hospitals from Franceville (Gabon), between May 2007 and December 2007. Specific T gondii IgG and IgM were measured by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA). Datation of the infection was carried out by avidity test. Fifty-six percent of women in this study were immunised compare to the 71% who were found as immunised in a previous study carried out fifteen years ago. 2.6% were found to be IgM positive. However, from the avidity test it was found that these infections occurred before pregnancy contact with cats and age increase this prevalence. The lack of information for pregnant women, the lack of continuous training for health personnel and lack of awareness about interpretation of laboratory diagnostic tests like avidity test in these hospitals reduce the level of counselling for women about T gondii. PMID:20084487

  3. Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

  4. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant. PMID:17005297

  5. Effects of Mindful Yoga on Sleep in Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Beddoe; Kathryn A. Lee; Sandra J. Weiss; Holly Powell Kennedy; Chin-Po Paul Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experimental pilot study was to measure the effects of a mindfulness-based yoga intervention on sleep in pregnant women. Methods: Fifteen healthy, nulliparous women in their second or third trimesters with singleton pregnancies attended weekly mindfulness meditation and prenatal Hatha yoga classes in the community for 7 weeks. Sleep variables, as estimated by 72 hr of

  6. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p?pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women were especially impaired by striae gravidarum and it is considered important to prevent or reduce the severity of striae gravidarum of the multiparae group. PMID:22905939

  7. Prospective study of Hepatitis E Virus infection among pregnant women in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection has a poor prognosis among pregnant women from high endemic countries. HEV-prevalence and incidence among pregnant women is unknown in high-income countries such as France. This prospective study was conducted to assess HEV infection in this setting. Findings An overall HEV prevalence of 7.74% was observed among 315 pregnant women. Seroprevalence was higher in south than in north of France (29.3% vs. 3.6%, p?women with detectable IgG were older. No IgG seroconversion or IgM detection were observed during pregnancy. Conclusions Data suggest that HEV infection is a rare occurrence during pregnancy even in regions of western countries with high seroprevalence rates. PMID:24716485

  8. Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious diseases and most pregnant women have a low level of knowledge regarding these topics. There is not much information about the actual risk behaviour of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and risk behaviour related to toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and CMV infection prevention in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional survey among pregnant women from twenty midwifery practices across the Netherlands that participated in the DELIVER study, between October 2010 and December 2010. The questionnaire items covered respondents’ knowledge of preventive practices in general, risk behaviour, and sources of received information. Results Of the 1,097 respondents (response 66.0%), 75.3% had heard, read or seen information about toxoplasmosis, 61.7% about listeriosis and 12.5% about CMV. The majority reported having heard about these infections from their care providers or read about these in printed media or on the Internet. Respondents showed limited knowledge about preventive practices for toxoplasmosis, listeriosis or CMV infection. Regarding toxoplasmosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who had a high level of education, had the Dutch nationality, did not take folic acid during their first trimester, and had ever worked in a children day-care setting. Regarding listeriosis, risk behaviour was more prevalent among respondents who where in their third trimester. Regarding CMV infections, risk behaviour was less prevalent among respondents who were in their third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion Of the respondents, a substantial part did not have knowledge about preventive practices to avoid listeriosis, toxoplasmosis and CMV infections during pregnancy. Many pregnant women are appropriately avoiding risk behaviour, without knowing what they are avoiding. Advising pregnant women about behaviours and life-style habits to prevent infectious diseases remains important and information about preventive practices need to be complete and adequate. However, it may be less important to give pregnant women specific infectious diseases information. More attention towards CMV is necessary. PMID:23627427

  9. Effects of a guided imagery intervention on stress in hospitalized pregnant women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Cozens, Roberta; Smith, Melanie W; Simpson, Rachael I

    2013-01-01

    Using repeated-measures pre-/posttest design, the effects of guided imagery on maternal stress in 19 hospitalized pregnant women were examined. Mean stress and systolic blood pressure measurements postintervention were significantly lower than mean levels before listening to the guided imagery CD. All participants identified benefits of this holistic intervention. The study provides preliminary evidence that a guided imagery intervention may be effective in reducing maternal stress in hospitalized pregnant women and supports the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to further support incorporating this intervention into care. PMID:23580099

  10. Smoking cessation in pregnant women with mental disorders: a cohort and nested qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, LM; Bekele, D; Rowe, M; Demilew, J; Bewley, S; Marteau, TM

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether 1) pregnant smokers with mental disorders are less likely to accept referrals to smoking cessation services compared with pregnant smokers without disorders; 2) they experience specific barriers to smoking cessation. Design Cohort study supplemented by cross-sectional survey and nested qualitative study. Setting Three maternity services, London, UK. Population Pregnant smokers with and without mental disorders. Methods Case notes were examined on a cohort of 400 consecutive pregnant smokers; data were triangulated with routinely collected data on 845 pregnant smokers at two other sites; 27 pregnant smokers were interviewed using qualitative methods. Main outcome measures Acceptance of referral to smoking cessation services; perceived barriers to quitting. Results Pregnant smokers with a mental disorder recorded by midwives were one-quarter of the cohort (97, 23%), were more likely to accept referral to smoking cessation services (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.03–2.79), but more likely to still smoke at delivery (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 1.41–4.92). Discussion about smoking was documented in 7.7% of subsequent antenatal visits in women with or without mental disorders. Pregnant smokers with diagnosed mental disorders reported that they and health practitioners did not prioritise smoking advice because of concern about adversely impacting mental health. Conclusions Pregnant women with mental disorders appear more motivated, yet find it more difficult, to stop smoking. Prioritisation of mental health over smoking may therefore lead to increasing health inequality for this group. Research into effective smoking cessation interventions is required for those with mental disorders. PMID:23167511

  11. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  12. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  13. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  14. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987

  15. 1: Infections in pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwendolyn L Gilbert

    Appropriate investigations and management can reduce adverse outcomes, unnecessary interventions and anxiety. IN PREGNANT WOMEN, most infections are no more serious than in non-pregnant women of similar age. However, some infections can be transmitted to the fetus in utero or to the infant during or immediately after delivery, with potentially serious sequelae (Box 1). Uncommonly, serious infectious illness in the

  16. Using Incentives to Encourage Smoking Abstinence Among Pregnant Indigenous Women? A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2014-11-27

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous M?ori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant M?ori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as M?ori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest that incentives, in particular a choice of products, may be an effective addition to usual care to increase smoking cessation among pregnant M?ori women, which has the potential to improve health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:25427877

  17. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content. PMID:23986734

  18. Pregnant women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda and formulated suggestions for improving service delivery. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 30 pregnant women (15 HIV positive and 15 HIV negative) attending an antenatal clinic, six key informant interviews with health workers providing antenatal care and observations. Data were analyzed using a content thematic approach. Results Prior to attending their current ANC visit, most women knew that the hospital provided HIV counselling and testing services as part of antenatal care (ANC). HIV testing was perceived as compulsory for all women attending ANC at the hospital but beneficial, for mothers, especially those who test HIV positive and their unborn babies. Most HIV positive women were satisfied with the immediate counselling they received from health workers, but identified the need to provide follow up counselling and support after the test, as areas for improvement. However, most HIV negative women mentioned that they were given inadequate attention during post-test counselling. This left them with unanswered questions and, for some, doubts about the negative test results. Conclusions In this setting, routine HIV counselling and testing services are known and acceptable to mothers. There is need to strengthen post-test and follow up counselling for both HIV positive and negative women in order to maximize opportunities for primary and post exposure HIV prevention. Partnerships and linkages with people living with HIV, especially those in existing support groups such as those at The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), may help to strengthen counselling and support for pregnant women. For effective HIV prevention, women who test HIV negative should be supported to remain negative. PMID:23705793

  19. A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women’s and health professionals’ attitudes to external cephalic version

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required. PMID:23324533

  20. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  1. Characteristics of Humidifier Use in Korean Pregnant Women: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current use of humidifier detergent and its harmful impact on humans has arisen as a societal environmental health issue. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the relationship between demo-socio characteristics and humidifier use, as well as the monthly usage changes in pregnant women; thus, we report the actual status of humidifier usage of Korea's pregnant population. Methods From a birth cohort of a Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, 1,144 pregnant women who responded through questionnaires including demo-socio characteristics, obstetric status and household environment including whether they use humidifier and frequency of use were included in this study. Statistical analyses were performed to explore the relationship between maternal characteristics and the relevance of the use of humidifiers was performed using a chi-square test, a t-test and univariate logistic regression analysis. The monthly usage rate was demonstrated in the graph. Results The humidifier usage rate in pregnant women was 28.2%. The average frequency of humidifier usage was 4.6 days per week, 7.3 hours per day. The usage rate was higher in the multipara group and the above the age of 34 age group than in the primipara and below the age of 34 groups. Seoul showed a higher usage rate than Cheonan and Ulsan and as the education level and income increased, the usage rate of humidifiers among pregnant women also increased. In the monthly trend of usage rate, the winter season showed the highest usage rate of over 45% and the lowest in late summer and beginning of fall with a value of 12% or less. Conclusions During pregnancy, the mother's body is especially vulnerable to hazardous environmental exposure that not only affects the pregnant woman but also the fetus. Further research is still needed to elucidate the route and effect of environmental risk factors. Therefore, based on precautionary and preventive principles, special interest and caution in harmful environments are strongly needed not only at an individual level but also at a national level. PMID:22347705

  2. Renal colic in pregnant women: role of renal resistive index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A Shokeir; Mohamed R Mahran; Magdy Abdulmaaboud

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the value of the renal resistive index (RI) in the identification of acute renal obstruction in pregnant women.Methods. The study included 22 pregnant women with acute unilateral ureteral obstruction due to a stone disease (group A), 71 normotensive pregnant patients without loin pain (group B), and 20 nonpregnant women of child-bearing age with both kidneys normal (group

  3. Designing drug trials: considerations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Jeanne S; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L; Savic, Rada M; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-12-15

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  4. National Children's Study Workshop: Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring

    Cancer.gov

    Page 1 of 42 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment September 21–22, 2004 Draft 3 11-16-04 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring September

  5. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  6. Chronic diseases in pregnant women: prevalence and birth outcomes based on the SNiP-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The subject of “pregnancy and disease” is of particular importance for maternal well-being and neonatal outcomes. The international literature has focused on acute diseases during pregnancy; however, there are only a few studies investigating chronic diseases in pregnant women. The focus of this study is on diseases of women in childbearing age that are not related to the pregnancy. The objective of the paper is to deliver population based prevalences of chronic dieases in childbearing women and compare the two groups of chronically ill women and healthy women in detail regarding sociodemography, peri- and prenatal parameters and birth outcomes. Methods Data of n?=?5320 childbearing women were evaluated in the context of the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews, self-applied questionnaires, and abstraction from medical records at the time of giving birth. Sociodemographic and health status data were assessed, including chronic diseases that were taken out of medical records. A comprehensive set of pre- and perinatal varaiables were assessed. Results In the SNiP, every fifth pregnant woman suffers from at least one chronic disease, and higher prevalence rates have been reported in the literature. There was a significant difference between chronically ill women and healthy women in age, education and income. Prenatal complications were more frequent in the healthy group than in the chronic disease group. Women with chronic diseases delivered by Cesarean section more frequently than women in the healthy group. Every tenth woman with at least one chronic disease gave birth to a premature infant, while only one in every 13 woman in the healthy control group gave birth to a premature infant. Conclusions This analysis is the first population-based study in which all chronic diseases could be taken into consideration. The population-based prevalences rates in the SNiP data are consistently lower than those found in the literature. There are differences between chronically ill women and healthy women in peri- and prenatal variables as well as birth outcome on the population level. However, they are less frequent than expected and further analyses are need focusing on specific diseases. PMID:24552439

  7. Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojca Jevšnik; Silvestra Hoyer; Peter Raspor

    2008-01-01

    Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia were systematically assessed through an inquiry-based investigation. The study was conducted with 291 pregnant women, who attended antenatal classes at the time of the investigation, and 200 non-pregnant women, all of whom participated during consultation hours for parents in ten, randomly selected primary schools in the country. Results

  8. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: study about the repercussions on the obstetric and neonatal results].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Driéli Pacheco; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Stefanelo, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    This observational, descriptive and analytic study aimed to identify the prevalence of IPV cases among pregnant women and classify them according to the type and frequency; identify the obstetric and neonatal results and their associations with the intimate partner violence (IPV) occurrence in the current pregnancy. It was developed with 232 pregnant women who had prenatal care at a public maternity hospital. Data were collected via structured interview and in the patients' charts and analyzed through the statistic software SAS® 9.0. Among the participants, 15.5% suffered IPV during pregnancy, among that 14.7% suffered psychological violence, 5.2% physical violence and 0.4% sexual violence. Women who did not desire the pregnancy had more chances of suffering IPV (p<0.00; OR=4.32 and 95% CI [1.77 - 10.54]). With regards to the obstetric and neonatal repercussions, there was no statistical association between the variables investigated. Thus, for the study participants there were no negative obstetric and neonatal repercussions related to IPV during pregnancy. PMID:24918877

  9. Prescription of drugs to pregnant women in France: the HIMAGE study.

    PubMed

    Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Guy, Claire; Ratrema, Martine; Ollagnier, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The HIMAGE study, conducted in partnership with the principal Public Health Insurance Funds of the Loire region, analysed medicinal prescriptions during pregnancy on the basis of a representative sample of 911 pregnant women resident in this region of France. Altogether 93.5% received at least one prescription, with a mean of 10.9 different drugs per woman. The prescriptions were predominantly for drugs of the following Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classes: "alimentary tract and metabolism" (78%); "genito-urinary system and sex hormones" (62%); "nervous system" (62%); and "blood and blood-forming organs" (57%). Iron supplements, paracetamol, folic acid, magnesium, progesterone, oxaceprol, phloroglucinol, amoxicillin, domperidone and diosmine were the most frequently prescribed drugs. In total, 4.6% of the women were exposed to drugs involving a risk during pregnancy: principally nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed from the sixth month onwards. This study revealed a high frequency of prescription of drugs to pregnant women, largely motivated by non-rational and to some extent culture-specific considerations, and it also highlighted the prescription of drugs known to involve risk during pregnancy. These results provide a basis for advising clinicians on the rational and safe use of drugs during pregnancy. PMID:15058494

  10. The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

  11. Kidney Dialysis Increasing for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... data had been collected on pregnancy outcomes for women on hemodialysis in the United States," study co-author Dr. Mala Sachdeva, of Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, said in a news release from the National ... 32 percent of the women began dialysis while they were pregnant. Most -- 58 ...

  12. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  13. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n?=?20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n?=?20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n?=?16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV disclosure among pregnant women and partners, especially in the home-setting. PMID:24294994

  14. Recruitment of healthy first-trimester pregnant women: lessons from the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy study (CHirP).

    PubMed

    Webster, Glenys M; Teschke, Kay; Janssen, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising, recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting a study booth at baby "trade shows" were used to advertise the study. Participants had to meet a strict set of eligibility criteria, and were asked to donate two-second-trimester blood samples, complete two questionnaires, have samples of air, dust, lint and tap water collected from their homes, and donate a cord blood sample at delivery. Over 17 months, 171 women enrolled (49% of initial contacts, and 99% of all eligible women) and 152 women completed the study (89% retention). Total recruitment costs were approximately $400 Cdn per final participant. Posters, study booth presentations and online advertising generated the most inquiries about the study. Word of mouth, referral from another study and direct email were the most cost-effective strategies. Not surprisingly, the recruited study population was less ethnically diverse, more affluent and more educated than the background population of pregnant women in Vancouver. A combination of passive and active recruitment techniques were successful for recruiting healthy women in roughly the first trimester of pregnancy (<15 weeks gestation). While a convenience sample of women is suitable for our study questions, additional strategies may be required to recruit a more representative pregnant population in future studies. PMID:21210200

  15. Evaluation of Sexual Function in Brazilian Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciane M. V. Naldoni; Maria A. V. Pazmiño; Patrícia A. O. Pezzan; Simone B. Pereira; Geraldo Duarte; Cristine H. J. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sexual function of pregnant women and to identify the potential variables associated with it. The study was conducted on 137 low-risk, sexually active pregnant women who filled out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Although 61% of the women assessed presented an FSFI score ?26.5, they declared that they

  16. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study

    PubMed Central

    King, Bridget; Bryan, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants 20?074 pregnant women with a median age of 30 who received the pertussis vaccine and a matched historical unvaccinated control group. Main outcome measure Adverse events identified from clinical diagnoses during pregnancy, with additional data from the matched child record identified through mother-child linkage. The primary event of interest was stillbirth (intrauterine death after 24 weeks’ gestation). Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth in the 14 days immediately after vaccination (incidence rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.62) or later in pregnancy (0.85, 0.44 to 1.61) compared with historical national rates. Compared with a matched historical cohort of unvaccinated pregnant women, there was no evidence that vaccination accelerated the time to delivery (hazard ratio 1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Furthermore, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth, maternal or neonatal death, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, haemorrhage, fetal distress, uterine rupture, placenta or vasa praevia, caesarean delivery, low birth weight, or neonatal renal failure, all serious events that can occur naturally in pregnancy. Conclusion In women given pertussis vaccination in the third trimester, there is no evidence of an increased risk of any of an extensive predefined list of adverse events related to pregnancy. In particular, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth. Given the recent increases in the rate of pertussis infection and morbidity and mortality in neonates, these early data provide initial evidence for evaluating the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy for health professionals and the public and can help to inform vaccination policy making. PMID:25015137

  17. Sepsis in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Orr, Katrine; Chien, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Animal, epidemiological and limited human studies have reported that obesity increases susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. Obesity has now reached worldwide epidemic proportions with a recent study estimating that there are currently 2.1 billion obese adults in the world. The rates of sepsis in both the non-pregnant and pregnant population are also increasing. Obesity is an independent risk factor for both infection and sepsis in pregnancy. This review article addresses the epidemiology, immunological factors, infection sites, investigation, management, specific intrapartum care and postnatal care of the obese pregnant woman with infection. PMID:25467427

  18. Few microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis may constitute the pathologic core: A population-based microbiologic study among 3596 pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poul Thorsen; Inge Panum Jensen; Bernard Jeune; Niels Ebbesen; Magnus Arpi; Annie Bremmelgaard; Birger R. Møller

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. Study Design: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks from the referring area of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from November 1992 to February

  19. Risk factors for syphilis infection among pregnant women: results of a case?control study in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Xiang?Sheng; Hong, Fu?Chang; Pan, Peng; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yu?Mao; Yin, Yue?Ping; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David

    2007-01-01

    Background China has been experiencing a rapidly growing syphilis epidemic since the early 1990s, with the reported incidence of congenital syphilis increasing from 0.01 cases per 100?000 live births in 1991 to 19.7 cases per 100?000 live births in 2005. Detailed studies of risk factors for syphilis in pregnant women are needed to inform new preventive interventions. Objective To investigate factors associated with recent syphilis infection among pregnant women and recommend strategies for improved preventive interventions in the community. Methods A case–control study was conducted among women attending antenatal clinics in Shenzhen City, South China. Cases were antenatal clinic women testing positive for early syphilis, based on laboratory results, with those testing negative being controls. All participants completed the same anonymous questionnaire covering demographics, lifestyle, sexual behaviour, and sexual partnerships. Results 129 cases and 345 controls were recruited. Syphilis was significantly associated with unmarried status, less education, multiple sex partners, travel of sex partner in the past 12?months, a history of induced abortion, and previous sexually transmitted infections. Overall, there were no differences between syphilis?positive and negative women in household registration status (hukou), living district and duration in Shenzhen, monthly income, and age at first sex. Conclusions Many demographic and behavioural risk factors are associated with syphilis among pregnant women. In the government congenital syphilis control programme, comprehensive preventive interventions should be provided in all clinical settings in addition to the current procedures for syphilis screening among antenatal women. PMID:17675391

  20. Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations.

    PubMed

    van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2009-06-01

    Little is known about how an expecting woman's view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred three pregnant women participated in a longitudinal study and completed the EPDS and the HADS-D in each pregnancy trimester and between 8 to 12 and 20 to 25 weeks postpartum. In addition, measures of maternal orientation (PPQ), personality (NEO-FFI), coping styles (UCL), adult attachment (RQ), and parental bonding (PBI) were completed antenatally. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Neuroticism and the Regulator orientation are positively associated with the EPDS and HADS-D in both pregnant and postpartum women. These associations decreased in strength but remained significant after controlling for previous responses on the EPDS and HADS-D. Small negative associations were found between the Facilitator orientation and the HADS-D scores during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. However, this association did not hold its statistical significance within the hierarchical multiple regression models. The maternal orientations have a small but significant and independent contribution in the variance of depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:19266251

  1. Prospective Cohort Study of the Safety of an Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in Pregnant Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhua; Jiang, Renjie; Zhang, Jinlin; Wang, Huaqing; Gao, Xiaozhi; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Yuanbao

    2014-01-01

    To monitor and evaluate the safety of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in pregnant women and its influence on the fetus and neonate, we performed a prospective study in which 122 pregnant Chinese women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine and 104 pregnant women who did not receive any vaccine (serving as controls) were observed. The results indicated that the seroconversion rate in the vaccinated group was 90.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.6% to 95.5%). The rate of adverse events following immunization in the pregnant women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine was 3.3%. The spontaneous abortion rates in the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group were 0.8% and 1.9%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 0.470), the prolonged-pregnancy rates were 8.2% and 4.8%, respectively (?2 = 1.041, P = 0.308), the low-birth-weight rates were 1.6% and 0.95%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 1.000), and the spontaneous-labor rates were 70.5% and 75%, respectively (?2 = 0.573, P = 0.449). All newborns who have an Apgar score of ?7 are considered healthy; Apgar scores of ?9 were observed in 38.5% and 57.7% of newborns in the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group, respectively (?2 = 8.274, P = 0.004). From these results, we conclude that the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine is safe for pregnant women and has no observed adverse effects on fetal growth. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01842997.) PMID:24990911

  2. Health service barriers to HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains critical in the global efforts to reach a goal of universal access to prevention and timely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and health care. Routine HIV testing has been shown to be cost-effective and life-saving by prolonging the life expectancy of HIV patients and reducing the annual HIV transmission rate. However, these benefits of routine HIV testing may not be seen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) due to health facility related factors. This paper presents the influence of health facility related factors on HTC to inform HTC implementation. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and used structured questionnaire and interview guides to gather information from 300 pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years and had attended ANC for more than twice at the time of the study. Twelve health workers were interviewed as key informants. Respondents were selected from the five sub metro health facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. Pregnant women who had not tested after two or more ANC visits were classified as not utilizing HTC. Data was analyzed with STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women had not undergone HTC, with “never been told” emerging as the most cited reason as reported by 29.5% of respondents. Decisions by pregnant women to take up HTC were mostly influenced by factors such as lack of information, perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, waiting time, poor relationship with health staff and fear of being positive. Conclusions Access to HTC health facility alone does not translate into utilization of HTC service. Improving health facility related factors such as health education and information, confidentiality, health staff turnaround time and health staff-client relationship related to HTC will improve implementation. PMID:24942820

  3. Prospective cohort study of the safety of an influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in pregnant Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fubao; Zhang, Longhua; Jiang, Renjie; Zhang, Jinlin; Wang, Huaqing; Gao, Xiaozhi; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Yuanbao

    2014-09-01

    To monitor and evaluate the safety of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in pregnant women and its influence on the fetus and neonate, we performed a prospective study in which 122 pregnant Chinese women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine and 104 pregnant women who did not receive any vaccine (serving as controls) were observed. The results indicated that the seroconversion rate in the vaccinated group was 90.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.6% to 95.5%). The rate of adverse events following immunization in the pregnant women who received the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine was 3.3%. The spontaneous abortion rates in the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group were 0.8% and 1.9%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 0.470), the prolonged-pregnancy rates were 8.2% and 4.8%, respectively (?(2) = 1.041, P = 0.308), the low-birth-weight rates were 1.6% and 0.95%, respectively (exact probability test, P = 1.000), and the spontaneous-labor rates were 70.5% and 75%, respectively (?(2) = 0.573, P = 0.449). All newborns who have an Apgar score of ?7 are considered healthy; Apgar scores of ?9 were observed in 38.5% and 57.7% of newborns in the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group, respectively (?(2) = 8.274, P = 0.004). From these results, we conclude that the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine is safe for pregnant women and has no observed adverse effects on fetal growth. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01842997.). PMID:24990911

  4. Comparative media studies in the isolation of Candida albicans from pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Smith; Hans D. Taubert; Charles M. Towns

    1962-01-01

    Summary  Rice agar and corn meal agar, with and without Tween 80, were evaluated clinically as directly inoculable selective and differential media for the isolation ofC. albicans from vulvovaginal specimens taken from pregnant women. Chlamydospore formation on these media was investigated as a criterion for the identification ofC. albicans.Of 301 patients cultured, 118 (39.2 %) gave positive cultures for yeast-like fungi

  5. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  6. [Anti-smoking propaganda among pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, E V

    1989-01-01

    The study was designed to analyze the work of women's consultation clinics and maternity homes on antitobacco propaganda among pregnant women. 428 physicians were interviewed. It was shown that 21.7% of physicians at women's consultation clinics and 22.9% of those of maternity homes were constantly engaged in such propaganda activities. The majority of physicians discussed tobacco smoking only in case when the patients had some smoking-associated problems. It was recommended to intensify antitobacco propaganda, to develop the movement under the slogan "Smoking and doctors are incompatible", to raise the responsibility of physicians for health education. PMID:2718011

  7. Diagnostic value of single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women with suspected deep vein thrombosis: prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety of using single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women to rule out deep vein thrombosis. Design Prospective outcome study. Setting Two tertiary care centres and 18 private practices specialising in vascular medicine in France and Switzerland. Participants 226 pregnant and postpartum women referred for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Methods A single proximal and distal compression ultrasonography was performed. All women with a negative complete compression ultrasonography result did not receive anticoagulant therapy and were followed up for a three month period. Main outcome measures Symptoms of venous thromboembolism, second compression ultrasonography or chest imaging, a thromboembolic event, and anticoagulant treatment. Results 16 women were excluded, mainly because of associated suspected pulmonary embolism. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 22 out of the 210 included women (10.5%). 10 patients received full dose anticoagulation despite a negative test result during follow-up. Of the 177 patients without deep vein thrombosis and who did not receive full dose anticoagulant therapy, two (1.1%, 95% confidence interval 0.3% to 4.0%) had an objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis during follow-up. Conclusions The rate of venous thromboembolic events after single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women seems to be within the range of that observed in studies in the non-pregnant population. These data suggest that a negative single complete compression ultrasonography result may safely exclude the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in this setting. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00740454. PMID:22531869

  8. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant rural women in north-west Nigeria: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, Emmanuel; Gwarzo, Mohammed; Ashimi, Adewale

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Background/Objective: This research was undertaken to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant northern Nigerian women. Methods: Prospective cohort study. The study was done at General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano. Kano has a population of 9.2 million and predominantly Muslims. Two hundred consecutive women presenting for antenatal care and 100 apparently normal controls. Ethical approval was obtained. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires from 200 consecutive pregnant women who presented for antenatal care. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, E and malondialdehyde were determined. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used. Means were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Associations between trimesters and oxidative stress/antioxidant status were tested using chi-square test and p?pregnant) and 1.84?±?0.40?nmol/l (non-pregnant) (p?=?0.001). There was strong negative correlation between serum levels of malondialdehyde and vitamins A, C and E. Conclusion: Vitamins A, C, E deficiency and oxidative stress is a problem among Northern Nigeria pregnant women, therefore the value of antioxidant vitamin supplementation should be explored. PMID:24824107

  10. Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Odhiambo, Frank; Peterson, Elizabeth; Rosen, Daniel H.; Karanja, Diana; Ayisi, John G.; Shi, Ya Ping; Adazu, Kubaje; Slutsker, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and Kato-Katz method. Results Among 390 participants who provided a stool sample, 76.2% were infected with at least one geohelminth: 52.3% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 39.5% with hookworm, and 29.0% with Trichuris trichiura. Infection with at least one geohelminth species was associated with the use of an unprotected water source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.0) and the lack of treatment of drinking water (AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1). Geohelminth infections were not associated with clinical symptoms, or low body mass index. A hookworm infection was associated with a lower mid upper arm circumference (adjusted mean decrease 0.7 cm, 95% CI 0.3–1.2 cm). Hookworm infections with an egg count ?1000/gram feces (11 women) were associated with lower hemoglobin (adjusted mean decrease 1.5 g/dl, 95% CI 0.3–2.7). Among gravidae 2 and 3, women with A. lumbricoides were less likely to have malaria parasitemia (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) compared to women without A. lumbricoides, unlike other gravidity groups. Conclusion Geohelminth infections are common in this pregnant population; however, there were few observed detrimental effects. Routine provision of antihelminth treatment during an antenatal clinic visit is recommended, but in this area an evaluation of the impact on pregnancy, malaria, and birth outcome is useful. PMID:19172184

  11. A cross-sectional analytical study of geophagia practices and blood metal concentrations in pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela; Naicker, Nisha; Kootbodien, Tahira; Mahuma, Tshepo; Nkomo, Palesa; Naik, Inakshi; De Wet, Thea

    2014-08-01

    Background. Geophagia, a form of pica, has been shown to be widely practised in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among pregnant women.Objective. To assess the prevalence of geophagia and examine exposure to selected metals and associated risk factors in women attending an antenatal clinic at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, during June and July 2010.Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 307 pregnant women, ranging in age from 18 to 46 years. Structured interviews were conducted to understand geophagia practices. Blood samples were collected to determine haemoglobin values and concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. Statistical analyses using the ?2 test, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and logistic regression analyses were performed as appropriate.Results. Mean parity was 1.4 and the mean (standard deviation) gestational age 30.3 (6.0) weeks. Geophagia was reported by 60 women (19.5%), and the majority purchased soil from street vendors (83.3%). The prevalence of anaemia in the study sample was 16.9% (95% confidence interval 13.1 - 21.6%). Geophagic women had significantly higher blood lead levels than non-geophagic women (2.1 v. 1.4 µg/dl; p<0.001). Anaemia, the use of African traditional medicines and craving of non-nutritive substances in a previous pregnancy were associated with geophagia.Conclusions. Geophagia is practised by a considerable proportion of pregnant women in Johannesburg, especially migrant women. Greater vigilance in respect of pica, especially geophagia, may be needed as part of antenatal care programmes to avoid potentially detrimental health effects of the practice. PMID:25213850

  12. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

  13. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  14. A Systematic Review of African Studies on Intimate Partner Violence against Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Musekiwa, Alfred; Zarowsky, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is very high in Africa. However, information obtained from the increasing number of African studies on IPV among pregnant women has not been scientifically analyzed. This paper presents a systematic review summing up the evidence from African studies on IPV prevalence and risk factors among pregnant women. Methods A key-word defined search of various electronic databases, specific journals and reference lists on IPV prevalence and risk factors during pregnancy resulted in 19 peer-reviewed journal articles which matched our inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles about pregnant women from Africa published in English between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. At least two reviewers assessed each paper for quality and content. We conducted meta-analysis of prevalence data and reported odds ratios of risk factors. Results The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 57% (n?=?13 studies) with meta-analysis yielding an overall prevalence of 15.23% (95% CI: 14.38 to 16.08%). After adjustment for known confounders, five studies retained significant associations between HIV and IPV during pregnancy (OR1.48–3.10). Five studies demonstrated strong evidence that a history of violence is significantly associated with IPV in pregnancy and alcohol abuse by a partner also increases a woman's chances of being abused during pregnancy (OR 2.89–11.60). Other risk factors include risky sexual behaviours, low socioeconomic status and young age. Conclusion The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women in Africa is one of the highest reported globally. The major risk factors included HIV infection, history of violence and alcohol and drug use. This evidence points to the importance of further research to both better understand IPV during pregnancy and feed into interventions in reproductive health services to prevent and minimize the impact of such violence. PMID:21408120

  15. Evaluation of rubella screening in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Gyorkos, T W; Tannenbaum, T N; Abrahamowicz, M; Delage, G; Carsley, J; Marchand, S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rationale for rubella vaccination in the general population and for screening for rubella in pregnant women is the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prenatal rubella screening program in Quebec. METHODS: A historical cross-sectional study was designed. Sixteen hospitals with obstetric services were randomly selected, 8 from among the 35 "large" hospitals in the province (500 or more live births/year) and 8 from among the 50 "small" hospitals (fewer than 500 live births/year). A total of 2551 women were randomly selected from all mothers of infants born between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 1994, by means of stratified 2-stage sampling. The proportions of women screened and vaccinated were ascertained from information obtained from the hospital chart, the physician's office and the patient. RESULTS: The overall (adjusted) screening rate was 94.0%. The rates were significantly different between large and small hospitals (94.4% v. 89.6%). Five large hospitals and one small hospital had rates above 95.0%. The likelihood of not having been screened was statistically significantly higher for women who had been pregnant previously than for women pregnant for the first time (4.8% v. 1.4%; p < 0.001). Of the 200 women who were seronegative at the time of screening (8.4%), 79 had been vaccinated postpartum, had a positive serological result on subsequent testing or did not require vaccination, and 59 had not been vaccinated postpartum; for 62, subsequent vaccination status was unknown. INTERPRETATION: Continued improvement in screening practices is needed, especially in small hospitals. Because vaccination rates are unacceptably low, it is crucial that steps be taken to address this issue. PMID:9835876

  16. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  17. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

  18. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases Office of Director Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an ... receive the nasal spray flu vaccine. Influenza (the flu) is a serious illness, especially when you are ...

  19. [Placenta antigens in serum of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, H; Fischer, K

    1971-10-28

    Antiplacenta serum was produced in rabbits using placenta extract; 3 different placenta antigens were demonstrated in placenta extract by means of the rabbit serum. These placenta antigens were found in the serum of pregnant women with normal and pathological pregnancies,in the urine of pregnant women, in the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and in the ascites of dropsical infants. The immunological characterization of the placental antigens is described in detail. PMID:5171383

  20. Antenatal fear of childbirth and sense of coherence among healthy pregnant women in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takegata, Mizuki; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Okano, Tadaharu; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    While antenatal fear of childbirth (FOC) has been associated with many psychosocial variables, few studies have focused on individual stress resiliency. Sense of coherence (SOC) is one of the essential components of individual stress resiliency. This study investigates the relationship between antenatal FOC and SOC in Japanese healthy pregnant women. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 240 women at 37 gestational weeks at an obstetric clinic in Tokyo, Japan. Structural regression modeling was conducted to identify the causal relationships between FOC and SOC. The non-recursive model showed significant acceptance of fit (chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.72, comparative fit index = 0.97, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.05). The model identified SOC as a direct cause of FOC (? = -0.89, p < 0.001), not a reflection of FOC. We found that SOC was negatively linked with antenatal fear of childbirth. High SOC works as a resiliency factor that helps pregnant women cope with the stress of their upcoming childbirth and reduces FOC. PMID:24493148

  1. Hygiene practices and sexual activity associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. Amiri; M. H. Rooshan; M. H. Ahmady; M. J. Soliamani

    A case-control study determined the association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran. A sample of 100 pregnant women with positive urine cultures (cases) were compared with 150 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status and parity (controls). Escherichia

  2. Demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant and non-pregnant women: eleven years of treatment admission data.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Jennifer E; Arndt, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment for the first time, 81,818 of whom were pregnant. Compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were more likely to be younger, minority, never married, less educated, homeless, and on public-assistance or have no income. Referrals from health care providers (HCPs) among pregnant women entering treatment have stayed consistently low while referrals from the criminal justice system accounted for the largest portion of pregnant women entering treatment. Over the past eleven years, there has been a general decline in alcohol abuse and an increase in drug abuse among women entering treatment; this trend was more pronounced in pregnant women. Unlike their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant women were more likely to report marijuana, not alcohol, as their primary problem substance as well as other drugs like methamphetamine and cocaine. Over the past eleven years, trends in the demographics and patterns of substance abuse among women have changed; some of these trends were unique to pregnant women. A large proportion of pregnant women entering treatment are referred by the criminal justice system. Knowledge surrounding the demographics and abuse patterns of pregnant women entering treatment can inform HCPs and community programs in their screening and outreach efforts. PMID:21842247

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wei, Feng; Gao, Shengyan; Jiang, Li; Lian, Hai; Yuan, Bao; Yuan, Ziguo; Xia, Zhiping; Liu, Bin; Xu, Xianghong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2009-02-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common and usually asymptomatic, but it can have serious consequences in pregnant women if passed to the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and to identify the possible risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in China. Of a sample of 235 pregnant women in Changchun, China, 25 (10.6%) were found by ELISA to be positive for IgG and none (0%) for IgM. Major risk factors were found by bivariate and multivariate analysis to include eating raw or undercooked meat, unwashed raw vegetables or fruit, contact with cats, living in rural areas, and low educational standards. In order to lower congenital infection, pregnant women need to be informed about the risk factors for toxoplasmosis. PMID:18822439

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study?

    PubMed Central

    Chasela, Charles S.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Study design Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ? 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Results Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%). Conclusions HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. PMID:22658797

  5. Employment, Unemployment And The Health Of Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. NAJMAN; A. CHANG; J. MORRISON

    Much of what little we know about the impact of unemployment or health is based upon data or studies of predominantly unemployed men. These studies, though weak in methodology, imply that unemployment may lead to excess morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a study of 4,000 pregnant women in Brisbane. Unemployment amongst women is associated with high-risk health behaviour, which

  6. Becoming pregnant: exploring the perspectives of women living with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Frances; Lowe, Pam; Boardman, Felicity; Ayre, Catherine; Gadsby, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for women with type 1 diabetes is reduced through tight diabetes control. Most women enter pregnancy with inadequate blood glucose control. Interview studies with women suggest the concept of ‘planned’ and ‘unplanned’ pregnancies is unhelpful. Aim To explore women's accounts of their journeys to becoming pregnant while living with type 1 diabetes. Design of study Semi-structured interviews with 15 women living with pre-gestational type 1 diabetes, between 20 and 30 weeks gestation and with a normal pregnancy ultrasound scan. Setting Four UK specialist diabetes antenatal clinics. Method Interviews explored women's journeys to becoming pregnant and the impact of health care. Analysis involved comparison of women's accounts of each pregnancy and a thematic analysis. Results Women's experiences of becoming pregnant were diverse. Of the 40 pregnancies described, at least one positive step towards becoming pregnant was taken by 11 women in 23 pregnancies but not in the remaining 17 pregnancies, with variation between pregnancies. Prior to and in early pregnancy, some women described themselves as experts in their diabetes but most described seeking and/or receiving advice from their usual health professionals. Three women described pre-conception counselling and the anxiety this provoked. Conclusion For women living with type 1 diabetes each pregnancy is different. The concept of planned and unplanned pregnancy is unhelpful for designing health care. Formal preconception counselling can have unintended consequences. Those providing usual care to women are well positioned to provide advice and support to women about becoming pregnant, tailoring it to the changing needs and situation of each woman. PMID:18318971

  7. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve. PMID:25798847

  8. The Community Perinatal Care Study: Home Visiting and Nursing Support for Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne; Siever, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes The Community Perinatal Care Study, a community-based study of pregnancy support that was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between 2001 and 2004. The study was conducted to learn how to improve community-based pregnancy care and to improve prenatal care and healthy births, particularly for women with increased…

  9. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Arun G.; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure. PMID:25642349

  10. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women. PMID:24150690

  11. Palliative care with pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Milliez; Veronique Cayol

    2001-01-01

    When a pregnant woman has been declared dead because of brain death or cerebral death and a permanent vegetative state, the life and wellbeing of her fetus become a matter of crucial consideration. The possible options are an immediate caesarean section, continuation of efforts to maintain the organ functions of the woman to allow her fetus to mature, or discontinuation

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  13. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity. PMID:21679399

  14. Cross-sectional study on factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake and pertussis vaccination status among pregnant women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bödeker, Birte; Walter, Dietmar; Reiter, Sabine; Wichmann, Ole

    2014-07-16

    Pregnant women and their newborns are at increased risk for influenza-related complications; the latter also have an increased risk for pertussis-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. A dose of pertussis-containing vaccine has been recommended since 2004 for women of childbearing age if they have not been vaccinated within the past 10 years. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey among pregnant women in February/March 2013 to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to influenza vaccination during pregnancy and to identify factors associated with their pertussis vaccination status. In total, 1025 pregnant women participated and provided information through a self-administered questionnaire. Of these, 23.2% were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during the 2012/13 season; 15.9% during their pregnancy. Major reasons for being unvaccinated (n=686 respondents) were lack of confidence in the vaccine (60.4%) and the perception that vaccination was not necessary (40.3%). Influenza vaccination during pregnancy was independently associated with having received influenza vaccine in the previous season, having received a recommendation from a physician, a high level of vaccine-related knowledge and of perceived disease severity. In contrast, knowledge of the recommendation for regular hand-washing to prevent influenza and the perception that vaccine-related side effects were likely to occur or likely to be severe were negatively associated with vaccine uptake. Receipt of a pertussis vaccine in the past 10 years was reported by 22.5% of participants. Pertussis vaccine uptake was independently associated with living in the Eastern federal states and receiving seasonal influenza vaccination annually, while a migration background was associated with a lower uptake. To enhance vaccine uptake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age, special efforts must be undertaken to improve knowledge of both recommendations and the benefits of vaccination. Gynecologists could serve as important facilitators. PMID:24928791

  15. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43?years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20?years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20?years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

  16. Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Yoga May Help Ease Depression in Pregnant Women Finding ... 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that yoga may help ease depression in pregnant women. "This ...

  17. Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Field; M. A. Diego; M. Hernandez-Reif; S. Schanberg; C. Kuhn

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-four depressed pregnant women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group that received standard prenatal care alone. These groups were compared to each other and to a non-depressed group at the end of pregnancy. The massage therapy group participants received two 20

  18. Knowledge of pregnant women about birth defects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occurrence of birth defects (BD) remains an important public health issue. Inadequate knowledge about the defects among prospective mothers could result in delayed interventions. The study determined the knowledge of BD among pregnant women in relation to their socio-demographic profile. Method Four hundred and forty-three (443) pregnant women gave their consent to participate in this study. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics from the participants and their knowledge about BD. The questionnaire was assessed for test re-test reliability before been administered. The possible scores on the knowledge domain of the questionnaire were categorized into three levels: low knowledge (0–4), moderate knowledge (5–8) and high knowledge (9–12) levels. Data were analyzed using percentages while Spearman’s rank correlation was used to determine the relationship between the knowledge of BD among the participants and their socio-demographic profile. Alpha level was set at p??0.05) with their specific and overall knowledge. Conclusions Particpants generally had moderate knowledge about BD. However, this had no bearing on their socio-demographic profile. The knowledge base about BD seems to be influenced by traditional belief of the participants. This finding should therefore serve as a guide for health care providers while planning awareness campaign about BD. PMID:23425391

  19. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ? 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and urinary ethylene thiourea (ETU) concentrations among pregnant women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA). Environ Health Perspect 122:1321–1328;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679 PMID:25198283

  20. A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran

    PubMed Central

    Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

  1. Do Interviewers' Health Beliefs and Habits Modify Responses to Sensitive Questions? A Study using Data Collected from Pregnant Women by Means of Computer-assisted Telephone Interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Jørn Olsen

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained through computer- assisted telephone interviews. The authors compared interviewer characteristics for 34 interviewers with the

  2. Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

    2013-01-01

    Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

  3. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  4. Utilization of malaria prevention methods by pregnant women in Yaounde

    PubMed Central

    Dongmo, Clemence Meli

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malaria prevention methods are diverse. Their availability sometimes does not guarantee effective usage and the use of each method in isolation may not provide the necessary results for the fight against malaria. Pregnant women are relatively more vulnerable and so it is recommended that they should be protected against malaria. Proper protection will require malaria prevention methods in combination. This study seeks to find out what methods pregnant women use and how many of them use these methods. Methods Information on the use of malaria prevention methods was collected from pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in health institutions within the Biyem Assi health district of Yaounde VI subdivision using a pretested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16 (Chicago IL USA). Results The study revealed that 82.5% of women used at least one method of malaria prevention; 12% used four methods (insecticides, bednets, indoor residual spraying and Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine) in combination. The most used method was mosquito bednet, 82.5%. Some of the women 17.5% did not use any of the prevention methods. Conclusion Use of malaria prevention methods in combination is not considered a priority by pregnant women. Sensitization campaigns by governments and NGOs should give that a priority position. PMID:24198885

  5. An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n?=?13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have recurred in this study – particularly, the difficulties of getting timely reimbursement to facilities, of controlling charging of patients, and of reaching the poorest. This suggests that providing free care through a national health insurance system has not solved systemic weaknesses. The wider concerns about raising the quality of care, and ensuring that all supply-side and demand-side elements are in place to make the policy effective will also take a longer term and bigger commitment. PMID:23446355

  6. Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss

    PubMed Central

    Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

  7. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

  8. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  9. Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some women continue smoking during pregnancy despite the extensive information available on the dangers smoking poses to their fetus. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of smoking before and during pregnancy and the extent of smoking during pregnancy from a European perspective in relation to maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy, morbidity, and pregnancy-related factors. Methods This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Results Of 8344 women included, 2944 (35.3%) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 771 (26.2%) continued smoking during pregnancy, 88 (11.4%) of whom smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day. There was a wide variation among the 15 European countries in smoking rates before and during pregnancy, ranging from 25.0% (Sweden) to 50.0% (Croatia) before and 4.2% (Iceland) to 18.9% (Croatia) during pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and unplanned pregnancy, who did not take folic acid, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy were the most likely to smoke before pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern or Western Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children and unplanned pregnancy, and who did not take folic acid were the most likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy were the most likely to be living in Eastern Europe and to have a low education level. Conclusion Women with fewer resources living in Western or Eastern Europe are more likely not only to smoke before pregnancy but also to continue smoking during pregnancy. These high-risk women are characterized as living alone, having high school or less as highest education level, having low health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children, having unplanned pregnancy, and no use of folic acid. Our findings indicated that focus on smoking cessation is important in antenatal care in Europe as many women smoke before pregnancy, and still continue to do so in pregnancy. PMID:24964728

  10. Comparative analysis of vaspin in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaojiao; Wang, Shuyi; Ma, Ning; Li, Xiaojing; Guo, Likui; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Tao; Liu, Yali; Lu, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    To explore serum vaspin, leptin, and adiponectin levels and their correlation with insulin resistance (IR) in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy non-pregnant women. A total of 262 individuals, including pregnant women with GDM (n = 86), those without GDM (n = 92), and age-matched healthy non-pregnant women (n = 84) were enrolled in this case-control study. Vaspin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and lipid parameters were measured. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and body mass index were calculated. Data inferred higher concentrations of vaspin (2.72 ± 2.20 vs. 1.84 ± 1.57 vs. 0.81 ± 1.02) in GDM than during normal pregnancy and in non-pregnant women, higher leptin (23.42 ± 12.18 vs. 22.19 ± 10.55 vs. 12.10 ± 11.26), and lower adiponectin (4,164.83 ± 2,650.39 vs. 4,871.66 ± 2,803.51 vs. 7,202.85 ± 4,893.13) in GDM and normal pregnancy as compared to non-pregnant women (p < 0.05). Vaspin was positively correlated to leptin (r = 0.273, p = 0.012), HOMA-IR (r = 0.387, p = 0.000), and triglycerides (TG, r = 0.218, p = 0.046) in GDM. In addition, leptin was negatively correlated to adiponectin in GDM (r = -0.336, p = 0.002) and normal pregnancy (r = -0.256, p = 0.014). Furthermore, vaspin was significantly correlated to GDM and HOMA-IR, and the weight gain might play a vital role in the occurrence of GDM. During pregnancy, high vaspin concentration is significantly associated with IR in GDM. PMID:24929806

  11. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

  12. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemys?aw M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stry?a, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grze?kowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women. PMID:21365902

  13. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment. PMID:20524895

  14. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)] [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)] [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh)] [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  15. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Faas, Marijke M.; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNF?, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNF? was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production. PMID:24466049

  16. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Baby Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants If you’re a pregnant ... if possible. Rest often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated ...

  17. Hostile and Benevolent Reactions Toward Pregnant Women: Complementary Interpersonal Punishments and Rewards That Maintain Traditional Roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle R. Hebl; Eden B. King; Peter Glick; Sarah L. Singletary; Stephanie Kazama

    2007-01-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs.

  18. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  19. Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission. PMID:19473489

  1. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    PubMed

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. PMID:18020792

  2. Acquired Activated Protein C Resistance, Thrombophilia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Study Performed in an Irish Cohort of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sedano-Balbás, Sara; Lyons, Mark; Cleary, Brendan; Murray, Margaret; Gaffney, Geraldine; Maher, Majella

    2011-01-01

    The combination of thrombophilia and pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis and the potential for adverse outcomes during pregnancy. The most significant common inherited risk factor for thrombophilia is activated protein C resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, which is mainly caused by an inherited single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), factor V G1691A (FV Leiden) (FVL), referred as inherited APCR. Changes in the levels of coagulation factors: FV, FVIII, and FIX, and anticoagulant factors: protein S (PS) and protein C (PC) can alter APC function causing acquired APCR. Prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are prothrombotic SNPs which in association with APCR can also increase the risk of thrombosis amongst Caucasians. In this study, a correlation between an acquired APCR phenotype and increased levels of factors V, VIII, and IX was demonstrated. Thrombophilic mutations amongst our acquired APCR pregnant women cohort are relatively common but do not appear to exert a severe undue adverse effect on pregnancy. PMID:21869933

  3. Urinary inositol phosphoglycan-P type: near patient test to detect preeclampsia prior to clinical onset of the disease. A study on 416 pregnant Mauritian women.

    PubMed

    Dawonauth, Lalita; Rademacher, Laurens; L'Omelette, Arnaud Dominique; Jankee, Sarojini; Lee Kwai Yan, Man Yoon; Jeeawoody, Razgia B; Rademacher, Thomas W

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia and eclampsia account for major pregnancy complications in Mauritius, an emerging country (maternal mortality rate of 60 per 100,000 deliveries). This prospective longitudinal study was carried out in the main regional hospital in the north of the island, to measure inositol phosphoglycan-P type (IPG-P) in the urine of pregnant women (using an ELISA-based assay). Women had approximately 10 prenatal visits per pregnancy and a complete follow-up in this same referral centre after the first trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples were collected every 1-4 weeks in all women. In a cohort of 416 patients, preeclampsia (PE) was diagnosed in 34 women. In established PE (hypertension and proteinuria), the assay as a diagnostic test showed a positive likelihood ratio of 18.73, a negligible negative likelihood ratio with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99, sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 94.8% and remained negative in control women (n=312), women with gestational hypertension (without proteinuria (n=56), and gestational diabetic mothers (n=14). Moreover, as a predictive screening test two weeks before the diagnosis of PE, the assay showed sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 83.6%. Detection of urinary inositol phosphoglycan-P type in pregnant women can be a useful confirmatory marker of PE, as well as a predictive marker, two weeks before the onset of the disease. PMID:23962712

  4. Morning sickness reduces dietary diversity, nutrient intakes, and infant outcome of pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Im Lee; Jeong-A Lee; Hyeon-Sook Lim

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of morning sickness in pregnant women on dietary diversity, nutrient intakes, maternal weight gain, and infant outcome. A total of 143 pregnant women in their first trimester participated in the study. Morning sickness tended to make the subjects eliminate food groups, especially the meat and dairy groups. Consequently, the subjects who experienced

  5. Pregnant Women’s Cognitive Concept concerning Their Unborn prior to Prenatal Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kowalcek; U. Gembruch

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We examined pregnant women’s expectations concerning their unborn babies prior to prenatal diagnosis and also the possible correlations with emotional characteristics such as anxiety and depression. Methods: The consecutive sampling consisted of 324 pregnant women presenting themselves between the 11th and 29th weeks of pregnancy for detection of foetal anomalies. The pregnant women noted their thoughts and expectations concerning

  6. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

  7. Paired values of serum fructosamine and blood glucose for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study of 165 Saudi pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haseeb Ahmad Khan; Samia Hasan Sobki; Abdullah Saleh Alhomida; Shaukat Ali Khan

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the utilization of serum fructosamine and blood glucose for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus\\u000a (GDM). Blood samples from 165 pregnant women were analyzed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG) and\\u000a serum fructosamine. The actual fructosamine levels were corrected for serum protein (c-Fruct) for more precise presentation.\\u000a Two cut-off values of FBG (>5.3 mmol\\/L

  8. Carrier Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) in 107,611 Pregnant Women during the Period 2005–2009: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Fang-Yi; Chern, Jimmy P. S.; Tsai, Chris; Chang, Tai-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Chao; Li, Hung; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2011-01-01

    Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common neuromuscular autosomal recessive disorder. The American College of Medical Genetics has recently recommended routine carrier screening for SMA because of the high carrier frequency (1 in 25–50) as well as the severity of that genetic disease. Large studies are needed to determine the feasibility, benefits, and costs of such a program. Methods and Findings This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009. A three-stage screening program was used: (1) pregnant women were tested for SMA heterozygosity; (2) if the mother was determined to be heterozygous for SMA (carrier status), the paternal partner was then tested; (3) if both partners were SMA carriers, prenatal diagnostic testing was performed. During the study period, a total of 2,262 SMA carriers with one copy of the SMN1 gene were identified among the 107,611 pregnant women that were screened. The carrier rate was approximately 1 in 48 (2.10%). The negative predictive value of DHPLC coupled with MLPA was 99.87%. The combined method could detect approximately 94% of carriers because most of the cases resulted from a common single deletion event. In addition, 2,038 spouses were determined to be SMA carriers. Among those individuals, 47 couples were determined to be at high risk for having offspring with SMA. Prenatal diagnostic testing was performed in 43 pregnant women (91.49%) and SMA was diagnosed in 12 (27.91%) fetuses. The prevalence of SMA in our population was 1 in 8,968. Conclusion The main benefit of SMA carrier screening is to reduce the burden associated with giving birth to an affected child. In this study, we determined the carrier frequency and genetic risk and provided carrier couples with genetic services, knowledge, and genetic counseling. PMID:21364876

  9. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  10. Recurrent Gingival Swelling in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Goyal, Niti; Dahiya, Parveen; Gupta, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimura's disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting epithelioid hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to discuss and differentiate EH and other vascular rare entities occurring in the oral cavity. PMID:23723608

  11. Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P.; Gloor, Gregory B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 1010 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. PMID:25293764

  12. Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Awasthi; R Awasthi; V K Pande; R C Srivastav; H Frumkin

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status

  13. Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riitta Luoto; Elham Kharazmi; Niina M Saarinen; Annika I Smeds; Sari Mäkelä; Mahdi Fallah; Jani Raitanen; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. METHODS: A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted

  14. Depressed Antioxidant Status in Pregnant Women on Iron Supplements: Pathologic and Clinical Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Anetor; O. A. Ajose; F. N. Adeleke; G. O. Olaniyan-Taylor; F. A. Fasola

    2010-01-01

    Iron (Fe) remains a commonly prescribed supplement in pregnancy. Its possible pathologic potential is either uncommonly considered\\u000a or ignored. We determined the antioxidant status in pregnant women with and without Fe supplements. Fifty-eight apparently\\u000a healthy pregnant women on Fe supplements were selected for the study from the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital,\\u000a Ibadan, Nigeria. Fifty-five aged matched pregnant

  15. Health care-seeking practices of pregnant women and the role of the midwife in Cape Town, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Zodumo Mvo

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the health-seeking practices of pregnant women in a periurban area in Cape Town, South Africa. This qualitative study was based on 103 minimally structured in-depth interviews of 32 pregnant women. Most women were interviewed on several occasions, and a group discussion was held with women. The interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed ethnographically,

  16. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  17. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID:18847476

  18. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

  19. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women’s knowledge or beliefs. Methods The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants’ knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. Results The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5–7.0) and 6.0 (5.0–7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]; and 5.0 [4.0–6.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]). Multivariable analysis of variance results showed that being of His-panic ethnicity was associated significantly with a lower knowledge score, and that an education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Conclusions Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or ethnicity, and beliefs varied according to maternal education. Including oral health education as a part of prenatal care may improve knowledge regarding the importance of oral health among vulnerable pregnant women, thereby improving their oral health and that of their children. Clinical Implications Including oral health education as a part of prenatal care should be considered. PMID:22041414

  20. Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

    2014-07-30

    The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6?l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92?min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777?ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30?min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26?min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.48. PMID:25073435

  1. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  2. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24484853

  3. Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

  4. A study of the consequences of malarial infection in pregnant women and their infants.

    PubMed

    Brabin, B; Maxwell, S; Chimsuku, L; Verhoeff, F; van der Kaay, H J; Broadhead, R; Kazembe, P; Thomas, A

    1993-07-01

    An outline is given of a field research study to be undertaken in Malawi to investigate the pattern and consequences of malaria in pregnancy and infants. The central question to be investigated is whether babies born to anaemic mothers in malarious areas are at increased risk of developing anaemia or altered risk for morbidity from malaria or develop anaemia in the first year of life. The framework for the case control and cohort study to be undertaken is outlined. PMID:8233622

  5. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  6. Conceptualising Information Literacy as Social Practice: A Study of Pregnant Women's Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papen, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study presents a view of information literacy not primarily as skill but as different practices, situated within specific social and institutional contexts. It suggests that questions of authority of knowledge are central to understanding people's information practices. Method: First, the concept of information…

  7. Antioxidant Vitamins and Lipoperoxidation in Non-pregnant, Pregnant, and Gestational Diabetic Women: Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Suhail, Mohd; Patil, Shridhar; Khan, Salma; Siddiqui, Sana

    2010-01-01

    Background Inconsistent reports are available in the literature regarding the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity during the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. Present study was aimed to evaluate oxidative stress during the development of gestational diabetes and to evaluate antioxidant capability in non-pregnant (control), pregnant and gestational diabetics. Methods The study consisted of non-pregnant, healthy pregnant and patients suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Each group consisted of 23 women. We compared their oxidative and anti-oxidative system in blood. Their blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant vitamins (C, E, A) were determined and compared to evaluate the oxidative status and anti-oxidative capacity of these groups. We have also compared the osmotic fragility profiles of the erythrocytes of these groups. Results Plasma MDA content in pregnant was significantly higher compared to non-pregnant (p < 0.001, 67.5%) and even in gestational diabetics; its value was found significantly further elevated (p = 0.001, 13.8%) compared to healthy pregnant. There was significant decline (p < 0.001, 41.9%) in the level of vitamin C in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant. Although in GDM the decrease was significant (p = 0.025, 20.6%) but comparatively lesser when compared to healthy pregnant. Vitamin E showed the increase of 9.6% during pregnancy, although this alteration was non-significant (p = 0.09), but the level was found to decline significantly (p < 0.001, 25.5%) in GDM compared to pregnant group. Vitamin A contents were also decreased in pregnant (p = 0.002, 17.4%) compared to non-pregnant and in GDM (p = 0.012, 11.2%) compared to pregnant group. Osmotic fragility (O.F.) profiles showed insignificant (p = 0.325) enhanced mean erythrocyte fragility (MEF) in pregnant but this increase was significant (p = 0.003) in case of GDM. The O.F. profiles of pregnant and GDM erythrocytes got shifted to the right side of the control one. Conclusions Our findings indicate highly enhanced lipid peroxidation and significant depletion in antioxidant capacity during the development of gestational diabetes, and these alterations are not the cause but the consequence of GDM. However, further studies are warranted to examine a wider range of biochemical parameters to evaluate the potential risks of oxidative damage in GDM. Keywords Gestational diabetes; Oxidative stress; Anti-oxidants; Vitamins C, E, A; Osmotic fragility; Non-pregnant; Pregnant; GDM PMID:22043260

  8. Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ?1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:25548510

  9. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  10. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  11. Blood and Hair Manganese Concentrations in Pregnant Women from the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9–56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05–53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = ?3.1; 95% CI: ?5.8 to ?0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: ?1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  12. Effectiveness of two antifolate prophylactic strategies against malaria in HIV-positive pregnant women in Bangui, Central African Republic: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MACOMBA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Co-infection with malaria parasite and HIV is an emerging public health problem in tropical areas, particularly in pregnant women, and management of the concurrent effects of these two infections is challenging. Co-trimoxazole is a sulfamide preparation used to prevent opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, and many studies have reported that it has significant activity against malaria. As the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) against malaria is decreasing, co-trimoxazole might be an alternative for preventing malaria among HIV-infected populations. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of SP-IPT, which is recommended for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in the Central African Republic, with that of a daily dose of co-trimoxazole against P. falciparum infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic. Methods/Design The MACOMBA study (MAternity and COntrol of Malaria-HIV co-infection in BAngui) is a multicentre open-label randomized clinical trial conducted at four maternity hospitals in Bangui. All HIV-infected pregnant women presenting for an antenatal clinic visit between the weeks 16 and 28 of amenorrhoea, with a CD4 count of more than 350 cells/mm3, will be eligible. All the women will provide written consent before being enrolled in the study and will then be randomly allocated to either SP-IPT (25 mg of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg of pyrimethamine) or daily co-trimoxazole doses (960 mg per dose). The primary end-point is the placental malaria parasitaemia rate at delivery. Other main outcome measures include the number of malaria episodes during pregnancy, safety, and treatment compliance. Furthermore, the frequency of molecular resistance markers dhfr and dhps will be measured. Discussion In this trial, we seek to confirm whether co-trimoxazole is operationally suitable to replace SP-IPT in order to prevent malaria among pregnant women infected with HIV in the Central African Republic. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01746199. PMID:23945130

  13. Sexuality of pregnant and breastfeeding women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Kenny

    1973-01-01

    The effect of pregnancy and lactation on the sexual behavior of women was studied, using a retrospective questionnaire answered by a nonrandom sample of 33 women. Sexual functioning was operationally defined by four categories: desire, frequency, enjoyment, and orgasm. Five time periods were studied: the three trimesters of pregnancy, the period of breastfeeding and the period after weaning. Most of

  14. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  15. Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Massey, Katie E.; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B.; Lorenz, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors’ objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. Methods The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used ?2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Results Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n = 497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n = 141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, P < .001). Seventy-four percent (n = 442) of the participants reported having received no routine dental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, P < .001). The authors found that being older than 36 years, being of Hispanic race or ethnicity, having an annual income of less than $30,000, flossing infrequently and receiving no dental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Conclusion Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Clinical Implications Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services. PMID:20436103

  16. Use of dietary supplements in pregnant women in relation to sociodemographic factors – a report from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study

    PubMed Central

    Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Hay, Kristen; Joslowski, Gesa; Riikonen, Anne; Ballard, Lori; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of dietary supplement use, particularly supplements containing vitamin D and fatty acids, in pregnant women enrolled in a multi-national study. Design The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Maternal dietary supplement use was self-reported through questionnaires at month 3 to 4 postpartum. Setting Six clinical research centres; three in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland and Germany). Subjects Mothers (n 7326) to infants screened for high-risk HLA-DQ genotypes of type 1 diabetes. Results Ninety-two per cent of the 7326 women used one or more types of supplement during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplements were taken by 65 % of the women, with the highest proportion of users in the USA (80·5 %). Overall, 16 % of the women reported taking fatty acid supplements and a growing trend was seen in all countries between 2004 and 2010 (P < 0·0001). The use was more common in Germany (32 %) and the USA (24 %) compared with Finland (8·5 %) and Sweden (7·0 %). Being pregnant with the first child was a strong predictor for any supplement use in all countries. Low maternal age (<25 years), higher education, BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2 and smoking during pregnancy were factors associated with supplement use in some but not all countries. Conclusions The majority of the women used dietary supplements during pregnancy. The use was associated with sociodemographic and behavioural factors, such as parity, maternal age, education, BMI and maternal smoking. PMID:23452986

  17. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... safety while breastfeeding For More Information Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Food Safety Food safety is especially important for pregnant ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to ...

  18. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  19. A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

  20. Is ultrasonic investigation of transverse tracheal air shadow diameter reasonable for evaluation of difficult airway in pregnant women: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Turkay Aydogmus, Meltem; Erkalp, Kerem; Nadir Sinikoglu, Sitki; A. Usta, Taner; O. Ulger, Gunes; Alagol, Aysin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare clinical screening tests (modified Mallampati score, Cormack-Lehane score, thyromental distance, and sternomental distance) with ultrasonic measurements of the upper airway in predicting difficult intubation in pregnant women whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is higher and lower than 30 kg m-2. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective observational trial, and consisted of 40 pregnant women of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1-2 groups. Patients with a BMI lower than 30 kg m-2 were included in Group 1 (n=20), and patients with a BMI higher than 30 kg m-2 were included in Group 2 (n=20). In the supine position with head in mild extension, the diameter of the transverse tracheal air shadow in the subglottic area of the front neck was measured using ultrasonography. Modified Mallampati score, Cormack-Lehane score, thyromental distance and sternomental distance measurements were recorded. Results: No statistically significant difference was detected between groups regarding mean age, mean number of pregnancy, ASA scores and comorbid disease. Mean body weight (p=0.0001) and mean pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0001) were significantly higher in Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding mean modified Mallampati score, thyromental distance, sternomental distance measurements, Cormack-Lehane score, and mean ultrasonic measurements. Conclusion: It was found that BMI higher or lower than 30 kg m-2 has no effect on ultrasonic measurements and clinical airway tests. We thought that ultrasonic measurement could not give us valuable information in obese or non-obese pregnant women. PMID:24639838

  1. Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

  2. Inhibition of autophagy by sera from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Tomi T; de Andrade Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro; Jaffe, Shirlee; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara Moreno; Renzo, Gian Carlo Di; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-11-01

    Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis by eliminating senescent or damaged intracellular organelles and proteins. Its role in pregnancy has been scarcely studied. We compared the influence of sera from pregnant and nonpregnant women on autophagy induction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with sera from 35 pregnant or nonpregnant women in the presence or absence of the autophagy inducer, rapamycin. After 48 hours, the cells were assayed for p62, a cytoplasmic protein essential for autophagy induction. Its concentration in the cytoplasm is inversely proportional to the level of autophagy induction. Sera were tested for immune mediators by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median (range) p62 concentrations were 6.7 ng/mL (1.1-22.7) for PBMCs incubated with pregnancy sera versus 2.5 ng/mL (0.8-7.7) for nonpregnant sera (P < .0001). In the presence of rapamycin, median p62 levels were 1.3 ng/mL (<0.1-4.9) with pregnancy sera, when compared to 0.6 ng/mL (<0.1-3.3) with control sera (P = .0191). Among the pregnant patients, the p62 level was inversely proportional to the results of a 50-g glucose challenge test (r = -.5630, P = .0005). Sera from pregnant women had elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin 13 (IL-13), and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). Autophagy during pregnancy may be inhibited by IGF-1, IL-13, and/or TGF-?1 and may influence insulin resistance. PMID:23585342

  3. Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

  4. Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; Mwanga, Joseph R; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. Importance: Probiotic food produced locally represents a nutritious and affordable means for people in some developing countries to counter exposures to toxic metals. Further research and field trials are warranted to explore this approach in countries where communities are located near mining sites and agricultural areas, two types of areas where toxins are likely to be elevated. PMID:25293764

  5. [Subcutaneous fat tissue drainage in obese pregnant women after caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Rac?, Ana Maria; Rack, R; C?rbunaru, O; Munteanu, M; Râc?, N

    2011-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the outcome of cesarean section celiotomy in obese pregnant women. The occurrence of postoperative wound infections, eventually dehiscence, in 2015 pregnant women who underwent caesarean section in a 3-year interval at the Craiova 1st Clinic of Obstetrics was studied. The analysis revealed the relation between postoperative wound infection and its topography, the type of fat tissue drainage (if done), and skin suture. The authors present a very effective method of subcutaneous drainage in obese pregnant women after cesarean section. PMID:21870736

  6. Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

  7. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

  8. [Working condition of pregnant women. Departures from regulation on occupations especially noxious or hazardous to women].

    PubMed

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan-W?odarczyk, Zyta; Koszada-W?odarczyk, Wies?awa; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    To define the range and kind of discrepancies between regulations and actual state of working conditions and occupations performed by women during pregnancy, a survey was carried out in the population of 2649 women, a representative group of occupationally involved pregnant women in the region of ?ód?. The questionnaire analysis provided information on the kind and arduousness of work performed, working hours and conditions in the work environment. Having verified the data obtained from 10% of women, a very high consistency between working conditions described by respondents and evaluated by experts was noted. Its was found that almost 60% of women under study indicated that their working conditions depart from those defined as admissible for women during pregnancy. Of the women who worked only during the first month of pregnancy, 75% of them were employed at workposts, which did not meet the requirements, and nearly half of women who worked during the whole period of pregnancy were employed in inappropriate conditions. The noxiousness most frequently reported by respondents applied to body posture: bending and position with rotated spine (about 40%). This was followed by lifting and carrying various objects (about 30%), prolonged working hours (about 20%), shift work, including night shifts (about 12%), work at conveyor belt and forced work pace (about 20%). Noise that makes it difficult to communicate, local vibration and work with computers over 4 hours daily was reported by 30% and 15% of respondents, respectively. The most common solution to limit the potential effect of hazardous and noxious working conditions on pregnant women was to remove them from work by issuing a sick leave certificates, while the modification of working conditions or shifting them to another post applied only to 14% of women. The results of the study showed that working conditions of pregnant women differed from those described by the State Labor Inspectorate. The discrepancy can be explained by different method of data collection. PMID:12731403

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR?=?5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p?pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:23216887

  10. Supervised home-based exercise may attenuate the decline of glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Ong; K. J. Guelfi; T. Hunter; K. E. Wallman; P. A. Fournier; J. P. Newnham

    2009-01-01

    AimThe significant deterioration of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both the pregnant woman and her baby. Although it is well established that regular exercise benefits insulin sensitivity in the nonpregnant population, the effect on glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the

  11. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or...or fetuses may be involved in research if all of the following conditions...scientifically appropriate, preclinical studies, including...

  12. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or...or fetuses may be involved in research if all of the following conditions...scientifically appropriate, preclinical studies, including...

  13. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or...or fetuses may be involved in research if all of the following conditions...scientifically appropriate, preclinical studies, including...

  14. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy: a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of district health managers, antenatal care staff and pregnant women in Korogwe District, North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Bloch, Paul; Kamugisha, Mathias; Kitua, Andrew; Ijumba, Jasper

    2005-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during antenatal care (ANC) visits. To allow for a proper design of planned scaling up of IPT services in Tanzania it is useful to understand the IPTp strategy's acceptability to health managers, ANC service providers and pregnant women. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these groups in relation to malaria control with emphasis on IPTp services. Methods The study was conducted in February 2004, in Korogwe District, Tanzania. It involved in-depth interviews with the district medical officer (DMO), district hospital medical officer in charge and relevant health service staff at two peripheral dispensaries, and separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with district Council Health Management Team members at district level and pregnant women at dispensary and community levels. Results Knowledge of malaria risks during pregnancy was high among pregnant women although some women did not associate coma and convulsions with malaria. Contacting traditional healers and self-medication with local herbs for malaria management was reported to be common. Pregnant women and ANC staff were generally aware of SP as the drug recommended for IPTp, albeit some nurses and the majority of pregnant women expressed concern about the use of SP during pregnancy. Some pregnant women testified that sometimes ANC staff allow the women to swallow SP tablets at home which gives a room for some women to throw away SP tablets after leaving the clinic. The DMO was sceptical about health workers' compliance with the direct observed therapy in administering SP for IPTp due to a shortage of clean water and cups at ANC clinics. Intensified sensitization of pregnant women about the benefits of IPTp was suggested by the study participants as an important approach for improving IPTp compliance. Conclusion The successful implementation of the IPTp strategy in Tanzania depends on the proper planning of, and support to, the training of health staff and sustained sensitization of pregnant women at health facility and community levels about the benefits of IPTp for the women and their unborn babies. PMID:16033639

  15. Examining Barriers to and Motivations for Substance Abuse Treatment Among Pregnant Women: Does Urban-Rural Residence Matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afton Jackson; Lisa Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to entering and motivations for treatment for substance abuse were examined among rural and urban pregnant women.All pregnant women entering inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Medical Center were approached about participating in a study on health and well-being. One hundred fourteen (N = 114) pregnant women voluntarily participated. Treatment barriers and motivators were measured with open-ended questions.

  16. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane.

  17. High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

  18. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly in developing countries. The condition and welfare of women are tightly linked to 3 factors: age at marriage, beginning of procreation, and capacity to regulate and space pregnancies. Women's status is also influenced by whether they are married and their rights to divorce. In developing countries about 45% of women are illiterate, compared to 25% of men. The salaries of women do not equal those of men in any country. Only Finland and Sweden have been unreservedly committed to providing equal political rights and legal protection against sexual discrimination. PMID:12157687

  19. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  20. Demographic and Substance Abuse Trends Among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Eleven Years of Treatment Admission Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. McCabe; Stephan Arndt

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment\\u000a over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health\\u000a Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment\\u000a for the first time, 81,818 of whom were

  1. Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jameil, Noura Al

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

  2. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

    2014-08-01

    As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n?=?77) or equivocal (n?=?4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. PMID:24909551

  3. Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

  4. [Factors associated with thrombocytopenia among pregnant women in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbanya, D; Tayou Tagny, Claude; Takoeta, E; Mbu, R; Kaptue, L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thrombocytopenia among pregnant women in Cameroon, this cross-sectional survey studied 1124 pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean: 25.35+/-5.48) attending antenatal clinics at two hospitals in Yaoundé. Each woman underwent a thorough medical interview and clinical examination and complete blood count to diagnose anaemia and thrombocytopenia (platelets<150x10(9)/L). When thrombocytopenia was identified, a battery of other tests followed: standard coagulation screening tests, HIV screening, and thick and thin blood films to identify blood parasites. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.9% (N=100). While a prolonged bleeding time was noted in 20% of women with thrombocytopenia, the Quick test (prothrombin time) and kaolin-cephalin clotting time were normal in all of them. The major factors associated with thrombocytopenia were anaemia (29.8%), history of intermenstrual bleeding (25.7%), history of preeclampsia (23.3%), current hypertensive disorders (23.2%), malaria (22.3%), HIV infection (21.0%) and the absence of antimalaria prophylaxis (16.2%). Thrombocytopenia was not significantly associated with third-trimester bleeding (P=0.57) or with a history of postpartum haemorrhage (P=0.06). PMID:18299264

  5. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  6. High Rates of HIV Seroconversion in Pregnant Women and Low Reported Levels of HIV Testing among Male Partners in Southern Mozambique: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    De Schacht, Caroline; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mabunda, Nédio; Lucas, Carlota; Alons, Catharina L.; Madonela, Ana; Vubil, Adolfo; Ferreira, Orlando C.; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda S.; Jani, Ilesh V.; Guay, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. Methods Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2–3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n?=?94) with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. Results HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33–7.16). Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04–13.78, p?=?0.04) and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97–19.45, p?=?0.05). Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner), 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. Conclusions HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach elimination of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25542035

  7. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  8. Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women

    PubMed Central

    Ohagwu, CC; Eze, CU; Eze, JC; Odo, MC; Abu, PO; Ohagwu, CI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Results: Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands’ hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Conclusion: Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. PMID:24761233

  9. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week. PMID:24959115

  10. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  11. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  12. Economic costs of residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and parenting women and their children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Burgdorf; Mary Layne; Tracy Roberts; Dan Miles; James M. Herrell

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides basic information about the economic cost of substance abuse treatment provided in 39 demonstration projects funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, under its Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC\\/PPW) programs. It integrates data assembled in two studies, a study of annual project

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series. PMID:22252822

  14. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C.; Cheung, Mary Mae M.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20–29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

  15. Listeria infection in Chinese pregnant women and neonates from Shandong

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Qin, Zhenli; Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Qiurong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the characters of pregnant women and neonates with listeria monocytogenes infections (L. monocytogenes) in Shandong of China. Method: Pregnant women with premature delivery or prenatal fever were recruited in 2013. Bacterial culture was performed for the umbilical cord blood and placental swab after delivery. The strains isolated were then analyzed for the virulence factors and classified based on the serotype and MLST typing. Results: Four cases (0.34‰) of the neonates were identified with listeriosis. Prenatal fever was observed in mothers of all infected neonates. The pathological examination of placenta showed non-specific inflammatory manifestations and two serotypes including 1/2b and 4b were detected. Six kinds of virulence factors including hly, inlA, actA, plcB, prfA and iap were all identified in the inflected neonates. Conclusion: The results suggested that mother-to-infant was an important transmission mode for listeria. Antibiotic treatment, bacterial culture and placenta pathological examination were highly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis. PMID:25356132

  16. Recruitment and retention of pregnant women into clinical research trials: an overview of challenges, facilitators, and best practices.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-12-15

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  17. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure. PMID:25695578

  18. Lipid Peroxidation and Ca-ATPase Activity of Basal Plasma Membranes of Syncytiotrophoblast from Normotensive Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Borrego; Teresa Proverbio; Reinaldo Marín; Fulgencio Proverbio

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Ca-ATPase activity of the plasma membranes of several tissues of preeclamptic pregnant women is significantly reduced when compared with the values of normotensive pregnant women. This has been explained considering the raise in the level of lipid peroxidation of the plasma membranes with preeclampsia. In this work we studied the effect of lipid peroxidation of syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal

  19. Predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment <4 weeks among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cayenne, French Guiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narcisse Elenga; Matthieu Hanf; Mathieu Nacher

    2011-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory where the HIV epidemic is most preoccupying. In Cayenne, the mother to child HIV transmission rate was 6% in 2006–2008. Despite free testing and treatment, HIV pregnant women often have delayed or insufficient access to care. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment weeks in HIV pregnant women

  20. Predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment <4 weeks among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cayenne, French Guiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narcisse Elenga; Matthieu Hanf; Mathieu Nacher

    2012-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory where the HIV epidemic is most preoccupying. In Cayenne, the mother to child HIV transmission rate was 6% in 2006–2008. Despite free testing and treatment, HIV pregnant women often have delayed or insufficient access to care. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment<4 weeks in HIV pregnant women

  1. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  2. Association between Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria, and bacterial vaginosis scores in pregnant Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renuka Tamrakar; Takashi Yamada; Itsuko Furuta; Kazutoshi Cho; Mamoru Morikawa; Hideto Yamada; Noriaki Sakuragi; Hisanori Minakami

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, including many newly recognized bacterial species in non-pregnant women. METHODS: To examine whether these bacteria are also involved in BV in pregnant Japanese women, vaginal fluid samples were taken from

  3. Pelvic girdle pain in three pregnant women choosing chiropractic management: a pilot study using a respondent-generated instrument and chiropractor's assessment tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Andrew; N. Eaton; G. Dorey

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP), as experienced by pregnant women, is poorly defined and understood. Despite an increasing body of research, there is still little in the literature that is accessible to healthcare practitioners regarding the management and treatment of this condition. There is also a lack of information about the use of specific tools to help define the problem, or

  4. I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV, women may be offered HIV testing. Women who accept testing will need to sign an HIV testing consent form. In areas with opt-out testing, HIV testing is automatically included as part of rou- tine prenatal care

  5. [Clinical and socio-medical factors related to anemia in pregnant women: prevalence study in Mara Township, Venezuela, 2013].

    PubMed

    Avila, Ayari Guadalupe; García, Lenis; Gómez, María; Villanueva, Nixon; Benítez, Betty; Fuentes, Belkis

    2014-01-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent finding and can increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and child. This paper aims to identify clinical, social and healthcare-related factors that affect the incidence of anemia in pregnant patients in a primary care prenatal clinic in Mara municipality. This is a descriptive field study that took place between November and December, 2013. Sixty-two patients were selected through non-probability sampling among four primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara. A high prevalence of anemia (76%) was found, with normal MCV (mean corpuscular volume), normal MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), and normal MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). In only 36% of cases serum iron levels fell below 50 ug/dl. Some clinical factors found to be related to anemia in pregnancy are multiparity (69.9%), infections before or during pregnancy (77.5%), low protein intake (91.8%), less than a year birth interval (63.3%), and gestational age (89.8%). The main socioeconomic factor related to anemia is poverty (89.8%). Prenatal checkup schedule needs to be adjusted in primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara taking into consideration clinical and socioeconomic factors in order to lower the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in this population. PMID:25353165

  6. Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María de Lourdes Flores; Lynnette M Neufeld; Teresa González-Cossío; Juan Rivera; Reynaldo Martorell; Usha Ramakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary intake of women supple- mented with multiple micronutrients (MM) or iron only during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. Design: Ran- domized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Set- ting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with

  7. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    McGowan, C A; Byrne, J; Walsh, J; McAuliffe, F M

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1??g/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs. PMID:21697816

  8. Pregnant and recently pregnant women's perceptions about influenza a pandemic (H1N1) 2009: implications for public health and provider communication.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Molly M; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Williams, Jennifer L; Brumbaugh, Kelly; Jones-Bell, Michelle; Pinkney, Debra E; Layton, Christine M; Mersereau, Patricia W; Kendrick, Juliette S; Medina, Paula Eguino; Smith, Lucia Rojas

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore pregnant and recently pregnant women's perceptions of influenza vaccine and antivirals during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We conducted 18 focus groups with pregnant and recently pregnant women in three US cities in September 2009. Participants were segmented into groups by insurance status (no or public insurance vs. private insurance), vaccine attitudes (higher vs. lower likelihood of acceptance of any vaccines, not only influenza vaccines), and parity (first child vs. other children in the home) based on information they provided on the screening questionnaire at the time of recruitment. We found that women are not well informed about influenza vaccinations and antiviral medicine and have significant concerns about taking them during pregnancy. An interest in their infant's well-being, however, can be strong motivation to adopt preventive recommendations, including vaccination. A woman's health care provider is a highly trusted source of information about the 2009 H1N1. Pregnant women have unique communication needs for influenza. Messages directing pregnant women to adopt public health recommendations, particularly for vaccination or prophylactic medication should include a detailed description of the benefits or lack of risk to the fetus and the safety of breastfeeding. Additionally, messages should recognize that pregnant women are taught to be selective about taking medication and provide a clear rationale for why the medicine or vaccine is necessary. PMID:21822963

  9. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  10. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Angerer, Jürgen; Park, Melissa M.; Burdorf, Alex; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Concern about potential health impacts of low level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 nmol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 nmol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 µg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 µg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 µg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation. PMID:18774129

  11. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these findings. PMID:24769856

  12. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 ?g m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?pregnant women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. PMID:25164987

  14. Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian non-pregnant women 20 to 49 years old. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rakic, L; Djokic, D; Drakulovic, MB; Pejic, A; Radojicic, Z; Marinkovic, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Representative national data of prevalence of anemia and casual factors are missing for population group of reproductive aged non-pregnant females in Serbia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence and grades of anemia and its association with risk factors among non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Serbia. Methods: Data were collected as part of the first “National Health Survey”, a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey, conducted on 677 households in Serbia. A total of 708 females 20-49-year-old were recruited. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and reproductive data have been collected and hemoglobin levels were determined. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.7% (196/708) [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 24.5-31.1%], and more precisely mild (21.9%), moderate (5.1%) and severe (0.7%) anemia. Belgrade residential area [odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI 1.27-3.50), p=0.004], shortage of living space per person (<16m2) [2.18 (1.17-4.03), p=0.014], body mass index (<25) [1.55 (1.04-2.29), p=0.029], alcohol intake [0.52 (0.33-0.81), p=0.004], lack [2.48 (1.31-4.70), p=0.005] or fruit juice consumption 1-2 [2.76 (1.46-5.23), p=0.002] times a week and previously diagnosed, but treated [2.62 (1.29-5.35), p=0.008] or not treated [3.57 (1.71-7.45), p<0.001] anemia were independent predictors of low hemoglobin levels. Deficit of electricity supply and insufficient living space in households, increased risk of moderate anemia, while likelihood of being mild and moderately anemic, augmented with previously diagnosed but, treated or not treated anemia and lack or juice consumption 1-2 times a week. Conclusions: High prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women and its association to casual factors needs continuous monitoring and control efforts for anemia in Serbia. PMID:23935344

  15. Comparison of binge drinking among pregnant and nonpregnant women, United States, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, S H; Diekman, S T; Floyd, R L; Decoufle, P

    1999-01-01

    Our goal was to measure the pregnancy-related reduction in the prevalence of reported binge drinking (>/=5 alcoholic drinks per occasion) and to characterize binge drinkers among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years, in the United States, 1991-1995. We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 46 states. We used the prevalence rate ratio between pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine the magnitude of the reduction in reported binge drinking and multiple logistic regression models to identify characteristics associated with binge drinking. Between 1991 and 1995, the prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women increased significantly from 0.7% (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9) to 2.9% (95% confidence interval 2.2-3.6), whereas among nonpregnant women the prevalence changed little (11.3% vs 11.2%). Over the study period pregnant women were one fifth (prevalence rate ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.2) as likely as nonpregnant women to binge drink. Among various population subgroups of women, pregnancy-related reduction in binge drinking was smallest among black women and largest among women aged pregnant women binge drinking was independently associated with being unmarried, being employed, and current smoking. Among nonpregnant women binge drinking was independently associated with age women of childbearing age need to be aware of the recent rise in reported binge drinking during pregnancy, as well as the known risk factors for binge drinking. PMID:9914568

  16. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) perceptions and dietary iron intake among young women and pregnant women in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Samiha S; Halabi, Jehad O; Bond, A Elaine; Abegglen, Joann

    2007-01-01

    To determine Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) perceptions and iron dietary practices of Jordanian female students and pregnant women, a descriptive quantitative questionnaire was administered to 271 participants: 206 female students and 65 pregnant women. This pilot study found that most participants can identify foods containing iron, but lack appropriate iron intake, because of eating habits and finances; more than 50% report daily symptoms of IDA, including dizziness, fatigue, depression, headaches, and loss of concentration and memory. There are no statistically significant differences in IDA perceptions and iron-related dietary practices based on education, and relatively few based on where participants live, their available financial resources, or their position (pregnant women or young women). Culturally sensitive intervention research, which addresses application of IDA education principles, temporary supplementation, and adequate income for dietary modification and long-term iron supplementation to prevent IDA is warranted. PMID:17202525

  17. Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women of Hyderabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis; Bann, Carla M.; Moss, Nancy; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Pasha, Omrana; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the relationship between antenatal depression, anxiety and domestic violence in pregnant women in developing countries, despite the World Health Organization's estimates that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of the global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mood disorders, their predictors and sequelae among pregnant women in Pakistan. Aims To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and evaluate associated factors, including domestic violence, among pregnant women in an urban community in Pakistan. Methods All pregnant women living in identified areas of Hyderabad, Pakistan were screened by government health workers for an observational study on maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. Of these, 1368 (76%) of eligible women were administered the validated Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale at 20–26 weeks of gestation. Results 18 percent of the women were anxious and/or depressed. Psychological distress was associated with husband unemployment (p=0.032), lower household wealth (p=0.027), having 10 or more years of formal education (p=0.002), a first (p=0.002) and an unwanted pregnancy (p<0.001). The strongest factors associated with depression/anxiety were physical/sexual and verbal abuse; 42% of women who were physically and/or sexually abused and 23% of those with verbal abuse had depression/anxiety compared to 8% of those who were not abused. Conclusions Anxiety and depression commonly occur during pregnancy in Pakistani women; rates are highest in women experiencing sexual/physical as well as verbal abuse, but they also are increased among women with unemployed spouses and those with lower household wealth. These results suggest that developing a screening and treatment program for domestic violence and depression/anxiety during pregnancy may improve the mental health status of pregnant Pakistani women. PMID:19592433

  18. Characteristics and Pregnancy Outcomes of Pregnant Women Asymptomatic for Bacterial Vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah B. Nelson; Scarlett Bellamy; Irving Nachamkin; Althea Ruffin; Lynne Allen-Taylor; Frank K. Friedenberg

    2008-01-01

    Study Design  To determine the clinical, behavioral or demographic factors associated with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) and to\\u000a examine if women with asymptomatic BV had a higher risk of a variety of pregnancy outcomes compared to symptomatic BV positive\\u000a women. For this study, 1916 pregnant women who were 12 weeks’ gestation or less were enrolled. Interviewers facilitated vaginal\\u000a swab collection for BV

  19. [Evaluation of vaginal dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women by using the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) and its comparison with the conventional microbiological study].

    PubMed

    Touzon, María S; Losada, Mirta; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Menghi, Claudia; Gatta, Claudia; Santa Cruz, Gabriela; Malamud de Ruda Vega, Hilda; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Infections of the lower genital tract associated to maternal and perinatal complications frequently occur during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaginal dysfunction through the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) using the methodology of balance of the vaginal content (BAVACO) and to compare it with the microbiological study of candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Pregnant patients (1238) were examined from 2010 to 2012. In asymptomatic (A) (n: 1046) and symptomatic pregnant women (S) (n: 192) BVS I was 59.5% and 26% of the patients, respectively. BVS II was observed in 19.7% of A and in 17.2% of S. BVS III was only detected in A in 0.4%. BVS IV was observed in 14.4% of A and in 38% of S. BVS V was detected in 6% of A and in 18.8% of S. Yeasts were associated to BVS I and II in 55.5% and 23.2% of A, respectively; and in 32.4% and 31% of S, respectively. Trichomonas were associated to BVS I in 50% of A, to IV in 44.4% of S and to V in 33.3% of S. BAVACO susceptibility to detect yeasts was 80.4% and 85.5% in A and S, respectively; 40% and 75% in A and S, respectively, to detect trichomonas and 100% in A and S to detect BV. BAVACO specificity was 100% for all pathogens in A and S. The study of BVS proved useful as a guide to evaluate vaginal dysfunction, regardless of symptomatology. Therefore, this study is recommended as prenatal control. PMID:25444125

  20. Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case–control study of a Nigerian project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

  1. The effect of dietary estimates calculated using food frequency questionnaires on micronuclei formation in European pregnant women: a NewGeneris study.

    PubMed

    Vande Loock, Kim; Botsivali, Maria; Zangogianni, Marina; Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolph; Fthenou, Eleni; Chatzi, Leda; Marcos, Ricard; Agramunt, Sylvia; Namork, Ellen; Granum, Berit; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielssen, Jeanette K S; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Roelants, Mathieu; Merlo, Franco; Kleinjans, Jos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2014-11-01

    The use of biomarkers of early genetic effects, predictive for cancer, such as micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes, may help to investigate the association between diet and cancer. We hypothesised that the presence of mutagens in the diet may increase MN formation. A 'pooled' standardised analysis was performed by applying the same experimental protocol for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in 625 young healthy women after delivery from five European study populations (Greece, Denmark, UK, Spain and Norway). We assessed MN frequencies in mono- and binucleated T-lymphocytes (MNMONO and MNBN) and the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index using a semi-automated image analysis system. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to estimate intake of fatty acids and a broad range of immunotoxic and genotoxic/carcinogenic compounds through the diet. Pooled difference based on delivery type revealed higher MNMONO frequencies in caesarean than in vaginal delivery (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in MNMONO frequencies with increasing calculated omega-6 PUFA concentrations and a decrease in MNBN frequencies with increasing calculated omega-3 PUFA concentrations. The expected toxic compounds estimated by FFQs were not associated with MN formation in mothers after delivery. In pregnant women, an omega-3 and -6 rich diet estimated by FFQ is associated with lower MN formation during pregnancy and delivery. PMID:25296962

  2. Estimation of Daily Energy Expenditure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Using a Wrist-Worn Tri-Axial Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y.; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Methods Non-pregnant (N?=?73) and pregnant (N?=?35) Swedish women (aged 20–35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N?=?99; aged 22–65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). Results There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8–10) and 9(7–10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). Conclusions A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants. PMID:21829556

  3. Establishment of Trimester-Specific Reference Intervals for Thyroid Hormones in Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Won; Chung, Hee-Jung; Park, Chul-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for every population is recommended. The aim of this study was to establish a trimester- and assay-specific reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in Korean pregnant women. Methods From April 2012 to December 2012, 531 pregnant women receiving prenatal care and 238 age-matched, non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. After excluding patients with pregnancy-associated complications or thyroid-specific autoantibody, 465 pregnant and 206 non-pregnant women were included. Non-parametric analysis (2.5-97.5th percentile) was performed to determine the reference interval. Levels of TSH and FT4 were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys thyroid tests, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Results The TSH reference intervals were 0.01-4.10, 0.01-4.26, and 0.15-4.57 mIU/L for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. From the first trimester to the third trimester, the median TSH levels showed a significantly increasing trend (P<0.0001). The FT4 reference intervals were 0.83-1.65, 0.71-1.22, and 0.65-1.13 ng/dL for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively, showing a significantly decreasing trend (P<0.0001). Conclusions Establishing trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnant women is essential for accurate assessment of thyroid function. Our population-specific and method-specific reference intervals will be useful for screening Korean pregnant women for thyroid disease. PMID:25729721

  4. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  5. Vaccination during the 2013-2014 influenza season in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Abe, K; Baba, Y; Inubashiri, E; Kawabata, K; Kubo, T; Maegawa, Y; Fuchi, N; Nomizo, M; Shimada, M; Shiozaki, A; Hamada, H; Matsubara, S; Akutagawa, N; Kataoka, S; Maeda, M; Masuzaki, H; Sagawa, N; Nakai, A; Saito, S; Minakami, H

    2015-03-01

    This questionnaire survey was conducted at 11 hospitals in Japan to determine vaccination coverage against seasonal influenza and the prevalence rate of influenza among pregnant Japanese women. Of 2,808 postpartum women who gave birth at the 11 hospitals during the study period from March 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 1,713 (61 %) participated in this study and 876 (51 %) reported having received vaccination against influenza in or after October 2013. Women aged?<25 years had a significantly lower vaccination rate than those aged??25 years (31 % vs. 53 %, respectively; p?=?0.0000). Eighty-seven (5.1 %) and 1,626 (94.9 %) women did and did not contract influenza, respectively. Although prior birth did not affect overall vaccination coverage (50 % for primiparous vs. 53 % for multiparous), multiparous women had a significantly higher rate of contracting influenza than primiparous women, irrespective of vaccination status (5.6 % vs. 2.2 % [p?=?0.0216] and 9.7 % vs. 3.5 % [p?=?0.0003] for women with and without vaccination, respectively). The 2013-2014 vaccination program significantly reduced the influenza infection rate by 35 % (3.9 % vs. 6.3 % for women with and without vaccination, respectively; p?=?0.0272). Seventy-two (83 %) of the 87 women took antiviral agents for the treatment of influenza and two (2.3 %) required hospitalization. These results suggested that pregnant Japanese women had a high level of concern regarding seasonal influenza. However, campaigns targeting young pregnant Japanese women, as well as multiparous women, for vaccination are needed in order to further reduce the incidence of influenza among pregnant Japanese women. PMID:25311988

  6. Birth control counseling for HIV seropositive pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Piya-Anant; R. Atisook; P. Ratananikom

    1995-01-01

    Testing for HIV antibody at the antenatal clinic in Siriraj Hospital started on 1 July 1991. It was found that the percentage of HIV seropositive pregnant women rapidly increased from 1.2% in 1992 to 1.9% in 1993. During those 2 years, 487 seropositive women were admitted for delivery or abortion; 23.8% were adolescents and 47.0%, young adults. Prevention of HIV

  7. Comparison ofMethodsforDiagnosing Bacterial Vaginosis among Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIJANE A. KROHN; SHARON L. HILLIER; DAVID A. ESCHENBACH

    1989-01-01

    Thediagnosis ofbacterial vaginosis isusually based on clinical criteria including homogeneous vaginal discharge, an elevated vaginal pH,thepresenceofclue cells, andan amineodor. Wehaveevaluated thevaginal flora andclinical signs for593pregnant women. Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp.,andMycoplasma hominis were isolated more frequently among women withclinical signs than among those without clinical signs ofbacterial vaginosis inmultivariable analyses thatcontrolled forother bacteria. Todetermine thelaboratory methodthatbestpredicted bacterial vaginosis, we calculated thesensitivity,

  8. High-risk human papillomavirus clearance in pregnant women: trends for lower clearance during pregnancy with a catch-up postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A E Nobbenhuis; T J M Helmerhorst; A J C van den Brule; L Rozendaal; P D Bezemer; F J Voorhorst; C J L M Meijer; CJLM Meijer

    2002-01-01

    We followed 353 women referred with abnormal cervical cytology in a non-intervention cohort study. In 91 pregnant women we compared high-risk human papilloma virus rates in the subsequent trimesters and postpartum in comparison to 262 non-pregnant women. High-risk human papilloma virus clearance was compared with 179 high-risk human papilloma virus positive non-pregnant women. Our main questions were: (1) do high-risk

  9. Medically recommended cessation of employment among pregnant women in Georgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M Frazier; Amanda L Golbeck; Leslie Lipscomb

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the proportion of employed pregnant women who receive medical advice to stop working during pregnancy and to describe their characteristics.Methods: Data were analyzed from the Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a surveillance system that surveys new mothers about pregnancy risk factors, health behaviors, and birth-related outcomes. Employment during pregnancy was defined as work for pay for

  10. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to affect baby, but may ... January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  11. Press Release For immediate release Anxious pregnant women are more

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    of their child going on to develop asthma, according to the latest research from Children of the 90s. Asthma anxious' pregnant women ­ 16% went on to have children who developed asthma. That compares to just 10 that mothers' anxiety during pregnancy is associated with asthma later developing in their children. Researcher

  12. Prevalence of HIV Antibodies in Pregnant Women With Increased Risk for AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez; Fátima Rocío De Luna-Ortega; Alejandra Horna-López; Ana Lilia Ponce-Ponce De León

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of

  13. Significant changes in physical activity among pregnant women in the UK as assessed by accelerometry and self-reported activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E K Rousham; P E Clarke; H Gross

    2006-01-01

    Objective:Research on the impact of maternal physical activity on pregnancy outcomes has often employed subjective measures of physical activity obtained by diary or questionnaire. This study investigates the feasibility of using accelerometry as an objective measure of physical activity of pregnant women compared with subjective data obtained via activity recall among pregnant women.Design:Activity data were collected prospectively on 57 women

  14. Neutralizing Dengue Antibody in Pregnant Thai Women and Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Khamim, Kriangsak; Hattasingh, Weerawan; Nisalak, Ananda; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-01-01

    Background The WHO ‘Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012–2020’ addresses the growing need for the treatment of dengue, and targets a 25% reduction in morbidity and 50% in mortality (using 2010 estimates as baseline). Achieving these goals requires future dengue prevention strategies that will employ both potential vaccines and sustainable vector-control measures. Maternally transferred dengue antibody is an important factor in determining the optimal age for dengue vaccination. Objectives To estimate the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies among mothers living in an area of high endemicity – Ban Pong, Ratchaburi Province – and to assess maternal dengue antibodies transferred to cord blood. Materials & Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 141 pregnant women who delivered at Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Maternal-cord paired sera were tested for dengue neutralizing (NT) antibody by PRNT50 assay. A ratio of ? 1:10 NT titer to dengue serotype was considered seropositive. Results Most mothers (137/141, 97.2%) had NT antibodies to at least one dengue serotype in their sera. At birth, the proportion of cord sera with NT antibodies to DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4, were high and similar to the sera of their mothers, at 93.6%, 97.2%, 97.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. The dengue geometric mean titers (GMT) in cord blood were significantly higher than the maternal antibodies (p<0.001): highest in DEN-2, followed by DEN-3, and then DEN-1. The GMT of DEN-4 was the lowest among all four serotypes. Conclusions Dengue infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in this dengue-endemic area. Most of the cord blood had transferred dengue antibodies, which may have an impact on the disease burden in this population. PMID:25658481

  15. Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (?(2) = 221.5, P < 0.05) with HSV-2 infection and HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection. Age, educational level, occupation, and gestation were not consistently associated (P>0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women. PMID:25188909

  16. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women. PMID:25642091

  17. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  18. Effects of lifestyle factors on urinary oxidative stress and serum antioxidant markers in pregnant Japanese women: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Masayo; Haruna, Megumi; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Tokio; Shioji, Izuru; Sasaki, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major pathological role in pregnancy-related complications. Although oxidative stress is induced by exogenous toxins in association with a poor lifestyle in normal subjects, there is little information on the factors altering oxidative stress and antioxidant levels during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between lifestyle factors and oxidative stress/antioxidant levels during each trimester and 1-month postpartum. This prospective cohort study followed 54 healthy women through pregnancy; first, second, and third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Participants were administered a questionnaire on characteristics and lifestyle factors. Morning blood and urine samples were obtained to measure urinary biopyrrins and serum coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels. The levels of urinary biopyrrins and serum CoQ10 increased significantly throughout pregnancy, with peak values registered during the third trimester. Higher biopyrrin levels were significantly associated with non-consumption of morning meal during the first trimester, smoking during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum, alcohol consumption during the third trimester, high food-based polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during the third trimester, and poor mental health scores during the first and third trimesters. Higher CoQ10 levels were significantly associated with no smoking during pregnancy and at 1-month postpartum, and with a high frequency of exercise during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Thus, pregnancy represents a state of oxidative stress, which can be counterbalanced by increased levels of antioxidants, such as CoQ10. We speculate that certain lifestyle choices such as avoiding smoking can reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant levels during pregnancy. PMID:25030853

  19. [Health effects and psychological stress in pregnant women engaged in work outside the home].

    PubMed

    Anan, Ayumi; Shiiba, Michiyo; Sibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Modern society demands working conditions in which pregnant women can successfully deliver children and maintain a professional position. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of work on the health and psychological stress in working women and their newborns. We reviewed twenty-eight publications and found that health problems in working women occur at high rates. However, there is no report investigating the mechanism by which health problems occur, or describing the precise working conditions and symptoms in pregnant women who are engaged in work outside the home. In addition, the literature uses subjective evaluations, including psychological tests, to quantify stress and anxiety, but no biochemical analyses of stress-related substances were conducted. We suggest that a standard index to represent working conditions and job category, as well as an investigation of the workload of house-keeping, is needed to understand the total work effort by pregnant women in modern times. Finally, measurement of stress-related biological markers may be effective in the investigation from various perspectives of occupational stress in pregnant women. PMID:21229729

  20. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) ?g/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized ? = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized ? = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard ? = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  1. Toxoplasmosis-serological evidence and associated risk factors among pregnant women in southern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nissapatorn; C. Suwanrath; N. Sawangjaroen; L. Y. Ling; V. Chandeying

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the\\u000d\\u000aseroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk\\u000d\\u000afactors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-\\u000d\\u000aToxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and

  2. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate future effects of preventable, toxin-induced developmental issues. Prenatal advising should discourage the consumption of dangerous foods, beverages, and medications that women commonly report eating during pregnancy. PMID:23815874

  3. Exposure to chronic stress and ethnic differences in rates of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer F. Culhane; Virginia Rauh; Kelly Farley McCollum; Irma T. Elo; Vijaya Hogan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic social stressors to race\\/ethnic differences in the rate of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women in the inner-city area. Study Design: We conducted a cross-sectional clinical prevalence study in a sample of 2304 women at the first prenatal visit (14.8 ± 0.2 weeks of gestation). Bacterial vaginosis was

  4. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

    2012-12-01

    This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OT?). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (?-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OT? from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OT? before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OT? levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OT? medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

  5. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Sandager, Puk; Gregersen, Hans; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. Method Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. Results The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67–422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4–15 kPa) for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). Conclusion This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix. PMID:24603859

  6. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

  8. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  9. Prevalence of parvovirus b19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions. PMID:25796023

  10. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597

  11. Patient-centered prenatal counseling: aligning obstetric healthcare professionals with needs of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ruth M; Nutter, Benjamin; Agatisa, Patricia K

    2015-04-01

    The first trimester aneuploidy screen (FTS) continues to be a leading approach to identify the risk of fetal aneuploidy. This study evaluated how obstetric (OB) professionals counsel women about FTS as one of a growing number of options to assess fetal health. A survey was completed by OB professionals (board-certified obstetrician/gynecologists and certified nurse midwives) between February and March 2011: (1) to identify knowledge and practice patterns with regard to FTS, and (2) to compare pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences with clinicians' perceptions of these factors. A total of 216 surveys (11 percent) were completed by OB professionals and analyzed. Several barriers to effective patient counseling were identified, including gaps in obstetric professionals' mastery of the screening test characteristics and variable approaches to discuss concepts of aneuploidy risk. OB participants reported limited confidence in discussing patient-valued topics, specifically post-screen options and pregnancy termination. Discordance was identified between OB professionals' perceptions of pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences specific to FTS and historical data recently collected from 139 pregnant women who underwent the FTS. Study findings illustrate the need for clinician-targeted strategies to support pregnant women as they formulate informed decisions about the tests that may have a salient impact on their prenatal care decisions. PMID:25794055

  12. Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Sharami, Seyede Hajar; Tangestani, Azita; Faraji, Roya; Zahiri, Ziba; Amiri, Azam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestational age, and body mass index. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia, after 14 hour fasting to determine plasma lipid concentrations. Enzymatic photometric tests were used to determine lipid profile. Data was analyzed with independent “t-test”, Chi-square and one-way ANOVA and post HOC Tukey HSD test. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: In the subjects with preeclampsia, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased compared with the controls, (p<0.05), but plasma LDL cholesterol levels didn’t differ between the two groups. Women who developed severe preeclampsia had higher concentrations of TG and cholesterol and lower levels of HDL compared to noromotensive group. Mean TG: 375.16 vs. 202.85, p<0.001, Mean cholesterol: 245.64 vs. 214.32, p=0.04, Mean HDL: 40.80 vs. 48.95, p=0.03). Conclusion: We noted that dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia was highly correlated with prepregnancy high BMI in preeclamptic women. These findings continue to support a role for dyslipidemia in BMI related preeclampsia. PMID:25242982

  13. An Exploration of Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Pregnant Low-income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn E. Dailey; Janice C. Humphreys; Sally H. Rankin; Kathryn A. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of lifetime trauma exposure in relation to perinatal health outcomes\\u000a in low-income African American women. Methods One hundred and sixteen pregnant African American women recruited from two public prenatal clinics participated in this exploratory\\u000a study. Information was obtained about psychological symptoms, medical conditions, prenatal care utilization, and health behaviors.

  14. Serum concentration of calcium, magnesium and zinc in normotensive versus preeclampsia pregnant women: A descriptive study in women of Kerman province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Dalili, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease. Objective: In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling. Results: The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia. PMID:25653672

  15. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

  16. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample Collection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in Enugu, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dim, CC; Ugwu, EO; Dim, NR; Anyaehie, UB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Regular review of hematocrit (HCT) and anemia patterns in pregnancy is necessary in our environment. Aim: The aim was to determine the average HCT, prevalence, and pattern of anemia, as well the arm preferences for blood sample collection among pregnant women in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: HCT was determined using venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to assess participants’ arm preference for blood sample collection for clinical investigations. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results: Participants’ mean HCT was 33.3 (3.7%). The average HCT in second trimester 33.3% (3.76%) was significantly lower than that of third trimester (34.6 [3.4%], P = 0.01,). Prevalence of anemia was 28.0% (56/200), and a majority (94.6%, 53/56) of anemic women belong to the mild category. Only parity groups had a significant association with anemia in pregnancy (P = 0.04). None of the participants reported being asked about her arm preference during blood collection for routine antenatal investigations. One hundred and five (52.5%) women expressed preference for either left (34.5%, 69/200) or right arm (18.0%, 36/200) for blood sample collection. Conclusion: The average HCT among pregnant women at the UNTH, Enugu Nigeria was within normal range and the prevalence of anemia was relatively low. The majority of women expressed a preference for either right or left arm for blood sample collection for clinical investigations and would wish their choices sought for and respected.

  17. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  18. Treatment of Opioid Dependent Pregnant Women: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941

  19. Nationwide Implementation of Hello World: A Dutch Email-Based Health Promotion Program for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Mariska; Bemelmans, Wanda JE

    2009-01-01

    Background In November 2006, an email-based health promotion program for pregnant women was implemented nationally in the Netherlands. The program consisted of emails containing quizzes with pregnancy-related questions tailored to the number of weeks of pregnancy. Emails were sent out once every 4 weeks, up to a maximum of nine emails. Objectives The aims of the study were (1) to assess the recruitment of participants and their representativeness of the Dutch population and (2) to study differences in recruitment, program use, and program appreciation among women with different levels of education. Methods Data from 13,946 pregnant women who enrolled during the first year of the program were included. Upon registration, participants were asked how they found out about the program and subsequently received an email questionnaire to assess demographic, lifestyle, and Internet characteristics. Program use was tracked, and participants were classified into five user groups (inactive to very active). Program appreciation (low, intermediate, and high) was assessed twice with an email questionnaire that was sent after the woman had received her third and sixth quiz email. Information about pregnant women and their characteristics was obtained from Dutch registries to assess representativeness of the study population. Results About 8% of the pregnant women in the Netherlands enrolled in the program. Immigrants were underrepresented, and women with a low level of education seemed to be slightly underrepresented. Most women knew about the program from a promotional email sent by the organization (32%), followed by the Internet (22%) and midwives (16%). Women with little education were more often inactive users of the program than were highly educated women (15% vs 11%, P < .001), whereas highly educated women were more often very active users compared with women with little education (25% vs 20%, P< .001). However, women with less education were more likely than women with more education to have a high appreciation of the program after receiving three quiz emails (52% vs 44%, P = .001). Conclusions In this real-life setting, pregnant women can be reached through an email-based health promotion program. Selective engagement by education level remains a challenge. PMID:19674957

  20. Major Influences on Nutrient Intake in Pregnant New Zealand Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia E. Watson; Barry W. McDonald

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with maternal diet during pregnancy and rank these in order of influence using data from\\u000a a prospective cohort of 196 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 35 years of mostly European origin. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken, questionnaires administered and 16 days of weighed diet intakes recorded, eight in\\u000a the fourth and eight in the seventh month

  1. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-09-10

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

  2. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and rubella among pregnant women in western Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Basic epidemiological data concerning CMV and rubella is necessary for health planners and care providers. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at El-Rahad hospital, Sudan to investigate seroprevalence of CMV and rubella infections and associated possible risk factors among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and ELISA was used to detect CMV and rubella infections using IgG and IgM. Results Out of 231 pregnant women, 167 (72.2%) and 151 (65.3%) were CMV-IgG and rubella-IgG positive, respectively. Only 6 (2.5%) and 8 women (3.4%) were CMV-IgM and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. While, high parity (OR = 14.7, 95%CI = 1.7 - 123.6; P = 0.01] and illiteracy (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.4 - 6.5; P = 0.004) were significantly associated with seropostive CMV-IgG in multivariate analysis, none of the other obstetrical and medical characteristics were significantly associated with CMV or rubella infections. Conclusion CMV prevalence was 72.2% and rubella susceptibility among pregnant women was 34.6%. Rubella vaccine and routine screening for rubella and CMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. Further research is needed. PMID:21569321

  3. Neutralizing and IgG Antibodies against Simian Virus 40 in Healthy Pregnant Women in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Comar, Manola; Wong, Connie; Tognon, Mauro; Butel, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy. Methods Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples. Results Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123) and 12.7% (14/110), respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods. Conclusions SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines. PMID:25335106

  4. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  5. Effects of Nutrition Education on Levels of Nutritional Awareness of Pregnant Women in Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. Objectives The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. Patients and Methods A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 100) attending urban health centers in Ilam city (western Iran) during the year 2011 for prenatal care. A nutritional education program containing two to four lessons was undertaken for small groups of between six to ten women. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before intervention (pretest) and followed by two posttests within three weeks interval. Results The awareness level of pregnant women about healthy nutrition was significantly increased from 3% before intervention to 31% after the nutritional education intervention (P < 0.001). This significant difference was independent from maternal characteristics of age and levels of literacy and in obese mothers in particular. Conclusions A nutritional education intervention will have a positive effect on nutritional awareness of pregnant women. PMID:24348589

  6. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175?ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

  7. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  9. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the serious consequences of rubella infection during early pregnancy, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence in a number of African countries including Burkina Faso. Methods Between December 2007 and March 2008 serum samples were collected from 341 pregnant women in Bobo (n?=?132, urban area) and Houndé (n?=?209, rural area) and were tested for rubella-specific IgG antibodies with a commercial ELISA kit. Results An overall seropositivity rate of 95.0% (324/341) was found, with a higher percentage in the urban population and in the oldest age group. Considering an antibody titer of at least 10 International Units per ml as protective, the overall immunity rate in the cohort of pregnant women was 93.3% (318/341). Conclusions The high overall seropositivity rate in the absence of routine immunization suggests a continuous transmission of endemic rubella virus in Burkina Faso, posing a threat to non-immune pregnant women. PMID:23556510

  10. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  11. Smoking and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese pregnant women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on the associations between smoking and allergic diseases have mostly focused on asthma. Epidemiological studies in adults on the effects of smoking on allergic diseases other than asthma, such as eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, have been limited, and the information that is available has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between smoking status and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and the prevalence of allergic diseases. Methods Study subjects were 1743 pregnant Japanese women. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age; region of residence; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; and education. Results Compared with never smoking, current smoking and ? 4 pack-years of smoking were independently positively associated with the prevalence of wheeze. There were no associations between smoking status and the prevalence of asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. When subjects who had never smoked were classified into four categories based on the source of ETS exposure (never, only at home, only at work, and both), exposure occurring both at home and at work was independently associated with an increased prevalence of two outcomes: wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis. No relationships were observed between exposure to ETS and the prevalence of asthma or eczema. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that current smoking and ETS exposure may increase the likelihood of wheeze. The possibility of a positive association between ETS exposure and rhinoconjunctivitis was also suggested. PMID:22413964

  12. High Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pregnant Women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Twite, Kabange E.; Daumerie, Chantal; Wallemacq, Pierre; Donnen, Philippe; Kalenga, Muenze K.; Robert, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite notable progress in the fight against iodine deficiency disorders in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a recent study has shown that pregnant women in Lubumbashi were still iodine deficient. Our objective was to assess thyroid function in this population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in maternity units from three different socioeconomic areas in Lubumbashi, serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured in 225 pregnant women attending antenatal visits, in 75 women who recently delivered, and in 75 nonpregnant controls. The outcome was the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Results: Median values in pregnant women, women who recently delivered, and nonpregnant women were 1.80, 2.80, and 1.54?mIU/L for thyrotropin (p<0.001); 0.85, 1.11, and 1.16?ng/dL for free thyroxine (p<0.001); and 13.3, 9.5, and 10.4?ng/mL for thyroglobulin (p=0.01), respectively. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women, in women who recently delivered, and in nonpregnant women was 31%, 8%, and 20% for isolated hypothyroxinemia (p<0.001); 12%, 24%, and 5% for subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.002); 8%, 3%, and 3%, for overt hypothyroidism (p=0.09); and 5%, 13%, and 4%, for positive thyroperoxidase antibodies (p=0.03), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, women who were pregnant or who recently delivered, who lived in a poor socioeconomic area, and who had low urinary iodine concentration were more likely to have an increased serum thyrotropin: odds ratio (OR)=3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–9.53) for pregnancy, OR=4.49 [CI 1.66–15.01] for postpartum period, OR=3.68 [CI 1.85–7.35] for semiurban area, and OR=0.44 [CI 0.19–0.96] for urinary iodine concentration ?250??g/L. Conclusions: Our results show that there is a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Lubumbashi, and this high prevalence is associated with iodine deficiency. To prevent obstetrical adverse outcomes and neurological damage in children, iodine supplementation is needed before conception or in early pregnancy in Lubumbashi. PMID:23957235

  13. Review: Factor XI deficiency: review and management in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Martín-Salces, Monica; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor; Alvarez, María Teresa; Quintana, Manuel; Hernández-Navarro, Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Factor XI deficiency is a rare disease found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jews. There is a poor correlation between factor XI level and bleeding in patients with factor XI deficiency. Individuals with severe factor XI deficiency are usually at risk of excessive bleeding after surgery and injury, particularly when trauma involves tissues rich in fibrinolytic activity. Women with partial or severe deficiency are at risk of excessive uterine bleeding during labor. The unpredictable nature of factor XI deficiency complicates management during pregnancy and delivery. This review gives an overview of the management of pregnant women with factor XI deficiency. PMID:19049995

  14. Assessing Long-Term Outcomes of an Intervention Designed for Pregnant Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…

  15. Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susannah E; Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Hubbard, Isabelle; Williams, Kate V; Tindall, Elizabeth; Holmes, Emily A; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential underlying biological mechanism linking prenatal depression with adverse offspring outcomes. However, it is unknown whether the reactivity of this system to stress is altered in pregnant women experiencing depression. The objective of this study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol response to a distressed infant film is enhanced in pregnant women with symptoms of depression compared with non-depressed controls. Salivary cortisol and subjective mood responses to the film were measured in 53 primiparous women, between 11 and 18 weeks gestation. Both groups showed similar increases in state anxiety in response to the film, but there was a significantly increased cortisol response in women experiencing symptoms of depression. Depression during pregnancy is associated with increased reactivity of the HPA axis. This is consistent with altered HPA axis functioning being a key mechanism by which prenatal mood disturbance can impact upon fetal development. PMID:25352317

  16. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the safe use of medicinal plants in pregnancy may promote safer pregnancies and better health for mothers and their unborn infants in Mali. PMID:24041441

  17. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Malaria and Anemia in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nana O.; Ceesay, Fatou K.; Obed, Samuel A.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Gyasi, Richard K.; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A.; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June–August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12–0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana. PMID:21734118

  18. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against malaria and anemia in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nana O; Ceesay, Fatou K; Obed, Samuel A; Adjei, Andrew A; Gyasi, Richard K; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A; Lucchi, Naomi W; Stiles, Jonathan K

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June-August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana. PMID:21734118

  19. Influenza vaccine for pregnant women in resource-constrained countries: a review of the evidence to inform policy decisions.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Justin R; Englund, Janet A; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2011-06-15

    Seasonal influenza is responsible for three to five million severe cases of disease annually, and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Pregnant women and infants suffer disproportionately from severe outcomes of influenza. The excellent safety profile and reliable immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine support WHO recommendations that pregnant women be vaccinated to decrease complications of influenza disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine is not routinely used in most low-and middle-income countries and is not widely used in pregnant women worldwide. Two recent prospective, controlled trials of maternal influenza vaccination in Bangladesh and US Native American reservations demonstrated that inactivated influenza vaccine given to pregnant women can decrease laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection in their newborn children. These studies support consideration of the feasibility of targeted influenza vaccine programs in resource-constrained countries. Platforms exist for the delivery of influenza vaccine to pregnant women worldwide. Even in the least developed countries, an estimated 70% of women receive antenatal care, providing an opportunity for targeted influenza vaccination. Challenges to the introduction of maternal influenza vaccination in resource-constrained countries exist, including issues regarding vaccine formulation, availability, and cost. Nonetheless, maternal influenza vaccination remains an important and potentially cost-effective approach to decrease influenza morbidity in two high-risk groups - pregnant women and young infants. PMID:21550377

  20. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  1. Management of Pregnant Women With Presumptive Exposure to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    : Listeriosis is predominantly a foodborne illness, with sporadic and outbreak-related cases tied to consumption of food contaminated with listeria (Listeria monocytogenes). The incidence of listeriosis associated with pregnancy is approximately 13 times higher than in the general population. Maternal infection may present as a nonspecific, flu-like illness with fever, myalgia, backache, and headache, often preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. However, fetal and neonatal infections can be severe, leading to fetal loss, preterm labor, neonatal sepsis, meningitis, and death. Pregnant women have been advised to avoid foods with a high risk of contamination with listeria. An exposed pregnant woman with a fever higher than 38.1°C (100.6°F) and signs and symptoms consistent with listeriosis for whom no other cause of illness is known should be simultaneously tested and treated for presumptive listeriosis. No testing, including blood and stool cultures, or treatment is indicated for an asymptomatic pregnant woman who reports consumption of a product that was recalled or implicated during an outbreak of listeria contamination. A pregnant woman who ate a product that was recalled because of listeria contamination and who is afebrile but has signs and symptoms consistent with a minor gastrointestinal or flu-like illness can be managed expectantly. PMID:25098360

  2. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  3. Mixed infections with distinct cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotypes in Polish pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns.

    PubMed

    Rycel, M; Wujcicka, W; Zawili?ska, B; Paradowska, E; Suski, P; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J; Le?nikowski, Z; Nowakowska, D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe a distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) single and multiple genotypes among infected pregnant women, their fetuses, and newborns coming from Central Poland, as well as congenital cytomegaly outcome. The study involved 278 CMV-seropositive pregnant women, of whom 192 were tested for viral DNAemia. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotyping was performed for 18 of 34 pregnant women carrying the viral DNA and for 12 of their 15 offspring with confirmed HCMV infections. Anti-HCMV antibodies levels were assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) tests. Viral DNA loads and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the UL55 gene. In the pregnant women, we identified HCMV gB1, gB2, gB3, and gB4 genotypes. Single gB2, gB3, or gB4 genotypes were observed in 14 (77.8 %) women, while multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes were observed in four (22.2 %). Maternal HCMV genotypes determined the genotypes identified in their fetuses and newborns (p???0.050). Half of them were infected with single HCMV gB1, gB2, or gB3 genotypes and the other half with multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes. Single and multiple genotypes were observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic congenital cytomegaly, although no gB3 genotype was identified among asymptomatic cases. In Central Poland, infections with single and multiple HCMV strains occur in pregnant women, as well as in their fetuses and neonates, with both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. HCMV infections identified in mothers seem to be associated with the viral genotypes in their children. PMID:25348608

  4. The influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered amoxicillin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Anouk E; Dörr, P Joep; Mouton, Johan W; De Jongh, Joost; Oostvogel, Paul M; Steegers, Eric A P; Voskuyl, Rob A; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTExamples exist that pharmacokinetics of drugs in pregnant women can differ from that in non-pregnant individuals.In pregnant women before the onset of labour, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin is similar to that in non-pregnant individuals, but for women during labour this is unknown. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSLabour influences the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin.During labour and even more in the immediate postpartum period, the peripheral volume of distribution was decreased compared with pregnant women before the onset of labour.The volume of distribution increases with an increasing amount of oedema. AIMS Many physiological changes take place during pregnancy and labour. These might change the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, necessitating adjustment of the dose for prevention of neonatal infections. We investigated the influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. METHODS Pregnant women before and during labour were recruited and treated with amoxicillin intravenously. A postpartum dose was offered. Blood samples were obtained and amoxicillin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics were characterized by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling using NONMEM. RESULTS The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin in 34 patients was best described by a three-compartment model. Moderate interindividual variability was identified in CL, central and peripheral volumes of distribution. The volume of distribution (V) increased with an increasing amount of oedema. Labour influenced the parameter estimate of peripheral volume of distribution (V2). V2 was decreased during labour, and even more in the immediate postpartum period. For all patients the population estimates (mean ± SE) for CL and V were 21.1 ± 4.1 l h?1 (CL), 8.7 ± 6.6 l (V1), 11.8 ± 7.7 l (V2) and 20.5 ± 15.4 l (V3) respectively. CONCLUSIONS The peripheral distribution volume of amoxicillin in pregnant women during labour and immediately postpartum is decreased. However, these changes are not clinically relevant and do not warrant deviations from the recommended dosing regimen for amoxicillin during labour in healthy pregnant patients. PMID:19032729

  5. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  6. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  7. Risk factors associated with anemia and iron deficiency among Kuwaiti pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruk; Al-Sumaie, Mona A

    2011-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify the risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency in Kuwaiti pregnant women. Pregnant women (n = 465) aged 18-47 years, of 4-39 weeks at gestation were recruited during antenatal visits from six health facilities in Kuwait. Socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and dietary information were collected. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were determined. Logistic regression analysis revealed that iron deficiency and not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally were the two most important risk factors associated with anemia. Pregnant women with higher gestational age, short birth spacing ( ? 2 years), not taking iron-folate tablets or taking them occasionally, not consuming fruit juice, and consuming brown bread, tea and/or coffee were significant risk factors associated with iron deficiency. In conclusion, various factors including dietary habits appeared to be associated with poor iron status, which is the most important risk factor for anemia among Kuwaiti pregnant women. PMID:21561298

  8. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concerns. The results of this study were recently published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology . ... study of flu vaccine and spontaneous abortions were published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ...

  9. Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

  10. Characterisation of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol exposure among pregnant Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Piekkola, S; Turner, P C; Abdel-Hamid, M; Ezzat, S; El-Daly, M; El-Kafrawy, S; Savchenko, E; Poussa, T; Woo, J C S; Mykkänen, H; El-Nezami, H

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins such as the aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent contaminants of food. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DON affect the immune system and restrict growth; additionally AFB1 is carcinogenic. To date there are limited descriptive biomarker data concerning maternal exposures during pregnancy, and none on co-exposures to these mycotoxins. This survey was a cross-sectional assessment providing descriptive data on the concentrations of serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-alb), urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and urinary DON for 98 pregnant women from Egypt, in relation to diet and socioeconomic status, during the third trimester. AF-alb was detected in 34 of 98 (35%) samples, geometric mean (GM) of positives = 4.9 pg AF-lys mg(-1) albumin (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.1-5.8 pg mg(-1)), and AFM1 in 44 of 93 (48%) samples, GM of positives = 19.7 pg mg(-1) creatinine (95%CI = 14.8-26.3 pg mg(-1)). AF-alb and AFM1 levels were positively correlated (R = 0.276, p = 0.007). DON was detected in 63 of 93 (68%), GM of positives = 2.8 ng mg(-1) (95%CI = 2.1-3.6 ng mg(-1)). Aflatoxin and DON biomarkers were observed in 41% of the subjects concurrently. The frequency and level of these biomarkers in Egyptian women were modest compared with known high-risk countries. However, this study represents the first biomarker survey to report on the occurrence of DON biomarkers in an African population, in addition to the co-occurrence of these two potent mycotoxins. This combined exposure may be of particular concern during pregnancy given the potential of toxin transfer to the foetus. PMID:22376138

  11. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  12. Preventing obesity: exercise and daily activities of low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (?10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis. PMID:24476648

  13. Hepatitis E virus infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Andrew A; Tettey, Yao; Aviyase, John T; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Obed, Samuel; Mingle, Julius AA; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F; Adiku, Theophilus K

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM among pregnant women seen between the months of January and May, 2008 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana. Results One hundred and fifty-seven women provided blood samples for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HEV. The median age of participants was 28.89 ± 5.76 years (range 13–42 years). Of the 157 women tested, HEV seroprevelance was 28.66% (45/157). Among the seropositive women, 64.40% (29/45) tested positive for anti-HEV IgM while 35.60% (16/45) tested positive to HEV IgG antibodies. HEV seroprevalence was highest (46.15%) among women 21–25 years of age, followed by 42.82% in = 20 year group, then 36.84% in = 36 year group. Of the 157 women, 75.79% and 22.92% were in their third and second trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Anti-HEV antibodies detected in women in their third trimester of pregnancy (30.25%) was significantly higher, P < 0.05, than in women in their second trimester of pregnancy (25.0%). Conclusion Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the results of our studies revealed a high prevalence of HEV infection in pregnant women. PMID:19619291

  14. Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were performed between January 2007 and November 2012. Imaging findings, clinical management and outcome were extracted from patient’s file and electronic records. Image quality was evaluated. Results Ten studies of 9 patients were included. MRE protocol was modified to maximize maternal and fetal safety, and intravenous gadolinium was not used. In 7 patients, CD diagnosis was previously established; six were admitted with clinical symptoms consistent with CD exacerbation, and an additional patient with a recurrent groin abscess without apparent luminal symptoms. In all seven patients, imaging features consistent with active CD were detected; new penetrating complications were detected in 4 patients. Two patients underwent MRE for suspected CD which was not comforted by study results. The clinical management was significantly impacted by MRE results in all positive cases. The image quality of the fast MRE sequences obtained without gadolinium was satisfactory and allowed meaningful interpretation. Conclusion MRE with an adapted protocol for pregnancy is a reliable imaging modality to manage in pregnant women with known or suspected CD. PMID:25129422

  15. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in non-vaccinated, pregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Soldevila, Núria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José Maria; Tamames, Sonia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the main characteristics of non-vaccinated pregnant women who were hospitalised for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic versus pregnant women hospitalised for non-influenza-related reasons in Spain, and to characterise the clinical presentation of the disease in this population to facilitate early diagnosis and future action programmes. Understanding influenza infection during pregnancy is important as pregnant women are a high-risk population for increased morbidity from influenza infection. We investigated the socio-demographic and clinical features of 51 non-vaccinated, pregnant women infected with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Spain (cases) and compared them to 114 controls (non-vaccinated and non-infected pregnant women) aged 15-44 years. Substantial and significant odd ratios (ORs) for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were found for the pregnant women who were obese compared with controls (body mass index > 30) (OR 3.03; 95% confidence intervals 1.13-8.11). The more prevalent symptoms observed in pandemic influenza-infected pregnant women were high temperature, cough (82.4%), malaise (80.5%), myalgia (56.1%), and headaches (54.9%). Our results suggest that the initial symptoms and risk factors for infection of pregnant women with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus are similar to the symptoms and risk factors for seasonal influenza, which make early diagnosis difficult, and reinforces the need to identify and protect high-risk groups. PMID:24162551

  16. A Review of Recent Findings on Substance Abuse Treatment for Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Embry M. Howell; Nancy Heiser; Mary Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Recent years have brought an increased interest in the treatment needs of pregnant substance abusers. This article reviews the literature on this subject, providing an overview of what is known about the prevalence of substance abuse during pregnancy; the factors in women’s lives, especially pregnant women, that lead to substance abuse and that facilitate and impede treatment success; and the

  17. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  18. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March

  19. Predictors of serum concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants among healthy pregnant women in an urban environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants commonly used in a wide range of products. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Our objective was to characterize predictors of exposure to PBDEs among a multi-ethnic, low-income cohort of pregnant women enrolled from highly urban communities in New York City between years 2009–2010. Methods During the first half of pregnancy we collected 316 maternal serum samples and administered an extensive questionnaire including items on demographics, diet and lifestyle. We measured 12 PBDE congeners in blood samples. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we regressed the most commonly detected PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) against potential demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictor variables. Results At least one PBDE congener was detected in each serum sample. Our analyses demonstrate unique predictor patterns for PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 based on demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of women. Higher education and increased use of household electronics were associated with higher levels of all 4 congeners. Six characteristics were associated with PBDE-153 serum concentrations, more than for any other congener. These include maternal education, household income, body mass index, solid dairy consumption, processed meat consumption and frequent use of household electronics. Conclusions PBDE exposure in this widespread in this cohort, though levels are lower than previous assessments of US pregnant women. Lower levels may be in response to legislation restricting the production, sale and use of these compounds. In our cohort, we did not observe any individual predictor or a consistent pattern of several predictors representing a significant source of PBDE exposure. These data suggest that legislation and policy may be more effective at reducing exposure than personal lifestyle modifications. PMID:23497089

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and its effects on hematological parameters in pregnant women in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and perinatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier State. Methods A descriptive seroepidemiological study of hepatitis B virus and its effects on hematological parameters was investigated in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. 200 venous samples were subjected to full blood count and its sera were subjected to enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. Results Prevalence rate of 16.5% was obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women. The highest HBsAg prevalence rate recorded was 23.3% for pregnant women between aged 30–34 years while the lowest recorded was zero percent for those aged greater than 40 years. RBC, WBC, neutrophil, hemoglobin lymphocyte and platelet counts have no significant effects on HBsAg positivity of pregnant women (p?=?0.801). There was no significant difference in HBsAg positivity in relation to maternal age, gravidity, gestational age, family type, level of education and occupation (p?=?0.073). Among the potential risk factors, there was significant difference in HBsAg positivity in the pregnant women in relation to their history of HBV vaccination (p?=?0.039). Conclusions We advocate universal free screening of pregnant women as the endemicity of HBV infections is thus being propagated. PMID:23268985

  1. Management of pregnant women infected with Ebola virus in a treatment centre in Guinea, June 2014.

    PubMed

    Baggi, F M; Taybi, A; Kurth, A; Van Herp, M; Di Caro, A; Wölfel, R; Günther, S; Decroo, T; Declerck, H; Jonckheere, S

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of confirmed Ebola virus disease in pregnant women, who presented at the Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola treatment centre in Guéckédou. Despite the very high risk of death, both pregnant women survived. In both cases the critical decision was made to induce vaginal delivery. We raise a number of considerations regarding the management of Ebola virus-infected pregnant women, including the place of amniocentesis and induced delivery, and whether certain invasive medical acts are justified. PMID:25523968

  2. Constructing a Population-Based Research Database from Routine Maternal Screening Records: A Resource for Studying Alloimmunization in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Gryfelt, Gunilla; Wikman, Agneta; Reilly, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues. Study Design and Methods Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies) presented as online moving graphical displays. Results More than one million (1,191,761) births with valid screening information from 1982–2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time. Conclusion This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important clinical questions, such as the etiological significance of non-anti-D antibodies. PMID:22140452

  3. Dietary Assessment in Pregnant Women and Children

    Cancer.gov

    In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.

  4. Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole. PMID:24646407

  5. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ? secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ? 19.9 Kg/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ? 30 Kg/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women's education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed. PMID:21134264

  6. Escherichia coli bacteraemia in pregnant women is life-threatening for foetuses.

    PubMed

    Surgers, L; Bleibtreu, A; Burdet, C; Clermont, O; Laouénan, C; Lefort, A; Mentré, F; Carbonne, B; Bingen, E; Meynard, J-L; Denamur, E

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve knowledge on Escherichia coli bacteraemia during pregnancy, we studied clinical data and performed molecular characterization of strains for 29 E. coli bacteraemia occurring in pregnant women. Bacteraemia mostly occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (45%) and was community-acquired (79%). Portals of entry were urinary (55%) and genital (45%). E. coli strains belonged mainly to phylogroups B2 (72%) and D (17%). Four clonal lineages (i.e. sequence type complex (STc) 73, STc95, STc12 and STc69) represented 65% of the strains. The strains exhibited a high number of virulence factor coding genes (10 (3-16)). Six foetuses died (27%), five of them due to bacteraemia of genital origin (83%). Foetal deaths occurred despite adequate antibiotic regimens. Strains associated with foetal mortality had fewer virulence factors (8 (6-10)) than strains involved in no foetal mortality (11 (4-12)) (p 0.02). When comparing E. coli strains involved in bacteraemia with a urinary portal of entry in non-immunocompromised pregnant vs. non-immunocompromised non-pregnant women from the COLIBAFI study, there was no significant difference of phylogroups and virulence factor coding genes. These results show that E. coli bacteraemia in pregnant women involve few highly virulent clones but that severity, represented by foetal death, is mainly related to bacteraemia of genital origin. PMID:24979689

  7. Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women’s empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  8. I Am Pregnant and Want to Do Better But I Can't: Focus Groups with Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  9. Comparison of obstetric outcome in pregnant women with and without microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harneet; Samal, Sunita; Mahapatro, Akshaya; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal and neonatal outcome is an index of quality of health and life in human society. To predict serious outcomes in pregnancy various parameters are being researched so that pregnant women who are at risk are identified early and measures taken to ensure a good outcome of pregnancy. Studies have shown an association between microalbuminuria and adverse pregnancy outcome. This study was undertaken to compare obstetric outcome in pregnant women with and without microalbuminuria. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on 69 pregnant women between 20 and 28 weeks of gestation. Urine tests for albuminuria and creatinine measurements were performed in all women and the albumin to creatinine ratio was calculated. The women with microalbuminuria and those without microalbuminuria were monitored until the end of their pregnancy and compared for pregnancy outcome. Results: The age distribution in the two groups was found to be similar and comparable. Preterm labor was strongly associated with microalbuminuria group (P = 0.001**)strongly significant. Incidence of maternal complications were more with microalbuminuria group (P < 0.001**). Fetal complications were significantly more in terms of intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, low birth weight, low Apgar score and more incidence of neonatal intensive care unit admission with microalbuminuria group (P = 0.010*)moderately significant. Conclusion: It was found that fetal complications were more associated with babies of pregnant women with microalbuminuria. Though maternal complications were more associated with microalbuminuria group, individual events like premature rupture of membrane, preterm premature rupture of membrane had no statistically significant association with microalbuminuria except preterm labor. However, occurrence of pre-eclampsia was more with microalbuminuria, though it didn’t carry any statistical significance.

  10. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Osime, Odaburhine E.; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U.; Kolade, Samson O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). Results: The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control subjects (PFC 3.46±0.12g/l and ELT 267±9.0mins). The PCV or hematocrit values in the test subject was 29.1±0.38%, which was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with the control subject (31.3±0.43%). The PV in the test subject was 1.76±0.02 mPa/s, while the control subjects was higher (1.73±0.02 mPa/s). This increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Conclusion: Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia. PMID:25719585

  11. Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Camilla B.; Petersen, Sesilje B.; Granström, Charlotta; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day). 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. PMID:22606369

  12. HIV Awareness and Risk Behavior among Pregnant Women in Mateete, Uganda (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Sandqvist, Josefin; Wahlberg, Johanna; Muhumuza, Elly; Andersson, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate current knowledge, risk behavior, and attitudes among pregnant women in Mateete, Uganda. Methods. We collected 100 questionnaires and performed 20 interviews among women who attended antenatal care. Findings. All the women had heard about HIV/AIDS, and 92% were aware of mother-to-child transmission. The women overestimated the risk of achieving the virus since 45% believed in transmission by mosquitoes and 44% by kissing. Many pointed out that married women as a group were infected more often because of unfaithful partners who refused to use condoms during sex. Conclusion. The women were well aware of the routes of HIV transmission. Schools and governmental campaigns have played an important role in educating people about the disease but there is still a great need to reach out to people in rural areas with both health care and correct information. PMID:22191048

  13. Risk factors on hypertensive disorders among Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Amal K

    2014-03-01

    Eight percent of pregnancies involve hypertensive disorders, which can have serious complications for mothers and children. There has only been minimal research into hypertension in pregnancy in developing countries, including Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to identify how frequent certain risk factors that apply to hyper-tensive disorders during pregnancy were among women in the Jordanian capital of Amman. A prospective case-control study was conducted on 184 Jordanian pregnant patients with hypertensive disorders and 172 age-matched control subjects recruited from the maternity ward of a tertiary public hospital in Amman city; they were followed-up until 85 days after the birth (late puerperium). A standardized questionnaire pilot-tested was completed by participants that included demographic data and known risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Statistical analysis SPSS was conducted to compare the frequency of risk factors using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, Student's t-tests, as well as multivariate logistic regression was conducted to identify independent risk factors. The results showed that chronic hypertension, prenatal hypertension, family history of preeclampsia, diabetes, high BMI, nulliparity, previous preeclampsia history and low education level were identified as risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in this population; Moreover, diabetes, chronic hypertension and family history of preeclampsia were found to be independent risk factors. The results of the study contribute to the currently limited knowledge about the modifiable risk factors for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy among the Jordanian population, and could therefore be extremely useful for clinicians providing prenatal care. PMID:24576373

  14. BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More Fertile Over Age 40 | BabyZone 14/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/peak-fertility-rate_67460 #12;Content provided

  15. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  16. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kontie M Moussa; P. O. Ostergren; Frida Eek; Anton E Kunst

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden

  17. [Metafolin--alternative for folate deficiency supplementation in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Proper folate supplementation is required in order to ensure proper folate concentration in the organism, and consequently to prevent the development of numerous complications in general population and pregnant women. Metafolin (stable calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate acid, L-5-MTHF) is the most active form of reduced folate circulating in plasma, which directly enters the metabolic process of folate. After administration metafolin shows optimum absorption, comparable or higher bioavailability as well as physiological activity when compared to folic acid. Metafolin supplementation is effective in decreasing plasma homocysteine, as well as increasing folate in plasma and erythrocytes, in pregnant and breastfeeding women or those who wish to conceive. In addition, metafolin administration omits the multistage process of reduction before entering the folate cell cycle, as well as a possible deficiency of activity of enzymes participating in the reduction of folate process in the intestine epithelium (DHFR and MTHFR enzymes). So far no potential adverse and toxic effects of metafolin management have been reported. The published findings require confirmation in larger groups of patients and an additional analysis of the presence of particular genotypes of 677C > T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns. PMID:24032278

  18. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Ajibola, Sarah O; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Dosunmu, Adedoyin O; Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent O; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin I; Ismail, Kamal A

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy. Subjects and methods This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed. Results Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]): hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296). Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria. PMID:23662089

  19. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy.

  20. Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes in imprisoned pregnant women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Marian; Plugge, Emma

    2005-01-01

    Background Imprisoned pregnant women constitute an important obstetric group about whom relatively little is known. This systematic review was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcome present in this group of women. Methods The review was conducted according to a prespecified protocol. Studies of any design were included if they described information on any of the pre-specified risk factors. We calculated the results as summary percentages or odds ratios where data was available on both cases and population controls. Results The search strategy identified 27 relevant papers of which 13 met the inclusion criteria, involving 1504 imprisoned pregnant women and 4571 population control women. Imprisoned women are more likely to be single, from an ethnic minority, and not to have completed high school. They are more likely to have a medical problem which could affect the pregnancy outcome and yet less likely to receive adequate antenatal care. They are also more likely to smoke, drink alcohol to excess and take illegal drugs. Conclusion Imprisoned women are clearly a high risk obstetric group. These findings have important implications for the provision of care to this important group of women. PMID:16229740

  1. Association between depression and nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sangini S; Coleman, Jenell; Cannon, Tirza; Milio, Lorraine; Keller, Jean; Anderson, Jean; Argani, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) face unique psychosocial challenges due to the presence of a lifelong chronic illness and often unstable living situations. With advances in HIV treatment, an increasing number of those with PAH are reaching childbearing age and becoming pregnant. Depression may be an important and common factor that complicates both treatment and pregnancy outcomes in this group. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in pregnant patients with PAH to determine if history of depression is associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We reviewed charts of women with PAH receiving prenatal care at a single institution from March 1995 to December 2012. ART nonadherence was measured by patient self-report of any missed doses in the third trimester. Demographic, obstetric, and HIV infection characteristics of patients with a history of depression (dPAH) were compared to patients without a history of depression. Nine pregnancies among 6 dPAH women and 14 pregnancies among 12 PAH women without a history of depression were identified. None of the dPAH women reported 100% adherence to ART in the third trimester while 57% of women without a history of depression reported strict adherence (p = 0.04). The mean HIV RNA level at delivery was higher among dPAH women (17,399 vs. 2966 copies/Ml; p = 0.03) and fewer reached an undetectable HIV RNA level (<400 copies/mL) at delivery (p = 0.03). We concluded that a history of depression may contribute to poor medication adherence and treatment outcomes among pregnant women with PAH. Focused attention on diagnosis and treatment of depression in the preconception period may lead to more optimal medication adherence. PMID:25616659

  2. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

  3. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children.

    PubMed

    Velez, Martha L; Montoya, Ivan D; Jansson, Lauren M; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40.9% for emotional abuse to 20.0% for physical abuse to 7.1% for sexual abuse. Nearly one third of the women reported having physical fights with their current partner (lifetime), and 25% of these women reported that children were present during those physical fights. A total of 30% of the women perceived a need for counseling regarding exposure to violence for themselves and 15% perceived a need for counseling for their children. Study findings confirm previous reports of high rates of abuse and violence exposure among substance-abusing pregnant women and their strong need for counseling for psychosocial sequelae. This study affirmed the value of routine screening for violence exposure in this at-risk population as well as the need to train therapists in specific strategies for helping such women address this complex array of problems. PMID:16377450

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (p< 0.05). Fasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

  5. Risk Factors for Group B Streptococcus Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ju; Oh, Kwan Young; Kim, Moon Young; Seo, Yong Soo; Shin, Jung-Hwan; Song, Young Rae; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Foxman, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify obstetric and maternal factors related to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women in Korea. METHODS The study was conducted between the years 2006-2008 in four hospitals, Cheil and Eulji hospital in Seoul, and Motae and Eulji hospital in Daejeon. We recruited 2,644 pregnant women between 35 to 37 weeks of gestation who had visited for antenatal care. Participants completed a questionnaire, and urine, vaginal and rectal specimens were obtained and cultured using selective broth media. After delivery, medical records were reviewed. RESULTS GBS colonization was significantly associated with hospital, age group, education, frequency of pregnancy, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM, more than 18 hours). After adjustment for other variables, Cheil hospital (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.52), and the first pregnancy (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.81) remained significant. History of vaginitis showed marginal significance (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98-2.29). CONCLUSION To prevent GBS infection of neonates, clinicians should be alert to the potentially higher risk of GBS colonization in pregnant women in their first pregnancy, and women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (18 hours+) or who have a history of vaginitis. PMID:22111030

  6. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  8. Prenatal Drug Use: The Ethics of Testing and Incarcerating Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Hulsey

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that every 1½ minutes an infant is born exposed to drugs. Prenatal use of illicit drugs has been associated with negative neonatal outcomes and has led to state mandates that involuntarily commit, and in some cases arrest and prosecute, pregnant women who test positive for drugs during pregnancy. The ethics of drug testing and incarcerating pregnant women

  9. Using a Multidisciplinary Approach for Pregnant Women With Nicotine Dependence and Co-occurring Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca S. Lundquist; Greg Seward; Nancy Byatt; Makenzie E. Tonelli; Monika E. Kolodziej

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of complications during pregnancy, including low birth weight and prematurity. While smoking prevalence among pregnant women has been declining, pregnant women with co-occurring disorders struggle with smoking cessation not only because they are managing their psychiatric and substance-related conditions, but also because they are at greater risk for a number of psychosocial stressors, such

  10. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Durandy; A. Fischer; C. Griscelli

    1982-01-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent

  11. Dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids among pregnant Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Rivera, Juan; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-04-01

    Nutritional demands for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are high during pregnancy. Diets low in DHA and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty-acids (LC-PUFA) in pregnancy are associated with poorer DHA status and slower reestablishment of maternal stores. To assess intakes of LC-PUFA among urban pregnant women in Central Mexico, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Prenatal Clinic at the General Hospital No. 1 of the Mexican Society Security Institute, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We ascertained intakes over past three months of 110 food items using a food frequency questionnaire developed for this population. Among 1364 pregnant women 18-35 years of age (mean age 26.2 ± 4.7 years) who were interviewed at 18-22 weeks gestation, median (inter-quartile range) daily intakes of linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid (LA), arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA were 17.6 (13.6; 22.2) g, 1.4 (1.0; 2.0) g, 137 (102; 174) mg, 18 (10; 38) mg, and 55 (37; 99) mg respectively. The median ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA was 11.8:1. The main dietary contributions to DHA intake were eggs, chicken, and fresh canned fish. Intakes of PUFAs were higher among women who had completed high school (p<0.01). We conclude that intakes of DHA were much lower than recommended values; the high n-6 to n-3 ratio suggests a suboptimal balance of these PUFAs. Very few sources of DHA are commonly eaten. PMID:21410881

  12. [The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-05-01

    Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

  13. Physical violence against pregnant women by an intimate partner, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Abhari, Farrideh R.; Delavar, Mouloud A.; Charati, Jamshid Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1%) (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001), secondary level education (0.003), and in low income households (0.0001) were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse. PMID:25657606

  14. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Illness in Florida, 2009-2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Timothy J.; Goodin, Kate; Hamilton, Janet J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection (pH1N1). Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes. Methods We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness. Results A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI): 1.78 (1.11-2.860)], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330)], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00)], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes. Conclusions Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue to be targeted for appropriate prophylaxis and early treatment. PMID:24205364

  15. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection. PMID:25533327

  16. Prevalence of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Akinbiyi; Robert Watson; Paul Feyi-Waboso

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  One thousand and seventy-three (1,073) consecutive women who attended the antenatal clinic at Barnsley District General Hospital,\\u000a Barnsley, UK, over a 15-month period were studied. Endo-cervical and high vaginal swabs for Candida albicans were obtained.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Sixty-five percent

  17. Factors associated with HIV RNA levels in pregnant women on non-suppressive HAART at conception

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about pregnancy patterns and levels of HIV RNA in HIV-infected women conceiving on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with non-suppressed viral load (VL), nor their therapeutic management. Methods Linear mixed models were fitted to study changes in VL and potential associated factors including HAART type/duration and immune status among 127 women receiving HAART at conception with detectable VL enrolled in the prospective European Collaborative Study. Results Median duration of HAART at conception was 10 months. Seventy-eight (61%) women conceived on PI-based HAART. Seventy-two (57%) women remained on the same HAART regimen throughout pregnancy, 24 (19%) switched regimens and 31 (24%) interrupted HAART during early pregnancy. The intention-to-treat model indicated constant VL up to 10 gestational weeks; thereafter levels decreased significantly, by 0.06 log10 copies/ml weekly until delivery. At baseline, immune status was significantly associated with HIV RNA levels. Excluding treatment-interrupters, there was no significant difference in VL slope between women who did and did not modify their HAART regimens (p=0.14); women conceiving on NNRTI-based HAART had consistently lower VL throughout pregnancy than those on PI-based HAART (p=0.02). Most (64/103, 62%) women had detectable VL within four weeks of delivery (median 2.40 log10 copies/ml). The MTCT rate overall was 1.72% (95%CI 0.21-6.1%). Conclusion Practices regarding management of women conceiving on HAART with detectable VL vary in Western Europe. The existence of this group of pregnant women highlights the need for improved monitoring of and support for treated women before they become pregnant, as well as during pregnancy itself. PMID:20167990

  18. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

  19. Infections and obstetrical outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women maintained on methadone or buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Amber M.; Baxter, Jason K.; Jones, Hendrée E.; Heil, Sarah H.; Coyle, Mara G.; Martin, Peter R.; Stine, Susan M.; Kaltenbach, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterize infections and compare obstetrical outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing agonist medications, methadone and buprenorphine. Design Incidence of infections was identified as part of the screening medical assessment. As part of a planned secondary analysis, ANOVA and polytomous logistic regressions were conducted on obstetrical outcome variables using treatment randomization condition (maternal maintenance with either methadone or buprenorphine) as the predictor variable, controlling for differences between study sites. Setting Six United States sites and one European site that provided comprehensive treatment to opioid-dependent pregnant women. Participants Pregnant opioid-dependent women (n = 131) who delivered while participating in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Measurements Obstetrical, infectious, and other maternal medical complications captured by medical records, physical exam, blood tests, and self-report. Neonatal medical complications captured by medical records. Findings Hepatitis C (HCV) was the most common infection (32.3%), followed by hepatitis B (7.6%) and Chlamydia (6.1%) among participants at study enrollment. Maternal methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance was associated with a higher incidence of preterm labor (P = 0.04) and a significantly higher percentage of signs of respiratory distress in neonates at delivery (P = 0.05). Other medical and obstetrical complications were infrequent in the total sample, as well as in both methadone and buprenorphine conditions. Conclusions Buprenorphine appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use during pregnancy. PMID:23106930

  20. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women and in their neonates in the central Anatolian region (Kayseri) of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurto?lu, Selim; Akcaku?, Mustafa; Kocao?lu, Celebi; Güne?, Tamer; Karaküçük, Inci; Kula, Mustafa; Kocakoç, Ercan

    2004-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency disorders may have been eradicated in many parts of the world, but milder forms still exist and may escape detection. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women and their newborns, and the prevalence rates and severity of iodine deficiency in the Kayseri region, which has appeared to be iodine deficient in previous studies. A cross-sectional voluntary screening study was performed in the Maternity Unit of the University Hospital. Seventy pregnant women and their babies participated in this study. Iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goiter, low urinary iodine excretion and high serum thyroglobulin concentrations were recognized among pregnant women and their babies in Kayseri. Regular administration of iodine, starting at preconception or in early pregnancy and continuing during the period of nursing, is recommended in these regions. PMID:15074368

  1. Agreement of self-reported physician diagnosis of migraine with international classification of headache disorders-II migraine diagnostic criteria in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder among reproductive age women, has emerged as a novel risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Diagnostic reliability of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine has not been investigated in pregnancy cohort studies. We investigated agreement of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine with the diagnostic criteria promoted by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 women who provided information on a detailed migraine questionnaire that allowed us to apply all ICHD-II diagnostic criteria. Results Approximately 92% of women reporting a diagnosis of migraine had the diagnosis between the ages of 11 and 40 years (<10 years 6.8%; 11–20 years 38.8%; 21–30 years 42.7%; 31–40 years 10.7%; and >40 years 1.0%). We confirmed self-reported migraine in 81.6% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for definitive migraine (63.1%) and probable migraine (18.5%). Conclusion There is good agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II-based migraine classification in this pregnancy cohort. We demonstrate the feasibility of using questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in epidemiological studies of pregnant women. PMID:24330724

  2. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

  3. Estimating the Risk of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Blood Donors and Pregnant Women in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0–4 and 5–9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30–39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Conclusions Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy. PMID:24658180

  4. Relationship between physical activity and quality of life in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Mohamadirizi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the important factors in predicting the quality of life, which varies between different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and the quality of life in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 380 pregnant women who were admitted to Isfahan healthcare centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital, by using the two-stage sampling method (cluster convenience) in 2013. Demographic/pregnancy characteristics, physical activity (36Q) and prenatal quality of life questionnaires (26Q) were completed by the participants. The statistical analyses were performed with various statistical tests such as Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression, and SPSS statistical software version 16. Results: The findings showed that 91.6% of the subjects were 20–35 years old, 69% had a gestational age of 29–37 weeks, 60% had their first pregnancy, 98% had poor physical activities, and 43% had a good quality of life. There was also a negative correlation between physical activity and social support (P = 0.04, r = ?0.11). Conclusions: As the results show high percentage of poor physical activity and quality of life, and also the relationship between these variables, more attention should be dedicated to this problem. Furthermore, structured programs and educational approaches are also needed for pregnant women.

  5. Determinants of Hypovitaminosis D in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns in a Sunny Region

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Sharifi-Ghazvini, Faezeh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Ferdous; Farajian, Sanam; Yousefy, Hosseinali; Movahedian, Mahsa; Sharifi-Ghazvini, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to assess the factors associated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in pregnant women and their newborns in a sunny region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. It comprised 100 nulliparous singleton pregnant women, selected by random cluster sampling. Laboratory tests were assessed before delivery in mothers and after delivery in their infants' umbilical cord blood. The P for trend of variables was assessed across the air quality index (AQI) quartiles. The associations of AQI and 25(OH)D were assessed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dietary intake. Results. Sera of 98 mothers and an equal number of newborns were analyzed. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of serum 25(OH)D of mothers and neonates was 15.1(12.6, 18.2)?ng/mL in mothers and 15.7(12.0, 18.1)?ng/mL in neonates, respectively. AQI had an inverse association with serum 25(OH)D (Beta = ?0.58, P = 0.04). The corresponding figure was also inverse and significant for newborns (Beta (SE)= ?0.51(0.04), P = 0.01). Conclusion. The independent inverse association of 25(OH)D with air quality can explain the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women living in this sunny region. PMID:23935619

  6. Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological screening of pregnant women for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies is not practiced as an antenatal care in Tanzania; and there is a limited data about sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection in developing countries. We therefore conducted this study to determine the sero-prevalence and factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Between 1st November 2012 and 31st May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza were enrolled and screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using the ELISA technique. Results Of 350 pregnant women, 108 (30.9%) were sero-positive for T. gondii-specific antibodies. The risk of contracting T. gondii infection increases by 7% with each yearly increase in a woman’s age (OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.11, p=0.002). The sero-positivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban than those from rural communities (41.5% versus 22.0%); [OR=2.2, 95% CI; 1.4 - 3.7, p=0.001]. Likewise employed/business women were more likely to get T. gondii infection than peasants (40.0% versus 25.9%) [OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0, p=0.006]. Conclusions Sero-prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies is high among pregnant women in Mwanza with a significant proportion of women at risk of contracting primary T. gondii infections. Screening of T. gondii infections during antenatal care should be considered in Tanzania as the main strategy to minimize congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23915834

  7. Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?

    PubMed

    Metz, Verena; Köchl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-25

    Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes for mothers and newborns, whereas the choice of treatment options highly depends on the type of substance of abuse and evidence-based treatment interventions available. Economic considerations have shown that early multiprofessional treatment might yield better clinical outcomes and save healthcare costs over the lifespan. PMID:23243466

  8. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9%) were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042), not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs) during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007), those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01) and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001) had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = ?.110, P< 0.001), Ascaris lumbricoides (r = ?.122, P < 0.001) and Trichuris trichiura (r = ?.025, P < 0.001) and decreasing hematocrit values. Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care should promote de-worming and education on personal hygiene. Therefore, there is a need to design strategies that help to diagnose pregnant women for malaria and STH infections during their antenatal care (ANC) visit instead of testing for only haemoglobin (Hgb) levels and blood group. PMID:23244514

  9. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

  10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  11. Neighborhood Safety As a Correlate of Tobacco Use in a Sample of Urban, Pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Freda; Seravalli, Laura; Hanlon, Alexandra; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Environmental context has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of health behavior. This study examined the effects of self-reported neighborhood violence and perceived safety on tobacco use in a sample of low-income, pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women (N=1521) being treated at an urban Emergency Room completed a baseline interview where neighborhood safety (self-reported neighborhood violence and perceived safety) as well as individual (demographics, depression symptoms, stress, tobacco use, substance abuse) and social variables (prenatal social environment and number of close friends) were evaluated cross-sectionally. Tobacco use was measured again in a telephone interview at 22 weeks gestation. Results In a logistic regression model of baseline smoking status, self-reported neighborhood violence was significantly associated with being a smoker independent of age, education status, lifetime use of cocaine and marijuana and current use of cocaine and marijuana. In a regression model estimating the relationship between these baseline variables and continued prenatal smoking, baseline smoking emerged as the strongest correlate of continued smoking during pregnancy. Conclusions These findings suggest that self-reported neighborhood violence had a stronger association with early pregnancy cigarette use compared to ongoing cigarette use in a sample of low-income, pregnant women. Prospective trials are needed to fully elucidate the relationship between individual and social-environmental determinants of tobacco use in this high-risk population. PMID:22688344

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  13. Nutritional Intake of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Ae-Lan; Oh, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Hun-Sung; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Cho, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-01-01

    Adequate intake of nutrients by pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is very important for appropriate weight gain and maintenance of normoglycemia without ketonuria. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional intake of pregnant women with GDM or T2DM who had not been provided with nutritional education regarding blood glucose management. Between June 2008 and May 2010, 125 pregnant women who had been diagnosed with GDM or T2DM and had not received any nutrition education regarding glycemic control and proper diet during pregnancy were interviewed to collect data regarding background characteristics, health-related behaviors, and course of pregnancy and instructed to record their dietary intake using a 24-hour recall method for one day. Using the collected data, the index of nutritional quality, nutrient adequacy ratio, and mean adequacy ratio values of the subjects were calculated. Analysis of the values indicated that the majority of the subjects did not meet recommended intake levels for most micronutrients and consumed an undesirable ratio of macronutrients, specifically a higher percentage of total carbohydrates than the current recommendation level. The GDM and T2DM groups obtained 56.6% and 63.6%, respectively (p = 0.012), of their calories by carbohydrate intake, which exceeded the recommended levels (125.8% in GDM groups, 141.3% in T2DM groups). PMID:23908974

  14. Stress, sleep, depression and dietary intakes among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan; Smith, Barbara; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the mediating roles of sleep and depression on the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women by trimesters. Participants (N = 213) completed a self-administered survey including stress (exogenous variable), depression, sleep (mediators), fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake (endogenous variables). Path analysis was performed to compare mediation effects among pregnant women in each trimester. Consistently across three trimesters, stress was related to depression but not sleep duration, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency or fat intake. Sleep duration was not associated with depression. Depending on trimester, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and sleep latency were related to depression; night time sleep disturbance and depression affected fat intake; stress influenced fruit and vegetable intake. Sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency and depression did not mediate the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake in the second and third trimesters. However, depression mediated the relationship between stress and fat intake in the first trimester. Stress management interventions may help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women decrease depressive symptoms and therefore contribute to overall nutritional health. PMID:25102810

  15. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  16. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

  17. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  18. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument in Pregnant Women: Results from the BRISA Prenatal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e.; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. Methods Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA) were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. Results The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] ?=?0.060, p<0.001 for the combined model). The multidimensional WHO VAW model showed good fit (RMSEA?=?0.036, p?=?0.999 for the combined model) and standardized factor loadings higher than 0.70, except for the sexual dimension for SL (0.65). The models suggested by the modification indices with cross loadings measuring simultaneously physical and psychological violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p<0.001 for the difference between the model chi-squares). Conclusions Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW model and the modified models are suitable for measuring violence against pregnant women. PMID:25531654

  20. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onoh, RC; Umeora, OUJ; Egwuatu, VE; Ezeonu, PO; Onoh, TJP

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics. Objectives To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI. Methodology This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software. Results A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5%) had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%), Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%), S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%), Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%), Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%), Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%). Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%), ofloxacin (77.4%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ceftriaxone (66.7%), and gentamicin (50.8%). Conclusion E. coli was the most common etiological agent of UTI in pregnancy with Enterococcus (Staphylococcus) gaining prominence. Cephalosporin and quinolones were shown to be very effective against the organisms causing UTI in these pregnant women. PMID:24324344

  1. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in pregnant and nonpregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Castro, Ady; Galán, Juan C; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martin, Vicente; Mayoral, José M; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José M; Tamames, Sonia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Dominguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the main features of infection with pandemic influenza A virus in pregnant and nonpregnant women admitted to hospitals in Spain during the first waves of the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic. This was a prospective (November 2009 to June 2010), multicenter observational study. All cases were women of reproductive age who had not been vaccinated against seasonal or pandemic influenza A. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sociodemographic and clinical data of all cases were reviewed. A total of 219 inpatients, including 49 pregnant women and 170 nonpregnant women, were enrolled in the study upon admission to participating hospitals. The most substantially different symptoms between the groups were respiratory distress and unilobar consolidation, both of which were more frequent among nonpregnant women. Antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids were more frequently used in nonpregnant women; however, there were no differences in the rates of treatment with antivirals. Our findings indicated that the compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant women in this study did not have significantly different symptoms and were not at increased risk of complications from pandemic influenza virus infection. PMID:24858604

  2. Cytomegalovirus: should we screen pregnant women for primary infection?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie M; Anderson, Brenna L

    2013-02-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity, affecting ~0.5 to 1% of infants born each year. Primary maternal infection during early pregnancy is the greatest risk factor for severe neonatal morbidity/mortality. The current recommendation from national organizations advises against routine screening of pregnant women for primary infection. Recent advancements in diagnosis and treatment raise the issue of implementation of a national screening program. Prior to development of a major screening program for a highly prevalent and costly disease, the screening test must be safe, reliable, and valid with an effective and feasible intervention. This article reviews recent literature regarding available screening tests and potential interventions and whether criteria for a screening program are met in the current state of science. Although screening women using CMV immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgG avidity testing is reliable, effective intervention with hygiene modification or treatment with CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin is not as well established. More evidence from randomized controlled trials is needed prior to moving forward with a screening program for congenital CMV. PMID:23292913

  3. Free bednets to pregnant women through antenatal clinics in Kenya: a cheap, simple and equitable approach to delivery.

    PubMed

    Guyatt, Helen L; Gotink, Marinus H; Ochola, Sam A; Snow, Robert W

    2002-05-01

    Kenya's National Malaria Strategy states that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) would be considered as a free service to pregnant women assuming sufficient financial commitment from donors. In 2001, United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Government of Kenya brokered support to procure and distribute nets and K-O TABs (deltamethrin) to 70 000 pregnant women in 35 districts throughout Kenya around Africa Malaria Day. This intervention represented the single largest operational distribution of ITN services in Kenya to date, and this study evaluates its success, limitations and costs. The tracking process from the central level through to antenatal clinic (ANC) facilities suggests that of the 70 000 nets procured, 37 206 nets (53%) had been distributed to pregnant women throughout the country within 12 weeks. One-fifth of the nets procured (14 117) had gone out to individuals other than pregnant women, most of these at the request of the district teams, with only 2870 nets estimated to have gone astray at the ANC facilities. At 12 weeks, the remaining 18 677 nets were still in storage awaiting distribution, with more than two-thirds having reached the district, and nearly half already being held at ANC facilities. The cost of getting a net and K-O TAB to an ANC facility ready for distribution to a pregnant woman was US$ 3.81. Accounting for the 14 117 nets that had gone to other users, the cost for an ITN received by a pregnant woman was US$ 5.26. Delivering ITNs free to pregnant women through ANCs uses an existing system (with positive spin-offs of low delivery cost and simple logistics), is equitable (as it not only targets those who can afford it) and can have the added benefits of strengthening ANC service, delivery and use. PMID:12000650

  4. A Preventive Intervention for Pregnant Women on Public Assistance at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.; Pearlstein, Teri; Howard, Margaret; Sweeney, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Promising results were obtained in an earlier pilot study of a preventive intervention based on the principles of interpersonal psychotherapy to reduce the risk of postpartum major depressive disorder. In this study, the authors examined whether the intervention would reduce the risk of postpartum major depressive disorder in a larger sample of pregnant women. Method Ninety-nine pregnant women on public assistance who were assessed to be at risk for postpartum depression were randomly assigned to receive standard antenatal care plus the intervention or standard antenatal care only. Diagnostic interviews were administered 3 months after delivery to assess for major depressive disorder. Results Within 3 months after delivery, eight (20%) of the women in the standard antenatal care condition had developed postpartum major depressive disorder, compared with two (4%) in the intervention condition. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce the occurrence of major depressive disorder among financially disadvantaged women during a postpartum period of 3 months. PMID:16877662

  5. HLA-G5 and G7 Isoforms in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Abediankenari, Saeid; Farzad, Faramars; Rahmani, Zahra; Hashemi-Soteh, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G which is an immune tolerance effecter molecule has an important role in the maintenance of fetus during pregnancy. Abortion is one of the complications of pregnancy period.  In this research, we have studied levels of HLA-G 5, HLA-G7 isoforms in the abortion-threatened pregnant women in comparison with controls. In a case-control study, 101 abortion-threatened women and 101 healthy pregnant women (healthy controls) with age range 21-32 years were studied. Gene expression of HLA-5 and HLA-7 isoforms was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction after mRNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. The results indicated that HLA-G5 was significantly lower in abortion-threatened women in comparison with the control group whereas HLA-G7 was not significantly differentbetween the 2 groups. HLA-G is a vital molecule during pregnancy that can be a key factor in prevention of abortion. It is concluded that determination of HLA-G5 can be of value in pregnancy. PMID:25780888

  6. A rapid questionnaire assessment of environmental exposures to pregnant women in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Finkton, D; Purwar, M; Noble, J A; Pang, R; Burnham, O; Cheikh Ismail, L; Farhi, F; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Altman, D G; Ohuma, E O; Kennedy, S H; Bhutta, Z A; Villar, J

    2013-09-01

    Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women for such exposures and administered it in eight countries on a subsample (n = 987) of the FGLS participants. The FGLS is a study of fetal growth among healthy pregnant women living in relatively affluent areas, at low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and environmental exposures. We confirmed that most women were not exposed to major environmental hazards that could affect pregnancy outcomes according to the protocol's entry criteria. However, the instrument was able to identify some women that reported various environmental concerns in their homes such as peeling paint, high residential density (>1 person per room), presence of rodents or cockroaches (hence the use of pesticides), noise pollution and safety concerns. This screening tool was therefore useful for the purposes of the project and can be used to ascertain environmental exposures in studies in which the primary aim is not focused on environmental exposures. The instrument can be used to identify subpopulations for more in-depth assessment, (e.g. environmental and biological laboratory markers) to pinpoint areas requiring education, intervention or policy change. PMID:24028080

  7. Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

    2014-09-01

    Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS-IGF2-H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS-IGF2-H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS-IGF2-H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

  8. Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

    2014-01-01

    Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS – IGF2 – H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS – IGF2 – H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS – IGF2 – H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

  9. Dentists’ Perceptions of Barriers to Providing Dental Care to Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rosanna Shuk-Yin; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E.; Conrad, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to understand US dentists’ attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding dental care for pregnant women and to determine the impact of recent papers on oral health and pregnancy and guidelines disseminated widely. Methods In 2006–2007, the investigators conducted a mailed survey of all 1,604 general dentists in Oregon; 55.2% responded). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate associations between dentists’ attitudes toward providing care to pregnant women, dentists’ knowledge about the safety of dental procedures, and dentists’ current practice patterns. Results Dentist’s perceived barriers have the strongest direct effect on current practice and might be the most important factor deterring dentists from providing care to pregnant patients. Five attitudes (perceived barriers) were associated with providing less dental services: time, economic, skills, dental staff resistance, and peer pressure. The final model shows a good fit with a chi-square of 38.286 (p = .12, n=772, df = 52) and a Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit index of .98, CFI = .993. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation is .02. Conclusions Findings suggest attitudes are significant determinants of accurate knowledge and current practice. Multi-dimensional approaches are needed to increase access to dental care and protect the oral health of women during pregnancy. Despite current clinical recommendations to deliver all necessary care to pregnant patients during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, dentists’ knowledge of the appropriateness of procedures continues to lag the state of the art in dental science. PMID:20800772

  10. Association between Perfluorinated Compound Exposure and Miscarriage in Danish Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Nielsen, Flemming; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds. PMID:25848775

  11. Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanne Torjusen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Geir Lieblein; Hein Stigum; Gun Roos; Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire

  12. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

  13. Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria by Pregnant Women in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tobin-West, Charles I; Asuquo, Eme O

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to assess the level of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Rivers State, Nigeria, to identify obstacles prohibiting utilization in order to make recommendations for improved uptake and malaria control in general. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2008 among 339 pregnant women and those who had delivered children in the last 1 year, using a multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info version 6.04d statistical software package and hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. Results: Most of the respondents (76.4%) had knowledge that malaria was caused by mosquitoes and was harmful in pregnancy. Although majority of the pregnant women (80.8%) attended antenatal care clinics, knowledge of the correct use of SP was low (32.6%) and only 62.8% took malaria preventive treatment. Of these, 58.4% took SP, while nearly a third, 31.8%, took chloroquine. Only 16.4% took their SP at the health facility directly observed by health workers according to the national guidelines. The commonest reason for not preventing malaria was that they were not sick during the period of pregnancy. Conclusions: Misconceptions about IPTp persist among women known to have attended antenatal care clinics, resulting in only a minority of pregnant women receiving IPTp as recommended by national guidelines. Efforts directed at awareness creation on the new malaria prevention and treatment policy are therefore necessary to enhance the uptake of IPT in pregnancy in Rivers State. Further studies are however, needed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of health care workers on the new malaria treatment policy. PMID:23412963

  14. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  15. Lean on me: effects of social support on low socioeconomic-status pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Massey, Amber R

    2013-09-01

    This study identified how close relationships are related to low-income pregnant women's ability to cope and overall health. Previous research has shown that stress during pregnancy is related to long-term negative physical and psychological health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. Lower socioeconomic status has been related to higher morbidity and mortality across the lifespan. Women typically rely on close relationships for social support to help reduce stress. However, stress levels can be elevated when women engage in co-rumination. Co-rumination is defined as excessive problem discussion with negative-affect focus. Thirty-one low-income pregnant women from central Oklahoma, USA, reported their daily stressors, social support, communication habits with friends and family, and general health in a series of questionnaires at a prenatal visit. The results revealed that daily stressors, co-rumination with friends, and the relationship with the baby's father were related to physical pain and depressive symptoms. The results suggested that specific social support dynamics, such as co-rumination, during pregnancy have implications for the health of low-income mothers and their infants. PMID:23656532

  16. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ? 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

  17. Mandatory Testing of Pregnant Women and Newborns: HIV, Drug Use, and Welfare Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Chavkin; Deborah Elman; Paul H. Wise

    1997-01-01

    An emerging strand of thought portrays pregnant women with drug addiction and HIV infection as having a willful hostility towards their fetus. As a result, pregnant mothers with HIV or addictions are confronted with decreased funding for services and increased sanctions for positive toxicology tests. The rhetoric of blame towards “deviant” mothers has escalated to embrace poor mothers in general.

  18. Phthalates Biomarker Identification and Exposure Estimates in a Population of Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyong Yan; Antonia Calafat; Susan Lashley; John Smulian; Cande Ananth; Dana Barr; Manori Silva; Thomas Ledoux; Paromita Hore; Mark G. Robson

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates are known reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. However, in humans, there are few data on the exposure of pregnant women that can be used to assess the potential developmental exposure experienced by the fetus. We measured several phthalate metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, and cord serum samples collected at the time of delivery from 150 pregnant

  19. Inadequacy of nutrients intake among pregnant women in the Deep South of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors. PMID:20863408

  20. Use of diagnostic imaging procedures and fetal monitoring devices in the care of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Moore, R M; Jeng, L L; Kaczmarek, R G; Placek, P J

    1990-01-01

    Medical devices and diagnostic imaging procedures such as ultrasound, X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices are used in the medical care of many pregnant women today. The responsibility for the safety and effectiveness of these diagnostic technologies is shared by a number of Public Health Service agencies, one of which is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), a unit within the Food and Drug Administration. The CDRH collaborated with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in conducting a study of recent trends in the uses of diagnostic ultrasound, medical X-rays, and electronic fetal monitoring devices in the medical care of pregnant women. This study used data from the 1980 National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys and the 1987 pretest to the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Hospitals and prenatal care providers of the pregnant women contributed information regarding the use of these medical devices. Between 1980 and 1987, ultrasound use more than doubled, increasing from 33.5 percent of pregnancies in 1980 to 78.8 percent in 1987 (P less than 0.001). More ultrasound examinations were performed earlier in gestation in 1987 than in 1980, with 10.1 percent being performed during the first trimester in 1987, compared with 6.9 percent in 1980 (P less than 0.001). Use of external electronic fetal monitoring devices during delivery also increased significantly between 1980 and 1987, from 33.5 percent to 74.6 percent (P less than 0.001). Use of medical X-rays among women with live births remained relatively unchanged, 15.0 percent in 1980 and 15.3 percent in 1987 (P = .282). The implications of these trends are discussed. PMID:2120723

  1. The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

  2. [Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

  3. French Experience of 2009 A/H1N1v Influenza in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dubar, Grégory; Azria, Elie; Tesnière, Antoine; Dupont, Hervé; Le Ray, Camille; Baugnon, Thomas; Matheron, Sophie; Luton, Dominique; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Launay, Odile; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Background The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. Methodology/Principal Findings A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes), 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes), and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes). The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%), notably the severe patients (70%), were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28%) were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–11.8) and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days) (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9–12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4–261.3, respectively). Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14%) were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. Conclusions This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the benefit of early oseltamivir treatment in this specific population. PMID:20957195

  4. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  5. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  6. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  7. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  8. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  9. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  10. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  11. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  12. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  13. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  14. Reenvisioning success for programs supporting pregnant women with problematic substance use.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; MacKinnon, Karen; Benoit, Cecilia; Phillips, Rachel; Stengel, Camille

    2015-04-01

    Community-based, integrated, primary care maternity programs for pregnant women affected by problematic substance use are emerging as effective models for engaging women affected by multiple health and social issues. Although addictions services have historically been evaluated by individual achievement of abstinence, new definitions of program success are required as addiction comes to be viewed as a chronic illness. We conducted a mixed-methods study to follow the formative development stages of a community-based program, identifying key evaluation indicators and processes related to this program, program team members, and women and families served. As this program model develops, it is critical that providers, community partners, and health system leaders collaborate to frame definitions of success in ways helpful for guiding program development. PMID:25258337

  15. Pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes to prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: Croatian multicentric survey.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Vesna; Zec, Ivana; Tislari?-Medenjak, Dubravka; Kuna, Krunoslav; Simundi?, Ana Maria; Lajtman-Krizai?, Marta; Lovri?, Boris; Mimica, Marko; Estatiev, Zrinka Komadina; Borgudan, Vesna

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess opinion and preferences of Croatian pregnant women regarding the prenatal screening tests for trisomies. The study was conducted in Zagreb, Split, Cakovec, Nova Gradiska, Gospi? and Zlatar. It was organized in the public primary healthcare centers, among the pregnant volunteers during their first visit to an antenatal clinic (7-12 weeks pregnant). The respondents filled anonymous questionnaire reflecting their knowledge and attitudes to the screening options. In total, 437 completed questionnaires were selected. The average maternal age and the level of education differed significantly between the respondents in the respective cities (P < 0.001). Of the respondents with positive attitude towards screening, the majority would prefer the first-trimester combined test (160/219; 73.1%), while 37/219 (16.9%) opted for the second-trimester biochemical screening. The remaining 22/219 (10.0%) would accept only the ultrasound screening. Among the 224 respondents, who would accept the combined first-trimester test, 95 (42.4%) held a college and university degree, whereas among 59 women, who would choose the second-trimester biochemical screening, 14 were highly educated (23.7%). The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). The univariate regression analysis showed that age, level of education and previous information were significant variables predictive for the choice of the test; the level of education and previous knowledge remained significant in the multivariate model. The survey has revealed some of the points that should be improved in the future concept of screening program in Croatia. Health professionals should persist to mend women's knowledge about prenatal screening, taking into consideration women's preferences as well. PMID:23940994

  16. Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women at Booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatunbosun, Olujimi A.; Abasiattai, Aniekan M.; Bassey, Emem A.; James, Robert S.; Morgan, Anyiekere

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR = 0.4; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), HIV positive status (OR = 0.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.1–0.6), and low social class (OR = 0.3; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.2–0.7). Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted. PMID:24982910

  17. Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, and E in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Mehta; D Spiegelman; S Aboud; E L Giovannucci; G I Msamanga; E Hertzmark; F M Mugusi; D J Hunter; W W Fawzi

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings.Subjects\\/Methods:This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin

  18. [Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, D V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns. PMID:25282805

  19. Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05). PMID:24899898

  20. Guided Imagery for Stress and Symptom Management in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, R. Jeanne; Elswick, R. K.; French, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI) intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC) completed measures and donated 5?cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women. PMID:24719646

  1. Guided imagery for stress and symptom management in pregnant african american women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Elswick, R K; French, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI) intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC) completed measures and donated 5?cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women. PMID:24719646

  2. Supporting pregnant women to quit smoking: postal survey of New Zealand general practitioners and midwives' smoking cessation knowledge and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marewa Glover; Janine Paynter; Chris Bullen; Kay Kristensen

    Aim This study examined New Zealand general practitioners' (GPs) and midwives' smoking cessation knowledge and support offered to pregnant women who smoke. Method Postal survey of a random sample of 776 New Zealand GPs and midwives, undertaken between September and October 2006. Results Responses were received from 39% (147\\/376) GPs and 57% (203\\/355) midwives. Almost all GPs indicated that they

  3. A Micronutrient-Fortified Beverage Prevents Iron Deficiency, Reduces Anemia and Improves the Hemoglobin Concentration of Pregnant Tanzanian Women1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diklar Makola; Deborah M. Ash; Simon R. Tatala; Michael C. Latham; Godwin Ndossi; Haile Mehansho

    Maternal malnutrition continues to be a major contributor to adverse reproductive outcomes in developing countries, despite longstanding efforts to fortify foods or to distribute medicinal supplements to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage containing 11 micronutrients (iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6

  4. Gene expression analysis in pregnant women and their infants identifies unique fetal biomarkers that circulate in maternal blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of fetal mRNA transcripts in the maternal circulation holds great promise for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. To identify potential fetal biomarkers, we studied whole blood and plasma gene transcripts that were common to 9 term pregnant women and their newborns but absent or reduced in...

  5. DNA Hybridization Test: Rapid Diagnostic Tool for Excluding Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women with Symptoms Suggestive of Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Witt; Ljubomir Petricevic; Ulrike Kaufmann; Hubertus Gregor; Herbert Kiss

    2002-01-01

    This prospective comparative study evaluated a DNA hybridization test (Affirm VPIII) as an alternative to Gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. We examined vaginal smears from 1,725 pregnant women between the 12th and 36th weeks of gestation with clinical signs of vaginal infection. The DNA hybridization test compared well with Gram stain and can be used as a

  6. Altered Response to A(H1N1)pnd09 Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman; Stokholm, Jakob; Pedersen, Louise; Holmberg, Maria; Bisgaard, Amalie; Birch, Sune; Tsai, Theodore F.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®) in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims were to compare influences of dose and adjuvant on the immune response. Methods The study was nested in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort in 2009-2010 and conducted as a single-blinded block-randomised [1?1?1] controlled clinical trial in pregnant women after gestational week 20: (1) 7.5 µg H1N1pnd09 antigen with MF59-adjuvant (Pa7.5 µg); (2) 3.75 µg antigen half MF59-adjuvanted (Pa3.75 µg); (3) 15 µg antigen unadjuvanted (P15 µg); and in non-pregnant women receiving (4) 7.5 µg antigen full adjuvanted (NPa7.5 µg). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. Results 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) compared with pregnant (Pa7.5 µg) women (OR?=?2.48 [1.03–5.95], p?=?0.04) and geometric mean titers trended towards being higher, but this difference was not statistically significant (ratio 1.27 [0.85–1.93], p?=?0.23). The significant titer increase rate showed no difference between pregnant (Pa7.5 µg) and non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR?=?0.49 [0.13–1.85], p?=?0.29). Conclusion Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557. PMID:23637733

  7. Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Monoarul; Kamal, Farah; Chowdhury, Shahanaz; Uzzaman, Monir; Aziz, Itrat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain. Conclusion: The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings. PMID:25628721

  8. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Cuiping; Tian, Huiguang; Zhang, Fuxia; Zhang, Shuang; Dong, Ling; Li, Lili; Yu, Zhijie; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Hu, Gang; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared the increases in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and its risk factors in Tianjin, China, over a 12-year period. We also examined the changes in the prevalence using the criteria of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods In 2010-2012, 18589 women who registered within 12 weeks of gestation underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. Amongst them, 2953 women with 1-hour plasma glucose ?7.8 mmol/L underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 781 women had a positive GCT but absented from the standard OGTT. An adjusted prevalence of GDM was calculated for the whole cohort of women by including an estimate of the proportion of women with positive GCTs who did not have OGTTs but would have been expected to have GDM. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using the IADPSG criteria. The prevalence of GDM risk factors was compared to the 1999 survey. Results The adjusted prevalence of GDM by the 1999 WHO criteria was 8.1%, a 3.5-fold increase as in 1999. Using the IADPSG criteria increased the adjusted prevalence further to 9.3%. Advanced age, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index, Han-nationality, higher systolic blood pressure (BP), a family history of diabetes, weight gain during pregnancy and habitual smoking were risk factors for GDM. Compared to the 1999 survey, the prevalence of overweight plus obesity had increased by 1.8 folds, age?30 years by 2.3 folds, systolic BP by 2.3 mmHg over the 12-year period. Conclusions Increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and older age at pregnancy were accompanied by increasing prevalence of GDM, further increased by change in diagnostic criteria. PMID:25799433

  9. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--United States, 2013-14 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Black, Carla L; Ball, Sarah; Donahue, Sara; Izrael, David; Williams, Walter W; Kennedy, Erin D; Bridges, Carolyn B; Lu, Peng-Jun; Kahn, Katherine E; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Sokolowski, John; DiSogra, Charles; Walker, Deborah K; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-09-19

    Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization. Influenza vaccination among pregnant women can reduce their risk for respiratory illness and reduce the risk for influenza in their infants aged <6 months. Since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of trimester. To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2013-14 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted March 31-April 11, 2014. Among 1,619 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2013-January 2014, 52.2% reported vaccination before or during pregnancy (17.6% before and 34.6% during pregnancy), similar to the coverage in the preceding season. Overall, 65.1% of women reported receiving a clinician recommendation and offer of influenza vaccination, 15.1% received a clinician recommendation but no offer of vaccination, and 19.8% received no clinician recommendation or offer. Vaccination coverage among these women was 70.5%, 32.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. Continued efforts are needed to encourage clinicians to strongly recommend and offer influenza vaccination to their pregnant patients. PMID:25233283

  10. Posture and muscle activity of pregnant women during computer work and effect of an ergonomic desk board attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geneviève A. Dumas; Tegan R. Upjohn; Alain Delisle; Karine Charpentier; Andrew Leger; André Plamondon; Erik Salazar; Michael J. McGrath

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to compare posture and muscle activity in the back and upper extremity of women in late pregnancy and non-pregnant controls, (b) to evaluate the effect of a concave “desk board” on the back and upper extremity of women in late pregnancy.All participants completed a standard 20-min computer task under two conditions: (1) using

  11. Exploring the adequacy of smoking cessation support for pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, programming and practice; how geographical and sociocultural factors influence provision and uptake of support; and how barriers and challenges can be addressed through a comprehensive approach. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key informants (31) and pregnant or postpartum women (29) were conducted to examine the cessation needs of this subpopulation, barriers to the provision and uptake of cessation support and directions for policy, service provision and programming. Results Key barriers included: the absence of a provincial cessation strategy and funding, capacity and engagement/accessibility issues. Geographical features presented additional challenges to provision/uptake, as did the absence of resources tailored to Aboriginal women and adolescents. Key informants recommended a comprehensive cessation strategy to facilitate coordination of cessation resources provincially and locally and elucidated the need for capacity building within tobacco control and within reproductive, child and maternal health. Participants also highlighted the need to further develop tobacco control policies and target the social determinants of health through poverty reduction, housing and education support. The provision of incentives, transportation, childcare and meals/snacks; adoption of woman-centred, harm-reduction and stigma reduction approaches; and promotion of programs through a variety of local venues were recommended by participants to address engagement and accessibility issues. Conclusions The current cessation system in Ontario is not equipped to adequately reduce smoking among pregnant and postpartum women. A comprehensive, multi-sector strategy designed to provide tailored and sustainable support through different system entry points is needed. A cultural shift in practice is also necessary to eliminate mixed messaging, strengthen practice and encourage open channels of communication about smoking between women and their providers. The study highlights the need to address smoking among women in a more holistic manner and for capacity building strategies that focus on strengthening providers’ competency and confidence in practice. Future research should explore: capacity building strategies, especially among rural and remote communities; the smoking and cessation experiences of different subpopulations of pregnant and postpartum women; the effectiveness of tailored strategies; and interventions that address smoking among partners and other family members. PMID:23672201

  12. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yassaee, Fakhrolmolouk; Farahani, Masoumeh; Abadi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical/ overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl) the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1%) and 16 (10.9%) women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:25083181

  13. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

  14. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Letícia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size. PMID:19081829

  15. Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially explain the higher rate of prematurity and low birthweight among black women. PMID:19004502

  16. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and six months after childbirth (follow-up). The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable), individual social capital (social support and social networks), demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction) [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90)] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99)] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown ethnicity, more children, urinary infection and water plumbing outside the house. Conclusions Low individual social capital during pregnancy, considered here as social support and social network, was independently associated with poor SRH in women whereas neighbourhood social capital did not affect women’s SRH during pregnancy and the months thereafter. From pregnancy and up to six months postpartum, the effect of individual social capital explained better the consistency of SRH over time than neighbourhood social capital. PMID:23324161

  17. Pregnant women's knowledge about mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection through breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Maputle, M S; Jali, M N

    2008-03-01

    The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004: 10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000: 2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000: 13; Department of Health, 2000:3). Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HIV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to determine pregnant women's knowledge about MTCT of HIV/AIDS infection through breastfeeding. Findings of the study will be used to update the existing health education programmes in the field of Maternal and Child Health. The design was a descriptive research survey. The population consisted of 100 pregnant women. Convenience sampling was used to select mothers during antenatal visits at a particular clinic at Polokwane municipality. Self-constructed questionnaires were translated into Northern Sotho and distributed to the women. Data analysis used descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed a high level of awareness of HIV and AIDS and a low level of knowledge about MTCT of HIV and AIDS infection through breastfeeding. Based on the conclusions, a revised health education programme was proposed for the Maternal and Child Health field. PMID:18592948

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ades, A E; Peckham, C S; Dale, G E; Best, J M; Jeansson, S

    1989-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. We have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. Sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics and tested for total antibodies to herpes simples virus (HSV), and if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2. Estimates of HSV-1 seroprevalence were derived from the HSV-2 seronegative population. HSV-1 seroprevalence was nearly 100% in black women born in Africa or the Caribbean and 60-80% in white, Asian and UK born black women. It was lower in women in non-manual employment. HSV-2 seroprevalence was related to age, rising from 0 at age 16 to 40% at age 35 in black women, and to about 10% in Asian and white women. The estimated incidence of primary HSV-2 infection during pregnancy, per 1000 pregnancies, was about 2.4 in Asian women, 5 in white women, and 20 in black women. Estimates of the incidence of neonatal infection were derived from these figures and compared to the nationally reported rates. PMID:2556492

  19. The epidemiology and burden of Plasmodium falciparum-related anemia among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Guyatt, H L; Snow, R W

    2001-01-01

    The paucity of precise information on the burden of malaria among pregnant women has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of preventative strategies against malaria in Safe Motherhood Initiatives. This article reviews the evidence on the coincidental risks of malaria and anemia in Africa and attempts to estimate the probable burden of malaria-related severe anemia in this susceptible group. Twenty-six studies on hemoglobin levels in all-parity pregnant women throughout this region could be matched with a malaria parasite ratio in children < 15 yr old (a measure of the intensity of transmission). In areas with no malaria, the mean hemoglobin levels were markedly higher than those found in areas with stable malaria transmission, though changes with increasing intensity of transmission were unclear. Eighteen studies from areas with stable malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa suggested that the median prevalence of severe anemia in all-parity pregnant women is approximately 8.2%. Assuming that 26% of these cases are due to malaria, it is suggested that as many as 400,000 pregnant women may have developed severe anemia as a result of infection with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa in 1995. PMID:11425176

  20. Toxoplasmosis-Serological Evidence and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ling, Lau Yee; Chandeying, Verapol

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite in pregnant women. This case-controlled study assessed the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 640 pregnant women in southern Thailand and identified their associated risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 181 (28.3%). Of this, 138 (21.6%) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, 43 (6.7%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies, and none were positive for IgM antibody. Multivariate analysis revealed that increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.67), living outside Songkhla province (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08–2.24), parity (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.01–2.68), contact with cats (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20–2.43), and drinking of unclean water (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.08–2.68) were factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence. On the basis of the results obtained, a health surveillance program should be initiated as a primary preventive measure for congenital toxoplasmosis and focus on educating women of the child-bearing age group to avoid contact with cats and to strictly practice personal hygiene. PMID:21813842

  1. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovi?, D; Bobi?, B; Jankovska, G; Klun, I; Panovski, N; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia. Retrospective analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 235 pregnant women from Macedonia, tested for Toxoplasma infection between January 2004 and December 2005, showed an overall prevalence of infection of 20.4%. Exposure to transmission factors significantly increased the risk of infection (RR = 1.989, 95 % CI = 1.041-3.800, p = 0.037). The single infection transmission factor that was a predictor of infection in the whole series was exposure to soil (RR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.026-3.692, p = 0.041). Based on prevalence and the established risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Macedonia, the health education programme as a sustainable measure for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis should focus on educating women of generative age to avoid contact with soil (farming, gardening), and/to adhere to strict hygienic practices afterwards. PMID:21073139

  2. Serum DDT and DDE Levels in Pregnant Women of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    KOEPKE, RUTH; WARNER, MARCELLA; PETREAS, MYRTO; CABRIA, ANGELES; DANIS, ROGELIO; HERNANDEZ-AVILA, MAURICIO; ESKENAZI, BRENDA

    2007-01-01

    The authors measured the main ingredients of technical DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl [p,p?-DDT]) and its principal metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene [p,p?-DDE]) in serum collected from 52 pregnant women in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico in 1998. The median lipid-adjusted serum levels for the women were 676 ng/g p,p?-DDT (range: 56–23,169 ng/g) and 4,843 ng/g p,p?-DDE (range: 113–41,964 ng/g). In regression analysis, serum DDT and DDE increased with age (test for trend, p = .022) but decreased with total lactation (test for trend, p < .001). Residence in a house that had ever been sprayed for malaria control was also related to serum DDT and DDE. This study provides evidence of high-level exposure to DDT and DDE among pregnant women living in Chiapas, Mexico, despite countrywide restrictions on its use at the time. PMID:16599003

  3. Understanding pregnant women's attitudes and behavior toward influenza and pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Kerrie E; Cooper, Spring C; Wood, Nicholas; Leask, Julie

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, pregnant and postpartum women have been the focus of influenza and pertussis immunization campaigns, with differing levels of vaccine acceptance. We used semistructured interviews to explore pregnant women's perspectives on influenza vaccination during pregnancy and postpartum pertussis vaccination. Many women saw pregnancy as a busy time filled with advice on what they "should" and "should not" do to ensure the health of their fetus, and vaccinating themselves was regarded as just one of these tasks needing consideration. Women were more concerned about potential risks to their infants' health before their own. They saw influenza as a disease affecting the mother, whereas they viewed pertussis as a threat to the baby and therefore comparatively more risky. They were thus more likely to intend to vaccinate against pertussis to protect their infant. Framing of vaccination information toward protection of the baby might help increase vaccine uptake among pregnant women. PMID:25246330

  4. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

  5. Diet and Carbohydrate Food Knowledge of Multi-Ethnic Women: A Comparative Analysis of Pregnant Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Habiba I.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; El Sadig, Mohamed; B. Yeatts, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet therapy is the cornerstone for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Carbohydrate is the primary nutrient affecting postprandial blood glucose levels. Hence, knowledge of food containing carbohydrates can assist women with GDM optimize glycemic control. Despite that, there is a paucity of research on carbohydrate-related knowledge of women with GDM. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes (19.2%) in the world. This study compared diet and knowledge of carbohydrate-containing foods among pregnant women with and without GDM in the UAE. Methods The sample consisted of multi-ethnic women with GDM (n?=?94) and a control group of healthy pregnant women (n?=?90) attending prenatal clinics in three hospitals in Al Ain, UAE. Data were collected using a questionnaire and a 24-hour recall. Knowledge of food sources of carbohydrate, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared. Results There were no significant differences in the mean knowledge score of food sources of carbohydrate between women with GDM and that of pregnant women without GDM. Similarly, there were no significant differences in energy and nutrient intakes between the two groups with the exception of percent energy from protein. Women with GDM reported significantly lower intake of fruits and fruit juices (P?=?0.012) and higher consumption of milk and yogurt (P?=?0.004) compared to that of women without GDM. Twenty-two percent of women with GDM indicated they never visited a dietitian for counseling while 65% reported they visited a dietitian only once or twice during the pregnancy. Predictors of carbohydrate knowledge score were perceived knowledge of diet and GDM and parity among women with GDM and parity and educational level among those without GDM. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the urgent need to provide nutrition education for women with GDM in the UAE. PMID:24069200

  6. A quasi-experimental outcomes analysis of a psychoeducation intervention for pregnant women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather; Sperlich, Mickey; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a trauma-specific psycho-educational intervention for pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment on six intrapartum and postpartum psychological outcomes. Design Quasi-experimental study comparing women from a single-group pretest-posttest pilot intervention study with women matched from a prospective observational study. Setting Rural and university-based prenatal clinics. Participants Pregnant women entered the study by responding to an advertisement or by referral from a maternity care provider. Women could take part whether or not they met posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria. Outcomes data exist for 17 pilot intervention study participants and 43 matched observational study participants. Interventions Participants in the observational study received usual care. Participants in the pilot intervention study received usual care plus the intervention, a fully manualized self-study program supported by weekly phone tutoring sessions with a health professional. Main Outcome Measures The National Women’s Study PTSD Module; The Peritraumatic Dissociation Experience Questionnaire); The Perception of Care Questionnaire; The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale; The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire; and a semantic differential appraisal of the labor experience. Results Participants in the intervention study had better scores on all measures. Differences in means between participants in the intervention study and participants in the observational study equated to medium effect sized for dissociation during labor, rating of labor experience, and perception of care in labor, and small effect sizes for postpartum PTSD symptoms, postpartum depression symptoms, and mother-infant bonding. Conclusion This trauma-specific intervention reaches and benefits pregnant women with a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:24754455

  7. Pregnant Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Smith, Megan V.; Forray, Ariadna; Epperson, C. Neill; Costello, Darce; Lin, Haiqun; Belanger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in about 8% of pregnant women. Stressful conditions, including PTSD, are inconsistently linked to preterm birth. Psychotropic treatment has been frequently associated with preterm birth. Identifying whether the psychiatric illness or its treatment is independently associated with preterm birth may help clinicians and patients when making management decisions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a likely diagnosis of PTSD or antidepressant and benzodiazepine treatment during pregnancy is associated with risk of preterm birth. We hypothesized that pregnant women who likely had PTSD and women receiving antidepressant or anxiolytic treatment would be more likely to experience preterm birth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of 2654 women who were recruited before 17 completed weeks of pregnancy from 137 obstetrical practices in Connecticut and Western Massachusetts. EXPOSURES Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, and use of antidepressant and benzodiazepine medications. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Preterm birth, operationalized as delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Likely psychiatric diagnoses were generated through administration of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Data on medication use were gathered at each participant interview. RESULTS Recursive partitioning analysis showed elevated rates of preterm birth among women with PTSD. A further split of the PTSD node showed high rates for women who met criteria for a major depressive episode, which suggests an interaction between these 2 exposures. Logistic regression analysis confirmed risk for women who likely had both conditions (odds ratio [OR], 4.08 [95% CI, 1.27–13.15]). For each point increase on the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale (range, 0–110), the risk of preterm birth increased by 1% to 2%. The odds of preterm birth are high for women who used a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02–2.36]) and women who used a benzodiazepine medication (OR, 1.99 [95% CI, 0.98–4.03]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Women with likely diagnoses of both PTSD and a major depressive episode are at a 4-fold increased risk of preterm birth; this risk is greater than, and independent of, antidepressant and benzodiazepine use and is not simply a function of mood or anxiety symptoms. PMID:24920287

  8. Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline) and 36-37 (end of intervention). The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org PMID:20932282

  9. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. Results: The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely. PMID:25386490

  10. Serological screening and toxoplasmosis exposure factors among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Ching; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Su, Kua-Eyre; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Gil, Vilfrido; da Conceicao dos Reis Ferreira, Maria; de Carvalho, Jose Manuel; Cruz, Claudina; Lin, Yu-Kuan; Tseng, Lian-Fen; Sao, Ke-Yun; Chang, Wen-Cheun; Lan, Hung-Shue; Chou, Shing-Hsien

    2007-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) from November 2003 to March 2004 was determined by detection of serum anti-T. gondii antibodies. A short questionnaire interview for pregnant women was performed to investigate risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, including consumption of raw meat or unwashed vegetables, drinking unboiled water and keeping pets (cats and dogs). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was high (75.2%; 375/499). The older age group of > or =35 years had a significantly higher seroprevalence (85.7%; 54/63) than that of the younger age group of 15-25 years (70.4%; 178/253) (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4; P=0.01). No significant difference in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found between the pregnant women with and without exposure to the risk factors studied. However, among pregnant women with high antibody titers of > or =1:1024, it seemed likely that continual contact with pets and consumption of oocyst-contaminated water or raw unwashed vegetables rather than tissue cysts in meat was the primary route of infection. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in unborn babies should be intensively monitored in the DRSTP. PMID:17113117

  11. Family support and mental health in pregnant women experiencing interpersonal partner violence: an analysis of ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shallimar M; Bogat, G Anne; Davidson, William S; von Eye, Alexander; Levendosky, Alytia

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family support and mental health in a community sample of pregnant women experiencing interpersonal partner violence (IPV). This study also examined how family support may differentially affect mental health in Black and White women experiencing IPV. A total of 110 participants (32 Black and 78 White) were obtained from the first time period of a longitudinal study examining the effects of domestic violence on women. The model was supported (chi2 = 142.55; df = 72, p > .001, RMSEA = .07). Black women had better mental health than White women. However, ethnicity was not a significant predictor of family support. Implications from this study highlight the need for further research on the role of family support in the lives of physically abused women as well as the need to incorporate cross cultural perspectives when examining this issue. PMID:16134047

  12. Fluctuation in the Levels of Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies for Cardiolipin and ?2-Glycoprotein among Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Balushi, Mohammed S.; Hasson, Sidgi S.; Said, Elias A.; Al-Busaidi, Juma Z.; Al-Daihani, Muna S.; Othman, Mohammed S.; Sallam, Talal A.; Idris, Mohammed A.; Al-Kalbani, Moza; Woodhouse, Nicholas; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Antiphospholipid antibodies fluctuate during a healthy normal pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the levels of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for cardiolipin and ?2-glycoprotein (?2GP) among healthy pregnant women. Methods: This study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2012. A total of 75 healthy Omani pregnant women with no history of autoimmune disease were investigated during their pregnancy and 90 days after delivery at the Armed Forces Hospital in Muscat, Oman. A control group of 75 healthy Omani non-pregnant women were also investigated as a comparison. Levels of IgM and IgG antibodies for both anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) and ?2GP were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ACA IgM levels were significantly higher in the control group compared to the pregnant women (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed in the ACA IgM levels between the control group and the pregnant women after delivery. In contrast, ACA IgG levels were significantly higher during pregnancy and after delivery compared with those of the healthy control group (P = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). The levels of ?2GP IgG were significantly higher during pregnancy than after delivery and in the control group (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In this study, ACA IgG levels increased during healthy pregnancies and after normal deliveries whereas ?2GP IgG levels increased transiently during the pregnancies. Both phenomena were found to be significantly associated with a transient decline in the levels of IgM specific for these antigens. Therefore, the levels of these antibodies may be regulated during a healthy pregnancy. PMID:25364550

  13. Association of oral iron supplementation with birth outcomes in non-anaemic South Indian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shastri, L; Mishra, P E; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Duggan, C; Bosch, R; McDonald, C M; Thomas, A; Kurpad, A V

    2014-11-19

    Background/Objectives:Iron in high doses or when given to non-anaemic women may have adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to estimate the supplemental iron intake in non-anaemic pregnant women attending an urban antenatal care setting in South India and examine the association of supplemental iron intake with birth outcomes.Subjects/Methods:A cohort of 1196 non-anaemic pregnant women was studied. Daily supplemental iron intake was calculated as total supplemental iron consumed (mg) during pregnancy divided by the total number of days the supplement was recommended. Association of tertiles of supplemental iron intake with term low birth weight (tLBW), preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) was examined using log-binomial regression, adjusting for maternal age, height, body mass index at recruitment, parity, education and type of delivery.Results:Mean haemoglobin in trimester 1 was 12.4±0.9?g/dl and mean supplemental iron intake was 37.7±4.0?mg/day. Women in the highest tertile (>39.2?mg/day) of supplemental iron intake had an increased risk of tLBW as compared with the lowest tertile (?36.6?mg/day) (adjusted risk ratio: 1.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.83). Although supplemental iron intake was negatively correlated with gestational age (r=-0.20, P<0.001) and birth weight (r=-0.07, P=0.011), there was no association between preterm delivery or SGA and supplemental iron intake.Conclusions:It appears that iron supplementation in non-anaemic pregnant women may not be beneficial, as we have observed the adverse effects with a prescribed dose of 45?mg/day. This may warrant the consideration of an individualized approach for antenatal iron supplementation, especially in non-anaemic women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.248. PMID:25406965

  14. Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Yaoundé

    PubMed Central

    Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-CIrènecile; Yakana, Irène Emah; Monebenimp, Franscisca; Chaby, Guillaume; Akondeng, Linda; Angwafor, Samuel A; Lok, Catherine; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Muna, Walinjom F.T

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is a major public health problem in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge of pregnant women on HIV transmission and prevention, particularly the four pillars of mother-to-child transmission. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 2008 to January 2009 at the Yaoundé Gynaecology-Obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital. All women presenting at the Ante-Natal Care (ANC) Clinic for the first time were included in the study after obtaining a verbal informed consent. Results: The ages of the 260 women included in the study ranged from 15 to 42 years. Almost 99% (257/260) of the women interviewed had heard about HIV. Respectively, 80.5% (209/260), 89.3% (232/260) and 81.2% (211/260) of the women cited pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding as risk periods for HIV transmission from mother to child. Use of the male condom, the female condom, abstinence, and faithfulness to a single partner were considered as effective methods of HIV prevention by 73% (190/260), 76% (198/260), 88% (229/260) and 46% (120/260) of respondents respectively. About 79% (64/81) of participants with higher education considered HIV infection to be contagious as opposed to 45.5% (5/11) of women with no formal education (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Our data suggest that women have some good knowledge on the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Nevertheless, improving the formal educational level of these women may contribute to a further reduction of HIV transmission. PMID:21643423

  15. A National Survey to Determine Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Among Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Costales, Jaime A; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A; Jacobson, Jerry O; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-04-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0-0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0-0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador. PMID:25667052

  16. Responses of serum neurotrophic factors to exercise in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sandra Rojas; Kleinert, Jens; Sulprizio, Marion; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strüder, Heiko K

    2011-02-01

    It was recently shown in humans that exercise affects the neurotrophic factors known to function as neurogenesis regulators. No data related to exercise and pregnancy, however, is yet available. Thus, we investigated the effects of acute exercise on pregnant women during late pregnancy and women postpartum, on the serum concentration of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (COR). Twenty women with uncomplicated pregnancies underwent a graded submaximal exercise test during pregnancy (weeks 32-36 of gestation; T(1)) and postpartum (10-12 weeks after childbirth; T(2)). On two of these test days the women carried out an intensifying exercise test (25 W steps) on a cycle ergometer until a heart rate of 150 bpm was reached. Blood samples were taken in the rest period before beginning the exercise, immediately at the end of the exercise and after recovery periods of 5 and 10 min, respectively. Basal maternal IGF-1, PRL and COR were found to be higher during T(1) (p<.01), while the BDNF was higher during T(2) (p=.00). VEGF was not detectable in the serum of the pregnant women. During T(2), VEGF, which was found to be within the normal range before exercise, was at a higher level after exercise (p<.01). Exercise increased the BDNF and IGF-1 during T(1) and T(2) (p<.01). This study also shows that exercise increases the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and BDNF during pregnancy and postpartum as well as VEGF postpartum. Thus, exercise might be a beneficial lifestyle factor with therapeutic/public health implications i.e. with regard to maternal mood and cognitive performance. PMID:20692101

  17. Tap water use amongst pregnant women in a multi-ethnic cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of disinfection by-products in drinking water and measures of adverse fetal growth have often been limited by exposure assessment lacking data on individual water use, and therefore failing to reflect individual variation in DBP exposure. Methods Pregnant women recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study completed a questionnaire which covers water exposure. Information was collected on water consumption, showering, bathing and swimming. Water exposure data from a subset of 39 women of the cohort are described here. Results Mean total tap water intake was 1.8 l/day, and women on average spent 146 minutes per week showering and bathing. Most tap water intake occurred at home (100% for unemployed, 71.8% for employed). Differences between age groups were observed for total tap water intake overall (p = 0.02) and at home (p = 0.01), and for bottled water intake (p = 0.05). There were differences between ethnic groups for tap water intake at home (p = 0.02) and total tap water intake at work (p = 0.02). Total tap water intake at work differed by income category (p = 0.001). Duration per shower was inversely correlated with age (Spearman's correlation -0.39, p = 0.02), and differed according to employment status (p = 0.04), ethnicity (p = 0.02) and income (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study provides estimates of water exposure in pregnant women in a multi-ethnic population in the north of England and suggests differences related to age, employment, income and ethnicity. The findings are valuable to inform exposure assessment in studies assessing the relationship between DBPs and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20102592

  18. Effects of glucose and insulin on acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin in pregnant women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William; Liu, Jianhua; Gaylinn, Bruce; Thorner, Michael O; Meneilly, Graydon S; Babich, Sandra L; Thompson, David; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the regulation of ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin by insulin and glucose during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in women with diabetes. We studied 9 pregnant women with diabetes. All women were treated with insulin and omitted the morning dose on the day of the test. After collection of baseline fasting samples, we performed 3 successive glucose clamps: 2 euglycemic clamps (glucose, 5 mmol/L; insulin infusion at 20 and 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)) and 1 hyperglycemic clamp (glucose, 10 mmol/L; insulin infusion at 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)). We determined concentrations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin (using a double-antibody sandwich assay that recognizes the full-length molecule), leptin, and adiponectin. Fasting desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased, whereas insulin and leptin concentrations increased, between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (P < or = .011). During the clamp studies, desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased by 33% (second trimester, P = .004) and 27% (third trimester, P = .09) with increasing glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas acyl ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations were unaffected. Glucose and insulin regulate desacyl ghrelin concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes. Impaired desacyl ghrelin regulation may affect energy metabolism in pregnant women with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:20005544

  19. Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

  20. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O G Brooke; I R Brown; C D Bone; N D Carter; H J Cleeve; J D Maxwell; V P Robinson; S M Winder

    1980-01-01

    In a double-blind trial of vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women calciferol (ergocalciferol, 1000 IU\\/day) was administered to 59 women and placebo to 67 controls during the last trimester. The two groups had similar distributions of maternal age, height, parity, number of vegetarians, countries of origin, and sex and gestation of the infants. At entry to the trial maternal

  1. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  2. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  3. Dietary and reproductive determinants of plasma organochlorine levels in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula N Sarcinelli; Ana Cristina S Pereira; Sueli A Mesquita; Jefferson J Oliveira-Silva; Armando Meyer; Marco A. C Menezes; Sérgio R Alves; Rita C. O. C Mattos; Josino C Moreira; Mary Wolff

    2003-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) plasma levels and their dietary and reproductive determinants were investigated in 64 pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prenatal exposure of newborns was evaluated in a subset of these women in which umbilical cord blood was analyzed. To assess the influence of dietary factors on OC levels, a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was completed by participants. Nondietary

  4. Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Dimitrios Cassimos; Maria Theodoridou

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+) women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. METHODS: To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines,

  5. Screening and recording of alcohol use among women of child-bearing age and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Moumita; Burnett, Margaret; Carrière, Sarah; Cox, Lori Vitale; Dell, Colleen Ann; Gammon, Holly; Geller, Brian; Koren, Gideon; Lee, Lily; Midmer, Deana; Mousmanis, Patricia; Schuurmans, Nan; Senikas, Vyta; Soucy, Danielle; Wood, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A woman's alcohol use during pregnancy is one of the top preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities that are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The social and economic burden of FASD is substantial. Lifetime direct tangible costs per individual related to health care, education and social services in Canada have been estimated to be $1.4 million. Screening women of child-bearing age and pregnant women and recording their alcohol consumption is a practical process to identify and evaluate women at-risk and to identify potentially exposed infants. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes the following three levels of screenings which should be done on consenting women: Level I screening involves practice-based approaches that can be used by health care providers when talking to women about alcohol use, such as motivational interviewing and supportive dialogue. Level II screening includes a number of structured questionnaires that can be used with direct questioning (TLFB) or indirect /masked screening (AUDIT, BMAST / SMAST, CAGE, CRAFFT, T-ACE, TWEAK). Level III screening includes laboratory-based tools that can be used to confirm the presence of a drug, its level of exposure and determine the presence of multiple drugs. There are challenges and limitations in the use of the screening and assessment tools outlined. For example, the single question about alcohol use and the various questionnaires rely on a woman to provide details about her alcohol use. There is no consensus on the appropriate screening to use across Canada as each provincial / territorial jurisdiction, health care organization and healthcare provider uses a variety of formal and informal screening tool. In addition, there are inconsistent processes across Canada for the recording of the alcohol use in a woman's chart and the transfer of the information to the infant and the child's health records. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes eleven recommendations to improve the screening and recording processes for alcohol use in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. PMID:19372602

  6. Epidemiology and the effect of treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pregnant women in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Chaikongkeit, Pravit; Korviwattanagarn, Suwannee; Petrueng, Chulaphorn; Chaiya, Surangkana; Hanvattanakul, Chintana; Kongkitkul, Pisun; Sinthuuthai, Chamaiporn; Kalong, Noree; Ongsawang, Darunee; Ungsathapornpon, Sirinart; Ameeroh, Apiradee; Bavonnarongdet, Pornwilai; Buadung, Arom

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the current situation of STH in pregnant women, explore factors associated with STH and evaluate the effects of its treatment. A cohort study was conducted in four southernmost provinces. All pregnant women who presented at their first prenatal care visit at participating hospitals were interviewed by trained health care providers and their stool specimens were examined for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs. Women with STH were treated with 400 mg of albendazole after 14 weeks of gestation and treatment outcomes were evaluated three weeks after treatment. Of 1,063 pregnant women, STH were detected in 190 patients (17.9%) without seasonal variation for a combined infection of 21.6%. Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were detected in 10.3, 5.7 and 6.3%, respectively. The cure rate with a single dose was 92% but was 100% when repeated treatment was given as a three-day course. The risk of infection was higher in Muslim women, those with a family income < or = USD300/month, those bathing outside the house and those with no knowledge of STH. These results showed that southern Thailand is still an endemic area for STH and there appears to be no seasonal variation in incidence. Although the cure rate for treatment with albendazole was good, the low cure rate and egg reduction rate for trichuriasis needs to be considered. PMID:19323004

  7. Effects of Glucose and Insulin on Acyl ghrelin and Desacyl ghrelin, Leptin and Adiponectin in Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, WT; Liu, J; Gaylinn, B; Thorner, M; Meneilly, GS; Babich, SL; Thompson, D; Chanoine, JP

    2010-01-01

    Structured Summary Aim To compare the regulation of ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin by insulin and glucose during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy in women with diabetes. Methods We studied 9 pregnant women with diabetes. All women were treated with insulin and omitted the morning dose on the day of the test. Following collection of baseline fasting samples, we performed 3 successive glucose clamps: 2 euglycemic clamps (glucose 5mmol/L, insulin infusion at 20 and 40 mU m-2 min -1) and 1 hyperglycemic clamp (glucose 10 mmol/L, insulin infusion at 40 mU m-2 min -1). We determined concentrations of acyl- and desacyl ghrelin (using a double antibody sandwich assay that recognizes the full length molecule), leptin and adiponectin. Results Fasting desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased while insulin and leptin concentrations increased between the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (P?0.011). During the clamp studies, desacyl ghrelin concentrations decreased by 33% (2nd trimester, P=0.004) and 27% (3rd trimester, P=0.09) with increasing glucose and insulin concentrations while acyl ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations were unaffected. Conclusions Glucose and insulin regulate desacyl ghrelin concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes. Impaired desacyl ghrelin regulation may affect energy metabolism in pregnant women with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:20005544

  8. Is intravenous iron sucrose the treatment of choice for pregnant anemic women?

    PubMed

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy remains an important public health problem in developing countries like India. Anemia is the direct cause of 12-15% of maternal deaths. Iron deficiency is the commonest cause for anemia in the Indian subcontinent. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches are in practice. The available routes of iron supplementation are oral and intravenous. In spite of oral iron being least invasive, cheap and safe, the ineffectiveness of oral iron due to dietary inhibitors and poor compliance are well known. Intravenous iron sucrose can be a promising therapy for moderate to severely anemic pregnant women and has been in practice for quite some time in private and public health practices. In this article, we report the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of intravenous iron sucrose in anemic pregnant women on hematological and clinical outcomes. Though the evidence on its efficacy in improving hemoglobin and serum ferritin is convincing, its effect on maternal and fetal outcomes are unclear. This is primarily due to lack of well-designed and larger studies powered to detect difference in clinical outcomes. Hence, there is a need to gather evidence from a well-designed large randomized clinical trial conducted in a developing country. The results of such a study would feed into the national policy and would form the basis to frame guidelines for management of anemia in developing countries. PMID:23167561

  9. Comparison of efficacy and safety of two parenteral iron preparations in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dhanani, Jatin V.; Ganguly, B. P.; Chauhan, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety with a fixed dose of two parenteral iron preparations, iron sucrose complex and iron sorbitol citric acid as per the current practice. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized open label study was conducted. In this study, 60 pregnant women with hemoglobin less than 8.5 g/dl received a fixed dose of either IV iron sucrose or IM iron sorbitol citric acid therapy. The efficacy of the therapy was assessed by laboratory parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, and serum ferritin level after 14 and 28 days. To assess the safety, adverse drug reactions with both the therapies were recorded. Results: Hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001) with respect to time in both the groups. The rise in the hemoglobin level in third and fourth weeks was significantly higher in iron sucrose (0.92 g/dl) than iron sorbitol citric acid therapy (0.56 g/dl). There was no significant change in the rise of the serum ferritin level after both the therapies. Adverse events were common with iron sorbitol citric acid therapy. However, no serious adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions: No significant difference in the efficacy of both of the therapy. However, adverse events and dropout rates were much more common in the group of pregnant women who received iron sorbitol citric acid. PMID:23326102

  10. Prevalence and predictors for domestic violence among pregnant women in a rural community Northwest, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ashimi, Adewale O.; Amole, Taiwo G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Domestic violence (DV) against women constitutes a violation of human rights. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors for DV among pregnant women in a rural community northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study which utilised an interviewer-administered semi-structured pretested questionnaire. This assessed the type of DV experienced, the perpetrators and the trigger factor. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative effect of determinants, adjusting for other predictor variables. The dependent variable was the occurrence of DV classified as Yes or No and the covariates included variables that were significantly associated with DV. Results: Of the 314 respondents, 108 (34.3%) had experienced at least one form of DV and the types observed are: Verbal violence 79(68.5%); psychological violence72 (66.7%) and physical violence 55(50.9%). The perpetrators were the current husband in 40 (37.0%); co-wives in 33 (30.6%) and in-laws in 25 (23.1%). Of the cases, domestic issues were the trigger factor in 69 (63.9%) of cases and 54 (50%) of, the incidence was never reported. Ethnicity and type of marriage were significantly associated with occurrence of DV ( P ? 0.05) and both remained predictors for DV after controlling for confounders [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.20 and 95% C.I = 1.42-11.9; AOR = 4.2 and 95% C.I = 1.36-3.57, respectively]. Conclusion: The prevalence of DV in pregnancy is high with women of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and those in polygamous relationships at a higher risk. Effort should be made to screen pregnant women for DV during antenatal care.

  11. The Evaluation of Ureteroscopy and Pneumatic Lithotripsy Results in Pregnant Women With Urethral Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari Shirvan, Maliheh; Darabi Mahboub, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Seyedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary stone incidence in pregnancy has been reported in a wide range, from 1 in 200 to 1 in 2000 cases. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ureteroscopic treatment and its results and complications for pregnant women with urinary stones. Patients and Methods From 2003 till 2011, 113 pregnant patients with symptomatic urolithiasis were admitted to the urology emergency clinic at Imam Reza hospital. All patients were initially treated conservatively, resulting in spontaneous passage of the calculi in 69 patients. Forty-four patients with symptomatic urolithiasis were included in the study. Post-operative follow ups, including maternal and fetal health was performed by a gynecologist consult fetal heart rate assessment and urine analysis and culture and renal and urethral ultrasonography. Results The mean age of the patients was 23 years ± 2 (19-34) and the mean gestational age was 24 ± 3 weeks. The overall and pneumatic lithotripsy success rate was 100%. All patients from the interventional group delivered at term with no fetal or maternal complications. There was no morbidity during and after the operation. Conclusions In conditions, medical management of urinary stones and consequent renal colic in pregnant women cannot improve patients’ symptoms, choosing of a surgical method like setting of a DJ catheter or URS and pneumatic lithotripsy can be a safe and effective way for the health of both the mother and fetus. Of course, more research is needed to establish this approach as the standard method in pregnancy urinary stones. PMID:24350085

  12. Gut Estimates: Pregnant women adapt to changing possibilities for squeezing through doorways

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities for action depend on the fit between the body and the environment. Perceiving what actions are possible is challenging because the body and the environment are always changing. How do people adapt to changes in body size and compression? In Experiment 1, we tested pregnant women monthly over the course of pregnancy to determine whether they adapted to changing possibilities for squeezing through doorways. As women gained belly girth and weight, previously passable doorways were no longer passable, but women’s decisions to attempt passage tracked their changing abilities. Moreover, their accuracy was equivalent to that of non-pregnant adults. In Experiment 2, non-pregnant adults wore a “pregnancy pack” that instantly increased the size of their bellies and judged whether doorways were passable. Accuracy in “pregnant” participants was only marginally worse than that of actual pregnant women, suggesting that participants adapted to the prosthesis during the test session. In Experiment 3, participants wore the pregnancy pack and gauged passability before and after attempting passage. Judgments were grossly inaccurate prior to receiving feedback. Findings indicate that experience facilitates perceptual-motor recalibration for certain types of actions. PMID:24338434

  13. Predictive Factors of Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Pregnant Women in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Dieynaba S.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Results Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%–60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%–47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%–88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7–46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9–14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3–3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p?=?0.019), (compared with gravidity?=?1, if gravidity?3, aOR?=?1.5, 95% CI: [1.1–2.2]; if gravidity?=?2, aOR?=?1.0, 95% CI: [0.7–1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France. PMID:24587077

  14. Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Meket District, Northeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhane, Tesfaye; Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Dadi, Abel Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of pregnant women on the three periods of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV has implication for child HIV acquisition. This study aims to assess the knowledge of pregnant women on mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to identify associated factors in Meket district, northeast Ethiopia. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the presence and strength of association. About one-fifth (19%) of women were knowledgeable on mother-to-child transmission of HIV (95% CI: 15.5%, 22.4%). Being urban resident (AOR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.48, 4.87), having primary education (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.60), reporting receiving information on HIV from health care providers (AOR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.53, 6.83), having discussion with partner about mother-to-child transmission of HIV (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.59, 4.39), and attending antenatal care (AOR: 5.80, 95% CI: 2.63, 12.77) were positively associated with increased maternal knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among pregnant women was low. Providing information, especially for rural women and their partners, is highly recommended. PMID:25741447

  15. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children. PMID:24344105

  16. Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. PMID:23099114

  17. [Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified].

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. PMID:22981085

  18. Predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Awoleke, J O; Adanikin, A I; Ajayi, D D; Ayosanmi, O S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) among pregnant women in a low-resource setting, with the intent of recommending a guideline for screening during antenatal c