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1

Characteristics of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women physicians: findings from the women physicians’ health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many young physicians are women, and many are in their childbearing years. Knowing pregnant physicians’ status is useful for epidemiological and workforce reasons, yet no studies have compared pregnant with same-age, non-pregnant physicians, an especially appropriate comparison group. Study design: Data from the Women Physicians’ Health Study, a national questionnaire-based survey. We compare 87 pregnant with 1148 non-pregnant women

E Frank; K Cone

2000-01-01

2

Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker from Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker From Flu An aggressive immune system response may worsen symptoms, ... Dallas Monday, September 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Infections and Pregnancy MONDAY, Sept. 22, 2014 (HealthDay ...

3

Characteristics of Jordanian depressed pregnant women: a comparison study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate the differences between Jordanian depressed women and non-depressed women in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics during their pregnancy. A convenience sample of 218 Jordanian pregnant women in their third trimester was selected for this study from three major Governorates in Jordan (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa), and the antenatal clinics of teaching hospitals (Jordan University Hospital and King Abdullah University Hospital) were accessed to collect the data. A demographical sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used to collect data. There was a significant difference in EPDS scores between smokers and non-smokers, primiparous and multiparous women, and also between women with secondary or lower education and those with diploma or higher education. Higher EPDS scores were classified as a ?13 and lower EPDS scores as <13. However, there were no significant differences in the age, income and sleeping hours for women with higher EPDS scores compared with those with lower EPDS scores. This study showed that there are differences between pregnant women who had depression symptoms and pregnant women who did not have depression symptoms in relation to some sociodemographic variables (smoking status, education level and parity). PMID:24299168

Abuidhail, J; Abujilban, S

2014-09-01

4

Vitamin D study in pregnant women and their babies  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in pregnant women. Deficiencies have been prevalent even in studies where over 90% of the women took prenatal vitamins. The current guidelines for vitamin D intake during pregnancy of 200–400 IU has little scientific support and has been recently challenged. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and to evaluate the effectiveness and level of weekly oral 50,000 IU of vitamin D supplementation for the mother and the newborn. Setting and design: Prospective study at Hamad Medical Corporation outpatient unit and delivery room. Patients and Methods: Ninety seven pregnant women were recruited in their first trimester between December 2007 and March 2010. Weekly oral vitamin D (50,000 IU) were prescribed after an initial testing for serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, total protein and albumin. Other multivitamins supplementations were allowed during pregnancy. The same tests were repeated at each trimester. Umbilical cords vitamin D levels were determined at birth. Results: Out of 97 patients, 8 patients dropped out from the study for several reasons, and 19 patients had pregnancy loss. Data were available for 97 women in the first trimester, 78 women in the second trimester and 61 women in the third trimester. The mean level of vitamin D level in the first trimester and prior to starting vitamin D supplementation was 17.15 ng/ml, 29.08 ng/ml in the second trimester, 27.3 ng/ml in third trimester and 22.36 ng/ml in newborns. There were no toxic levels of vitamin D in any of the women at the second or third trimesters or in the newborns. The mean levels of vitamin D in the second and third trimester were not significantly different in those women who were taking multivitamin supplementation and those who were not. Conclusion: Weekly doses of 50,000 vitamin D during pregnancy maintains acceptable vitamin D level during pregnancy and the newborn's vitamin D level correlates with the mother's levels. PMID:25003056

Al Emadi, Samar; Hammoudeh, Mohammed

2013-01-01

5

Factors That Influence Women's Disclosures of Substance Use during Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Ten Midwives and Ten Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the factors that motivate or act as barriers to disclosure of substance use by pregnant women. Participants included 10 midwives and 10 pregnant women who attended two ante-natal clinics at an Australian maternity hospital. One clinic specialized in women who were substance users and one clinic was specifically for young women (under 19

Diane Phillips; Kristina Thomas; Helen Cox; Lina A. Ricciardelli; Jan Ogle; Veronica Love; Angela Steele

2007-01-01

6

An interview study of pregnant women's attitudes to ultrasound scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

404 pregnant women were interviewed, in the ante-natal clinics of two hospitals, concerning their attitudes to ultrasound scanning, which is routine at one of these hospitals, selective at the other. It was found at the hospital where scanning is selective, that women who had not been examined by ultrasound were less likely to regard a scan as an additional source

Beverley Hyde

1986-01-01

7

Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Cancer.gov

Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

8

Number of Pregnant Women on Narcotic Painkillers, Heroin Doubles, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Number of Pregnant Women on Narcotic Painkillers, Heroin Doubles, Study Finds U.S. ... Nov. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of women dependent on drugs such as narcotic painkillers or ...

9

Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pregnant Women On this Page When should I be concerned ... An Important Message for Women brochure. Should a woman breastfeed her infant if she had contracted a ...

10

Vaccines for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Vaccines for Pregnant Women On this Page Vaccine Safety Before, During and ... appropriate for you. Important Vaccines to Consider for Women Planning a Pregnancy Vaccines Before Pregnancy Rubella (German ...

11

Physical activity in pregnancy: a qualitative study of the beliefs of overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which

Zoe Weir; Judith Bush; Stephen C Robson; Catherine McParlin; Judith Rankin; Ruth Bell

2010-01-01

12

A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22217127

Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

13

Lymph Drainage in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women. PMID:24251034

Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

2013-01-01

14

The finnish family competence study: Characteristics of pregnant women with low childbirth knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper characterizes the socio-demographic background, health behaviour and attitudes of 1443 nulliparous women in relation to their level of childbirth knowledge. The response rate was 92%. Those women who refused to participate were not significantly occupationally different from the study subjects. Practically all pregnant women in Finland use maternity health care services. However, those with a low childbirth

Päivi Rautava

1989-01-01

15

Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you have ...

16

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and\\/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with

Ing-Marie Claesson; Ann Josefsson; Gunilla Sydsjö

2010-01-01

17

Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, ?stanbul  

PubMed Central

Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

Cengiz, Huseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Y?ld?z, Sukru; Suzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

2014-01-01

18

Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Share Compartir ... vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women Flu shots are a safe way to protect ...

19

Intimate partner violence among pregnant Thai women.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study are to describe intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women in Thailand and compare maternal characteristics, health practices during pregnancy, and maternal health between abused and nonabused pregnant women. Of 475 pregnant Thai women, 13.1% report ever being abused, whereas 4.8% report physical abuse during pregnancy. Women abused during pregnancy, compared to nonabused women, are more likely to be younger, unmarried, have low income, be unemployed, and report that the pregnancy was unwanted. They also report lower levels of positive health practices and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results demonstrate a need for screening of IPV among pregnant Thai women. PMID:18408170

Thananowan, Nanthana; Heidrich, Susan M

2008-05-01

20

Immunization Issues: Vaccines for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... for pregnant women. Vaccines recommended for all pregnant women Influenza. Pregnant women who become infected with influenza ... third trimester instead of Tdap. Vaccines that pregnant women should not receive Generally, live-attenuated vaccines are ...

21

Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

2014-01-01

22

Online medicine for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services. PMID:25132848

Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David; Peleg, Roni

2014-01-01

23

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

24

Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry

Swati Gupta; Richa Gupta; Sarman Singh

2007-01-01

25

Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

2012-01-01

26

Metformin reduces pregnancy complications without affecting androgen levels in pregnant polycystic ovary syndrome women: results of a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Investigation of a possible effect of metformin on androgen levels in pregnant women with poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Forty pregnant women with PCOS received diet and lifestyle counselling and were random- ized to either metformin 850 mg twice daily or placebo. Primary outcome measures were changes in serum

E. Vanky; R. Heimstad; K. J. Fougner; P. Romundstad; S. M. Carlsen

2004-01-01

27

Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (?150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

2014-01-01

28

Delivering Influenza Vaccine to Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women have an increased risk of influenza infection and complications. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently recommends vaccination for women who are pregnant during influenza season. The authors review the literature concerning influenza vaccine safety, effectiveness, and coverage rates during pregnancy, as well as opportunities to improve vaccination rates during pregnancy. No study has demonstrated an increased risk

Allison L. Naleway; Wendy J. Smith; John P. Mullooly

2006-01-01

29

Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987

Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

2014-01-01

30

Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

2012-01-01

31

Pilot study of pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers' agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

Lorenz, Alyson N; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B; Riederer, Anne M

2012-09-01

32

Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women Questions & Answers Language: English Español Share Compartir ... including premature labor and delivery. Why should pregnant women get the seasonal flu vaccine? Pregnant women have ...

33

Pregnant women's experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda and formulated suggestions for improving service delivery. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 30 pregnant women (15 HIV positive and 15 HIV negative) attending an antenatal clinic, six key informant interviews with health workers providing antenatal care and observations. Data were analyzed using a content thematic approach. Results Prior to attending their current ANC visit, most women knew that the hospital provided HIV counselling and testing services as part of antenatal care (ANC). HIV testing was perceived as compulsory for all women attending ANC at the hospital but beneficial, for mothers, especially those who test HIV positive and their unborn babies. Most HIV positive women were satisfied with the immediate counselling they received from health workers, but identified the need to provide follow up counselling and support after the test, as areas for improvement. However, most HIV negative women mentioned that they were given inadequate attention during post-test counselling. This left them with unanswered questions and, for some, doubts about the negative test results. Conclusions In this setting, routine HIV counselling and testing services are known and acceptable to mothers. There is need to strengthen post-test and follow up counselling for both HIV positive and negative women in order to maximize opportunities for primary and post exposure HIV prevention. Partnerships and linkages with people living with HIV, especially those in existing support groups such as those at The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), may help to strengthen counselling and support for pregnant women. For effective HIV prevention, women who test HIV negative should be supported to remain negative. PMID:23705793

2013-01-01

34

A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.  

PubMed

[Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process. PMID:24926151

Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

2014-05-01

35

Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and

Eijk van A. M; Kim A. Lindblade; Frank Odhiambo; Elizabeth Peterson; Daniel H. Rosen; Diana Karanja; John G. Ayisi; Ya Ping Shi; Kubaje Adazu; Laurence Slutsker

2009-01-01

36

Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

2014-01-01

37

Buprenorphine versus methadone in pregnant opioid-dependent women: a prospective multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods  In order to investigate the effects of exposure to buprenorphine compared with methadone during pregnancy, a prospective multicenter\\u000a study was conducted in collaboration with maternity hospitals, maintenance therapy centers, and general practitioners involved\\u000a in addiction care. Ninety pregnant women exposed to buprenorphine and 45 to metadone were selected for the study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  During pregnancy, some women were exposed to

Isabelle Lacroix; Alain Berrebi; Daniel Garipuy; Laurent Schmitt; Yamina Hammou; Catherine Chaumerliac; Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre; Jean-Louis Montastruc; Christine Damase-Michel

38

Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nutrition Information for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food safety is ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to eat ...

39

Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study  

PubMed Central

Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

2013-01-01

40

Clinical Research Enrolling Pregnant Women: A Workshop Summary  

PubMed Central

Abstract Clinical research investigates mechanisms of human disease, interventions, or new technologies, but pregnant women are often excluded from clinical studies. Few studies, beyond research on pregnancy, are designed to address questions relevant to pregnant women. A recent National Institutes of Health workshop considered the barriers and opportunities in conducting clinical research studies enrolling pregnant women. PMID:21819233

Grady, Christine; Spong, Catherine Y.; Bates, Angela; Clayton, Janine A.

2011-01-01

41

A Systematic Review of African Studies on Intimate Partner Violence against Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIntimate partner violence (IPV) is very high in Africa. However, information obtained from the increasing number of African studies on IPV among pregnant women has not been scientifically analyzed. This paper presents a systematic review summing up the evidence from African studies on IPV prevalence and risk factors among pregnant women.MethodsA key-word defined search of various electronic databases, specific journals

Simukai Shamu; Naeemah Abrahams; Marleen Temmerman; Alfred Musekiwa; Christina Zarowsky; Virginia Vitzthum

2011-01-01

42

Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

PubMed

Abstract We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

43

Antithrombotic therapy for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Coagulability increases during pregnancy, and thromboembolism can easily occur. Venous thromboembolism is a cause of death in pregnant women, but arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke in pregnancy is also not uncommon. In pharmacotherapy for thromboembolism in pregnant women, fetal toxicity and teratogenicity must be carefully considered. As anticoagulants in pregnant women, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are recommended, but warfarin is not recommended since it has a low molecular weight and crosses the placenta. Various types of new oral anticoagulant drugs have been available in Japan since 2011. However, the Japanese package inserts for these anticoagulants advise quite cautious administration in pregnant women. The guidelines on pregnant women include less information about antiplatelet drugs than anticoagulant drugs. Aspirin may cause teratogenicity and fetal toxicity, and perinatal mortality is increased. However, when low doses of aspirin are administered as antiplatelet therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration has assigned pregnancy category C, and treatment is relatively safe. Neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly encounter pregnant women with thromboembolism, such as ischemic stroke. Up-to-date information and correct selection of drugs are necessary in consultation with specialists in perinatal care. PMID:23979047

Toyoda, Kazunori

2013-01-01

44

National Children's Study Workshop: Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring  

Cancer.gov

Page 1 of 42 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment September 21–22, 2004 Draft 3 11-16-04 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring September

45

Chronic diseases in pregnant women: prevalence and birth outcomes based on the SNiP-study  

PubMed Central

Background The subject of “pregnancy and disease” is of particular importance for maternal well-being and neonatal outcomes. The international literature has focused on acute diseases during pregnancy; however, there are only a few studies investigating chronic diseases in pregnant women. The focus of this study is on diseases of women in childbearing age that are not related to the pregnancy. The objective of the paper is to deliver population based prevalences of chronic dieases in childbearing women and compare the two groups of chronically ill women and healthy women in detail regarding sociodemography, peri- and prenatal parameters and birth outcomes. Methods Data of n?=?5320 childbearing women were evaluated in the context of the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews, self-applied questionnaires, and abstraction from medical records at the time of giving birth. Sociodemographic and health status data were assessed, including chronic diseases that were taken out of medical records. A comprehensive set of pre- and perinatal varaiables were assessed. Results In the SNiP, every fifth pregnant woman suffers from at least one chronic disease, and higher prevalence rates have been reported in the literature. There was a significant difference between chronically ill women and healthy women in age, education and income. Prenatal complications were more frequent in the healthy group than in the chronic disease group. Women with chronic diseases delivered by Cesarean section more frequently than women in the healthy group. Every tenth woman with at least one chronic disease gave birth to a premature infant, while only one in every 13 woman in the healthy control group gave birth to a premature infant. Conclusions This analysis is the first population-based study in which all chronic diseases could be taken into consideration. The population-based prevalences rates in the SNiP data are consistently lower than those found in the literature. There are differences between chronically ill women and healthy women in peri- and prenatal variables as well as birth outcome on the population level. However, they are less frequent than expected and further analyses are need focusing on specific diseases. PMID:24552439

2014-01-01

46

Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) ?g/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02 ?g/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59 ?g/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was collected later in the day. This study provides the first biomonitoring results for the largest population of pregnant women sampled in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results indicate that exposure among this population of pregnant women to these chemicals is comparable to or even lower than that observed in a Canadian national population-based survey. PMID:24709781

Arbuckle, Tye E; Davis, Karelyn; Marro, Leonora; Fisher, Mandy; Legrand, Melissa; LeBlanc, Alain; Gaudreau, Eric; Foster, Warren G; Choeurng, Voleak; Fraser, William D

2014-07-01

47

Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGeohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear.MethodologyDuring a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and Kato-Katz method.ResultsAmong 390

Anna M. van Eijk; Kim A. Lindblade; Frank Odhiambo; Elizabeth Peterson; Daniel H. Rosen; Diana Karanja; John G. Ayisi; Ya Ping Shi; Kubaje Adazu; Laurence Slutsker

2009-01-01

48

The development of a standard training toolkit for research studies that recruit pregnant women in labour  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of pregnant women in labour to clinical trials poses particular challenges. Interpretation of regulation lacks consistency or clarity and variation occurs as to the training required by clinicians to safely contribute to the conduct of intrapartum studies. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Intrapartum Clinical Study Group initiated the development of a pragmatic, proportionate and standardised toolkit for training clinical staff that complies with both regulatory and clinician requirements and has been peer-reviewed. This approach may be useful to researchers in acute care settings that necessitate the integration of research, routine clinical practice and compliance with regulation. PMID:24171801

2013-01-01

49

Exposure of Pregnant Women to Indoor Air Pollution: A Study from nine low and middle income countries  

PubMed Central

Objective We studied exposure to solid fuel smoke and second-hand tobacco smoke among pregnant women in south Asia, Africa and Latin America. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey. Setting Antenatal clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, India and Pakistan. Sample A total of 7961 pregnant women in ten sites in nine countries were interviewed between October 2004 and September 2005. Methods A standardized questionnaire on exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and to secondhand smoke was administered to pregnant women during antenatal care. Main Outcome Measures Exposure to IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke. Results South Asian pregnant women commonly reported use of wood (49.1%–89.7%), crop residue and animal dung for cooking and heating fuel. African pregnant women reported higher use of charcoal (85.4%–93.5%). Latin American pregnant women had greater use of petroleum gas. Among south Asian women, solid fuel use and cooking on an open flame inside the home were common. There was a significant association between solid fuel use and allowing smoking within the home at the Asian sites and in Zambia (p<0.05). Conclusions Pregnant women from low/middle income countries were commonly exposed to IAP secondary to use of solid fuels. Among these populations, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was also common. This combination of exposures likely increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes among the most vulnerable women. Our study highlights the importance of further research on the combined impact of IAP and second-hand tobacco smoke exposures on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:19961275

Kadir, Muhammad Masood; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Garces, Ana L.; Moore, Janet; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba, Christine; Althabe, Fernando; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Freire, Salvio; Parida, Sailajanandan; Saleem, Sarah; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

50

Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean\\u000a and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant\\u000a immigrant women referred from primary care to an obligatory hemoglobinopathy screening were eligible for the study, as their\\u000a screening was negative. To

Mads Nybo; Lennart Friis-Hansen; Peter Felding; Nils Milman

2007-01-01

51

A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression  

PubMed Central

Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

2013-01-01

52

Observational study of vitamin D levels and pain in pregnant immigrant women living in Sweden.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant immigrant women assessed by the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the correlation to musculoskeletal pain. Sixty-eight pregnant immigrant women were included. Fifty-one native Swedish pregnant women served as controls. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, PTH, ALP and musculoskeletal pain, rated on a visual analogue scale, were analyzed in all women in gestational week 12 and in the immigrant women at 6-12 months postpartum. A significantly higher proportion of immigrant women (77.9%) had levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25?nmol/l compared with 3.9% in controls. Of the immigrant women, 29.4% had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <12?nmol/l, but none of the controls. Musculoskeletal pain evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly higher for the immigrant women than for the controls at gestational week 12. However, no within group correlation was seen between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PTH or ALP and pain. A significant negative correlation between changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pain from gestational week 12 to postpartum was observed. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in immigrant women living in Sweden. There is an indication that pain might be associated with hypovitaminosis D. PMID:24205902

Bergström, Ingrid; Palmér, Mats; Persson, Jan; Blanck, Agneta

2014-01-01

53

42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section...

2013-10-01

54

Risk of first venous thromboembolism in pregnant women in hospital: population based cohort study from England  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the potential for preventing venous thromboembolism during and after antepartum hospital admissions in pregnant women. Design Cohort study using linked primary (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and secondary (Hospital Episode Statistics) care records. Setting Primary and secondary care centres, England. Participants 206?785 women aged 15-44 who had one or more pregnancies from1997 up to 2010. Main outcome measure Risk of first venous thromboembolism in pregnant women admitted to hospital for one or more days for reasons other than delivery or venous thromboembolism. Risk was assessed by calculating the absolute rate of venous thromboembolism and comparing these rates with those observed during follow-up time not associated with hospital admission using a Poisson regression model to estimate incidence rate ratios. Results Admission to hospital in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (absolute rate 1752/100?000 person years; incidence rate ratio 17.5, 95% confidence interval 7.69 to 40.0) compared with time outside hospital. The rate of venous thromboembolism was also high during the 28 days after discharge (absolute rate 676; 6.27, 3.74 to 10.5). The rate during and after admission combined was highest in the third trimester (961; 5.57, 3.32 to 9.34) and in those aged ?35 years (1756; 21.7, 9.62 to 49.0). While the absolute rate in the combined period was highest for those with three or more days in hospital (1511; 12.2, 6.65 to 22.7), there was also a fourfold increase (558; 4.05, 2.23 to 7.38) in the risk of venous thromboembolism for those admitted to hospital for less than three days. Conclusion The overall risk of first venous thromboembolism in pregnant women increased during admissions to hospital not related to delivery, and remained significantly higher in the 28 days after discharge. During these periods need for thromboprophylaxis should receive careful consideration. PMID:24201164

2013-01-01

55

Visual evoked potential responses in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Sensory functions and their electrophysiological correlates have not been adequately documented during pregnancy. The present study reports visual evoked potential responses to pattern reversal (VEP-P) in ten third trimester pregnant women and changes in latency of NPN complex when compared with these responses in the non pregnant state. Visual evoked potentials were recorded from O1-A1 and O2-A2 scalp areas, using Ag/Agcl disc electrodes to transient pattern of black and white checkerboard with 32' size and reversal rate 1Hz. Two trials of VEP-P responses to 256 transient pattern stimuli given to each eye, were analysed and averaged by the computer of visual evoked potential recorder (MEB 5200 Nihon Kohden Japan). The latencies of various positive and negative waves, along with P1 amplitude, obtained in pregnant women, were compared with those obtained in ten non-pregnant women. The latencies of initial NPN complex (N1P1 & N2) were significantly reduced in pregnant women, indicating that pregnancy facilitates conduction process in the optic pathways. PMID:1812102

Tandon, O P; Bhatia, S

1991-10-01

56

Characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998

Elaine Ho; Linda Karimi-Tabesh; Gideon Koren

2001-01-01

57

Human T cell leukaemia\\/lymphoma virus infection in pregnant women in the United Kingdom: population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the prevalence of human T cell leukaemia\\/lymphoma virus (HTLV) infection in pregnant women in the United Kingdom. Design Population study. Subjects Guthrie card samples from babies born in 1997›8. Samples were linked to data on mother's age and ethnic status and parents' country of birth and then anonymised. Setting North Thames Regional Health Authority. Main outcome measures

A E Ades; Simon Parker; Jane Walker; Mark Edginton; Graham P Taylor; Jonathan N Weber

2000-01-01

58

Liver function tests in normal pregnancy: A prospective study of 103 pregnant women and 103 matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for increased serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels, the changes in liver function test (LFT) values during normal pregnancy have not been clearly established, mainly because most studies do not include matched controls. We therefore measured the serum values of routine liver tests including 5'-nucleotidase and total bile acids in 103 healthy pregnant women (first trimester, n = 34; second

Y Bacq; O Zarka; J Brechot; N Mariotte; S Vol; J Tichet; J Weill

1996-01-01

59

The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim

Torbjørn Øien; Ola Storrø; Jon A Jenssen; Roar Johnsen

2008-01-01

60

A treatment for substance abusing pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the adaptation of a manualized behavioral treatment for substance using pregnant women that includes components\\u000a of motivational interviewing and cognitive therapy. In a pilot study conducted in 2006–2007, five non-behavioral health clinicians\\u000a were trained to provide the treatment to 14 women. Therapy was administered concurrent with routine prenatal care at inner-city\\u000a maternal health clinics in New Haven and

Kimberly Ann Yonkers; Heather B. Howell; Amy E. Allen; Samuel A. Ball; Michael V. Pantalon; Bruce J. Rounsaville

2009-01-01

61

A Longitudinal Descriptive Study of Self-reported Abnormal Smell and Taste Perception in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported abnormal sensitivity, qualitative distortions and phantom sensations with respect to smell and taste was assessed with a longitudinal design, based on questions referring to gestational weeks 13-16 and 31-34 of pregnancy in comparison with 9-12 weeks post partum and with non-pregnant women with corresponding time durations and intervals. The results show that abnormal smell and\\/or taste perception was reported

Steven Nordin; Daniel A. Broman; Jonas K. Olofsson; Marianne Wulff

2004-01-01

62

Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

2013-01-01

63

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles and related factors in pregnant women. Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172 pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan. Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceived health status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or

Yu-Hua Lin; Eing-Mei Tsai; Te-Fu Chan; Fan-Hao Chou; Yu-Ling Lin

64

Enhancing provider effectiveness in treating pregnant women with addictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal care providers can play an important role in identifying, intervening in, and making referrals for substance abuse problems among pregnant women. Although studies suggest that most addicted persons who need treatment do not receive it, innovative methods such as the one described here can help increase the number of pregnant women who engage in treatment, with likely benefits to

Mary Kathleen McHugh; Susan Merle Gordon

1995-01-01

65

A cross-sectional analytical study of geophagia practices and blood metal concentrations in pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa.  

PubMed

Background. Geophagia, a form of pica, has been shown to be widely practised in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among pregnant women.Objective. To assess the prevalence of geophagia and examine exposure to selected metals and associated risk factors in women attending an antenatal clinic at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, during June and July 2010.Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 307 pregnant women, ranging in age from 18 to 46 years. Structured interviews were conducted to understand geophagia practices. Blood samples were collected to determine haemoglobin values and concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. Statistical analyses using the ?2 test, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and logistic regression analyses were performed as appropriate.Results. Mean parity was 1.4 and the mean (standard deviation) gestational age 30.3 (6.0) weeks. Geophagia was reported by 60 women (19.5%), and the majority purchased soil from street vendors (83.3%). The prevalence of anaemia in the study sample was 16.9% (95% confidence interval 13.1 - 21.6%). Geophagic women had significantly higher blood lead levels than non-geophagic women (2.1 v. 1.4 µg/dl; p<0.001). Anaemia, the use of African traditional medicines and craving of non-nutritive substances in a previous pregnancy were associated with geophagia.Conclusions. Geophagia is practised by a considerable proportion of pregnant women in Johannesburg, especially migrant women. Greater vigilance in respect of pica, especially geophagia, may be needed as part of antenatal care programmes to avoid potentially detrimental health effects of the practice. PMID:25213850

Mathee, Angela; Naicker, Nisha; Kootbodien, Tahira; Mahuma, Tshepo; Nkomo, Palesa; Naik, Inakshi; De Wet, Thea

2014-08-01

66

Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH), a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years). We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice), diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded), medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system), and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days). Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4). For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced. PMID:23324253

2013-01-01

67

Pregnant women unaware of Swine Flu danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study by WA researchers into the vaccination of pregnant women against pandemic, H1N1 influenza (Swine Flu), has revealed a number of patients were not aware of their specific vulnerability to the disease and opted out of preventative treatment, despite widespread public education campaigns throughout Australia.\\u000aThe collaborative study between The University of Notre Dame Australia, Edith Cowan University

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

68

Changes in health behaviors made by pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred fifteen women were interviewed during their pregnancy. They were asked “What health behavior changes have you made since you became pregnant?”; This is the first study reported in the United States to allow women to identify their own health behaviors. In previous studies, women responded to the behaviors that the researchers listed on questionnaires. The women in our

Patricia Higgins; Betsy Frank; Marsha Brown

1994-01-01

69

Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as targeting women newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy. PMID:25301494

Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

2014-01-01

70

Routine antenatal HIV testing: the responses and perceptions of pregnant women and the viability of informed consent. A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women’s responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their

Paquita de Zulueta; Mary Boulton

2007-01-01

71

Predictors of HIV positivity among pregnant women presenting for obstetric care in South India – a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminization of the HIV epidemic in India has increasingly burdened the public health infrastructure to provide prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. A mere 20% of pregnant women in the country receive HIV counseling and testing. One of the strategies, for expansion of PMTCT services is to ascertain an accurate identification of HIV-positive pregnant women. Thus, we sought to characterize

Eileen Solomon; Fehmida Visnegarwala; Philimol Philip; Glory Alexander

2011-01-01

72

Changing patterns of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among pregnant women in Norway between 1995 and 2009 examined in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and two cohorts from S?r-Tr?ndelag County: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence and associated risk factors for CMV seropositivity in pregnant Norwegian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in addition to two random samples of pregnant women from Sør-Trøndelag County in Norway. Participants Study group 1 were 1000 pregnant women, randomly selected among 46?127 pregnancies in the MoBa (1999–2006) at 17/18?week of gestation. Non-ethnic Norwegian women were excluded. Study groups 2 (n=1013 from 1995) and 3 (n=979 from 2009) were pregnant women at 12?weeks of gestation from Sør-Trøndelag County. Outcome measures CMV seropositivity in blood samples from pregnant Norwegian women. Results CMV-IgG antibodies were detected in 59.9% and CMV-IgM antibodies in 1.3% of pregnant Norwegian women in study group 1. Women from North Norway demonstrated a higher CMV-IgG seroprevalence (72.1%) than women from South Norway (58.5%) (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.88). The CMV-IgG seroprevalence was higher among women with low education (70.5%) compared to women with higher education (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.90). Between 1995 and 2009 the CMV-IgG seroprevalence increased from 63.1% to 71.4% in pregnant women from Sør-Trøndelag County (study groups 2 and 3; p<0.001). The highest CMV-IgG seroprevalence (79.0%) was observed among the youngest pregnant women (<25?years) from Sør-Trøndelag County in 2009 (study group 3). Conclusions The CMV-IgG seroprevalence of pregnant Norwegian women varies with geographic location and educational level. Additionally, the CMV-IgG seroprevalence appears to have increased over the last years, particularly among young pregnant women. PMID:24078749

Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin M; Nordb?, Svein Arne; Forsmo, Siri; Austgulen, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte

2013-01-01

73

Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases Office of Director Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an ... receive the nasal spray flu vaccine. Influenza (the flu) is a serious illness, especially when you are ...

74

Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are prominent and widespread contaminants of human blood. In animal studies there is evidence that suggests certain PFAs can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. A commonly reported condition in exposed animals is hypothyroxinemia, whereby serum free thyroxine (fT4) is decreased despite normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. We designed an individually matched case-control study to investigate whether exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, in 2005-2006, who underwent a "triple screen" blood test at 15-20 weeks gestation as part of ante-natal care. Thyroid hormones, fT4 and TSH, were measured in serum from 974 women, and from these we measured PFAs in the sera of 96 hypothyroxinemic cases (normal TSH, the lowest 10th percentile of fT4) and 175 controls (normal TSH, fT4 between the 50th and 90th percentiles) matched on age and referring physician. Analyses by conditional logistic regression indicated that the concentrations of PFAs in this population were not associated with hypothyroxinemia among pregnant women. The current findings do not support a causal link between PFA exposure and maternal hypothyroxinemia in the studied population. PMID:21310403

Chan, Emily; Burstyn, Igor; Cherry, Nicola; Bamforth, Fiona; Martin, Jonathan W

2011-05-01

75

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study?  

PubMed Central

Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Study design Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ? 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Results Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%). Conclusions HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. PMID:22658797

Chasela, Charles S.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

2013-01-01

76

Identifying and helping battered pregnant women.  

PubMed

This article highlights strategies in identifying and helping battered pregnant women. Studies report that 40-60% of battered women were abused during pregnancy inflicted in the form of blows to the abdomen, injuries to the breasts and genitals, and sexual assault. Because battering during pregnancy has been a prevalent occurrence, assessment during prenatal visits is most critical. This paper outlines several assessment approaches in dealing with battered pregnant women in specific circumstances, giving important consideration to her safety due to the potential risk of homicide. A Danger Assessment tool is utilized in assessing for potential homicide. Intervening with victims of abuse is difficult. The role of the nurse is to assist in the development of problem-solving and decision-making skills while the woman is still in extreme confusion or feeling of conflicting loyalties. Routine assessment for physical and sexual abuse during the prenatal period is recommended in order to prevent further abuse thus promoting maternal-child well being. PMID:2056861

Parker, B; McFarlane, J

1991-01-01

77

Employment, Unemployment And The Health Of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of what little we know about the impact of unemployment or health is based upon data or studies of predominantly unemployed men. These studies, though weak in methodology, imply that unemployment may lead to excess morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a study of 4,000 pregnant women in Brisbane. Unemployment amongst women is associated with high-risk health behaviour, which

J. M. NAJMAN; A. CHANG; J. MORRISON

78

How Metformin Acts in PCOS Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GD) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of this drug during pregnancy. In the attempt to fill this gap, we performed a prospective longitudinal study providing a detailed examination of glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnant women with PCOS undergoing metformin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 60 women with PCOS who conceived while undergoing metformin treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed at each trimester of gestation in 47 ongoing pregnancies. RESULTS Twenty-two of the study subjects had development of GD despite the treatment. At baseline, insulin sensitivity was comparable between women who had development of GD and women who did not. A progressive decline in this parameter occurred in all subjects, independently of the trimester of GD diagnosis. Insulin secretion was significantly higher during the first trimester in patients with an early failure of metformin treatment. Women with third trimester GD and women with no GD exhibited a significant increase in insulin output as gestation proceeded. All newborns were healthy and only one case of macrosomia was observed. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS who enter pregnancy in a condition of severe hyperinsulinemia have development of GD earlier, independently of metformin treatment. The physiologic deterioration of insulin sensitivity is not affected by the drug and does not predict the timing and severity of the glycemic imbalance. Despite the high incidence of GD observed, the drug itself or the intensive monitoring probably accounted for the good neonatal outcome. PMID:23315599

Romualdi, Daniela; De Cicco, Simona; Gagliano, Donatella; Busacca, Matteo; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio; Guido, Maurizio

2013-01-01

79

Antidepressant Use in Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Women in their reproductive years are at increased risk of experiencing depressive and anxiety disorders. As such, it is likely that pregnant women will undergo treatment with antidepressants. We review the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal and neonatal complications of the offspring related to in utero exposure to antidepressants. The literature shows that antidepressant exposure is associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, although effects are small. There are a number of reports of transitory neonatal signs after exposure to antidepressants. No specific pattern of malformations has been consistently associated with antidepressants, with the possible exception of paroxetine and cardiac malformations. There is inconclusive evidence of a link between antidepressants in late pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. While antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, confounding factors that can adversely affect pregnancy and birth outcomes may contribute to some of the findings. PMID:24313569

Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Forray, Ariadna

2014-01-01

80

Pregnant Women after Physical and Sexual Abuse in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women’s feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an

Katharina Jundt; Kristin Haertl; Angelika Knobbe; Ralph Kaestner; Klaus Friese; Ursula M. Peschers

2009-01-01

81

Magnesium Associated Complications in Pregnant Women  

E-print Network

Abstract: This observational study was conducted in the department of Physiology LUMHS Jamshoro with collaboration of G U IV Liaquat university Hospital Jamshoro. The inclusion criteria of the study were pregnant women with 20-35 years of age, primigravida, had 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy and willing for follow-up. The informed consent was taken from all participants participated in the study and the grouping was made according to serum magnesium level, trimester of pregnancy and age of women and the various complications were observed. The blood sample collected for serum Mg++ level and other routine tests and sent to laboratory for analysis. The data was analyzed in SPSS version 11.00. Total of 150 patients were selected in this study, the Group I of 75 (50%) were those pregnant women who had low serum magnesium (Hypomagnesemia) level less than 1.5mg/dl with mean + SD 1.16 + 0.22 while Group II of. 75 (50%) were those having magnesium level within normal range from 1.8-2.9mg/dl with mean + SD 1.94 + 0.30 (P 0.001). The toxemia of pregnancy observed significantly high in group I as compared to group II (P = 0.003). The pre term labour was significantly high in Group I 40 % versus 18.7 % for Group II (P = 0.007) and no significant difference was observed with age (P = 0.85). The intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) also significantly higher in group I as compared to group II 41.3 % versus 6.7 % (P value 0.001). The IUGR was also more significant in higher age group 52.0 % versus 10.0 % (P 0.001). The leg cramps was noted that history of leg cramps were significantly higher in Group I

Khalida Shaikh; Ra Madhu Das; Ghulam Hussain Baloch; Tahir Abbas; Kashif Fazlani; Mukhtiar Hussain Jaffery; Bikha Ram Devrajani; Syed Zulfiquar; Ali Shah

82

Syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique.  

PubMed Central

To establish the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique and evaluate present diagnostic methods, 1468 pregnant women in eight of the country's 10 provinces were examined using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Positive serum samples were also analysed using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) assay and one group was also analysed using the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) test. The prevalence of VDRL seroreactivity was found to be between 4.5% and 14.6%, whereas the prevalence of treponemal disease as verified by TPHA or FTA-ABS tests was between 1.6% and 9.8%. It is concluded that syphilis is relatively common among pregnant women in Mozambique. The predictive value of a positive VDRL test, when adequately performed, was PMID:3910543

Liljestrand, J; Bergstrom, S; Nieuwenhuis, F; Hederstedt, B

1985-01-01

83

Palliative care with pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a pregnant woman has been declared dead because of brain death or cerebral death and a permanent vegetative state, the life and wellbeing of her fetus become a matter of crucial consideration. The possible options are an immediate caesarean section, continuation of efforts to maintain the organ functions of the woman to allow her fetus to mature, or discontinuation

Jacques Milliez; Veronique Cayol

2001-01-01

84

Serum Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Calcium, and Magnesium Levels in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women in developing countries are vulnerable to multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Studies assessing serum levels\\u000a of the micronutrients and magnitude of their deficiencies are very scarce in African subjects. This study was aimed at determining\\u000a serum levels of micronutrients in 375 pregnant (42 HIV seropositive) and 76 non-pregnant women (20 HIV seropositive) who visited\\u000a the University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar,

Afework Kassu; Tomoki Yabutani; Andargachew Mulu; Belay Tessema; Fusao Ota

2008-01-01

85

Pregnant women's attitudes to abortion and prenatal screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in prenatal screening and diagnosis mean that an increasing number of women may be faced with the possibility of terminating a pregnancy on the grounds of fetal abnormality. Little is known, however, about the attitudes of pregnant women on the subject of abortion, either in the case of abnormality, or more generally. As part of a study of

Josephine M. Green; Claire Snowdon; Helen Statham

1993-01-01

86

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

87

Prevalence of malaria and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in Tanzania: a cross sectional study in Kinondoni Municipality  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis without the standard Suphadoxine-Pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (SP-IPT) was introduced to all HIV infected pregnant women in the year 2011. However, there is limited information about the effectiveness of this policy. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in eight public health facilities in Kinondoni Municipality from February to April 2013. Blood was tested for malaria infection and anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dl). Data were collected on the adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and other risk factors for malaria infection and anaemia. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer’s exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR?=?6.81, 95% CI?=?1.35-34.43, P?=?0.02) or anaemia (AOR?=?1.75, 95% CI?=?1.03-2.98, P?=?0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy. Conclusion The prevalence of malaria was low; however, a significant proportion of subjects had anaemia. Good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduction of both malaria infection and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women. PMID:24761799

2014-01-01

88

High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43?years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20?years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20?years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

2014-01-01

89

Habitual fish consumption does not prevent a decrease in LCPUFA status in pregnant women (the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study).  

PubMed

Information on the status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy and breast milk in very high fish-eating populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and changes in fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles. Serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased significantly between 28-week gestation and delivery (n=196). DHA status did not correlate significantly with length of gestation and was not associated with self-reported fish intake, which was high at 527 g/week. In breast milk, the ratio of DHA to arachidonic acid (AA) was consistent with those observed in other high fish-eating populations. Overall the data suggest that high exposure to LCPUFAs from habitual fish consumption does not prevent the documented decrease in LCPUFA status in pregnancy that occurs as a result of foetal accretion in the third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:18585023

Bonham, M P; Duffy, E M; Wallace, J M W; Robson, P J; Myers, G J; Davidson, P W; Clarkson, T W; Shamlaye, C F; Strain, J J

2008-06-01

90

Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?  

MedlinePLUS

... Social Media: Connect With Us Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? Print A A A Text ...

91

All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group ... A group representing U.S. obstetricians is calling for all pregnant women to get a flu shot. According ...

92

Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Pregnancy Healthy Baby Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants If you’re ... Florida Department of Health) Preparedness Information for Pregnant Women Pregnancy and Disaster Information from the March of ...

93

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2012-10-01

94

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2013-10-01

95

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2011-10-01

96

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2010-10-01

97

Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P = .04), history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P = .08), prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P = .11,) and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P = .10). M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8). Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities. PMID:20379360

Short, Vanessa L.; Jensen, J?rgen S.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Murray, Pamela J.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

98

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

99

Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care. PMID:23226937

Douamba, Zoenabo; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Bazie, Valerie Jean Telesphore; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

2012-01-01

100

Outcome of the vaginal infections and prematurity study: Results of a clinical trial of erythromycin among pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether erythromycin treatment of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci would reduce the occurrence of low birth weight (<2500 gm) and preterm (<37 completed weeks) birth.STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blind clinical trial, 938 carriers of group B streptococci were randomized to receive erythromycin base (333 mg three times a day) or matching placebo

Mark A. Klebanoff; Joan A. Regan; A. Vijaya Rao; Robert P. Nugent; William C. Blackwelder; David A. Eschenbach; Joseph G. Pastorek; Sterling Williams; Ronald S. Gibbs; J. Chris Carey

1995-01-01

101

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15-44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-01-01

102

[The efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: a randomized, prospective, multicenter study].  

PubMed

The study was aimed to the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A prospective, multicenter, randomized study that included 112 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was performed. 58 women were randomized in group 1 (cefixime [suprax solutab] 400 mg 1 time a day, 7 days), 54 women were included in group 2 (amoxicillin/clavulanate [amoksiklav] 625 mg 3 times a day, 7 days). The average age of the patients in group 1 was 25.2 +/- 6.6; in group 2--26.6 +/- 5.8 years. Physical examination, evaluation of complaints, collection of data on adverse reactions, and bacteriological analysis of urine were performed after enrollment in the study at visit 2 (day 10 +/- 1) and 3 (day 35 +/- 2). Comparable effectiveness of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was found. Eradication of the pathogen and sustained bacteriological response were observed in 94.8 and 92.7% of women treated with cefixime, and in 98.2 and 92.5% of women treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P > 0.05). At the same time, the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with cefixime significantly higher was followed by the development of adverse reactions (13% and 1.7; respectively; P = 0.02). Seven-day courses of cefixime at a dose 400 mg 1 time a day and amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of 625 mg 3 times a day are high-effective treatment regimens for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women in Russia. The use of amoxicillin/clavulanate is significantly more often accompanied by the development of adverse reactions compared with cefixime. PMID:24437236

Rafal'ski?, V V; Dovgan', E V; Kozyrev, Iu V; Gustovarova, T A; Khlybova, S V; Novoselova, A V; Filippenko, N G; Likhikh, D G

2013-01-01

103

Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

2013-10-01

104

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patricia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amelia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

105

Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit

Dorothy J. VanderJagt; Hugh S. Brock; George S. Melah; Aliyu U. El-Nafaty; Michael J. Crossey; Robert H. Glew

2007-01-01

106

Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. METHODS: Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. RESULTS: For 9282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148 g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption, and race. After adjustment the maternal job was no longer significantly associated with birthweight. CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, there were several findings which agreed with publications on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome. The major job groups with the lowest birthweights included the following jobs; metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile trade, and assembling and working with equipment (mobile and stationary). The lack of an association may indicate that the study was of insufficient power to detect a small difference; it may indicate the presence of confounding variables that were not adjusted for or it may indicate that no association exists.   PMID:9536158

Farrow, A.; Shea, K. M.; Little, R. E.

1998-01-01

107

First trimester serum inhibin A in normal pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To establish reference ranges for maternal serum inhibin A in normal first trimester pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This was a cross-sectional study. We measured maternal serum inhibin A in normal pregnant women gestation age between 6+0 and 14+6 weeks using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Maternal serum inhibin A was analyzed according to gestational\\u000a ages (GA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Serum of 300 pregnancies

Vorapong Phupong; Tharangrut Hanprasertpong; Sittisak Honsawek

2008-01-01

108

Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test. In all cases detailed histories were obtained and patients were examined for clinical signs of syphilis. The TPHA test result was reactive in 12.5% of antenatal patients and in 42% of women who aborted in the later half of pregnancy. Among 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital, 30 had reactive results to the TPHA test; of these two were stillborn and four had signs of congenital syphilis at birth. Thus, syphilis appears to affect adversely an appreciably high number of pregnant women in Zambia. For this reason a special campaign to screen adequately and treat pregnant women and neonates is needed. PMID:6756542

Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C

1982-01-01

109

Application of the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) in epidemiological studies of women at reproductive age and pregnant women in Poland.  

PubMed

Epidemiological population studies indicate that the nutrition of women at reproductive age and during pregnancy exerts an eff ect not only on the term of delivery, development of the foetus and birth weight, but also on the susceptibility of off spring to civilization diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Heath and Diseases (DOHaD). The author analyses the results of epidemiological studies conducted in 2011 in a randomly selected representative population of 6,000 Polish adolescents aged 14-24 (of the total of adolescents, a population of females was selected for analysis), and the results of foetal period health monitoring of mother and child (PRAMS) which has been conducted in Poland since 2009 in the population of mothers and their newborn babies staying after delivery in all hospitals in Poland. Analysis of these two population studies indicates that a high percentage of Polish women at reproductive age are dieting. At the same time, confirmation of the fact of becoming pregnant occurs between weeks 5-8 after conception. This shows that until that time, the foetuses of women on the Apple weight loss diet develop conditions of nutritional deficits which, according to the DOHaD hypothesis, may result in epigenetic changes which increase the susceptibility of off spring in adulthood to civilization diseases: cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis is confirmed by the high percentages of newborns in Poland born with low birth weight or prematurely born, as well as the fact that the percentage of anemia in pregnant Polish women is twice as high as in other developed countries. Simultaneously, a large number of babies are born with excessive birth weight (macrosomia). The author considers that in the countries of East-Central Europe the phenomenon observed is characteristic at present of the developing countries of the Third World, called the 'double burden of malnutrition'. This situation creates risk of the occurrence of an epidemics of civilization diseases in our part of Europe of a greater intensity than in other developed countries. The author postulates that the educational actions in the area of health promotion in the control of overweight and obesity should be differentiated according to gender and age. The activities to-date in the field of overweight and obesity control in Poland has led to an increase in the number of girls and young women suffering from nutritional disorders as a result of too drastic methods of losing weight. According to the DOHaD hypothesis applied, this may have tragic results for their off spring and for future generations. PMID:22216813

Wojty?a, Andrzej

2011-12-01

110

A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

2014-08-01

111

The effect of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected pregnant women in Thailand: an embedded mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. PMID:23260038

Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W

2013-01-01

112

Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Cesarean delivery is a surgery for deliver a baby. Women with previous cesarean delivery (CD) must often choose between a vaginal delivery (VD) and repeat CD. Our aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with preference for CD in Neyshabur pregnant women with previous CD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all pregnant women (who had previous caesarean delivery) from February 20, 2011 to March 20, 2011 in Northeast of Iran (Neyshabur). Logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The mean age of pregnant women was 29.95 ± 4.94 years. In this study of the 292 pregnant women, 235 (80.5%) said they prefer CD. There was a statistically significant relation between preference for CD and the following variables: pregnant women's educational level (P < 0.001; OR = 3.86; 95% CI = 1.85-8.05) and doctor's advice (P = 0.021; OR = 3.55; 95% CI = 1.21-10.43). The pregnant women with a previous CD presented four-fold upper chance of choosing CD. Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor's advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

Gholami, Ali; Faraji, Zahra; Lotfabadi, Pegah; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Rezaof, Mitra; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

2014-01-01

113

A pilot study on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status according to sun exposure in pregnant women in Antwerp, Belgium  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency in utero or early neonatal life may have a major impact on children’s health. Little is known on vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women in Belgium, non on the impact of wearing head and/or body cover. Objectives: This was a preliminary exploration of the vitamin D status in pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic in the Antwerp University Hospital. Method: From August 1 2009 until November 30 2009 we systematically determined 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) in each blood sample taken from pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic. We also registered the degree of head/body cover and inquired for intake of vitamin supplements. Results: Our population consisted of 171?women, mostly primiparous, of which 86% were not covered. The mean value of 25-OH vitamin D was 28?ng/ml. Non-covered women had a mean of 29,5?±?12,2 (SD) ng/ml, the partially covered group had a mean of 17,2?±?7,2 (SD) ng/ml and the completely covered group had a mean of 22,5?±?12,9 (SD) ng/ml. The difference in serum concentrations between the 3 groups was statistically significant (Anova, p?women with a vitamin D concentration lower than 30?ng/ml (OR6.2; 95% CI: 1,8-21,7; p?

Vercruyssen, J.; Martin, M.; Jacquemyn, Y.

2010-01-01

114

The lived experience of maternal-fetal attachment of pregnant incarcerated women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing is a discipline which believes that persons and their environments are integrally related. Little is known about the experience of maternal-fetal attachment for women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of maternal-fetal attachment as told by pregnant incarcerated women.^ The phenomenological method was used. Twelve pregnant incarcerated women representing diverse racial backgrounds

Judith Merenda Wismont

1996-01-01

115

Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.  

PubMed

In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

2011-06-01

116

Patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking cessation: A hospital-based study of pregnant women in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Objectives:  To describe patterns of cigarette and narghile (hubble-bubble or water-pipe) smoking before and during pregnancy and identify\\u000a predictors of successful smoking cessation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  A survey was conducted on 4 660 pregnant women who delivered single live births between September 1st, 2001 and December 31st,\\u000a 2002 at five hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon. Women were classified into four groups according to patterns

Kalid Yunis; Hind Beydoun; Pascale Nakad; Mustafa Khogali; Faysal Shatila; Hala Tamim

2007-01-01

117

Socio-demographic factors and processes associated with stages of change for smoking cessation in pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. METHODS: The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before

Alessandra Buja; Emanuela Guarnieri; Giovanni Forza; Federica Tognazzo; Paolo Sandonà; Alessandra Zampieron

2011-01-01

118

Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women--a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4microg/kg) with a median of 1.1microg/kg (approximately 0.5microg/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2microg/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood. PMID:19646688

Kippler, M; Goessler, W; Nermell, B; Ekström, E C; Lönnerdal, B; El Arifeen, S; Vahter, M

2009-10-01

119

Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)] [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)] [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh)] [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-10-15

120

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public...131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to...this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks or is...

2011-10-01

121

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public...131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to...this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks or is...

2013-10-01

122

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public...131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to...this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks or is...

2010-10-01

123

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public...131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to...this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who seeks or is...

2012-10-01

124

Longitudinal study of depression and health status in pregnant women: incidence, course and predictive factors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isolated psychological intimate partner violence and psychosocial factors (social support and alcohol or drug use by a partner/family member) on psychological well-being (depression or poor self-perceived health status) at 5 and 12 months post-partum. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out with a consecutive sample of 1,400 women in their first trimester of pregnancy, who attended the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region (Spain) in 2008 and were followed up at 5 months and 12 months post-partum. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalized estimating equations, to assess the effect of isolated psychological intimate partner violence, social support, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use problems by a partner or family member on subsequent psychological well-being at follow-up. We observed a decrease in the incidence of poorer psychological well-being (post-partum depression and poor self-perceived health status) at 12 months post-partum. The strongest predictor of poor psychological well-being was depression (AOR = 6.83, 95 % CI: 3.44-13.58) or poor self-perceived health status (AOR = 5.34, 95 % CI: 2.37-12.02) during pregnancy. Isolated psychological IPV increased the risk of a deterioration in psychological well-being. Having a tangible social network was also a predictor of both post-partum depression and poor self-perceived health status. The effect of functional social support varied according to the type of psychological well-being indicator being used. Problems of alcohol consumption or illicit drug use by a partner or family member were a predictor of post-partum depression only. Psychological well-being during the first year after birth is highly affected by isolated psychological IPV and psychosocial factors. PMID:22743735

Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Royo-Marqués, Manuela; Artazcoz, Lucía; Romito, Patrizia; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel

2013-03-01

125

RESEARCH INVOLVING PREGNANT WOMEN, HUMAN FETUSES AND NEONATES OF UNCERTAIN VIABILITY  

E-print Network

of available medical therapy) to the point of independently maintaining heartbeat and respiration. If a neonate on pregnant animals, and clinical studies, including studies on non-pregnant women, have been conducted of the research on the fetus or neonate; (g) For children as defined in 45 CFR 46.402(a) who are pregnant, assent

126

Lipid profile in nonobese pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective controlled clinical study.  

PubMed

Alterations in lipid pattern and increased risk for obstetric/neonatal complications have been observed in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pregnancy leads to physiologic changes in lipoprotein metabolism, and alterations in lipid profile have been related with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present prospective controlled clinical study was to test the hypothesis that the changes in the lipid profile in patients with PCOS during pregnancy are characteristic and potentially related to the increased risk of obstetric/neonatal complications. One hundred and fifty nonobese PCOS women and 150 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and androgens levels were serially assayed in all subjects before and throughout pregnancy. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PCOS group than in healthy controls at each assessment. Throughout pregnancy, serum LDL and TG levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in both groups, although the change from pre-pregnancy values was significantly (P<0.05) greater in PCOS patients than in healthy controls. A significant (P<0.05) relationship was observed between serum LDL and TG changes and changes in both insulin sensitivity indexes and androgen levels in PCOS patients alone. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI and lipid levels, body weight gain, and insulin-resistance markers, serum TG concentrations during pregnancy were directly and independently associated with obstetric complications in both groups, whereas serum LDL levels only in PCOS patients. We can conclude that nonobese PCOS patients had specific changes in lipid profile during pregnancy, and that the lipid pattern typical of PCOS may account for the more frequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PCOS-related hormonal and metabolic features, such as insulin resistance and high androgen levels, may mediate this phenomenon. PMID:24945113

Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Chiossi, Giuseppe; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Fornaciari, Eleonora; Orio, Francesco; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Zullo, Fulvio

2014-10-01

127

Press Release For immediate release Anxious pregnant women are more  

E-print Network

and parents in minute detail ever since. o The ALSPAC study could not have been undertaken without children Pregnant women who are stressed, particularly late in pregnancy, have an increased risk of their child going on to develop asthma, according to the latest research from Children of the 90s. Asthma

Bristol, University of

128

Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing or quitting smoking. Results: Somatic health consequences were estimated to occur later than consequences related to mood and social relations. All consequences were estimated to occur later given quitting smoking. Pregnancy had an effect on the estimated time that consequences would occur, with pregnant women estimating earlier occurrence of consequences related to mood and social relations than non-pregnant women did. Conclusion: Health messages should stress consequences for somatic health in quitting smoking, since outcomes later in time might have too low a value to exert a positive effect on decisions to quit smoking. PMID:19543413

Ortendahl, Monica; Uttermalm, Alf; Simonsson, Bo; Nasman, Per; Wallsten, Tuula

2009-01-01

129

Do pregnant women exercise their pelvic floor muscles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to assess the number of women performing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy\\u000a and to compare the background variables in those exercising and in those who did not. Four hundred and sixty-seven pregnant\\u000a women (response rate 84%), mean age 31.5 years (range 20–49), answered a questionnaire on general physical activity level\\u000a during pregnancy

Kari Bø; Lene A. H. Haakstad; Nanna Voldner

2007-01-01

130

Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNF?, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNF? was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production. PMID:24466049

Faas, Marijke M.; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G.

2014-01-01

131

Paging "Dr. Google": Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

2014-01-01

132

Acquired Activated Protein C Resistance, Thrombophilia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Study Performed in an Irish Cohort of Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

The combination of thrombophilia and pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis and the potential for adverse outcomes during pregnancy. The most significant common inherited risk factor for thrombophilia is activated protein C resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, which is mainly caused by an inherited single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), factor V G1691A (FV Leiden) (FVL), referred as inherited APCR. Changes in the levels of coagulation factors: FV, FVIII, and FIX, and anticoagulant factors: protein S (PS) and protein C (PC) can alter APC function causing acquired APCR. Prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are prothrombotic SNPs which in association with APCR can also increase the risk of thrombosis amongst Caucasians. In this study, a correlation between an acquired APCR phenotype and increased levels of factors V, VIII, and IX was demonstrated. Thrombophilic mutations amongst our acquired APCR pregnant women cohort are relatively common but do not appear to exert a severe undue adverse effect on pregnancy. PMID:21869933

Sedano-Balbas, Sara; Lyons, Mark; Cleary, Brendan; Murray, Margaret; Gaffney, Geraldine; Maher, Majella

2011-01-01

133

Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR?=?3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR?=?5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR?=?11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR?=?5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR?=?3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR?=?6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need to be screened for both HIV and HBV infections during antenatal care. Furthermore, health education about modes of transmission of HIV and HBV has to be given. PMID:24580859

2014-01-01

134

Hostile and Benevolent Reactions Toward Pregnant Women: Complementary Interpersonal Punishments and Rewards That Maintain Traditional Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs.

Michelle R. Hebl; Eden B. King; Peter Glick; Sarah L. Singletary; Stephanie Kazama

2007-01-01

135

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

136

Physical Activity of Pregnant Hispanic Women  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. Purpose To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Methods Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities, and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Results Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15 [95% CI=0.04, 0.56], p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13 [95% CI= 0.05, 0.29]). Conclusions Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:22992363

Lynch, Kristine E.; Landsbaugh, Jill R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

2012-01-01

137

Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: The Generation R study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health impacts of low-level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and 14 phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The

Xibiao Ye; Frank H. Pierik; Russ Hauser; Susan Duty; Jürgen Angerer; Melissa M. Park; Alex Burdorf; Albert Hofman; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Johan P. Mackenbach; Eric A. P. Steegers; Henning Tiemeier; Matthew P. Longnecker

2008-01-01

138

Carrier Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) in 107,611 Pregnant Women during the Period 2005-2009: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common neuromuscular autosomal recessive disorder. The American College of Medical Genetics has recently recommended routine carrier screening for SMA because of the high carrier frequency (1 in 25–50) as well as the severity of that genetic disease. Large studies are needed to determine the feasibility, benefits, and costs of such a program. Methods and Findings This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009. A three-stage screening program was used: (1) pregnant women were tested for SMA heterozygosity; (2) if the mother was determined to be heterozygous for SMA (carrier status), the paternal partner was then tested; (3) if both partners were SMA carriers, prenatal diagnostic testing was performed. During the study period, a total of 2,262 SMA carriers with one copy of the SMN1 gene were identified among the 107,611 pregnant women that were screened. The carrier rate was approximately 1 in 48 (2.10%). The negative predictive value of DHPLC coupled with MLPA was 99.87%. The combined method could detect approximately 94% of carriers because most of the cases resulted from a common single deletion event. In addition, 2,038 spouses were determined to be SMA carriers. Among those individuals, 47 couples were determined to be at high risk for having offspring with SMA. Prenatal diagnostic testing was performed in 43 pregnant women (91.49%) and SMA was diagnosed in 12 (27.91%) fetuses. The prevalence of SMA in our population was 1 in 8,968. Conclusion The main benefit of SMA carrier screening is to reduce the burden associated with giving birth to an affected child. In this study, we determined the carrier frequency and genetic risk and provided carrier couples with genetic services, knowledge, and genetic counseling. PMID:21364876

Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Fang-Yi; Chern, Jimmy P. S.; Tsai, Chris; Chang, Tai-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Chao; Li, Hung; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Lee, Chien-Nan

2011-01-01

139

Paired values of serum fructosamine and blood glucose for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study of 165 Saudi pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the utilization of serum fructosamine and blood glucose for the screening of gestational diabetes mellitus\\u000a (GDM). Blood samples from 165 pregnant women were analyzed for fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG) and\\u000a serum fructosamine. The actual fructosamine levels were corrected for serum protein (c-Fruct) for more precise presentation.\\u000a Two cut-off values of FBG (>5.3 mmol\\/L

Haseeb Ahmad Khan; Samia Hasan Sobki; Abdullah Saleh Alhomida; Shaukat Ali Khan

2007-01-01

140

A study of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant women, placentae, cord blood and newborn babies in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The peripheral blood of 101 pregnant women at delivery, their 105 new born babies and the corresponding placental, and cord blood smears were examined cross sectionally for malaria parasites, during a 3 month period (May-July, 1986). The average maternal age was 26.3 years. Positive parasitaemia was found in 2.97% of maternal peripheral thick blood films; in 2.94% of placental smears, and in 0.95% of cord blood films. Congenital malaria did not occur in the babies. PMID:8199063

Lamikanra, O T

1993-01-01

141

Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant

Toan K Tran; Chuc TK Nguyen; Hinh D Nguyen; Bo Eriksson; Goran Bondjers; Karin Gottvall; Henry Ascher; Max Petzold

2011-01-01

142

Recurrent gingival swelling in pregnant women.  

PubMed

The aim of this case report is to present a rare case which has been reported with the history of small nodule like growth on mandibular buccal and lingual area. Thirty year old pregnant women reported a nodule on left mandibular buccal and lingual region. The lesion was surgically excised and sent for biopsy to differentiate from kimura's disease, pyogenic granuloma, epithelioid angiosarcoma (EH). Histologically lesion shows proliferation of endothelial cells along blood vessels suggesting epithelioid hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to discuss and differentiate EH and other vascular rare entities occurring in the oral cavity. PMID:23723608

Kumar, Mukesh; Goyal, Niti; Dahiya, Parveen; Gupta, Rajan

2013-01-01

143

Health behaviors of low-income pregnant minority women.  

PubMed

Preventive and health promoting behaviors in pregnant minority women can be used to develop approaches to encourage healthy lifestyle and optimal utilization of health services, and to obtain better outcomes of pregnancy. Using the Health Promotion Model as a theoretical framework, this study employed a cross-sectional survey design to investigate factors that related to health behaviors of low-income pregnant Mexican American and African American women in selected sites in the southeast portion of the state of Texas. Results showed that Mexican American women had a significantly higher mean on the Powerful Others Locus of Control measure than the African American women. For African American subjects, the strongest effect was exerted by the social support variable, which had a negative effect on the health behavior variable. Findings suggest that more studies are needed to identify specific determinants of health promoting activities during pregnancy in ethnic minority groups. Designing programs that would motivate early involvement of low-income pregnant minority women in health care should be a top priority for professionals in maternity practice. PMID:17420521

Esperat, Christine; Du Feng; Yan Zhang; Owen, Donna

2007-04-01

144

Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 1010 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. PMID:25293764

Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P.; Gloor, Gregory B.

2014-01-01

145

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

2012-01-01

146

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

147

Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age) among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by

Ishag Adam; Amar H Khamis; Mustafa I Elbashir

2005-01-01

148

Perceptions of soil-eating and anaemia among pregnant women on the Kenyan coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a clinical study at Kilifi District hospital had shown a high prevalence of geophagy among pregnant women, and a strong association of geophagy, anaemia and iron depletion, 52 pregnant women from the same hospital, and 4 traditional healers from the surroundings of Kilifi in Kenya were interviewed on the topic of soil-eating and its perceived causes and consequences. The

P. W. Geissler; R. J. Prince; M. Levene; C. Poda; S. E. Beckerleg; W. Mutemi; C. E. Shulman

1999-01-01

149

Douching and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women in Surabaya, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the association between douching (douching agents and timing) and sexually transmitted disease. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted diseases and habits of vaginal douching was performed on 599 pregnant women who visited a prenatal clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia. RESULTS: Of the 599 pregnant women, 115 (19.2%) had at least one sexually transmitted

M. R. Joesoef; H. Sumampouw; M. Linnan; S. Schmid; A. Idajadi; M. E. St. Louis

1996-01-01

150

Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women of Hyderabad, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between antenatal depression, anxiety and domestic violence in pregnant women in developing countries, despite the World Health Organization’s estimates that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of the global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mood disorders, their predictors and sequelae among pregnant women in Pakistan.Aims:

Rozina Karmaliani; Nargis Asad; Carla M. Bann; Nancy Moss; Elizabeth M. Mcclure; Omrana Pasha; Linda L. Wright; Robert L. Goldenberg

2009-01-01

151

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TOBACCO USE AMONG RURAL AND URBAN PREGNANT WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of smoking on rural and urban pregnant women. More specifically, the variables of the knowledge of health effects, health provider recommendations, subscores from the Health Belief Model (HBM), and social support were explored in relation to the smoking behavior of pregnant women. A secondary purpose was to investigate the accuracy

Whitney Jeanne Katirai

2011-01-01

152

The Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B) Colonization in Pregnant Women at Thammasat Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Group B Streptococci (GBS) is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septice- mia and meningitis. Objective: The present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women and to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Material and Method: From November 2004 to February 2005, 406 pregnant women were examined

Siripen Tor-Udom

153

Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

2010-07-01

154

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID:18847476

Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

155

Health care-seeking practices of pregnant women and the role of the midwife in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the health-seeking practices of pregnant women in a periurban area in Cape Town, South Africa. This qualitative study was based on 103 minimally structured in-depth interviews of 32 pregnant women. Most women were interviewed on several occasions, and a group discussion was held with women. The interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed ethnographically,

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Zodumo Mvo

2001-01-01

156

Joint hypermobility in African non-pregnant nulliparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of joint hypermobility in non-pregnant nulliparous women and the influences of age and Quetelet-index in a rural, female population in Tanzania. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Joint mobility was measured according to the scoring systems of Beighton and Biro. Results: According to the Beighton criteria with a score of 0 to 9 points, 50.5% of

Jennifer J Verhoeven; Mariska Tuinman; Pieter W. J Van Dongen

1999-01-01

157

Thinking About Inducing Your Labor: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... About Inducing Your Labor: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats View PDF (PDF) 894 kB Download Audio ( ... the medicine used is the same. Why might women want to induce labor? Physical discomforts in the ...

158

Short-term behavioral changes in pregnant women after a quit-smoking program via e-learning: a descriptive study from Japan.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of Japanese women in their reproductive years are smokers. Therefore, in the present study, we report the behavioral changes of woman who undertook a 3 month stop-smoking program. Sixty-six pregnant smokers in the first trimester of pregnancy participated in this study from two hospitals and an obstetric clinic in Japan. Our newly-developed e-learning program uses a cell phone Internet connection service to support pregnant women who want to quit smoking. Using this, service participants were given guidance concerning smoking, and were breath tested for their carbon monoxide levels every 4 weeks for 3 months. An e-learning cessation smoking-support program was maintained throughout the same period. Consequently, 52 of 66 pregnant smokers from three settings began the program, and 48 of 52 eventually completed it. The achievement rate of non-smoking was 71.1% (37/48), and their carbon monoxide exhalation levels significantly decreased from 6.43 ± 4.5 ppm at the beginning to 0.7 ± 1.0 ppm in 1 month, to 0.29 ± 1.08 in 3 months (P < 0.001). These results suggest the effectiveness of our e-leaning program. This paper reports the results of the study. PMID:22950611

Fujioka, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Turale, Sue

2012-09-01

159

The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24484853

2014-01-01

160

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

161

Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in

Maria I Rockenbach; Sandra A Marinho; Elaine B Veeck; Laura Lindemann; Rosemary S Shinkai

2006-01-01

162

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435...Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2012-10-01

163

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436...Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2013-10-01

164

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2011-10-01

165

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435...Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2010-10-01

166

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2011-07-01

167

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435...Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2013-10-01

168

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435...Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2011-10-01

169

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2012-10-01

170

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2010-07-01

171

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436...Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2010-10-01

172

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436...Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2011-10-01

173

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436...Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. ...period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...

2012-10-01

174

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2010-10-01

175

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2013-07-01

176

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2012-07-01

177

SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT NEEDS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN LOUISIANA: FINDINGS FROM A STUDY OF WOMEN GIVING BIRTH IN TWO HOSPITALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and Louisiana State University Medical Center (LSUMC), with assistance from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. This is one of seven studies that together constitute Louisiana's State Demand,and Needs Assessment Studies: Alcohol and Other Drugs. This work was supported by the Center for

Lori J. Ducharme; Rebecca L. Green; Jody M. Greene; J. Valley Rachal

1998-01-01

178

Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood.\\u000a The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers\\u000a in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total

Kelly R. Evenson; Merry-K. Moos; Kathryn Carrier; Anna Maria Siega-Riz

2009-01-01

179

Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.  

PubMed

The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and ?-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:24319740

Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

2013-11-01

180

Breastfeeding Intention Among Pregnant Hong Kong Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of\\u000a Hong Kong’s regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates.\\u000a The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire\\u000a was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and

Ying Lau

2010-01-01

181

Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

2012-01-01

182

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; T?nnesen, Hanne

2013-01-01

183

Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the infants' environmental health study (ISA) in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9-56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05-53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = -3.1; 95% CI: -5.8 to -0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: -1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

Mora, Ana M; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Smith, Donald R; Menezes-Filho, José A; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-03-18

184

Carrying their own medical records: the perspective of pregnant women.  

PubMed

Freedom of information, access to and ownership of medical records are current and controversial issues in Australia. Relating to pregnancy and birth the debate provokes emotional responses and raises important questions about access to information, decision-making, responsibility, power and control. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the impact on pregnant women of carrying their medical records throughout pregnancy Twenty-one women participated in face-to-face individual interviews, which were coded for thematic analysis. The study found the reaction of women toward carrying their own records to be overwhelmingly positive. Maternal record holding had the potential to improve the level of communication between the health care worker and the pregnant woman and provided a greater sense of sharing and communication within the family The study also established that maternal record holding was of benefit to the woman's partner who was better informed and more involved in the pregnancy All but one of the women who participated favoured carrying their records in subsequent pregnancies. A concern about the potential for losing or misplacing records was not seen in this study, as no women lost their records. A sense of ownership would argue against this possible drawback. PMID:11787912

Phipps, H

2001-11-01

185

Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics  

PubMed Central

Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent antimalarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.

Eze, Uchenna I.; Eferakeya, Adego E.; Oparah, Azuka C.; Enato., Ehijie F.

186

Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

2012-01-01

187

Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children  

PubMed Central

Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ?94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 ?g/ml and troughs of >1.75 ?g/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G. L.

2013-01-01

188

Sexuality of pregnant and breastfeeding women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pregnancy and lactation on the sexual behavior of women was studied, using a retrospective questionnaire answered by a nonrandom sample of 33 women. Sexual functioning was operationally defined by four categories: desire, frequency, enjoyment, and orgasm. Five time periods were studied: the three trimesters of pregnancy, the period of breastfeeding and the period after weaning. Most of

James A. Kenny

1973-01-01

189

A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

2014-01-01

190

Benevolent Sexism, Perceived Health Risks, and the Inclination to Restrict Pregnant Women’s Freedoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of sexist ideology in perceptions of health risks during pregnancy and willingness\\u000a to intervene on pregnant women’s behavior. Initially, 160 female psychology undergraduates in the South East of England completed\\u000a the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick and Fiske 1996). Two months later, in an apparently unrelated study, they rated the safety of 45 behaviours during

Robbie M. Sutton; Karen M. Douglas; Leigh M. McClellan

191

Cardiac troponins and oxidative stress markers in non-pregnant, pregnant and preeclampsia women.  

PubMed

Free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in many clinical disorders, including atherosclerosis. This study was to investigate lipids and oxidative stress markers among women with 50 healthy non-pregnant compare with 50 healthy pregnant and 50 pregnancy-induced hypertensive subjects and correlate with cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and troponin T (cTnT). The level of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), cTnI and cTnT levels significantly increase in pregnancy-induced hypertension compare with other groups. The level of lipids significantly altered in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Conversely, the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were significantly decreased in pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to nonpregnant and healthy pregnant. Our data suggest that there is an imbalance between lipoperoxidation and antioxidants levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia. Serum cTnI and cTnT are elevated in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension indicating some degree of cardiac myofibrillar damage and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:21280551

Pasupathi, Palanisamy; Manivannan, Uma; Manivannan, Perisamy; Deepa, Mathiyalagan

2010-04-01

192

Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).  

PubMed

This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

2014-01-01

193

[Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women - safety and effectiveness].  

PubMed

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics, pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications from influenza. The factors believed to increase the susceptibility of complicated influenza infection during pregnancy are linked to the physiologic changes, including immunologic changes (attenuation of the cell-mediated immune responses, selective suppression of T-helper 1 cell mediated immunity while the adaptive humoral immunity remains unimpaired), increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption and tidal volume. Pregnant women have similar incidence of seasonal influenza as the general population, however because of the physiological changes, they are at an increased risk of complications (including secondary pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency increased risk of stillbirth, premature deliveries) and death. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries. Vaccination against influenza with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been proven to be safe and effective. Lack of harmful effect of TIV on pregnant women and newborns has been demonstrated in several studies: no increased risk of spontaneous abortions, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations, cesarean section have been reported. Vaccination against influenza has been proven to be effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Several studies revealed a decreased risk of influenza-like illnesses among mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy but also a decreased risk of laboratory confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza and its complications among newborns and infants born to vaccinated mothers. Currently available inactivated influenza vaccines are not licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months. Protection of young infants against the infection in early life thus requires a cocooning strategy to reduce the number of vulnerable individuals among care givers and contacts. Neonates and infants may be also protected against influenza directly by antibodies of maternal origin that cross the placenta or are transferred via breast milk. The duration of passively acquired antibodies depends on the initial blood concentration and is probably less than 6 months. Vaccine coverage among pregnant women rdmains low Possible explanations include lack of education by health care workers, the feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious problem, and the failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. Overall, the most important factor for a woman to decide to be immunized during pregnancy was to have a clear recommendation from the health care provider Reasons evoked by obstetricians for not providing influenza vaccines included lack sufficient data on safety and efficacy concerns about the medical legal risks of vaccination during pregnancy and the perdeption that pregnant women would not want to be vaccinated. Educational intervention targeting health care workers in charge of pregnant women should be primary implemented to provide higher influenza vaccine coverage and to protect pregnant women and young infants from influenza related morbidity PMID:23488311

Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Wo?niak Kosek, Agnieszka; Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta

2013-01-01

194

Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women. PMID:25332259

de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

2014-01-01

195

Pregnant Women in Women-Only and Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: A Comparison of Client Characteristics and Program Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared characteristics of pregnant women treated in women-only (WO) and mixed-gender (MG) substance abuse treatment programs and compared services provided by these two types of programs. Participants were 407 pregnant women who were admitted to 7 WO programs and 29 MG programs in 13 counties across California during 2000–2002. Pregnant women treated in WO programs demonstrated greater severity

Yih-Ing Hser; Noosha Niv

2006-01-01

196

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

E-print Network

fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did...

Gradmark, Anna; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renstrom, Frida; Steiginga, Susanne; Persson, Margareta; Wright, Antony; Bluck, Les; Domellof, Magnus; Kahn, Steven E; Mogren, Ingrid; Franks, Paul W

2011-06-16

197

Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Methods Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. Results As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p?=?0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p?=?0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p?=?0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p?=?0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p?=?0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p?=?0.02) and thoracic (p?

2013-01-01

198

Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2013-11-01

199

Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

2012-10-01

200

Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

Rahman, Mosfequr

2012-08-01

201

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV1 infected pregnant women in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women and described\\u000a factors associated with STI diagnosis, as a nested study within the European Collaborative Study (ECS). The ECS is a cohort\\u000a study in which HIV-infected pregnant women are enrolled and their children followed from birth, according to standard clinical\\u000a and laboratory protocols. Information on

Megan Landes; Claire Thorne; Patricia Barlow; Simona Fiore; Ruslan Malyuta; Pasquale Martinelli; Svetlana Posokhova; Valeria Savasi; Igor Semenenko; Andrej Stelmah; Cecilia Tibaldi; Marie-Louise Newell

2007-01-01

202

Supervised home-based exercise may attenuate the decline of glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe significant deterioration of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both the pregnant woman and her baby. Although it is well established that regular exercise benefits insulin sensitivity in the nonpregnant population, the effect on glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the

M. J. Ong; K. J. Guelfi; T. Hunter; K. E. Wallman; P. A. Fournier; J. P. Newnham

2009-01-01

203

Adverse neonatal and cardiac outcomes are more common in pregnant women with cardiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Pregnant women with heart disease (HD) are at increased risk for cardiac (CV) complications. However, the frequency of neonatal (NE) complications in pregnant women with HD relative to pregnant women without HD has not been examined. Methods and Results—Pregnant women with HD were prospectively monitored during 302 pregnancies. The frequency of NE and CV complications was compared with those in

Samuel C. Siu; Jack M. Colman; S. Sorenson

2002-01-01

204

Status of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination and Factors Affecting It in Pregnant Women in Kahramanmaras, an Eastern Mediterranean City of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza.MethodologyWe enrolled 314 of

Ali Ozer; Deniz Cemgil Arikan; Ekrem Kirecci; Hasan Cetin Ekerbicer; Benjamin J. Cowling

2010-01-01

205

Food Cravings and Dislikes of Pregnant Women from Four WIC Clinics in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

To objectives of this study were to determine food cravings and dislikes of pregnant women who practiced pica and women who did not practice pica. Mothers (n=281) with infants less than one year old who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) were interviewed at four WIC Clinics in Houston and Prairie View, Texas.

A. J. Rainville

1998-01-01

206

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended. PMID:21244660

2011-01-01

207

[Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].  

PubMed

A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly in developing countries. The condition and welfare of women are tightly linked to 3 factors: age at marriage, beginning of procreation, and capacity to regulate and space pregnancies. Women's status is also influenced by whether they are married and their rights to divorce. In developing countries about 45% of women are illiterate, compared to 25% of men. The salaries of women do not equal those of men in any country. Only Finland and Sweden have been unreservedly committed to providing equal political rights and legal protection against sexual discrimination. PMID:12157687

1988-12-01

208

Factors Associated with Health Information-Seeking in Low-Income Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic

Carol Shieh; Marion E. Broome; Timothy E. Stump

2010-01-01

209

Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous pollutants; epidemiologic data suggest they may be associated with adverse health outcomes, including subfecundity. We examined subfecundity in relation to two perfluorinated compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Methods This case-control analysis included 910 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 and 2004. Around gestational week 17, women reported their time to pregnancy and provided blood samples. Cases consisted of 416 women with a time to pregnancy greater than 12 months, considered subfecund. Plasma concentrations of perfluorinated compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each pollutant quartile using logistic regression. Estimates were further stratified by parity. Results The median plasma concentration of PFOS was 13.0 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR]=10.3-16.6 ng/ml) and of PFOA was 2.2 ng/ml (IQR=1.7-3.0 ng/ml). The relative odds of subfecundity among parous women was 2.1 (95% CI=1.2-3.8) for the highest PFOS quartile and 2.1 (1.0-4.0) for the highest PFOA quartile. Among nulliparous women, the respective relative odds were 0.7 (0.4-1.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.2). Conclusion Previous studies suggest that the body burden of perfluorinated compounds decreases during pregnancy and lactation through transfer to the fetus and to breast milk. Afterwards, the body burden may rise again. Among parous women, increased body burden may be due to a long interpregnancy interval rather than the cause of a long time to pregnancy. Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity. PMID:22081060

Whitworth, Kristina W.; Haug, Line S.; Baird, Donna D.; Becher, Georg; Hoppin, Jane A.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Thomsen, Cathrine; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2011-01-01

210

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2013-10-15

211

Effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The study aimed to investigate the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a case-control study, nine pregnant and eight non-pregnant Sudanese women infected with P. falciparum were treated with intramuscular artemether. Before being given artemether, they received a single dose of quinine hydrochloride\\u000a as intravenous infusion.

Rajaa A. Mirghani; Ishraga Elagib; Gehad Elghazali; Urban Hellgren; Lars L. Gustafsson

2010-01-01

212

[Pollution and smoking in pregnant women].  

PubMed

For nine months the pregnant woman, and indirectly her fetus, is exposed to an aerosol composed of different pollutants. With some of these, as for smoking, it has been possible to define objectively and statistically an alteration of the health status and of the satisfactory outcome of pregnancy; with others it has not been possible at present to define a dose relation effect or a threshold of risk. In this study, known connections were studied between pregnancy and smoking (specific risks, perinatal mortality, childhood cancer and breastfeeding), industrial pollution and particularly those related to lead, fertilisers and pesticides, opiates and cannabis derivatives (in particular their effect on reproductive function), radioactivity and its correlation with the genetic code and the risk of cancer and pollution by micro-organisms. If these risks exist, even it they are not all assessable objectively, the short term action of the most benefit is certainly a change in individual behaviour, for example with tobacco consumption. PMID:2840722

André, E

1988-01-01

213

Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ?900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women. PMID:21226958

2011-01-01

214

Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

Jameil, Noura Al

2014-01-01

215

Activity of Histidine in Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes of Pregnant Women during Exacerbation of Cytomegalovirus Infection.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of active cytomegalovirus infection on histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women at gestation weeks 20-22 and its involvement into hemoglobin oxygenation. Using the histochemical technique developed by us, we studied the distribution of products of specific reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women. The percentage of histidine-positive erythrocytes and their area were evaluated. The relationship between the distribution of the products of the reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women and the titer of anti-cytomegalovirus IgG was revealed. The histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with active cytomegalovirus infection was reduced, which impaired heme binding to globin and decreased the formation of oxyhemoglobin. PMID:25348566

Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A

2014-10-01

216

Population Pharmacokinetics of Emtricitabine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1Infected Pregnant Women and Their Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and their neonates and to determine the optimal prophylactic dose for neonates after birth to prevent mother-to- child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 38 HIV-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (300 mg)-FTC (200 mg) tablets—two tablets at the initiation of

Deborah Hirt; Saik Urien; Elisabeth Rey; Elise Arrive; Didier K. Ekouevi; Patrick Coffie; Sim Kruy Leang; Sarita Lalsab; Divine Avit; Eric Nerrienet; James McIntyre; Stephane Blanche; Francois Dabis; Jean-Marc Treluyer

2009-01-01

217

Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Both folate and betaine are important predictors of total homocysteine (tHcy) during pregnancy. However, studies to date have only been undertaken in populations with Western dietary patterns. Objective: We investigated the predictors of tHcy in pregnant women recruited in the Seychelles, a population where access to fortifiedfoodsislimitedandwherewomenhabituallyconsumediets rich in fish, eggs, rice, and fruit. Design: Pregnant women (n 226) provided

Julie MW Wallace; Maxine P Bonham; JJ Strain; Emeir M Duffy; Paula J Robson; Mary Ward; Helene McNulty; Philip W Davidson; Gary J Myers; Conrad F Shamlaye; Tom W Clarkson; Anne M Molloy; John M Scott; Per M Ueland

218

First trimester embryonic\\/fetal heart rate in normal pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish reference ranges for first trimester embryonic\\/fetal heart rate in normal pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We performed ultrasonogram in 319 normal pregnant women, gestation age between 6+0 and 14+6 weeks and measured embryonic\\/fetal heart rates using M-mode. The embryonic\\/fetal heart rates were analyzed according to gestational ages (GA). Results: Data of 319

Tharangrut Hanprasertpong; Vorapong Phupong

2006-01-01

219

Accelerated Bone Turnover in Pregnant Women with McCune-Albright Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone turnover in pregnant women with McCune-Albright syndrome may be affected by both the syndrome and pregnancy. This study evaluated changes in biochemical bone turnover markers in pregnant women with the syndrome. Serum calcium, phosphorus, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D), intact osteocalcin (I-OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urinary pyridinoline (Pyr), deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) and hydroxyproline (HPR) were measured during pregnancy and postpartum

Hisao Osada; Rie Sakamoto; Katsuyoshi Seki; Souei Sekiya

2005-01-01

220

Patient-provider communication about gestational weight gain among nulliparous women: a qualitative study of the views of obstetricians and first-time pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the Institute of Medicine updated its guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy, in part because women of childbearing age now weigh more pre-pregnancy and tend to gain more weight during pregnancy than women did when the previous set of guidelines were released in 1990. Women who begin pregnancy overweight or obese and women who gain weight outside IOM recommendations are at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. With these concerns in mind, we examined what obstetricians communicate about gestational weight gain to their pregnant patients and how nulliparous patients perceive weight-related counseling from their obstetricians. Methods We conducted one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with 19 nulliparous women and 7 obstetricians recruited from a single clinic at a large academic medical center in the United States. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using thematic analysis. Results We identified 4 major themes: 1) Discussions about the amount and pace of gestational weight gain: obstetricians reported variation in the frequency and timing of weight-related discussions with patients while most patients said that weight was not emphasized by their obstetricians; 2) The content of communication about nutrition and physical activity: obstetricians said they discuss nutrition and activity with all patients while most patients reported that their obstetrician either discussed these topics in general terms or not at all; 3) Communication about postpartum weight loss: obstetricians said that they do not typically address postpartum weight loss with patients during prenatal visits while patients had concerns about postpartum weight; and 4) Patient feelings about obstetrician advice: most patients said that their obstetrician does not tend to offer “unsolicited advice”, instead offering information in response to patient questions or concerns. Women were divided about whether they desired more advice from their obstetrician on weight gain, nutrition, and activity. Conclusions Our analysis revealed discrepancies between obstetricians’ and patients’ perceptions of their weight-related clinical interactions. Our findings suggest that there is a missed opportunity to use prenatal visits as opportunities to discuss healthy eating and exercise during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and beyond. Additional research on the design, implementation, and testing of interventions to address prenatal nutrition and physical activity is warranted. PMID:24330402

2013-01-01

221

Investigation of the Sexual Behavior of Pregnant Women Residing in Squatter Neighborhoods in Southwestern Turkey: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors designed this study in order to understand changes in sexual behavior during pregnancy. The sample comprised 26 healthy women who were in at least their 37th week of pregnancy. The authors collected data through in-depth individual interviews. Participants reported the following most common reasons for ceasing sexual intercourse in the final stages of pregnancy: (a) physical discomfort during

Hatice Balci Yangin; Kafiye Ero?lu

2011-01-01

222

A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13?627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30?years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

2014-01-01

223

Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n?=?77) or equivocal (n?=?4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. PMID:24909551

Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

2014-08-01

224

Prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Leon, Mexico, from December 18, 2003, through February 28, 2006. In a cross-sectional study, 2,257 pregnant women with at least one risk factor for AIDS were recruited. In these women, a sample of blood to determine HIV antibodies was taken. There were two women with positive HIV antibodies; therefore, the HIV seroprevalence was 0.8 per 1,000. Of the two HIV-positive women, one of them had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases; she was married to a man who was working outside of our country for about 10 months, and also he had tattoos. The other HIV-positive woman had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases, and her husband had intercourse with different women. The risk factors of use of tattoos, migration to foreign countries, and use of injectable drugs were more frequent among the male partners than in the pregnant women (P < .001). We concluded that in our country as well as in other developing countries, the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with risk factors is low but still present. Because a significant number of risk factors for AIDS also were found in their male partners, HIV testing should be performed in all pregnant women as well as in their male partners. PMID:19575323

Romero-Gutiérrez, Gustavo; De Luna-Ortega, Fátima Rocío; Horna-López, Alejandra; Ponce-Ponce De Léon, Ana Lilia

2009-08-01

225

Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p?pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

2014-01-01

226

Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

2012-01-01

227

Serological ELISA Test (IgM & IgG) for Prospective Study of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with significant maternal and fetal consequences. The aim of present study was to determine the current prenatal CMV seroprevalence in Eastern Azerbaijan and evaluate the routine laboratory diagnostic techniques of anti-CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Methods: During the present prospective cross-sectional study, 125 women referred to No. 1 Laboratory of Specialized

M Rajaii; N Nezami; A Pourhassan; L Farzadi

228

Elevated concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and elastin degradation products in the sera of pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Although the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) appears to be increased in most inflammatory diseases, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, if any, is unknown. In a recent study in Taiwan, the serum concentrations of MMP-12 and its substrate elastin were evaluated in pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Compared with the healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women used as controls, the pregnant women with toxoplasmosis had significantly higher serum concentrations of MMP-12 and significantly higher levels of elastin synthesis and degradation. Interaction between MMP-12 and elastin in the serum samples was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. It seems possible that MMP-12 may contribute to elastin degradation occurring during the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. PMID:21801501

Chou, P-H; Lai, S-C

2011-01-01

229

School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

Rudoe, Naomi

2014-01-01

230

Pregnant Women of Mexican Descent: Constructions of Motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research related to pregnancy outcomes has tended to have a bio-medical focus. More recent research has begun to explore possible social and cultural influences on birth outcomes. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 pregnant women of Mexican descent in the Texas\\/Mexico border region to begin to describe the social and cultural contexts of pregnancy of women of Mexican ancestry.

Faith W. Lucas

2010-01-01

231

Prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of Chlamydia trachomatis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in south-western Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred-ninety-three pregnant and seventy five non-pregnant women, aged 18–35 years, were examined for endocervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis using an enzyme immunoassay technique on cervical specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was discovered in 7.2% of the pregnant women and in 10.6% of the non-pregnant ones. There was no correlation between chlamydia infection and either previous vulvovaginitis, previous pregnancies or pregnancy outcome. However,

Th. Arkoulis; G. Decavalas; M. Papapetropoulou; J. Detorakis; X. Kondakis; V. Tzigounis

1989-01-01

232

Estimation of Daily Energy Expenditure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Using a Wrist-Worn TriAxial Accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary

Vincent T. van Hees; Frida Renström; Antony Wright; Anna Gradmark; Michael Catt; Kong Y. Chen; Marie Löf; Les Bluck; Jeremy Pomeroy; Nicholas J. Wareham; Ulf Ekelund; Søren Brage; Paul W. Franks

2011-01-01

233

Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Results: Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands’ hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Conclusion: Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. PMID:24761233

Ohagwu, CC; Eze, CU; Eze, JC; Odo, MC; Abu, PO; Ohagwu, CI

2014-01-01

234

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THE EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN SOUTHERN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the current situation of STH in pregnant women, explore factors associated with STH and evaluate the effects of its treatment. A cohort study was conducted in four southernmost provinces. All pregnant women who pre- sented at their first prenatal care visit at participating hospitals were interviewed by trained health care providers and their stool specimens

T Liabsuetrakul

2009-01-01

235

Depressive symptoms predict smoking status among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

The current study assessed self-reported psychopathology in women who spontaneously quit or continued smoking after learning that they are pregnant and examined whether any potential differences remained after control for confounding variables. All participants (77 smokers and 50 spontaneous quitters) completed 3 assessments of psychological functioning prior to enrollment in either smoking cessation or relapse prevention studies. Assessments included the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); and the Adult Self-Report (ASR). Smokers and spontaneous quitters differed on sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. In terms of psychological functioning, smokers reported significantly more depression/anxiety symptoms and withdrawn behavior than spontaneous quitters on the BSI and the ASR. Higher depression scores on the BSI were associated with increased odds of continued smoking, even after controlling for sociodemographic and smoking variables in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that depressive symptoms may be an independent contributor to the problem of continued smoking during pregnancy, which may have implications for smoking-cessation interventions among pregnant women. PMID:19411145

Linares Scott, Teresa J.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Badger, Gary J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

2009-01-01

236

Pregnant women’s knowledge, practices, and needs related to food safety and listeriosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and needs of pregnant women regarding food safety, including the risk of listeriosis, in order to develop targeted messages and educational resources in British Columbia (BC). Design Qualitative study using focus groups and quantitative study using a standardized questionnaire. Setting Seven family practice clinics in BC. Focus groups were conducted in 3 program groups for new mothers. Participants Pregnant women and women who had recently delivered babies. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with women who had recently delivered. Qualitative analysis to identify common themes was conducted. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women at their health care providers’ (HCPs’) offices. Statistical analysis was done to assess associations between demographic features, knowledge, and practices. Results from both study methods were compared and common findings were presented. Main findings Participants reported that food safety and the risk of listeriosis were important to them during pregnancy; however, their knowledge of high-risk foods and safe food practices was limited. Although they identified their HCPs as a valuable source of information, they explained there were barriers to getting information from them. Participants reported doing their own research using books, websites, and social networks. They made recommendations to improve food safety messages, as well as the availability and format of resources. Conclusion Women in BC identified a gap between the information on food safety and listeriosis that they needed during pregnancy and the resources that were available. Using the information collected from this study, resources that are targeted at women of childbearing years, as well as their HCPs, are under development in BC. PMID:23064922

Taylor, Marsha; Kelly, Meghan; Noël, Mélissandre; Brisdon, Shendra; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Gustafson, Larry; Galanis, Eleni

2012-01-01

237

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use during pregnancy may result in premature birth, miscarriage, and a variety of behavioral and ...

238

Pelvic girdle pain in three pregnant women choosing chiropractic management: a pilot study using a respondent-generated instrument and chiropractor's assessment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic girdle pain (PGP), as experienced by pregnant women, is poorly defined and understood. Despite an increasing body of research, there is still little in the literature that is accessible to healthcare practitioners regarding the management and treatment of this condition. There is also a lack of information about the use of specific tools to help define the problem, or

C. G. Andrew; N. Eaton; G. Dorey

239

Attitudes toward Family Planning among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Enrolled in a Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Study in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fisher's exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current pregnancies were unintended. Factors associated with positive intentions to use FP were: marital status (p?=?0.04), having talked to their spouse or partner about FP (p<0.001), perceived spouse or partner approval of FP (p<0.001), previous use of a FP method (p?=?0.006), attitude toward the current pregnancy (p?=?0.02), disclosure of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (p?=?0.03) and ethnic group (p?=?0.03). Conclusion A significant gap exists between future FP intentions and current FP practices. Support and approval by the spouse or partner are key elements of FP intentions. Counseling services should be offered to both members of a couple to increase FP use, especially given the high number of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-positive women. Condoms should be promoted as part of a dual use method for HIV and STI prevention and for contraception. Integration of individual and couple FP services into routine HIV care, treatment and support services is needed in order to avoid unintended pregnancies and to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. PMID:23990868

Akelo, Victor; Girde, Sonali; Borkowf, Craig B.; Angira, Frank; Achola, Kevin; Lando, Richard; Mills, Lisa A.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lee Lecher, Shirley

2013-01-01

240

Habitual Snoring and Asthma Comorbidity Among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring and asthma are known comorbid conditions in men and non-pregnant women. This comorbidity has not been evaluated among pregnant women. We assessed the habitual snoring-asthma relationship among pregnant women. Methods A cohort of women (N=1,335) were interviewed during pregnancy, and we ascertained participants’ asthma status and collected information about habitual snoring, before and during pregnancy. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Compared with non-asthmatics, the adjusted OR among asthmatics for snoring before pregnancy was 2.13 (95%CI 1.10–4.12). The odds of snoring during early pregnancy was 1.79-fold (OR=1.79; 95%CI 1.07–3.01). Associations were more pronounced among overweight (?25 kg/m2) asthmatics (OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.27–12.75). Conclusions We report a cross-sectional association of habitual snoring and asthma among pregnant women. If confirmed, pregnant asthmatics may benefit from more vigilant screening and management of OSA or habitual snoring during pregnancy. PMID:21091394

Williams, Michelle A.; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Fida, Neway; Cripe, Swee May

2011-01-01

241

Overweight increases risk of first trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant women.  

PubMed

Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight that are much more common could be a risk factor for hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if overweight increases risk for thyroid dysfunction, and specifically hypothyroxinaemia, in iodine-deficient pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional study at first hospital visit among healthy Thai pregnant women. We measured weight and height, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin. Pre-pregnancy weight and relevant dietary factors were determined by questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was used to classify weight status. Among 514 women (mean gestational age, 11 weeks) with a median UIC of 111??g?dL(-1) , indicating mild iodine deficiency, 12% had low free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations: 3% had overt hypothyroidism; 7% had subclinical hypothyroidism; and 8% had isolated hypothyroxinaemia. Based on pre-pregnancy BMI, 26% of women were overweight or obese. In a multiple regression model, BMI was a negative predictor of fT4 (??=?-0.20, P?women, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) of a low fT4 in overweight women was 3.64 (2.08-6.37) (P?pregnant Thai women who are overweight have a 3.6-fold higher risk of hypothyroxinaemia in the first trimester compared to normal weight women. Targeted screening should consider overweight a potential risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in iodine-deficient areas. PMID:23937433

Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Zimmermann, Michael B

2014-01-01

242

Listeria infection in Chinese pregnant women and neonates from Shandong  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the characters of pregnant women and neonates with listeria monocytogenes infections (L. monocytogenes) in Shandong of China. Method: Pregnant women with premature delivery or prenatal fever were recruited in 2013. Bacterial culture was performed for the umbilical cord blood and placental swab after delivery. The strains isolated were then analyzed for the virulence factors and classified based on the serotype and MLST typing. Results: Four cases (0.34‰) of the neonates were identified with listeriosis. Prenatal fever was observed in mothers of all infected neonates. The pathological examination of placenta showed non-specific inflammatory manifestations and two serotypes including 1/2b and 4b were detected. Six kinds of virulence factors including hly, inlA, actA, plcB, prfA and iap were all identified in the inflected neonates. Conclusion: The results suggested that mother-to-infant was an important transmission mode for listeria. Antibiotic treatment, bacterial culture and placenta pathological examination were highly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis. PMID:25356132

Lv, Jun; Qin, Zhenli; Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Qiurong

2014-01-01

243

Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

2013-01-01

244

End-tidal Breath Carbon Monoxide Measurements are Lower in Pregnant Women with Uterine Contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) among women with and without uterine contractions in term and preterm pregnancies.STUDY DESIGN: In all, 55 nonsmoking healthy pregnant women were enrolled. ETCOc levels were compared among women with contractions (10 preterm and 13 term) and 32 women without contractions (34–41 weeks gestation).RESULTS: Maternal age, gravidity and parity were similar

Israel Hendler; Micha Baum; Doron Kreiser; Eyal Schiff; Maurice Druzin; David K Stevenson; Daniel S Seidman

2004-01-01

245

I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV  

E-print Network

I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV, women may be offered HIV testing. Women who accept testing will need to sign an HIV testing consent form. In areas with opt-out testing, HIV testing is automatically included as part of rou- tine prenatal care

Bezrukov, Sergey M.

246

Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. We have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. Sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics

A E Ades; C S Peckham; G E Dale; J M Best; S Jeansson

1989-01-01

247

HIV serostatus disclosure pattern among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in two medical facilities in Enugu, Nigeria, from September to November 2007. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from HIV-positive pregnant women accessing PMTCT (prevention of maternal-to-child transmission) services at the two centres. Ninety-two women were interviewed: 89 (96.7%) had disclosed their status, while 3 (3.3%) had not. Of the 89 women who had disclosed, 84 (94.4%) had disclosed to partners, 82 (92.1%) to husbands, 2 (2.2%) to fiancés, 18 (20.2%) to sisters, 13 (14.6%) to mothers, 10 (11.2%) to brothers, 10 (11.2%) to fathers and 10 (11.2%) to priests. Fifty-two (58.4%) gave emotional support as the reason for disclosure and 46 (51.7%) gave economic and financial support as reasons. Fifty-six (62.9%) reported understanding from partner as a positive outcome and 44 (49.4%) reported financial support. Forty-six (51.7%) reported no negative outcome. Serostatus disclosure rate in this study was high with most women disclosing to their partners. PMID:19552827

Ezegwui, H U; Nwogu-Ikojo, E E; Enwereji, J O; Dim, C C

2009-11-01

248

Physical activity and energy expenditure: findings from the Ibadan Pregnant Women's Survey.  

PubMed

Physical activity, if there are no medical caveats, is beneficial to all people including pregnant women. This study examined the level of physical activity in a group of pregnant Nigerian women. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of 453 pregnant women. The mean age of participants was 30.89 +/- 4.44 years, 222 (49.0%) were sedentary, and only 46 (10.2%) presented with moderate activity level. The highest amount of energy (75.9 MET-h x wk(-1)) was expended on household activities. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy had more than three times the risk of being sedentary (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.11-4.56) but the risk reduced by 58% in gravid > or = 5 women. Most of the pregnant women recorded physical activity that was lower than the recommended level, which could lead to unfavourable health outcomes for mother and child. Efforts to promote physical activity in pregnant women in this environment are desirable. PMID:25022148

Adeniyi, Ade F; Ogwumike, Omoyemi O

2014-06-01

249

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by

Ching-Chiang Lin; Hsiu-Shu Hsieh; Yu-Jie Huang; Yeou-Lih Huang; Ming-Kun Ku; Hsin-Chia Hung

2008-01-01

250

Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.  

PubMed

Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2012-12-01

251

Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis

Ingrid J Rowlands; Nuala M Byrne; H David McIntyre; Leonie K Callaway

2011-01-01

252

Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

2004-01-01

253

Hepcidin and iron status among pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Although hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, is considered a major regulator of iron metabolism and anemia in chronic inflammation, its role in anemia during pregnancy has not been characterized. Our objective was to characterize the role of hepcidin in anemia during pregnancy. We examined the relationships between urinary hepcidin, iron status indicators, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional study conducted among 149 pregnant rural Bangladeshi women with biospecimens obtained during home visits. Urinary hepcidin was measured using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Urinary hepcidin, as log(intensity per mmol/L creatinine), was correlated with log ferritin (r = 0.33, p <0.001), the transferrin receptor index (r = -0.22, p = 0.007), and log alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (r = 0.20, p = 0.01), but not hemoglobin (r = 0.07, p= 0.40), log transferrin receptor (r = -0.07, p = 0.41), log erythropoietin (r = -0.01, p = 0.88) or log C-reactive protein (r = 0.06, p = 0.48). The strength of the relationship between hepcidin and ferritin was maintained in multiple linear regression analyses after enhancing the sample with data from women selected for low iron stores (n = 41). Among pregnant women in a community-based study in rural Bangladesh, urinary hepcidin levels were related to iron status and AGP but not hemoglobin, erythropoietin, or C-reactive protein. PMID:18818166

Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ray, Amanda L; Nath, Avindra; Wu, Lee S-F; Semba, Richard D

2008-01-01

254

Relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Women experience remarkably high rates of relational trauma including childhood abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence (IPV) during adulthood, and the childbearing years are no exception. The meaning of past and current relational trauma perpetrated by primary caregivers and significant others may be unique during pregnancy, in particular, because pregnancy is a salient time when mothers' important relationships are reworked and reorganized to "make room" for the relationship with the baby. The present study examined associations between different forms of relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms in 120 women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Women were between the ages of 18 and 42 years and came from diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated that severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly related to severity of IPV during pregnancy, and both types of trauma made unique, significant contributions to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, emotional/psychological violence had the largest associations with posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to other forms of violence. Findings indicate that it is critically important for clinicians working with pregnant women to conduct a thorough assessment of current and past relational trauma, including emotional/psychological trauma, in order to improve the well-being of the mother, the infant, and the mother-infant relationship. PMID:23713621

Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Krause, Kylene; Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah; Gallagher, Erin; Scott, Syreeta

2013-01-01

255

High Uptake of HIV Testing in Pregnant Women in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010. PMID:23152762

Remis, Robert S.; Merid, Maraki Fikre; Palmer, Robert W. H.; Whittingham, Elaine; King, Susan M.; Danson, Natasha S.; Vernich, Lee; Swantee, Carol; Major, Carol

2012-01-01

256

Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.  

PubMed

Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n?=?311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR?=?2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR?=?1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health. PMID:22471686

Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

2012-05-01

257

Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case-control study of a Nigerian project  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

2014-01-01

258

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

2010-07-01

259

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds...

2011-07-01

260

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

2012-07-01

261

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

2011-07-01

262

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

2012-10-01

263

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2012-07-01

264

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

2011-10-01

265

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds...

2013-07-01

266

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

2010-10-01

267

34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

2013-07-01

268

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2013-07-01

269

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2011-07-01

270

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds...

2012-07-01

271

40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

2010-07-01

272

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

2013-10-01

273

34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds...

2010-07-01

274

The effect of dietary estimates calculated using food frequency questionnaires on micronuclei formation in European pregnant women: a NewGeneris study.  

PubMed

The use of biomarkers of early genetic effects, predictive for cancer, such as micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes, may help to investigate the association between diet and cancer. We hypothesised that the presence of mutagens in the diet may increase MN formation. A 'pooled' standardised analysis was performed by applying the same experimental protocol for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in 625 young healthy women after delivery from five European study populations (Greece, Denmark, UK, Spain and Norway). We assessed MN frequencies in mono- and binucleated T-lymphocytes (MNMONO and MNBN) and the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index using a semi-automated image analysis system. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to estimate intake of fatty acids and a broad range of immunotoxic and genotoxic/carcinogenic compounds through the diet. Pooled difference based on delivery type revealed higher MNMONO frequencies in caesarean than in vaginal delivery (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in MNMONO frequencies with increasing calculated omega-6 PUFA concentrations and a decrease in MNBN frequencies with increasing calculated omega-3 PUFA concentrations. The expected toxic compounds estimated by FFQs were not associated with MN formation in mothers after delivery. In pregnant women, an omega-3 and -6 rich diet estimated by FFQ is associated with lower MN formation during pregnancy and delivery. PMID:25296962

Vande Loock, Kim; Botsivali, Maria; Zangogianni, Marina; Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolph; Fthenou, Eleni; Chatzi, Leda; Marcos, Ricard; Agramunt, Sylvia; Namork, Ellen; Granum, Berit; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielssen, Jeanette K S; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Roelants, Mathieu; Merlo, Franco; Kleinjans, Jos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

2014-11-01

275

Dietary recommendations for obese pregnant women: current questions and controversies.  

PubMed

With the increasing prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity is now one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions. Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are important modifiable risk factors for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Maternal obesity, associated with neonatal adiposity and high birthweight, has been implicated in increased risk of childhood obesity. Considerable effort has been directed towards improving clinical outcomes by lifestyle change in pregnant obese women, but there is at present no evidence-based intervention of adequate efficacy which can be recommended. The focus has been on preventing excessive weight gain, but studies have lacked the power to address effects on clinical outcomes; therefore preventing clinical practice translation. Adequately powered intervention studies devised to reduce neonatal adiposity by improvement of maternal glucose homeostasis, are needed to inform the optimal dietary and/or physical activity regimen. PMID:25230591

Poston, Lucilla; Patel, Nashita

2014-11-01

276

The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

2014-10-01

277

Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence in French pregnant women: Parity and place of birth as major predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we present data on cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence in pregnant women in France. One thousand and eighteen women were enrolled in a prospective study carried out in Grenoble. The overall rate of seropositivity, using a specific IgG ELISA test, was 51.5% (95% CI: 48.5–54.5). Among a homogeneous population of 873 women born in France with high or middle

B. Gratacap-Cavallier; J. L. Bosson; P. Morand; N. Dutertre; B. Chanzy; P. S. Jouk; C. Vandekerckhove; P. Cart-Lamy; J. M. Seigneurin

1998-01-01

278

Characteristics and Pregnancy Outcomes of Pregnant Women Asymptomatic for Bacterial Vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design  To determine the clinical, behavioral or demographic factors associated with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) and to\\u000a examine if women with asymptomatic BV had a higher risk of a variety of pregnancy outcomes compared to symptomatic BV positive\\u000a women. For this study, 1916 pregnant women who were 12 weeks’ gestation or less were enrolled. Interviewers facilitated vaginal\\u000a swab collection for BV

Deborah B. Nelson; Scarlett Bellamy; Irving Nachamkin; Althea Ruffin; Lynne Allen-Taylor; Frank K. Friedenberg

2008-01-01

279

Epidemiological studies in Poland on effect of physical activity of pregnant women on the health of offspring and future generations - adaptation of the hypothesis development origin of health and diseases.  

PubMed

It is recognized that the levels of women's physical activity during pregnancy has a direct bearing on the method of delivery and health of the newborn. The main objective of the study was investigation of the level of physical activity of women during pregnancy according to the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). The subjects of this study were n=2852 post-partum women surveyed together with their newborns, representing all obstetric hospital departments throughout Poland. The questionnaires were completed on a single day during the second week of November 2011. The women were also asked about the amount, range and type of physical activity they performed before becoming pregnant. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for precisely measuring physical activity according to the standard metabolically equivalent (MET). In addition, comparisons were made between the weight of the infant and newborn status using the APGAR scale with the amount of physical activity performed by the mothers. There were decidedly low physical activity levels observed in pregnant women compared to those before becoming pregnant. Appropriate interventions can therefore now be targeted through remedial action in Poland. It is important to perform intervention studies intended to test this hypothesis and attempt to identify the most appropriate levels for intensity, duration and frequency of physical exercise during pregnancy. The studies should consider the four domains of daily physical activity and utilize tools that reliably measure exposure variables. Such studies would provide valuable information for recommendations about physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:22742808

Wojty?a, Andrzej; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Paprzycki, Piotr; Skrzypczak, Maciej; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw

2012-01-01

280

Management of Pregnant Women with Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more women with cerebrospinal fluid shunts reach child-bearing age, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and other health care providers will increasingly be called upon to care for them once they become pregnant. A review of the literature reveals that these patients may develop symptoms of shunt malfunction as uterine size increases. In most cases, symptoms can be managed conservatively during pregnancy and

Michael D. Cusimano; Filomena M. Meffe; Fred Gentili; Mathew Sermer

1992-01-01

281

Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesHookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women.

Simon Brooker; Peter J. Hotez; Donald A. P. Bundy

2008-01-01

282

Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were examined as correlates and predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy in a sample of 819 pregnant smokers (454 baseline smokers and 365 baseline quitters). Women who quit early in pregnancy had lower levels of stress and depressive symptoms than baseline smokers. Adjusting for level of addiction and other demographic factors related to stress and

Evette J. Ludman; Colleen M. McBride; Jennifer Clark Nelson; Susan J. Curry; Louis C. Grothaus; Harry A. Lando; Phyllis L. Pirie

2000-01-01

283

Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

1978-01-01

284

Effectiveness of Health Care Services for Pregnant Women and  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper focus on the health care services received by pregnant women and infants, and consider the ways in which these services affect child health outcomes. They examine the impact of prenatal, obstetrical, and neonatal care on two measures of infant health: the rate of low birth weight births and the rate of infant mortality. There is

Andrew D. Racine; Theodore J. Joyce; Michael Grossman

285

High prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in pregnant Egyptian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically-transmitted cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH), is not fully understood. During outbreaks on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere, HEV causes severe AVH with mortality rates around 20% during pregnancy. In Egypt, where prevalence of HEV antibodies (anti- HEV) in rural communities is very high, severe HEV-caused AVH in pregnant women

Sonia K. Stoszek; Mohamed Abdel-Hamid; A. Saleh; Shaker Narooz; Yousry Hawash; Fatma M. Shebl; Enas Kassem; Nabiel Mikhail; Ronald E. Engle; Mohamed Sayed; Soraya Sharaf; Alan D. Fix; Suzanne U. Emerson; Robert H. Purcell; G. Thomas Strickland

286

Outcomes of 19 pregnant women with brucellosis in Babol, northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

From April 2000 to March 2010, 19 pregnant women with brucellosis were evaluated, treated and followed up. Ten (53%) pregnant women had spontaneous abortions. Six of eleven (55%) women infected in the first trimester had a spontaneous abortion. After treatment, all subsequently became pregnant and gave birth to normal babies. Among 13 patients who received cotrimoxazole plus rifampin, only four

Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan; Masomeh Baiani; Nesa Asnafi; Fiyyaz Saedi

2011-01-01

287

Prevalence of HIV Antibodies in Pregnant Women With Increased Risk for AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of

Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez; Fátima Rocío De Luna-Ortega; Alejandra Horna-López; Ana Lilia Ponce-Ponce De León

2009-01-01

288

Severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Data were reported for 94 pregnant women, 8 postpartum women, and 137 non- pregnant women of reproductive age who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influ- enza. Rapid antigen tests were falsely negative in 38% of the patients tested (58 of 153). Most pregnant patients (89 of 94 (95%)) were in the second or third trimester, and approximately one third

Janice K. Louie; Meileen Acosta; Denise J. Jamieson; Margaret A. Honein

2010-01-01

289

Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been scaled, to more than 90% of health facilities in Tanzania. Disclosure of HIV results to partners and their participation is encouraged in the program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of HIV sero-status disclosure to partners among HIV positive pregnant women in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among HIV-positive pregnant women who were attending for routine antenatal care in primary health care facilities of the municipality and had been tested for HIV at least one month prior to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on possible predictors of HIV disclosure to partners. Results A total of 250 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled. Forty one percent (102) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their partners. HIV-disclosure to partners was more likely among pregnant women who were?women reported to have been counseled on importance of disclosure and partner participation. Conclusions Six in ten HIV positive pregnant women in this setting had not disclosed their results of the HIV test to their partners. Empowering pregnant women to have an individualized HIV-disclosure plan, strengthening of the HIV provider initiated counseling and testing and addressing economic development, may be some of the strategies in improving HIV disclosure and partner involvement in this setting. PMID:23641927

2013-01-01

290

T cell mediated immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate T cell immunity to Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) in pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis. This issue has never been addressed before in humans and available information derives from murine models. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from pregnant women with primary Tg infection were stimulated with Tg tachyzoites, excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) or recombinant surface antigen-1 (rSAG-1), and tested for proliferation, immunophenotype, cytokine production and antigen specific cytotoxic activity. Pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis displayed a significant decrease of the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and a significant increase of circulating T cell receptor (TCR) gammadelta+ cells as compared to their uninfected counterparts. T cells from Tg infected pregnant women proliferated to Tg tachyzoites, ESA or rSAG-1. Most tachyzoite and ESA specific T cell blasts were CD4+, whereas SAG-1 specific blasts were CD4+ and CD8+. ESA and tachyzoite specific T cell blasts displayed a Th1 or Th0 cytokine profile with overexpression of IFN-gamma. This pattern was unchanged upon in vitro exposure of T cells to progesterone, tested at a concentration close to that reached in vivo at the maternal-fetal interface. Finally, tachyzoite or ESA specific T cell blasts lysed, through a granule exocytosis dependent mechanism, autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines presenting Tg antigens. In conclusion, pregnant women with primary toxoplasmosis mounted in vitro Tg-specific Th1/Th0 responses whose impact on neonatal infection warrants further investigation. PMID:16324868

Prigione, Ignazia; Chiesa, Sabrina; Taverna, Paola; Ceccarelli, Roberto; Frulio, Rosanna; Morandi, Fabio; Bocca, Paola; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Pistoia, Vito

2006-02-01

291

Significant changes in physical activity among pregnant women in the UK as assessed by accelerometry and self-reported activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Research on the impact of maternal physical activity on pregnancy outcomes has often employed subjective measures of physical activity obtained by diary or questionnaire. This study investigates the feasibility of using accelerometry as an objective measure of physical activity of pregnant women compared with subjective data obtained via activity recall among pregnant women.Design:Activity data were collected prospectively on 57 women

E K Rousham; P E Clarke; H Gross

2006-01-01

292

Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group

Tyan Parker Dominguez; Emily Ficklin Strong; Nancy Krieger; Matthew W. Gillman; Janet W. Rich-Edwards

2009-01-01

293

Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent. PMID:15572482

Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

2004-12-01

294

Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in healthy pregnant Brazilian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  Physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy are risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study aimed\\u000a to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in healthy pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was conducted in pregnant Brazilian women who enrolled in the primary health-care system in Sao Jose\\u000a do Rio Preto, Brazil. Face-to-face interview

Gisele Martins; Zaida A. S. G. Soler; José Antônio Cordeiro; João Luiz Amaro; Katherine N. Moore

2010-01-01

295

Malaria associated symptoms in pregnant women followed-up in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It is generally agreed that in high transmission areas, pregnant women have acquired a partial immunity to malaria and when\\u000a infected they present few or no symptoms. However, longitudinal cohort studies investigating the clinical presentation of\\u000a malaria infection in pregnant women in stable endemic areas are lacking, and the few studies exploring this issue are unconclusive.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective cohort of

Bich-Tram Huynh; Nadine Fievet; Gildas Gbaguidi; Sophie Borgella; Blaise Guézo Mévo; Achille Massougbodji; Philippe Deloron; Michel Cot

2011-01-01

296

Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of integrated yoga on the quality of life and interpersonal relationships\\u000a in normal pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and two pregnant women between 18 and 20 weeks of gestation who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from\\u000a the obstetric units in Bangalore and were randomly assigned to two groups of yoga (n = 51)

Abbas Rakhshani; Satyapriya Maharana; Nagarathna Raghuram; Hongasandra R. Nagendra; Padmalatha Venkatram

2010-01-01

297

Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan  

PubMed Central

The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25400710

Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

2014-01-01

298

Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate future effects of preventable, toxin-induced developmental issues. Prenatal advising should discourage the consumption of dangerous foods, beverages, and medications that women commonly report eating during pregnancy. PMID:23815874

2013-01-01

299

Congenital Chagas disease: time to screen pregnant women?  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Bua J, Volta BJ, Velazquez EB et al. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: quantification of parasite burden in mothers and their children by parasite DNA amplification. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 106(10), 623-628 (2012). The congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has gained epidemiological importance because it is partially responsible for the spread of Chagas disease worldwide. The feasibility of a cure when infected children are treated early makes the detection of congenital infection a valuable goal toward the control of the disease. Here, the authors review and discuss the findings of Bua et al., who quantified the parasitemia of infected women and their newborns by quantitative PCR. The authors demonstrate that the maternal parasite burden is directly related to the risk of neonatal infection. This study points out the importance of a quantitative screen for T. cruzi in pregnant women who live in, or have traveled to, endemic areas for improving the diagnosis of infected newborns and providing prompt treatment. PMID:23241184

Sesti-Costa, Renata; Silva, João S; Gutierrez, Fredy R S

2012-11-01

300

Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt. PMID:25343469

Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

2014-09-01

301

Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.  

PubMed

Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

2013-01-01

302

Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

2013-01-01

303

Integrated care for pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of a national cohort of pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to provide treatment outcome data for integrated care programs. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Three different integrated care programs in geographically distinct cities: the Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy in Toronto, Ont; the Herzl Family Practice Centre in Montreal, Que; and the Sheway clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Pregnant women meeting criteria for opioid dependence and attending an integrated care program between 1997 and 2009. Women were excluded if they were on MMT only for chronic pain. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics, concurrent medical and psychiatric disorders, and substance use outcome data. Results A total of 102 opioid-dependent pregnancies were included. The mean age was 29.7 years and 64% of women were white. Women in Montreal were more likely to have partners and had fewer children. Differences in living and housing situations among the sites tended to resolve by the time of delivery. Almost half of this cohort tested positive for hepatitis C. Women had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety across all sites. Half of this cohort was on MMT before conception and for the other half, MMT was initiated at a mean gestational age of 20.7 weeks, resulting in a mean dose of 82.4 mg at delivery. At the first visit, polysubstance use was common. Prescription opioid use was more frequent in Toronto and heroin use was more prevalent in Vancouver and Montreal. For the entire population, significant reductions were found by the time of delivery for illicit (P < .001) and prescription opioids (P = .001), cocaine (P < .001), marijuana (P = .009), and alcohol use (P < .001). Conclusion Despite geographic differences, all 3 integrated care programs have been associated with significant decreases in substance use in pregnant opioid-dependent women. PMID:24130301

Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon; Graves, Lisa; Abrahams, Ronald; Boyajian, Talar

2013-01-01

304

Clinical Characteristics of Central European and North American Samples of Pregnant Women Screened for Opioid Agonist Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little comparable information is available regarding clinical characteristics of opioid-dependent women from different countries. In the present study, women from the USA, Canada and a Central European country, Austria, screened for participation in the Maternal Opioid Treatment Human Experimental Research study, were compared with respect to their demographic and addiction histories. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 1,074) were screened

A. S. Unger; P. R. Martin; K. Kaltenbach; S. M. Stine; S. H. Heil; H. E. Jones; A. M. Arria; M. G. Coyle; P. Selby; G. Fischer

2010-01-01

305

Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women with gestational and pre-gestational diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid function tests in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational DM and control group. Methodology : There were 61 pregnant diabetic women in study group and 35 pregnant women in control group. Serum T4, T3, T3RU, FTI, TSH and Anti TPO Ab were assessed in each person. Results : About 36% of patients had GDM and 64% pre-gestational DM. Thyroid dysfunction was detected in 18% of study group compared with 8.6% of control group (P = 0.2). There was Thyroid dysfunction in 4.5% of GDM and 25.6% of pregestational DM (P = 0.045). There was no statistically significant difference between thyroid dysfunction in GDM group and control group (P=0.99).27% of GDM and 36% of pregestational DM and 23% of control group had positive titer of Anti TPO Ab without statistically significant differences among the three groups. Conclusion : Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in women with pre-gestational DM so, thyroid function should be evaluated in these patients during pregnancy. Rate of thyroid dysfunction in GDM patients is similar to normal pregnant control women. High prevalence of positive titer of TPO Ab was seen in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. PMID:24353594

Shahbazian, Hajieh; Shahbazian, Nahid; Rahimi Baniani, Mahnaz; Yazdanpanah, Leila; Latifi, Seyed Mahmuod

2013-01-01

306

Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ? the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23883688

Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

2013-01-01

307

Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestational age, and body mass index. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia, after 14 hour fasting to determine plasma lipid concentrations. Enzymatic photometric tests were used to determine lipid profile. Data was analyzed with independent “t-test”, Chi-square and one-way ANOVA and post HOC Tukey HSD test. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: In the subjects with preeclampsia, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased compared with the controls, (p<0.05), but plasma LDL cholesterol levels didn’t differ between the two groups. Women who developed severe preeclampsia had higher concentrations of TG and cholesterol and lower levels of HDL compared to noromotensive group. Mean TG: 375.16 vs. 202.85, p<0.001, Mean cholesterol: 245.64 vs. 214.32, p=0.04, Mean HDL: 40.80 vs. 48.95, p=0.03). Conclusion: We noted that dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia was highly correlated with prepregnancy high BMI in preeclamptic women. These findings continue to support a role for dyslipidemia in BMI related preeclampsia.

Sharami, Seyede Hajar; Tangestani, Azita; Faraji, Roya; Zahiri, Ziba; Amiri, Azam

2012-01-01

308

Treatment of Opioid Dependent Pregnant Women: Clinical and Research Issues  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941

Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.

2008-01-01

309

Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597

Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

2014-01-01

310

Acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the available information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) during all stages of pregnancy. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO host research databases from 1980 through to August 2010 using the indexing terms 'pregnancy', 'ante-,peri-, and postpartum', 'acute coronary syndrome', 'myocardial infarction', 'STEMI' and 'NSTEMI'. Symptomatic coronary artery disease is still infrequent in women of childbearing age, but the recent increase in its prevalence in pregnancy has been attributed to the modern trend of childbearing in older years because many young working women are postponing having children. Although rare, acute pregnancy-related MI is a devastating event that may claim the life of a mother and her fetus. The incidence of MI is estimated at 0.6-1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The case fatality rate has been reported to be 5-37%. Owing to the rarity of the event, information related to MI in pregnancy is derived from case reports and, therefore, is subject to considerable reporting bias. Treatment needs to be prompt and urgent because of the very high mortality rate. Current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MI should be expanded to include pregnancy-related MI. Screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors should be achieved before pregnancy. PMID:21517733

El-Deeb, Mohammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Gehani, Abdulrazzak; Sulaiman, Kadhim

2011-04-01

311

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

2014-01-01

312

4 pregnant women with an unusual finding at delivery.  

PubMed

Pregnant women who may be at risk for experiencing a TUCK include those who are older than age 35, multiparous, carrying a boy, or have diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, or polyhydramnios. While it is good to be aware of these risk factors, there are no recommended changes in management based on risk or ultrasound findings unless there is additional concern for fetal compromise. PMID:25362497

Johnson, Alexandra R; Meeuwsen, Annamarie; Khodaee, Morteza; Deutchman, Mark

2014-11-01

313

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2012-10-01

314

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2010-10-01

315

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2011-10-01

316

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2013-10-01

317

Identifying Healthy Eating Strategies in Low-Income Pregnant Women: Applying a Positive Deviance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using positive deviance methodology, we identified strategies that enabled some low-income pregnant women to eat healthy meals while others did not. We used a descriptive design consisting of small group interviews of low-income pregnant women and identified 6 of 18 women as eating healthy diets. Women with healthy diets knew to eat balanced meals, had family support, were willing to

Eileen R. Fowles; Jennifer A. Hendricks; Lorraine O. Walker

2005-01-01

318

OA02.10. Influence of kalyani raga on fetus and pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pregnant women are more alert to their environment which greatly influences them. Prenatal stimulation through music allows expectant mothers to connect with their unborn baby. This helps to lower the mother's anxiety level and neonatal stress too. Auditory system is the only one that establishes a connection between the foetus and the outer world. So this we can stimulate the most. The intension of the study is to see the efficiency of music on foetus as well as pregnant women. So it can be effectively used as a part of Garbhini paricharya. Method: Each pregnant lady will be explained about the influence of music especially the Kalyani raga and later they will be given a CD of Karnatic Music of Kalyani raga and is instructed to hear it for 20 minutes daily for a period of 20 days. Result: The study shows very good influence in both fetus and pregnant women. Conclusion: On the basis of pancha panchaka siddantha shabda is the attribute of akasha mahabhoota which is used in the form of music given through srothraindriya interacts with manas and giving message to the atma. By this perception the pregnant lady gets the prassannata of atma indriya and manas and this influence the fetus which is in her womb and even we can cultivate a srasta samskara.

Krishna, Deepthi

2013-01-01

319

Neutralizing and IgG Antibodies against Simian Virus 40 in Healthy Pregnant Women in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy. Methods Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples. Results Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123) and 12.7% (14/110), respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods. Conclusions SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines. PMID:25335106

Comar, Manola; Wong, Connie; Tognon, Mauro; Butel, Janet S.

2014-01-01

320

Ethical issues in treating pregnant women with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Severe mental illness tends to occur and recur among women in the reproductive period. Both the disorders and the treatments may have effects on the mother and the foetus. The clinician hence is often in a dilemma when treating pregnant women with severe mental illness and is challenged with ethical issues related to decision making in this regard. Both treatment and non treatment are not without risks and this is particularly challenging if the mother has active symptoms and cannot make decisions because of impaired capacity. This paper highlights some of these ethical and clinical dilemmas through case vignettes based on data from a specialised perinatal psychiatry service. PMID:19517649

Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S

2009-01-01

321

Specialized care for women pregnant after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Growing numbers of women today will seek bariatric surgery before pregnancy. Protein-calorie malnutrition; hyperemesis; intestinal hernias; dumping syndrome; anemia; and deficiencies in calcium, folic acid, and vitamins B12, D, and K are all possible complications that can impact pregnancy. This article reviews the nutritional and pregnancy-related consequences of current surgical procedures and summarizes existing research showing positive and negative effects of weight-loss surgery on pregnancy outcomes. Practice-based clinical recommendations will help guide clinicians caring for the increasing number of women who become pregnant after having bariatric surgery. PMID:20974415

Harris, Amy A; Barger, Mary K

2010-01-01

322

Drug screening and criminal prosecution of pregnant women.  

PubMed

According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the Fourth Amendment rights of 10 women were violated by a hospital that provided them prenatal care. The incidence of prenatal drug testing for criminal prosecution with or without a woman's knowledge is increasing. Concurrently, funding and availability of drug treatment programs for pregnant women are declining. Nurses and physicians who act as advocates for the state rather than the patient damage the patient-provider relationship and breach their ethical responsibility to the patient. PMID:11926395

Foley, Elizabeth M

2002-01-01

323

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

324

Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS10) among pregnant and postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the Arabic translation of the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: A sample of 268 women participated. These included 113 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, 97 in the postpartum period and 58 healthy female university students. GHQ-12 and EPDS were also administered to

Monique Chaaya; Hibah Osman; Georges Naassan; Ziyad Mahfoud

2010-01-01

325

Examining Pregnant Women's Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

2013-01-01

326

Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. METHOD: The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%,

Sema Ertug; Pinar Okyay; Munevver Turkmen; Hasan Yuksel

2005-01-01

327

Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in a poor urban population of Bangladesh. It also examined the association of various socio-economic and dietary factors with anaemia and vitamin A status. A maternal and child health clinic in Dhaka city, Bangladesh was used to obtain the sample. Three hundred and eighty

Faruk Ahmed; Ismat Mahmuda; Abeda Sattar

2003-01-01

328

HIV screening for pregnant women in South Eastern France: evolution 1992–1994–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the evolution of the HIV screening practices towards pregnant women between 1992 and 1996, in relation with the 1993 French mandatory obligation to offer prenatal HIV testing and recent therapeutic possibilities to reduce HIV vertical transmission. Study design: Three successive surveys (January 1992, May 1994 and May 1996) about HIV screening policies among medical chiefs of all

Dominique Rey; Yolande Obadia; Maria-Patrizia Carrieri; Jean-Paul Moatti

1998-01-01

329

Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women  

E-print Network

Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women In Tamil Nadu, India CAITLYN D. PLACEK,* AND EDWARD H. HAGEN Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Objectives: Pica has been studied in India and elsewhere for more than 100

330

Periodontal disease and some adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of low risk pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of periodontal disease (PD) in pregnancy with some adverse perinatal outcomes. METHOD: This cohort study included 327 pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. The

Marianna Vogt; Antonio W Sallum; Jose G Cecatti; Sirlei S Morais

2010-01-01

331

Assessing Long-Term Outcomes of an Intervention Designed for Pregnant Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…

Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily

2010-01-01

332

Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. METHODS: In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC) in

Saw Oo Tan; Rose McGready; Julien Zwang; Mupawjay Pimanpanarak; Kanlaya Sriprawat; Kyaw Lai Thwai; Yoe Moo; Elizabeth A Ashley; Bridget Edwards; Pratap Singhasivanon; Nicholas J White; François Nosten

2008-01-01

333

An investigation of the pica practices of pregnant women in Houston and Prairie View, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant African American women are at higher risk of having a preterm delivery and\\/or a low birthweight infant. Many factors are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but a food habit that deserves further study in the causal process is pica, a craving for, and ingestion of, nonnutritive substances such as laundry starch, clay, dirt, or ice. This food habit is

Alice Johannah Rainville

1996-01-01

334

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH

O. K. Davis; D. S. Hawkins; L. P. Rubin; J. T. Posillico; E. M. Brown; I. Schiff

1988-01-01

335

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among

Charles M Goumba; Emmanuel R Yandoko-Nakouné; Narcisse P Komas

2010-01-01

336

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND HIV INFECTION AMONG PREGNANT HILLTRIBE WOMEN IN NORTHERN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study was carried out to determine factors associated with HIV infec- tion among pregnant hilltribe women who attended the antenatal clinics of six hospitals in northern Thailand (Mae Suai, Wieng Pa Pao, Mae Sai, Mae Chan, Wieng Kaen, Mae Fa Luang, and Chiang Rai hospitals) between 1 January 2005- 31 May 2007. Data were collected using questionnaires and

Tawatchai Keereekamsuk; Sukhum Jiamton; Sutthi Jareinpituk; Jaranit Kaewkungwal

337

Assessment of noninvasive, percutaneous hemoglobin measurement in pregnant and early postpartum women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Using the Pronto-7® analyzer, we measured percutaneous hemoglobin (SpHb) noninvasively in pregnant and early postpartum women, and assessed the accuracy of the measurements by comparing them with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. Methods We obtained SpHb measurements from 193 pregnant women, 269 early postpartum women, and 76 nonpregnant women. A laboratory total hemoglobin (tHb) measurement, from venous blood sampling, was obtained immediately prior to the SpHb measurement. The total number of measurements obtained from the nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum women was 76, 438, and 347, respectively. Results The mean biases (SpHb ? tHb) among the nonpregnant, first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and early postpartum women were ?0.20, 0.19, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.10 g/dL, respectively. The Bland–Altman comparison showed neither the tendency of a fixed bias nor proportional biases among the measurements in the category of nonpregnant and first trimester women. But in the second and third trimester and postpartum category, a significant fixed bias was noted, without any tendencies of proportional bias. Conclusion In this study, we found higher hemoglobin values with the Pronto-7 analyzer than were measured in the laboratory. We consider that the device has certain limitations in obstetrical utility and requires further modifications for use in the perinatal period. PMID:24470779

Yoshida, Atsushi; Saito, Keiko; Ishii, Kenji; Azuma, Isao; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

2014-01-01

338

Describing the use of the internet for health, physical activity, and nutrition information in pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine how pregnant women in the Midwestern United States use the internet for health information during pregnancy including information related to physical activity and nutrition, and to determine the impact of the internet on women's confidence in making decisions about physical activity participation and eating behaviors during pregnancy. This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a convenient, non-probabilistic sample. Women were recruited through handouts provided in person, fliers posted at venues, or local websites that cater to women who are pregnant or up to 1 year post-partum. Overall, 293 women (28.5 years ± 4.9) completed the survey online (Survey Monkey) or in-print. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and analyses of covariance. Almost all women used the internet for health information during their pregnancy. Half of women used the internet for information related to physical activity during their pregnancy and some increased their physical activity as a result. Women reported an increase in their confidence for making decisions related to physical activity during pregnancy after using the internet for physical activity information. Women that reported increases in physical activity during pregnancy, had greater increases in confidence for making decisions from using the internet compared to women who decreased or did not change their physical activity. Findings related to nutrition were similar to physical activity. However, there were no significant differences in increases in confidence between those who did or did not change the foods they ate. This study provides health promotional professionals useful information to consider when designing future physical activity and/or nutrition interventions for pregnant women. PMID:23090284

Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; Beets, Michael W; Coleman, Jason

2013-10-01

339

Metabolic signature of pregnant women with neural tube defects in offspring.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common types of birth defects, affecting approximately 1 of every 1000 pregnancies in the United States and an estimated 300?000 newborns worldwide each year. The metabolic signature of pregnant women with NTDs in offspring has not previously been characterized. In this paper, we report a profiling study that characterized the serum metabolome of 101 pregnant women affected with NTDs in offspring in comparison with 143 pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcomes in Lvliang prefecture, the area with the highest birth prevalence of NTDs in China. A serum metabonomic study was also conducted to identify significantly altered metabolites associated with di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced teratogenesis in mice. The metabolic signature of NTD in pregnant women is characterized by the impaired mitochondrial respiration, neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid, and methionine cycle. Of interest, consistent findings from DBP-induced teratogenesis in mice demonstrated increased succinate and decreased fumarate, suggesting an inhibited succinic dehydrogenase implicated in the defective mitochondria. The characteristic disruption of maternal metabolism offers important insights into metabolic mechanisms underlying human NTDs as well as potential preventive strategies. PMID:21902205

Zheng, Xiaoying; Su, Mingming; Pei, Lijun; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Xu; Qiu, Yunping; Xia, Hongfei; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Gu, Xue; Song, Xinming; Li, Xin; Qi, Xin; Chen, Gong; Bao, Yihua; Chen, Tianlu; Chi, Yi; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

2011-10-01

340

Assessment of iron status using plasma transferrin receptor in pregnant women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although anemia is highly prevalent during pregnancy and is common during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, anemia and iron status have not been well characterized in HIV-infected pregnant women.Objective: To gain insight into iron status in HIV-infected pregnant women using plasma transferrin receptor and related indicators of anemia.Study design: Plasma transferrin receptor, ferritin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin

N Kumwenda; Hoover; TE Taha; L Mtimavalye; R Broadhead; W Eisinger; PG Miotti; JD Chiphangwi

2000-01-01

341

Seroprevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of HEV infection in a cohort of pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). (2) The rate of mother-to-infant transmission. Method: Sera of 469 pregnant women residing in the UAE was tested for anti-HEV with ELISA and for HEV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Neonatal cord-blood and infant blood was similarly tested for

Rachana M Kumar; Sayenna Uduman; Sarosh Rana; Jose K Kochiyil; Asad Usmani; Letha Thomas

2001-01-01

342

Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle  

PubMed Central

Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

2013-01-01

343

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR) is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. Objective This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%). Considerable (34.5%) number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8%) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR?=?1.91 95% CI; 1.21–3.01) and being pregnant for the first time (OR?=?6.82, 95% CI; 1.27–36.55). Conclusion BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on availing antenatal care services. PMID:21731747

Hailu, Mesay; Gebremariam, Abebe; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Deribe, Kebede

2011-01-01

344

[Evaluation of fructosamine as a parameter of blood glucose control in diabetic pregnant women].  

PubMed

Objective To evaluate the alternative parameters to monitor glycemia in pregnant women with diabetes studying the relationship between fructosamine testing and self monitoring of blood glucose in pregnant women with diabetes. Materials and methods Serum fructosamine levels and the self monitoring of blood glucose over 14 days before the collection of fructosamine were evaluated in 47 diabetic pregnant women. Results Seventy-one fructosamine levels and 2,238 glucose measurements (CGs) were analysed. Levels of fructosamine correlated with high blood glucose index (HBGI) and the standard deviation of glycemias (r = 0.28; p = 0.021 and r = 0.26; p = 0.03, respectively). The comparison between the mothers of the newborns with appropriated or large birthweight and those who gave birth to small newborns for their gestational age (SGA) showed that the latter had a lower glycemic mean (105 vs. 114 and 119 mg/dL), a higher low blood glucose index (5.8 vs. 1.3 and 0.7) and a higher percentage of hyperglycemias (11 vs. 0 and 0%) even when the fructosamine falls within the reference values (242 vs. 218 and 213 ?mol/l). Conclusion The levels of fructosamine can be used as further parameter to aid self monitoring of blood glucose to evaluate hyperglycemias and glycemic variability, however, this can underestimate hypoglycemias in pregnant women carrying small-for-gestational age fetuses. PMID:25372581

Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Andrade, Flávio Silva

2014-10-01

345

Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are prominent and widespread contaminants of human blood. In animal studies there is evidence that suggests certain PFAs can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. A commonly reported condition in exposed animals is hypothyroxinemia, whereby serum free thyroxine (fT4) is decreased despite normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. We designed an individually matched case-control study to investigate whether exposure

Emily Chan; Igor Burstyn; Nicola Cherry; Fiona Bamforth; Jonathan W. Martin

2011-01-01

346

Dietary Assessment in Pregnant Women and Children  

Cancer.gov

In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.

347

Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn's disease: case series and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were performed between January 2007 and November 2012. Imaging findings, clinical management and outcome were extracted from patient’s file and electronic records. Image quality was evaluated. Results Ten studies of 9 patients were included. MRE protocol was modified to maximize maternal and fetal safety, and intravenous gadolinium was not used. In 7 patients, CD diagnosis was previously established; six were admitted with clinical symptoms consistent with CD exacerbation, and an additional patient with a recurrent groin abscess without apparent luminal symptoms. In all seven patients, imaging features consistent with active CD were detected; new penetrating complications were detected in 4 patients. Two patients underwent MRE for suspected CD which was not comforted by study results. The clinical management was significantly impacted by MRE results in all positive cases. The image quality of the fast MRE sequences obtained without gadolinium was satisfactory and allowed meaningful interpretation. Conclusion MRE with an adapted protocol for pregnancy is a reliable imaging modality to manage in pregnant women with known or suspected CD. PMID:25129422

2014-01-01

348

Preventing obesity: exercise and daily activities of low-income pregnant women.  

PubMed

Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (?10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis. PMID:24476648

Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G

2014-01-01

349

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs\\/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March

Sia E Msuya; Jacqueline Uriyo; Akhtar Hussain; Elizabeth M Mbizvo; Stig Jeansson; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2009-01-01

350

A Review of Recent Findings on Substance Abuse Treatment for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have brought an increased interest in the treatment needs of pregnant substance abusers. This article reviews the literature on this subject, providing an overview of what is known about the prevalence of substance abuse during pregnancy; the factors in women’s lives, especially pregnant women, that lead to substance abuse and that facilitate and impede treatment success; and the

Embry M. Howell; Nancy Heiser; Mary Harrington

1999-01-01

351

The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women,

T. Ninuk S. Hartini; R. Siwi Padmawati; Lars Lindholm; Achmad Surjono; Anna Winkvist

2005-01-01

352

Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal  

E-print Network

. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1- Infected Women for Maternal Health-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the UnitedRecommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal

Levin, Judith G.

353

Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881

Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok

2013-01-01

354

Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2013-06-28

355

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

356

Prevalence of colonisation with group B Streptococci in pregnant women of a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence of GBS and to identify GBS colonisation risk factors in a multicultural population of pregnant women in The Netherlands. We calculated predictive values of cultures in pregnancy for intrapartum GBS carriage. Study design: From a total of 1702 women visiting several antenatal outpatient departments, rectovaginal swabs were collected at 35-37 weeks'

Arijaan W. Valkenburg-van den Berg; Arwen J. Sprij; Paul M. Oostvogel; Johan A. E. M. Mutsaers; Wouter B. Renes; Frits R. Rosendaal; P. Joep

357

Factors Associated with Pregnant Women's Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women’s empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

2012-01-01

358

Reliability of triclosan measures in repeated urine samples from Norwegian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antibacterial chemical that is used in personal care products and is measurable in urine. Urinary TCS has been associated with allergy in children in Norway and the United States. A reasonable degree of temporal reliability of TCS urinary concentrations has been reported among US children as well as for Puerto Rican pregnant women. We examined the reliability of TCS measures in urine among Norwegian pregnant women. TCS was measured in spot urine samples collected in gestational weeks 17, 23, and 29 from 45 women in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) enrolled in 2007 and 2008. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics were calculated. Fifty-six percent of the 45 women had a least one sample with a value above the method limit of detection (2.3??g/l). The correlation coefficients were 0.61 for TCS concentrations at 17 and 23 weeks and 0.49 for concentrations at 17 and 29 weeks. For the three time points, the ICC was 0.49. The reliability of TCS concentrations in repeated urine samples from pregnant Norwegian women was reasonably good, suggesting a single urine sample can adequately represent TCS exposure during pregnancy. PMID:24472755

Bertelsen, Randi J; Engel, Stephanie M; Jusko, Todd A; Calafat, Antonia M; Hoppin, Jane A; London, Stephanie J; Eggesbø, Merete; Aase, Heidi; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun P; Guidry, Virginia T; Longnecker, Matthew P

2014-01-01

359

Estimated Incidence and Genotypes of HIV-1 among Pregnant Women in Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection among pregnant women from central-western Brazil. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 54,139 pregnant women received antenatal HIV screening from a network of public healthcare centers in 2011. The incidence of confirmed HIV-1 infection was estimated using the Serological Testing Algorithms for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) methodology and BED-capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The yearly incidence was calculated, and adjusted incidence rates were estimated. For a subgroup of patients, protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after performing a nested polymerase chain reaction. Results Of the participants, 20% had a pregnancy before the age of 18 and approximately 40% were experiencing their first pregnancy. Of the 54,139 pregnant women screened, 86 had a confirmed HIV-1 diagnosis, yielding an overall prevalence of 1.59 cases per 1000 women (95% CI 1.27–1.96). A higher prevalence was detected in the older age groups, reflecting cumulative exposure to the virus over time. Among the infected pregnant women, 20% were considered recently infected according to the BED-CEIA. The estimated incidence of HIV infection was 0.61 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.33-0.89); the corrected incidence was 0.47 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.26-0.68). In a subgroup of patients, HIV-1 subtype C (16.7%) was the second most prevalent form after subtype B (66.7%); BF1 recombinants (11.1%) and one case of subtype F1 (5.5%) were also detected. Conclusion This study highlights the potential for deriving incidence estimates from a large antenatal screening program for HIV. The rate of recent HIV-1 infection among women in their early reproductive years is a public health warning to implement preventive measures. PMID:24223904

Costa, Zelma Bernardes; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araujo; de Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Borges, Walter Costa; Filho, Clidenor Gomes; Filho, Jose Vicente Macedo; Minuzzi, Ana Lucia; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

2013-01-01

360

BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More  

E-print Network

BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More Fertile Over Age 40 | BabyZone 14/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/05/2012http://www.babyzone.com/getting-pregnant/infertility/peak-fertility-rate_67460 #12;Content provided

Lummaa, Virpi

361

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS SEROPOSITIVITY AND MALARIA AS RISK FACTORS FOR THIRD-TRIMESTER ANEMIA IN ASYMPTOMATIC PREGNANT WOMEN IN WESTERN KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. To assess risk factors for anemia in late pregnancy, we studied healthy pregnant women with a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy of 32 weeks attending the prenatal clinic in the Provincial Hospital in Kisumu, Kenya. Between June 1996 and December 1998, 4,608 pregnant women had a blood sample collected for hemoglobin (Hb) measurement, malaria smear, and testing for human immunodeficiency virus

Anne M. Van Eijk; John G. Ayisi; Feiko O. Ter Kuile; Ambrose Misore; Juliana A. Otieno; Margarette S. Kolczak; Piet A. Kager; Richard W. Steketee; Bernard L. Nahlen

362

Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy.

Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

2014-01-01

363

[Metafolin--alternative for folate deficiency supplementation in pregnant women].  

PubMed

Proper folate supplementation is required in order to ensure proper folate concentration in the organism, and consequently to prevent the development of numerous complications in general population and pregnant women. Metafolin (stable calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate acid, L-5-MTHF) is the most active form of reduced folate circulating in plasma, which directly enters the metabolic process of folate. After administration metafolin shows optimum absorption, comparable or higher bioavailability as well as physiological activity when compared to folic acid. Metafolin supplementation is effective in decreasing plasma homocysteine, as well as increasing folate in plasma and erythrocytes, in pregnant and breastfeeding women or those who wish to conceive. In addition, metafolin administration omits the multistage process of reduction before entering the folate cell cycle, as well as a possible deficiency of activity of enzymes participating in the reduction of folate process in the intestine epithelium (DHFR and MTHFR enzymes). So far no potential adverse and toxic effects of metafolin management have been reported. The published findings require confirmation in larger groups of patients and an additional analysis of the presence of particular genotypes of 677C > T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns. PMID:24032278

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-07-01

364

Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

2014-11-01

365

Health versus appearance messages, self?monitoring and pregnant women’s intentions to exercise postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the confirmed health benefits of exercise during the postpartum period, many new mothers are not sufficiently active. The present research compared the effectiveness of two types of messages (health versus appearance) and the moderating role of self?monitoring (SM) on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and intention to exercise after giving birth in two groups of pregnant women (low

Anca Gaston; Kimberley L. Gammage

2010-01-01

366

Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden

Kontie M Moussa; P. O. Ostergren; Frida Eek; Anton E Kunst

2010-01-01

367

DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and pregnancy statistics were also obtained and the relationships between these and oral hygiene status were determined. Results: The mean age was 25.35 ± 5.02 years. Most of the women (96.0%) had never visited a dentist or any other oral health care provider and only 12.5% of those who had been attended by dental care givers have ever had professional dental cleaning. The oral hygiene status appeared to worsen as parity increased (p=0.047) while the use of the toothbrush and paste was associated with good oral hygiene (p=0.007). Higher education was associated with use of the tooth brush and paste (p=0.046) and good oral hygiene (p= 0.001). Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. PMID:25161475

Ifesanya, Joy U.; Ifesanya, Adeleke O.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

2010-01-01

368

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

SciTech Connect

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

1988-10-01

369

Risk of infection and adverse outcomes among pregnant working women in selected occupational groups: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National

Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela; Linda Kaerlev; Jin Liang Zhu; Agustín Llopis-González; Natalia Gimeno-Clemente; Ellen A Nohr; Jens P Bonde; Jorn Olsen

2010-01-01

370

Prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies amongst pregnant women in a rural area of Haryana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies of micronutrients (zinc, iron, folic acid and iodine) during pregnancy are known causes of Low Birth Weight (LBW).\\u000a Studies have documented status of one or two micronutrients amongst pregnant women (PW). However, no attempt has been made\\u000a to concurrently assess the prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and the factors associated with them amongst\\u000a PW.Objective: The present study was undertaken

Priyali Pathak; Umesh Kapil; Suresh Kumar Kapoor; Renu Saxena; Anand Kumar; Nandita Gupta; Sada Nand Dwivedi; Rajvir Singh; Preeti Singh

2004-01-01

371

Effect of Passive Leg Raising on Systemic Hemodynamics of Pregnant Women: A Dynamic Assessment of Maternal Cardiovascular Function at 22-24 Weeks of Gestation  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate functional hemodynamic response to passive leg raising in healthy pregnant women and compare it with non-pregnant controls. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study with a case-control design. A total of 108 healthy pregnant women at 22–24 weeks of gestation and 54 non-pregnant women were included. Cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics were studied at baseline and 90 seconds after passive leg raising using non-invasive impedance cardiography. Main outcome measures Trends and magnitudes of changes in impedance cardiography derived parameters of cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics caused by passive leg raising, and preload responsiveness defined as >10% increase in stroke volume or cardiac output after passive leg raising compared to baseline. Results The hemodynamic parameters in both pregnant and non-pregnant women changed significantly during passive leg raising compared to baseline, but the magnitude and trend of change was similar in both groups. The stroke volume increased both in pregnant (p?=?0.042) and non-pregnant (p?=?0.018) women, whereas the blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased (p<0.001) following passive leg raising in both groups. Only 14.8% of pregnant women and 18.5% of non-pregnant women were preload responsive and the difference between groups was not significant (p?=?0.705). Conclusion Static measures of cardiovascular status are different between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the physiological response to passive leg raising is similar and not modified by pregnancy at 22–24 weeks of gestation. Whether physiological response to passive leg raising is different in earlier and later stages of pregnancy merit further investigation. PMID:24732308

Vartun, Ase; Flo, Kari; Acharya, Ganesh

2014-01-01

372

Inadequate status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women residing in three districts of Niamey, the Niger Republic's capital.  

PubMed

Universal dietary salt iodisation (UDSI) programme was implemented in Niger in 1996. However, since 2000, there has been a slowdown in progress against iodine deficiency. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status among pregnant women in a context where national controls are not effective at ensuring universal availability of adequately iodised salt. This is mainly to assess the impact of the slowdown in the fight against iodine deficiency in this vulnerable group. The study was centred on 240 healthy pregnant women volunteers recruited in three districts primary health centres. A control group of 60 non-pregnant, non-lactating healthy women was also studied and compared. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of all pregnant women was 119??g?L(-1) , and 61.67% had UIC below 150??g?L(-1) . Median UIC for the first, second and third trimester were 144, 108 and 92??g?L(-1) , respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with UIC below 150??g?L(-1) increased from 52% in the first trimester to 66% in the third trimester. The median UIC of the control group was 166??g?L(-1) , and 28.33% had UIC below 100??g?L(-1) . No significant relationship was found between nutritional iodine status and provenance, age and parity. However, significant relationship was found between iodine status and stage of pregnancy, gestational age and educational level (P?pregnant women. It is therefore urgent to revitalise implementation of the UDSI programme, and in the short term to consider iodine supplementation for pregnant women. PMID:24034584

Sadou, Hassimi; Seyfoulaye, Amina; Malam Alma, Mousbahou; Daouda, Hamani

2014-10-01

373

Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.  

PubMed

Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts. PMID:19386406

Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

2009-07-01

374

HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women's human rights?  

PubMed Central

Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

2014-01-01

375

[The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].  

PubMed

Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

2013-05-01

376

Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Illness in Florida, 2009-2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection (pH1N1). Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes. Methods We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness. Results A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI): 1.78 (1.11-2.860)], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330)], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00)], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes. Conclusions Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue to be targeted for appropriate prophylaxis and early treatment. PMID:24205364

Doyle, Timothy J.; Goodin, Kate; Hamilton, Janet J.

2013-01-01

377

Physiologic changes in pregnant women and their fetuses during jet air travel.  

PubMed

The physiologic reactions of pregnant women and their fetuses were studied during routine commercial flights. Ten healthy pregnant women (32 to 38 weeks of gestation) each undertook two flights. Maternal respiratory and heart rates, transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2, blood pressure, uterine activity, and fetal beat-to-beat heart rate variability were continuously monitored. During these flights, maternal heart rate and blood pressure increased, and PO2 decreased significantly while PCO2 remained unchanged. Respiratory rate showed a short increase during takeoff and landing but remained unchanged during the rest of the flight. Mean fetal heart rate was within normal limits during the whole flight. No bradycardia, prolonged tachycardia, or significant loss of heart rate variability was observed. This study indicates no hazards of commercial flights to the mother and the fetus in uncomplicated pregnancies. PMID:3085508

Huch, R; Baumann, H; Fallenstein, F; Schneider, K T; Holdener, F; Huch, A

1986-05-01

378

A Review of Physical Activity Patterns in Pregnant Women and Their Relationship to Psychological Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

health. Adverse consequences of inactivity may be an especially important problem among pregnant women. Up to 60% are inactive during pregnancy. This review found consistent evidence that physical activity is reduced during pregnan- cy; however, few investigators have sought to quantify physical activity patterns among pregnant women using well validated measures. Some of the barriers to physical activity during pregnancy,

2006-01-01

379

Adherence to walking or stretching, and risk of preeclampsia in sedentary pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia may benefit from the positive effects of exercise, but they may be unlikely to adhere to an exercise program. A randomized trial was conducted with 124 sedentary pregnant women to compare the effects of walking exercise to a stretching exercise on adherence and on the preeclampsia risk factors of heart rate (HR), blood pressure,

SeonAe Yeo

2009-01-01

380

Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use With Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the scale

Nichole Fairbrother; Eileen K. Hutton; Kathrin Stoll; Wendy Hall; Sandy Kluka

2008-01-01

381

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. METHODS: Blood samples (947) were

Guy-Roger Ndong-Atome; Maria Makuwa; Richard Njouom; Michel Branger; Francoise Brun-Vézinet; Antoine Mahé; Dominique Rousset; Mirdad Kazanji

2008-01-01

382

Prevalence and pattern of domestic violence against pregnant Nigerian women.  

PubMed

Five hundred and twenty-two pregnant Nigerians attending the antenatal clinic in two private hospitals in Lagos between January and June 2003 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire about their experiences of domestic violence. One hundred and four women declined to participate; a response rate of 80.1% was obtained. Analysis of the completed questionnaire by 418 respondents showed that 197 (47.1%) women reported a history of abuse. Of the 197 women who reported abuse, 23 (11.7%) experienced abuse for the first time during the current pregnancy, 97 (49.2%) experienced abuse prior to and during the current pregnancy and in the remaining 77 (39.1%) abuse predate the current pregnancy. A total of 120 (28.7%) women experienced some form of abuse during current pregnancy. Although all social and ethnic groups were involved, no association could be established between prevalence and pattern of abuse and sociodemographic characteristics. Verbal abuse was the most common type of abuse reported (52.3%), followed by economic deprivation (30%), physical abuse (25%), threat of violence (10.8%) and forced sex in 14.2%. The perpetrators of the abuse were husband and boyfriend (78.7%), in-laws (31.5%) and other relations (6.1%). The majority of abused women (99.0%) were not ready to report the abuse to the police. In conclusion, domestic violence is common in our environment and health-care providers should be alert to the clues in order to protect the women from further abuse. PMID:16147605

Ezechi, O C; Kalu, B K; Ezechi, L O; Nwokoro, C A; Ndububa, V I; Okeke, G C E

2004-09-01

383

The effect of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-positive pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tenofovir is a commonly used component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. Although systematic review of tenofovir use in pregnancy concluded it to be low risk for foetal abnormalities [1], data is limited on its impact on renal function in pregnant women. A recent South African study [2] concluded that renal dysfunction in HIV-infected pregnant women is significantly less common than in other HIV-infected adults, however there is currently no UK data. We aimed to investigate the effect of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-1 positive pregnant women in a UK clinic. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data on renal function in pregnancy from a cohort of women attending a busy inner city London antenatal clinic. All women were screened for renal function throughout pregnancy via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and corrected for ethnicity. Results Ninety-seven HIV-1 positive women were registered at Homerton Hospital antenatal service of a total of 105 pregnancies between January 2010 and September 2013. Tenofovir was prescribed in 71/105 pregnancies (67.6%). Of the 71 pregnancies, 41 were prescribed tenofovir pre-conception (57.7%). Of the pregnant women who started tenofovir in pregnancy, 21/31 (67.7%) were initiated before week 24 of pregnancy, in line with British HIV association (BHIVA) guidelines [3]. There was no deterioration in median serum creatinine or decline in eGFR in women prescribed tenofovir during pregnancy. At six weeks after delivery, in the 42 women who continued tenofovir therapy and had eGFR measured, one woman had eGFR=60, all others eGFR >90 (Table 1). Conclusions Consistent with current guidelines and experience, this study shows tenofovir did not cause decline in renal function in pregnancy in our cohort of HIV-1 positive women, whether started during pre-conception or during pregnancy. More evidence should be prospectively collected looking at effects of tenofovir on other measures of tubular renal function in pregnancy such as proteinuria and protein-creatinine ratio.

Flanagan, Stuart; Barnes, Lynne; Anderson, Jane; Barber, Tristan

2014-01-01

384

ACCEPTANCE OF HSV TESTING PARTNERS OF HSV-2 SERONEGATIVE PREGNANT WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the acceptance of HSV testing partners of HSV seronegative pregnant women and identify associated factors. Study Design Consecutive women identified as HSV-2 seronegative during routine testing in pregnancy were asked to invite their partners for HSV testing to identify serodiscordance. Logistic regression identified factors associated with partner testing. Results Between 2001-2006, 315 women enrolled (28% of those approached) and 242 (77%) partners were tested. Married couples were most likely to be tested (aOR 7.72, 95% CI: 2.47-24.15). Partners of African-American women (aOR 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.71), and those with at least a college degree (aOR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.98) were less likely to be tested. Conclusions In this population, partner testing among HSV-2 seronegative women was feasible which supports further study to determine if identification of partners who pose a potential risk of HSV infection during pregnancy is an effective approach to reduce HSV acquisition in pregnant women. PMID:19265731

Gardella, Carolyn; Krantz, Elizabeth; Daruthayan, Constance; Drolette, Linda; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

2009-01-01

385

Intake of tapwater and total water by pregnant and lactating women.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Despite theoretically higher requirements for water due to physiologic demands of pregnancy and lactation, little is known of actual ranges of intake in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS. Population-based estimates of total water and tapwater intake in women of reproductive age were derived using data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Three-day average intakes were calculated for 188 pregnant women, 77 lactating women, and 6,201 non-pregnant, non-lactating control women. RESULTS. Total water intake (mean +/- SD) was 1,940 +/- 686 g/day (median 1,835) for control women, 2,076 +/- 743 g/day (median 1,928) for pregnant women and 2,242 +/- 658 g/day (median 2,164) for lactating women. Tapwater intake was 1,157 +/- 635 g/day (median 1,065) for control women, 1,189 +/- 699 g/day (median 1,063) for pregnant women, and 1,310 +/- 591 g/day (median 1,330) for lactating women. Total water intake was equal to or greater than 3,000 g/day among 7 percent of control women, 11 percent of pregnant women, and 13 percent of lactating women. Tapwater intake was equal to or greater than 2,000 g/day among 10 percent of control women, 15 percent of pregnant women, and 8 percent of lactating women. CONCLUSIONS. These results should be useful in estimating amounts of nutrients and toxic substances that women of reproductive age obtain through the water supply. PMID:1994741

Ershow, A G; Brown, L M; Cantor, K P

1991-01-01

386

The effect of cigarette smoking on asthma control during exacerbations in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmoking and severe asthma exacerbations in pregnancy are risk factors for low birth weight babies. No studies have assessed the clinical implications of smoking on asthma exacerbations in pregnancy.MethodsPregnant women with current asthma (n=80) were prospectively assessed at clinic visits (18, 30, 36 weeks), during exacerbations and with fortnightly phone calls. The asthma control questionnaire was administered at each contact

Vanessa E Murphy; Vicki L Clifton; Peter G Gibson

2010-01-01

387

The Value of a Learner’s Stance: Lessons Learned from Pregnant and Parenting Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The voices, perspectives, and experiences of pregnant and parenting women are vital sources of information often overlooked\\u000a or not understood by professionals. The goals of this qualitative study were to understand access to maternal and child health\\u000a services from the perspectives of diverse consumers, and provide rich descriptions to inform strategies to enhance the quality\\u000a of this access. It

Larry Humbert; Theresa L. Roberts

2009-01-01

388

Management and outcome of pregnant women with interstitial and restrictive lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to describe our experience with management and outcome of restrictive lung disease in pregnancy.STUDY DESIGN: Between 1981 and 1994 nine pregnant women with interstitial and restrictive lung disease were prospectively managed and delivered at the University of Washington Medical Center.RESULTS: Three patients had severe disease, characterized by vital capacity ?1.5 L (50% predicted) or diffusing capacity

Kim A. Boggess; Thomas R. Easterling; Ganesh Raghu

1995-01-01

389

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these\\u000a infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study\\u000a was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection\\u000a of IgG antibodies against

José M. Ramos; Afredo Milla; Juan C. Rodríguez; Sergio Padilla; Mar Masiá; Félix Gutiérrez

390

Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse.

Martha L. Velez; Ivan D. Montoya; Lauren M. Jansson; Vickie Walters; Dace Svikis; Hendree E. Jones; Howard Chilcoat; Jacquelyn Campbell

2006-01-01

391

Perfusion scintigraphy: diagnostic utility in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major preventable cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy and accurate diagnosis is essential.\\u000a Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is a robust diagnostic test in non-pregnant patients with suspected PE. The\\u000a potential latent carcinogenic effects of CTPA-related breast irradiation mandates careful use of this technique in young women.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine

Andrew Frederick Scarsbrook; Kevin Martin Bradley; Fergus Vincent Gleeson

2007-01-01

392

Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

393

Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women living in an area of stable malaria transmission such as Lagos, Nigeria, have been identified as being at an increased risk of the effects of malaria infection. In this area, most of the infections are asymptomatic which means they are overlooked and untreated much to the detriment of the mother and her foetus. The reality of scaled-up malaria interventions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets, vector control, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is that it is also essential to determine the risk factors at play in these kinds of circumstances. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with risk of malaria infection in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods Demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women studied were captured using structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, species identification and parasite density. Relative risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare factors associated with malaria in pregnant women. Results Malaria microscopy details, demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malaria using peripheral blood from 1,084 pregnant women that participated in the study was 7.7%. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) was seen in 95.2% of the cases as either mixed infection with P. malariae (3.6%) or as a mono infection (91.6%). Malaria preventive practices associated with a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the malaria infection was the use of insecticide sprays (RR = 0.36, 95 C.I. 0.24-0.54), and the combined use of insecticide spray and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (RR= 6.53, 95% C.I. 0.92-46.33). Sleeping under ITN alone (RR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 0.55-2.09) was not associated with significant reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135

2013-01-01

394

Prevalence of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  One thousand and seventy-three (1,073) consecutive women who attended the antenatal clinic at Barnsley District General Hospital,\\u000a Barnsley, UK, over a 15-month period were studied. Endo-cervical and high vaginal swabs for Candida albicans were obtained.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Sixty-five percent

A. A. Akinbiyi; Robert Watson; Paul Feyi-Waboso

2008-01-01

395

Foveal and parafoveal retinal thickness in healthy pregnant women in their last trimester  

PubMed Central

Purpose The inspection of foveal and parafoveal thickness in healthy pregnant women in the last trimester. Materials and methods This study included 40 healthy pregnant women in their last trimester (study group: 40 women, 80 eyes) and 37 nonpregnant women (control group: 37 women, 74 eyes). Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp examination of anterior and posterior segments, and visual field examination with automated perimetry were performed in both groups. Foveal and parafoveal thickness in the four quadrants (upper, nasal, temporal, and inferior parafoveal) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer were measured by optical coherence tomography. There were no systemic or ocular problems in either group. Findings were analyzed with statistical software. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean foveal and parafoveal thicknesses in the study group were: foveal 236.12 ± 27.28 ?m, upper quadrant 321.31 ± 12.28 ?m, temporal quadrant 307.0 ± 12.05 ?m, inferior quadrant 317.0 ± 10.58 ?m, and nasal quadrant 313.62 ± 14.51 ?m. Mean foveal and parafoveal thicknesses in the control group were: foveal 224.62 ± 21.19 ?m, upper quadrant 311.62 ± 12.71 ?m, temporal quadrant 296.87 ± 13.78 ?m, inferior quadrant 305.43 ± 13.25 ?m, and nasal quadrant 304.93 ± 13.44 ?m. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses in the study and control group were 110 ± 12.4 ?m and 108 ± 13.1 ?m, respectively. Conclusion Mean retinal thickness in pregnant women was higher than control group in all measurements. Statistically significant difference in thickness was only found in upper, temporal, and inferior parafoveal areas. PMID:22034559

Demir, Mehmet; Oba, Ersin; Can, Efe; Odabasi, Mahmut; Tiryaki, Semra; Ozdal, Erhan; Sensoz, Hakan

2011-01-01

396

Informed choice of pregnant women in prenatal screening tests for Down's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Although maternal serum screening (MSS) for Down's syndrome has become routinely available in most obstetric clinics in many countries, few studies have addressed the reasons why women agree to undergo the MSS test. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the circumstances in which MSS was offered to pregnant women and their reasons for undertaking it. Methods Participant observation and in depth interviews were used in this study; specifically, the experiences of women who had a positive result for MSS and who then followed this up with amniocentesis were examined. The interviewees were twenty six mothers aged between 22 and 35 years. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed for analysis. The results were analysed by the constant comparative method. Results This study identified the reasons on which pregnant women appeared to base their decisions when undergoing MSS. The reasons were first, the recognition that the procedure was a prenatal routine procedure; second, the need to avoid the risk of giving birth to a baby with Down's syndrome, and third, a trust in modern technology and in the professional authorities. Conclusions This study offers insights into the informed choice made by women with a positive MSS result. The reasons for undergoing MSS might help health professionals and policy makers to reflect on their practice and this may, in turn, improve the quality of prenatal care during MSS. PMID:16648277

Chiang, H-H; Chao, Y-M (Yu); Yuh, Y-S

2006-01-01

397

National trends in antidepressant medication treatment among publicly-insured pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objective Risk of depression in women is greatest at childbearing age. We sought to examine and explain national trends in antidepressant use in pregnant women. Methods Cohort study including pregnant women aged 12–55 who were enrolled in Medicaid during 2000–2007. We examined the proportion of women taking antidepressants during pregnancy by patient characteristics (descriptive), by region (mixed-effects model), and over time (interrupted time-series). Results We identified 1,106,757 pregnancies in 47 states; mean age was 23 years and 60% were non-white. Nearly 1 in 12 used an antidepressant during pregnancy. Use was higher for older (11.2% for age ?30 vs. 7.6% for <30) and white (14.4% vs. 4.0% for non-white) women. There was a 4- to 5-fold difference in rate of antidepressant use among states. Of the 5.3% of women taking antidepressants at conception, 33% and 17% were still on treatment 90 and 180 days, respectively, into pregnancy; an additional 4% began use during pregnancy. Labeled pregnancy-related health advisories did not appear to affect antidepressant use. Conclusions Antidepressant use during pregnancy remains high in this population; treatment patterns vary substantially by patient characteristics and region. Comparative safety and effectiveness data to help inform treatment choices are needed in this setting. PMID:23374897

Huybrechts, Krista F.; Palmsten, Kristin; Mogun, Helen; Kowal, Mary; Avorn, Jerry; Setoguchi-Iwata, Soko; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia

2014-01-01

398

Nicotine Patches for Pregnant Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of nicotine patches on conti- nine-validated smoking cessation in pregnant women and the effect of nicotine on birth weight and preterm delivery. Methods: Pregnant women who smoked ten or more cigarettes after the first trimester (N 55 5 250) were randomly assigned to receive nicotine patches (n 55 5 124) or placebo patches (n 55

KIRSTEN WISBORG; TINE BRINK HENRIKSEN; LONE BIRK JESPERSEN; NIELS JØRGEN SECHER

2000-01-01

399

The development and evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in a regional hospital, southern Thailand.  

PubMed

The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Thailand is higher than neighbouring developing countries including Malaysia and Singapore. The 1993 MMR of Thailand was 249 per 100 000 livebirths which was four times higher than the rates in Malaysia and Singapore (World Health Organization 1995). The major causes of these deaths were haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy and sepsis which were likely to be prevented by adequate prenatal care (Thailand Ministry of Public Health 1996). A large proportion of Thai pregnant women have poor health. Between 1994 and 1995, a national study conducted by Thailand Ministry of Health showed that 39% of pregnant women were anaemic, defined as haemoglobin concentration lower than 33% (Supamethaporn 1997). Another study conducted in the southern region also indicated that 13.8% of pregnant women were anaemic caused by iron deficiency (Phatthanapreechakul et al. 1997). Other behaviours which increased risks associated with child birth included non-antenatal care (ANC) attendance, undertaking physically demanding tasks and failure to increase nutritional intake during their pregnancy period (N. Phiriyanuphong et al. 1992, unpublished report). These factors emphasize the importance of a health education programme which could facilitate women to, for example, increase protein and iron intake during pregnancy which would reduce complications from their poor health status. This study was conducted in a regional hospital in Thailand where there was no systematic and well-planned health education programme for pregnant women. The initial aim was to design a health education programme using input from the hospital health care professionals including obstetricians, nurses, nutritionists, health educators and health promoters. An active involvement of these personnel assisted to sustain the provision of the programme provided for pregnant women after the cessation of the study project. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the programme using a pre-test-post-test method among selected pregnant women who participated in the newly designed health education programme. PMID:11136413

Thassri, J; Kala, N; Chusintong, L; Phongthanasarn, J; Boonsrirat, S; Jirojwong, S

2000-12-01

400

Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates  

PubMed Central

Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

2014-01-01

401

Population pharmacokinetics of quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objectives Oral quinine is used for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during pregnancy, but few pharmacokinetic data are available for this population. Previous studies have reported a substantial effect of malaria on the pharmacokinetics of quinine resulting from increased ?-1-acid glycoprotein levels and decreased cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria in Uganda using a population approach. Methods Data from 22 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were analysed. Patients received quinine sulphate (10 mg of salt/kg) three times daily (0, 8 and 16 h) for 7 days. Plasma samples were collected daily and at frequent intervals after the first and last doses. A population pharmacokinetic model for quinine was developed accounting for different disposition, absorption, error and covariate models. Results Parasitaemia, as a time-varying covariate affecting relative bioavailability, and body temperature on admission as a covariate on elimination clearance, explained the higher exposure to quinine during acute malaria compared with the convalescent phase. Neither the estimated gestational age nor the trimester influenced the pharmacokinetic properties of quinine significantly. Conclusions A population model was developed that adequately characterized quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant Ugandan women with acute malaria. Quinine exposure was lower than previously reported in patients who were not pregnant. The measurement of free quinine concentration will be necessary to determine the therapeutic relevance of these observations. PMID:24970740

Kloprogge, Frank; Jullien, Vincent; Piola, Patrice; Dhorda, Mehul; Muwanga, Sulaiman; Nosten, Francois; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Guerin, Philippe J.; Tarning, Joel

2014-01-01

402

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.  

PubMed

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

2014-01-01

403

Factors associated with health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic and were 18 years of age or older in 2007-2008. Health literacy, self-efficacy, fetal health locus of control, and health information-seeking were measured using the Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the Health Information Competence Scale, the Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Pregnancy Health Information-Seeking Scale. Health literacy was not significantly correlated with health information-seeking. Self-efficacy (r = .33) and internal fetal health locus of control (r = .27) demonstrated significant correlations with health information-seeking, and together they accounted for 15% of the variance in health information-seeking. After controlling for covariates, self-efficacy (p = .0006) and internal fetal health locus of control (p = .03) remained significantly associated with health information-seeking. In conclusion, pregnant women's characteristics, such as self-efficacy and internal fetal health locus of control belief, are associated with their health information-seeking during pregnancy. PMID:20853218

Shieh, Carol; Broome, Marion E; Stump, Timothy E

2010-07-01

404

Estimating the Risk of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Blood Donors and Pregnant Women in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0–4 and 5–9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30–39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Conclusions Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy. PMID:24658180

Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

2014-01-01

405

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

406

The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.  

PubMed

The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time. PMID:21973110

Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

2011-08-31

407

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

2014-01-01

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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in chilean pregnant women.  

PubMed

Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development.