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1

Characteristics of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women physicians: findings from the women physicians’ health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many young physicians are women, and many are in their childbearing years. Knowing pregnant physicians’ status is useful for epidemiological and workforce reasons, yet no studies have compared pregnant with same-age, non-pregnant physicians, an especially appropriate comparison group. Study design: Data from the Women Physicians’ Health Study, a national questionnaire-based survey. We compare 87 pregnant with 1148 non-pregnant women

E Frank; K Cone

2000-01-01

2

Pregnant Women  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... to-Be What you need to know about food safety before, during, and after pregnancy. Preventing Listeriosis In Pregnant Hispanic Women in the US ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

3

[Drug prescription for pregnant women: a pharmacoepidemiological study].  

PubMed

Prescription drug use by pregnant women should be viewed as a public health issue, since there are numerous gaps in knowledge on the consequences for both the mother and the fetus. Pharmacoepidemiological studies can help minimize the inherent risks in drug treatment by establishing a profile of drug consumption during pregnancy, providing an evaluation of this service, and identifying intervention measures. The purpose of this study was to establish a prescription profile for pregnant women treated under the National Health System (SUS) in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, using prescription indicators recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the fetus. According to the current study, during prenatal consultations 44.7% of the women received drug prescriptions, and the most widely prescribed group of drugs were those acting on the hematopoietic system (34.9%). Of this total, 26.0% of the drugs were included in fetal risk category C, 1.5% in category D, and 1.5% in category E. These data point to the medicalization of pregnancy and the need for intervention measures aimed at rational prescription drug use during the prenatal period. PMID:15300293

Carmo, Thais Adriana do; Nitrini, Sandra Maria O O

2004-07-29

4

Use of a food frequency questionnaire in American Indian and Caucasian pregnant women: a validation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have been validated in pregnant women, but few studies have focused specifically on low-income women and minorities. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Harvard Service FFQ (HSFFQ) among low-income American Indian and Caucasian pregnant women. METHODS: The 100-item HSFFQ was administered three times to a sample of pregnant women,

Heather J Baer; Robin E Blum; Helaine RH Rockett; Jill Leppert; Jane D Gardner; Carol W Suitor; Graham A Colditz

2005-01-01

5

Physical activity in pregnancy: a qualitative study of the beliefs of overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women; and (ii) inform interventions which

Zoe Weir; Judith Bush; Stephen C Robson; Catherine McParlin; Judith Rankin; Ruth Bell

2010-01-01

6

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with childhood rickets and longer-term problems including schizophrenia and type 1 diabetes. Whilst maternal vitamin D insufficiency is common in mothers with highly pigmented skin, little is known about vitamin D status of Caucasian pregnant women. The aim was to investigate vitamin D status in healthy Caucasian pregnant women and a group of age-matched non-pregnant controls living at 54-55 degrees N. In a longitudinal study, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was assessed in ninety-nine pregnant women at 12, 20 and 35 weeks of gestation, and in thirty-eight non-pregnant women sampled concurrently. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women (P < 0.0001). Of the pregnant women, 35, 44 and 16 % were classified as vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l), and 96, 96 and 75 % were classified as vitamin D insufficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) at 12, 20 and 35 weeks gestation, respectively. Vitamin D status was higher in pregnant women who reported taking multivitamin supplements at 12 (P < 0.0001), 20 (P = 0.001) and 35 (P = 0.001) weeks gestation than in non-supplement users. Vitamin D insufficiency is evident in pregnant women living at 54-55 degrees N. Women reporting use of vitamin D-containing supplements had higher vitamin D status, however, vitamin D insufficiency was still evident even in the face of supplement use. Given the potential consequences of hypovitaminosis D on health outcomes, vitamin D supplementation, perhaps at higher doses than currently available, is needed to improve maternal vitamin D nutriture. PMID:19331703

Holmes, Valerie A; Barnes, Maria S; Alexander, H Denis; McFaul, Peter; Wallace, Julie M W

2009-03-31

7

Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match

Wim Verbeke; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

2007-01-01

8

Effects of Mindful Yoga on Sleep in Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this experimental pilot study was to measure the effects of a mindfulness-based yoga intervention on sleep in pregnant women. Methods: Fifteen healthy, nulliparous women in their second or third trimesters with singleton pregnancies attended weekly mindfulness meditation and prenatal Hatha yoga classes in the community for 7 weeks. Sleep variables, as estimated by 72 hr of

Amy E. Beddoe; Kathryn A. Lee; Sandra J. Weiss; Holly Powell Kennedy; Chin-Po Paul Yang

2010-01-01

9

Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p?pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women were especially impaired by striae gravidarum and it is considered important to prevent or reduce the severity of striae gravidarum of the multiparae group.

2012-01-01

10

Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36?years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n?=?837). Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing). Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05) for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66) if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR?=?0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63) or binged (OR???0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31) and were higher for those who abstained (OR?=?45.09; 95% CI 8.63-235.49) prior to pregnancy. Conclusion Most pregnant women did not comply with alcohol guidelines promoting abstinence. Prior alcohol behaviour was the strongest predictor of compliance during pregnancy, suggesting alcohol use should be addressed in women of child-bearing age. The study is limited by the relatively short timeframe between the official introduction of the 2009 guidelines and the date the surveys were sent out. Widespread dissemination of the guidelines may be necessary to help increase guideline compliance by pregnant women.

2012-01-01

11

Smoking cessation in pregnant women with mental disorders: a cohort and nested qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether 1) pregnant smokers with mental disorders are less likely to accept referrals to smoking cessation services compared with pregnant smokers without disorders; 2) they experience specific barriers to smoking cessation. Design Cohort study supplemented by cross-sectional survey and nested qualitative study. Setting Three maternity services, London, UK. Population Pregnant smokers with and without mental disorders. Methods Case notes were examined on a cohort of 400 consecutive pregnant smokers; data were triangulated with routinely collected data on 845 pregnant smokers at two other sites; 27 pregnant smokers were interviewed using qualitative methods. Main outcome measures Acceptance of referral to smoking cessation services; perceived barriers to quitting. Results Pregnant smokers with a mental disorder recorded by midwives were one-quarter of the cohort (97, 23%), were more likely to accept referral to smoking cessation services (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.03–2.79), but more likely to still smoke at delivery (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 1.41–4.92). Discussion about smoking was documented in 7.7% of subsequent antenatal visits in women with or without mental disorders. Pregnant smokers with diagnosed mental disorders reported that they and health practitioners did not prioritise smoking advice because of concern about adversely impacting mental health. Conclusions Pregnant women with mental disorders appear more motivated, yet find it more difficult, to stop smoking. Prioritisation of mental health over smoking may therefore lead to increasing health inequality for this group. Research into effective smoking cessation interventions is required for those with mental disorders.

Howard, LM; Bekele, D; Rowe, M; Demilew, J; Bewley, S; Marteau, TM

2013-01-01

12

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

13

Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24) women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9%) were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8%) and 25–29 years (22.6%) age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs). The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04) in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5) in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Richa; Singh, Sarman

2007-01-01

14

[A clinical and microbiological study of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis in pregnant women].  

PubMed

Infectious complications in pregnancy and delivery are still y serious problem in obstetrical, gynecological and neonatological practice. The main part of them are caused from the anaerobic organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis as well from sexually transmitted pathogens. In this study we present data about the frequency of spreading of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis in pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy. We held y study of 106 pregnant women aged between 15 and 35, registrated at the Pregnancy Consultation Office in eleven. About half of the women did not have data for genital discharge and the microbiological analysis showed normal vaginal flora. Two thirds of the rest investigated women had data for candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or both. Only one case of Trichomonas vaginalis-vaginitis was detected. The results from the microscopic examination of the specimens from 10 (9.4%) of the women were suspected for N. gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis-cervicitis. Group B streptococci in significant quantity was found in five cases. These results showed high frequency of spreading of bacterial vaginosis and cervico-vaginitis in pregnant women. PMID:11965718

Chervenkova, A; Sredkova, M; Tanchev, S; Plevneli, B

1999-01-01

15

Pregnant women's attitudes towards alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to whether there is a safe threshold for drinking alcohol during pregnancy. We explored pregnant women's attitudes towards drinking alcohol in pregnancy and their attitudes towards sources of information about drinking in pregnancy following recent changes in UK government guidance. METHODS: A qualitative study involving individual, semi-structured interviews with 20 pregnant women recruited from community

Neil Raymond; Charlotte Beer; Cristine Glazebrook; Kapil Sayal

2009-01-01

16

Delivering Influenza Vaccine to Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women have an increased risk of influenza infection and complications. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently recommends vaccination for women who are pregnant during influenza season. The authors review the literature concerning influenza vaccine safety, effectiveness, and coverage rates during pregnancy, as well as opportunities to improve vaccination rates during pregnancy. No study has demonstrated an increased risk

Allison L. Naleway; Wendy J. Smith; John P. Mullooly

2006-01-01

17

1: Infections in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate investigations and management can reduce adverse outcomes, unnecessary interventions and anxiety. IN PREGNANT WOMEN, most infections are no more serious than in non-pregnant women of similar age. However, some infections can be transmitted to the fetus in utero or to the infant during or immediately after delivery, with potentially serious sequelae (Box 1). Uncommonly, serious infectious illness in the

Gwendolyn L Gilbert

18

A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women's and health professionals' attitudes to external cephalic version  

PubMed Central

Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required.

2013-01-01

19

Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and

Eijk van A. M; Kim A. Lindblade; Frank Odhiambo; Elizabeth Peterson; Daniel H. Rosen; Diana Karanja; John G. Ayisi; Ya Ping Shi; Kubaje Adazu; Laurence Slutsker

2009-01-01

20

Iodine intake in a population of pregnant women: INMA mother and child cohort study, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMonitoring iodine status during pregnancy is essential to prevent iodine-related disorders. The objectives of this study are to estimate iodine intake and excretion, to assess their association and to evaluate the compliance of the recommendations in a multicentre cohort of pregnant women.MethodsCross-sectional data on maternal iodine nutritional status, compiled between weeks 8 and 22 of gestation in three Spanish areas

M. Murcia; M. Rebagliato; M. Espada; J. Vioque; L. Santa Marina; M. Alvarez-Pedrerol; M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa; G. Leon; C Íñiguez; M. Basterrechea; M. Guxens; A. Lertxundi; A. Perales; F. Ballester; J. Sunyer

2009-01-01

21

Prevalence and severity of viral hepatitis in Pakistani pregnant women: a five year hospital based study.  

PubMed

A hospital based observational study was carried out on pregnant women presenting with either acute hepatitis or fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), during the past years. Of 53 patients, 20 (38%) developed FHF.Non-A, Non-B was the commonest cause (62%) followed by hepatitis B in 17% and hepatitis A in 4% cases. Eight women expired (case fatality rate 15%) with a high maternal mortality (62%) caused by NANB hepatitis. Perinatal mortality was 30%. Poor prognostic factors identified were lack of antenatal care, severity of jaundice, history of somnolence, gastrointestinal bleeding and a high grade of encephalopathy. PMID:9339616

Aziz, A B; Hamid, S; Iqbal, S; Islam, W; Karim, S A

1997-08-01

22

Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study  

PubMed Central

Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

2013-01-01

23

Safety of influenza vaccines in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Prevention of influenza in pregnant women and their newborns through maternal immunization is a safe and effective intervention during seasonal epidemics and a priority during a pandemic. While influenza vaccination of pregnant women has been routine in the United States since the 1950s, coverage rates increased significantly only after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Epidemiologic and clinical studies support the safety of inactivated influenza vaccines in pregnant women and their infants. Safety barriers to the use of vaccines during pregnancy can be addressed through research, active surveillance, and education. PMID:22920057

Munoz, Flor M

2012-07-09

24

Vertical transmission of hepatitis C Virus: An epidemiological study on 2,980 pregnant women in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies according to the population studied and the tests used. Aim of the current study was to investigate HCV vertical transmission rate in children born to 30 HCV positive\\/HIV negative pregnant women in Italy. We investigated the potential vertical transmission of HCV by identifying HCV antibody seropositive pregnant women, by

G. Sabatino; L. A. Ramenghi; M. Marzio; E. Pizzigallo

1996-01-01

25

A Systematic Review of African Studies on Intimate Partner Violence against Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIntimate partner violence (IPV) is very high in Africa. However, information obtained from the increasing number of African studies on IPV among pregnant women has not been scientifically analyzed. This paper presents a systematic review summing up the evidence from African studies on IPV prevalence and risk factors among pregnant women.MethodsA key-word defined search of various electronic databases, specific journals

Simukai Shamu; Naeemah Abrahams; Marleen Temmerman; Alfred Musekiwa; Christina Zarowsky; Virginia Vitzthum

2011-01-01

26

Antithrombotic therapy for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Coagulability increases during pregnancy, and thromboembolism can easily occur. Venous thromboembolism is a cause of death in pregnant women, but arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke in pregnancy is also not uncommon. In pharmacotherapy for thromboembolism in pregnant women, fetal toxicity and teratogenicity must be carefully considered. As anticoagulants in pregnant women, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are recommended, but warfarin is not recommended since it has a low molecular weight and crosses the placenta. Various types of new oral anticoagulant drugs have been available in Japan since 2011. However, the Japanese package inserts for these anticoagulants advise quite cautious administration in pregnant women. The guidelines on pregnant women include less information about antiplatelet drugs than anticoagulant drugs. Aspirin may cause teratogenicity and fetal toxicity, and perinatal mortality is increased. However, when low doses of aspirin are administered as antiplatelet therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration has assigned pregnancy category C, and treatment is relatively safe. Neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly encounter pregnant women with thromboembolism, such as ischemic stroke. Up-to-date information and correct selection of drugs are necessary in consultation with specialists in perinatal care. PMID:23979047

Toyoda, Kazunori

2013-01-01

27

Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1?month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will make a significant contribution to discussions about the wider introduction of population carrier screening for FXS.

Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

2013-01-01

28

Erythrocyte Vitamin B12 Activity in Lactovegetarian Pregnant Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte vitamin B12 levels were studied in pregnant Indian women consuming very little food of animal origin and compared with healthy non-pregnant women from the same dietetic group. The comparison of the mean values for routine haematological parameters revealed distinct fall in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, plasma vitamin B12, and albumin levels in pregnant women. However, the mean

V. S. Jathar; A. B. Inamdar-Deshmukh

1981-01-01

29

National Children's Study Workshop: Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring  

Cancer.gov

Page 1 of 42 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment September 21–22, 2004 Draft 3 11-16-04 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring September

30

Pregnant women at work: a study of ethnic minority risk in Leicestershire.  

PubMed Central

Possible reasons for the excess risk of perinatal mortality experienced by Asian women living in Leicestershire who work during pregnancy were investigated. This entailed a detailed examination of the work undertaken locally by a group of pregnant Asian women and comparison with the work undertaken by an occupationally matched group of pregnant non-Asian women. A total of 306 pregnant women were interviewed. The results suggest that the two ethnic groups experienced similar working conditions, and most of the women continued working until the 29th week of pregnancy. The Asian women worked significantly longer hours on average than the non-Asian group, and were more likely to report financial dependence by the family upon their earnings.

Peel, A; Clarke, M

1990-01-01

31

Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGeohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear.MethodologyDuring a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglobin was measured and a blood slide examined for malaria. Geohelminth infections were identified using the concentration and Kato-Katz method.ResultsAmong 390

Anna M. van Eijk; Kim A. Lindblade; Frank Odhiambo; Elizabeth Peterson; Daniel H. Rosen; Diana Karanja; John G. Ayisi; Ya Ping Shi; Kubaje Adazu; Laurence Slutsker

2009-01-01

32

The development of a standard training toolkit for research studies that recruit pregnant women in labour  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of pregnant women in labour to clinical trials poses particular challenges. Interpretation of regulation lacks consistency or clarity and variation occurs as to the training required by clinicians to safely contribute to the conduct of intrapartum studies. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Intrapartum Clinical Study Group initiated the development of a pragmatic, proportionate and standardised toolkit for training clinical staff that complies with both regulatory and clinician requirements and has been peer-reviewed. This approach may be useful to researchers in acute care settings that necessitate the integration of research, routine clinical practice and compliance with regulation.

2013-01-01

33

Aerobic microbiological study in term pregnant women with premature rupture of the membranes: a case-control study.  

PubMed

To determine the aerobic microorganisms related to premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) in term pregnant women, a case-controlled study was performed on pregnant women delivered at Rajavithi Hospital between November 1, 1996 and July 30, 1997. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women with PROM and 220 pregnant women without PROM were recruited by simple random sampling. The diagnosis of rupture of the membrane was made by history and by positive microscopic ferning and pH testing performed during speculum examination. The demographic characteristics were not statistically significantly different between both groups. We could not isolate any organisms (35.9% in the study group and 49.5% in the control group). Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the only two significant differences demonstrated between the study and control group (p<0.05). Candida albicans, the most prevalent organism in the study group, demonstrated significant difference between the study and control group (14.5% and 7.7% respectively) (p<0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated significant difference between the study and control group (7.30% and 4.10% respectively) (p<0.05). Gardnerella vaginalis, the most prevalent organism in the control group, showed no significant difference between the control and study group (16.40% and 14.10% respectively) (p=0.547). PMID:11281495

Kovavisarach, E; Sermsak, P; Kanjanahareutai, S

2001-01-01

34

Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia were systematically assessed through an inquiry-based investigation. The study was conducted with 291 pregnant women, who attended antenatal classes at the time of the investigation, and 200 non-pregnant women, all of whom participated during consultation hours for parents in ten, randomly selected primary schools in the country. Results

Mojca Jevšnik; Silvestra Hoyer; Peter Raspor

2008-01-01

35

Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patterns and predictors of maternal folic acid supple- ment use have not been examined in large prospective studies of pregnant women. Objective: We examined the patterns and predictors of maternal folic acid supplement use from 2 mo before pregnancy through the eighth month of pregnancy. Design: Data from 22 500 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

Roy M Nilsen; Stein E Vollset; Håkon K Gjessing; Per Magnus; Helle M Meltzer; Margaretha Haugen; Per M Ueland

36

Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean\\u000a and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant\\u000a immigrant women referred from primary care to an obligatory hemoglobinopathy screening were eligible for the study, as their\\u000a screening was negative. To

Mads Nybo; Lennart Friis-Hansen; Peter Felding; Nils Milman

2007-01-01

37

Frequency and Associated Factors for Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relationships, and home environment. Out of the total of 165 pregnant women about 70 percent of them were either anxious and/or depressed. The increasing age of women (P-value = 0.073), not having any live birth (P-value = 0.036), adverse pregnancy outcome in past including death of a child, stillbirth or abortion (P-value = 0.013), participant's role in household decision making (P-value = 0.013), and domestic violence (verbal or physical abuse towards mother or children by any family member) (P-value = 0.123). Our study highlights that anxiety and/or depression is quite common among pregnant women. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate screening for anxiety and depression in the existing antenatal programs and development of strategies to provide practical support to those identified.

Ali, Niloufer S.; Azam, Iqbal S.; Ali, Badar S.; Tabbusum, Ghurnata; Moin, Sana S.

2012-01-01

38

Can physical activity reduce excessive gestational weight gain? Findings from a Chinese urban pregnant women cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) poses negative impact on mothers and their children. It is important to understand the modifiable lifestyle factors associated with excessive GWG during pregnancy to guide future public health practice. Aim To investigate the association between physical activity during pregnancy and GWG of Chinese urban pregnant women. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established between 2005 and 2007 in Changzhou, China. Physical activity levels of pregnant women were assessed using pedometer in the 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively. According to step counts, pregnant women were categorized into 4 different physical activity groups: Sedentary, Low Active, Somewhat Active and Active. The pregnant women were followed for eligibility and data collection from the 2nd trimester to delivery. Multiple linear regression and multiple binary logistic model were applied to determine the association between physical activity and GWG. Results Physical activity levels and GWG of 862 pregnant women were assessed, among them 473 (54.9%) experienced excessive GWG. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.59 (95%CI: 0.36 ~ 0.95) for excessive GWG in the Active group during the 2nd trimester and 0.66 (95%CI: 0.43 ~ 1.00) in the Somewhat Active group during the 3rd trimester, compared with the Sedentary group respectively. In the last two trimesters, the Active group had 1.45 kg less GWG, than the Sedentary group. The ORs of excessive GWG decreased with the increased level of physical activity (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that pregnant women being physically active have less weight gain during pregnancy.

2012-01-01

39

Gestational thrombocytopenia among pregnant Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombocytopenia is a common problem during pregnancy that is not frequently detected and as a result is often inappropriately managed. The obvious concern with thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is the risk of significant bleeding at the time of delivery. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopenia in pregnant women reporting for ante-natal care at a Ghanaian primary health care centre. Methods Platelet count was evaluated in 300 blood samples from pregnant women and 100 non pregnant female blood donors. The platelet counts were performed using Sysmex KX-21N automated hematology analyzer. The study design was cross sectional. Proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the Chi square, Odds ratio was also calculated Results The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this study was 15.3% compared with 4% in controls. This was statistically significant with a P value of 0.003. Odds ratio was 4.31 (95% CI: 1.52-12.04). Most cases of thrombocytopenia were mild (76%), only 4% of the women with thrombocytopenia had severe thrombocytopenia. Conclusion The frequency of thrombocytopenia in this study was higher than that reported from more developed parts of the world. This may be due to undetected malaria infection in our patients. Pregnant women should be routinely screened for thrombocytopenia. Those found to be thrombocytopenic should have both thick and thin blood films done to exclude the presence of malaria parasites.

Olayemi, Edeghonghon; Akuffo, Frederick William

2012-01-01

40

Pregnant Women's Perceptions of Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

=Objective: To determine whether pregnant women's perceptions of abuse severity and danger, and their ability to control the abuse, are signifi- cantly correlated with the acts of abuse they experi- ence, and to find out whether relationships exist among womenf appraisals of abuse severity, dan- ger, and their perceived ability to stop the abuse. Design: A correlational design was used

Lois A. Haggerty; Ursula Kelly; Joellen Hawkins; Carole Pearce; Margaret H. Kearney

2001-01-01

41

Coping Mechanisms Actually and Hypothetically Used by Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Quitting Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to investigate how pregnant and non-pregnant women use various coping techniques when attempting to refrain from smoking. Eighty women with subgroups formed by the variables of pregnant\\/not pregnant and quitting\\/not quitting smoking were studied over a 2-week period. The general strategy was to follow smokers who had stated an intention to quit smoking. Smokers,

Monica Ortendahl

2008-01-01

42

Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41?g/L with a range of Women experiencing their first pregnancy had slightly higher urinary bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25, however these relationships did not reach significance. This study provides the first information on bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:23149244

Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

2012-11-11

43

End of life decisions and pregnant women: do pregnant women have the right to refuse life preserving medical treatment? A comparative study.  

PubMed

In this article the practice of end of life decisions is applied to pregnant women. This is not an easy task as shown by the extensive case law and literature on the subject. The main conclusion of the article is that the pregnant woman's wishes should always be respected whatever the consequences for the foetus may be. Another position would unjustly sacrifice the woman's fundamental rights to bodily integrity and self-determination for the benefit of a non-person. The result is repeated in the situation where the woman is found to be incompetent or brain dead. PMID:21133244

Lemmens, Christophe

2010-12-01

44

Tobacco and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999, an estimated 17% of pregnant women smoked cigarettes in the past month, and 3% of pregnant women engaged in binge alcohol use. Younger pregnant women were more likely than their older counterparts to smoke cigarettes and binge drink. Rates of smo...

2001-01-01

45

Diagnostic value of single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women with suspected deep vein thrombosis: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the safety of using single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women to rule out deep vein thrombosis. Design Prospective outcome study. Setting Two tertiary care centres and 18 private practices specialising in vascular medicine in France and Switzerland. Participants 226 pregnant and postpartum women referred for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Methods A single proximal and distal compression ultrasonography was performed. All women with a negative complete compression ultrasonography result did not receive anticoagulant therapy and were followed up for a three month period. Main outcome measures Symptoms of venous thromboembolism, second compression ultrasonography or chest imaging, a thromboembolic event, and anticoagulant treatment. Results 16 women were excluded, mainly because of associated suspected pulmonary embolism. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 22 out of the 210 included women (10.5%). 10 patients received full dose anticoagulation despite a negative test result during follow-up. Of the 177 patients without deep vein thrombosis and who did not receive full dose anticoagulant therapy, two (1.1%, 95% confidence interval 0.3% to 4.0%) had an objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis during follow-up. Conclusions The rate of venous thromboembolic events after single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women seems to be within the range of that observed in studies in the non-pregnant population. These data suggest that a negative single complete compression ultrasonography result may safely exclude the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in this setting. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00740454.

2012-01-01

46

Risk factors related to premature rupture of membranes in term pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) of full term pregnant women was undertaken between 1 November 1996 and 30 July 1997 at Rajavithi Hospital to determine the risk factors related to PROM. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women with PROM and 220 pregnant women without PROM were recruited by a simple random sampling. The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made from history and from positive microscopic ferning and pH tests performed during a speculum examination. The demographic data was not significantly different between the two groups. The risk factors, such as a history of PROM in a previous pregnancy, a history of abortion in a previous pregnancy, and body mass index (BMI) < 20 were significantly different between the PROM group and the control group. However, on using multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that the residual significant risk factors were a history of PROM in a previous pregnancy and BMI < 20. PMID:10870775

Kovavisarach, E; Sermsak, P

2000-02-01

47

Risk factors for syphilis infection among pregnant women: results of a case-control study in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Background China has been experiencing a rapidly growing syphilis epidemic since the early 1990s, with the reported incidence of congenital syphilis increasing from 0.01 cases per 100?000 live births in 1991 to 19.7 cases per 100?000 live births in 2005. Detailed studies of risk factors for syphilis in pregnant women are needed to inform new preventive interventions. Objective To investigate factors associated with recent syphilis infection among pregnant women and recommend strategies for improved preventive interventions in the community. Methods A case–control study was conducted among women attending antenatal clinics in Shenzhen City, South China. Cases were antenatal clinic women testing positive for early syphilis, based on laboratory results, with those testing negative being controls. All participants completed the same anonymous questionnaire covering demographics, lifestyle, sexual behaviour, and sexual partnerships. Results 129 cases and 345 controls were recruited. Syphilis was significantly associated with unmarried status, less education, multiple sex partners, travel of sex partner in the past 12?months, a history of induced abortion, and previous sexually transmitted infections. Overall, there were no differences between syphilis?positive and negative women in household registration status (hukou), living district and duration in Shenzhen, monthly income, and age at first sex. Conclusions Many demographic and behavioural risk factors are associated with syphilis among pregnant women. In the government congenital syphilis control programme, comprehensive preventive interventions should be provided in all clinical settings in addition to the current procedures for syphilis screening among antenatal women.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Hong, Fu-Chang; Pan, Peng; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yu-Mao; Yin, Yue-Ping; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David

2007-01-01

48

Town and Gown Partnerships: Improving Pregnant Women’s Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to move research related to women and children experiencing violence from the university setting to the field, the DOVE study has been implemented to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention for pregnant women experiencing IPV. Using existing home health professionals, the DOVE program is directed at empowering new mothers in order to prevent their children’s exposure

Linda F. C. Bullock; Shreya Bhandari; Phyllis W. Sharps

2009-01-01

49

An interpersonally based intervention for low-income pregnant women with intimate partner violence: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing depression and\\u000a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of low-income pregnant women with recent intimate partner violence (IPV).\\u000a Fifty-four women were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of four sessions\\u000a during pregnancy and one “booster” session within 2 weeks of

Caron Zlotnick; Nicole M. Capezza; Donna Parker

2011-01-01

50

Gaps in knowledge in treating pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because studies are often undertaken without knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of a drug, efficacy is difficult to assess in pregnant women. To address this lack, basic and clinical research within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is focusing on expanding knowledge of pharmacology during pregnancy. Although medication use, including prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal products, is common during

Donald Mattison; Anne Zajicek

2006-01-01

51

Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women for a Behavioral Intervention: Lessons from the Maternal Adiposity, Metabolism, and Stress (MAMAS) Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging. Many studies fall short of their target or must prolong recruitment to reach it. We examined recruitment and retention strategies and report lessons learned in a behavioral intervention developmental trial to encourage healthy pregnancy weight gain and stress reduction in low-income overweight pregnant women. Methods In the San Francisco Bay area from February 2010 through March 2011, we used direct and indirect strategies to recruit English-speaking overweight and obese pregnant women who were aged 18 to 45, were in the early stages of pregnancy, and who had an annual household income less than 500% of the federal poverty guidelines. Eligible women who consented participated in focus groups or an 8-week behavioral intervention. We identified successful recruiting strategies and sites and calculated the percentage of women who were enrolled and retained. Results Of 127 women screened for focus group participation, 69 were eligible and enrolled. A total of 57 women participated in 9 focus groups and 3 women completed individual interviews for a completion rate of 87%. During recruitment for the intervention, we made contact with 204 women; 135 were screened, 33% were eligible, and 69.1% of eligible women enrolled. At 1 month postpartum, 82.6% of eligible women completed an assessment. Recruiting at hospital-based prenatal clinics was the highest-yielding strategy. Conclusion The narrow window of eligibility for enrolling early stage pregnant women in a group intervention presents obstacles. In-person recruitment was the most successful strategy; establishing close relationships with providers, clinic staff, social service providers, and study participants was essential to successful recruitment and retention.

Laraia, Barbara A.; Adler, Nancy; Vieten, Cassandra; Thomas, Melanie; Epel, Elissa

2013-01-01

52

Hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnant women in North-East Italy: A seroepidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pregnant women can be considered a sentinel population, because they are a relatively unselected population whose prevalence data may be extended to the general population. Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out in Padua (North-East Italy) to assess the epidemiological aspects of HCV, HBV and HIV infection in 2059 pregnant women consecutively seen at the Department of Obstetrics and

Vincenzo Baldo; Annarosa Floreani; Tiziana Menegon; Pasquale Grella; Delia M. Paternoster; Renzo Trivello

2000-01-01

53

The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim

Torbjørn Øien; Ola Storrø; Jon A Jenssen; Roar Johnsen

2008-01-01

54

A Longitudinal Descriptive Study of Self-reported Abnormal Smell and Taste Perception in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported abnormal sensitivity, qualitative distortions and phantom sensations with respect to smell and taste was assessed with a longitudinal design, based on questions referring to gestational weeks 13-16 and 31-34 of pregnancy in comparison with 9-12 weeks post partum and with non-pregnant women with corresponding time durations and intervals. The results show that abnormal smell and\\/or taste perception was reported

Steven Nordin; Daniel A. Broman; Jonas K. Olofsson; Marianne Wulff

2004-01-01

55

Oral Health of Early Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study of Staff, Parents, and Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives.We explored the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and activities of Early Head Start (EHS) staff members, parents, and pregnant women, along with their suggestions related to future oral health educational interventions targeting EHS children. Methods. Nine focus groups were conducted with EHS staff, parents, and pregnant women. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed and entered into ATLAS.ti 5.0 for coding and analysis. Results. Attitudes about the importance of children's oral health among parents and pregnant women were mixed. Staff members voiced responsibility for children's oral health but frustration in their inability to communicate effectively with parents. Parents in turn perceived staff criticism regarding how they cared for their children's oral health. Gaps were noted in the oral health activities of EHS programs. Participants expressed confusion regarding the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS. The need for culturally sensitive, hands-on oral health education was highlighted. Conclusions. Tailored, theory-based interventions are needed to improve communication between EHS staff and families. Clear policies on the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS are warranted. Educational activities should address the needs and suggestions of EHS participants.

Zeldin, Leslie P.; Rozier, R. Gary

2009-01-01

56

Health Promoting Lifestyles and Related Factors in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to explore health promoting lifestyles and related factors in pregnant women. Methods: This was a descriptive study using convenience sampling. Altogether, 172 pregnant women were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan. Personal data was collected, and the instruments used included perceived health status, self-efficacy of health behaviors, perception of family or

Yu-Hua Lin; Eing-Mei Tsai; Te-Fu Chan; Fan-Hao Chou; Yu-Ling Lin

57

Stressors, resources, and stress responses in pregnant African American women: a mixed-methods pilot study.  

PubMed

This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F; Dancy, Barbara L; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L; Engeland, Christopher G; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C

2013-01-01

58

Pregnant women in AZT testing in Uganda.  

PubMed

In Uganda, where clinical trials of various anti-HIV drugs have been conducted since 1997, more than 2000 pregnant women have participated in studies of zidovudine. The issue of providing antiretroviral therapy to pregnant women raises complex issues. The suitability of a complicated drug regimen for women in developing countries has been questioned, and erratic drug procurement problems related to budget shortages could lead to a viral rebound effect. The estimated annual cost of antiretroviral therapy would be US$17-24 billion to treat just 50% of eligible women in sub-Saharan Africa. Also of concern are the ethics of prioritizing the offspring's interests over those of the HIV-infected mother. Although treatment might reduce the chance of infant infection, the mother still faces a limited life expectancy. HIV transmission during breast feeding could undo the beneficial effects of zidovudine administration in pregnancy and the possible toxicity of antiretroviral drugs in breast milk has not been ascertained. Finally, it must be determined whether HIV testing and counseling will be available to all pregnant women or just those in high-risk groups. PMID:12294387

Sebunya, C

1998-06-01

59

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:

Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

2008-01-01

60

Anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study designed to assess the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in pregnant women, anti-HCV positivity in French pregnant women was twice as high as that found in French blood donors. Positive ELISA 2 results were confirmed by positive RIBA 2 in most subjects, and seven of nine RIBA 2 positive patients also tested positive for

F Roudot-Thoraval; J M Pawlotsky; L Deforges; P P Girollet; D Dhumeaux

1993-01-01

61

Toxoplasmosis in Primiparus Pregnant Women and Their Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of primary infection with T. gondii in pregnant women and risk of congenital infection in their neonates in various parts of Tehran are unknown. The prevalence rate of antibodies to T. gondii ranges from 24% in Tehran to 62.7% in Babol. This study describes the epidemiology of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Tehran and risk factors of

S Noorbakhsh; S Mamishi; S Rimaz

62

Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Olley, Mitsan; Anunibe, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

63

Recruitment of Healthy First-Trimester Pregnant Women: Lessons From the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy Study (CHirP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into\\u000a a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising,\\u000a recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting\\u000a a study booth at baby “trade shows” were used to

Glenys M. Webster; Kay Teschke; Patricia A. Janssen

64

Pregnant women unaware of Swine Flu danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study by WA researchers into the vaccination of pregnant women against pandemic, H1N1 influenza (Swine Flu), has revealed a number of patients were not aware of their specific vulnerability to the disease and opted out of preventative treatment, despite widespread public education campaigns throughout Australia.\\u000aThe collaborative study between The University of Notre Dame Australia, Edith Cowan University

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

65

Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several countries with long-standing salt iodization programs, including Switzerland, have recently reported declining and\\/or low urinary iodine (UI) levels in their populations. In Switzerland, in response to studies indicating low UI levels in children and pregnant women, the salt iodine level was increased in 1998 from 15 to 20 mg\\/kg.Objective: Our objective was to evaluate iodine nutrition in a

SY Hess; MB Zimmermann; T Torresani; H Bürgi; RF Hurrell

2001-01-01

66

Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how an expecting woman’s view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum\\u000a depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff\\u000a (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred

Johan C. H. van Bussel; Bernard Spitz; Koen Demyttenaere

2009-01-01

67

Influenza A/H1N1 MF59 adjuvanted vaccine in pregnant women and adverse perinatal outcomes: multicentre study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the risk of adverse perinatal events of vaccination of pregnant women with an MF59 adjuvanted vaccine. Design Cross sectional multicentre study. Setting 49 public hospitals in major cities in Argentina, from September 2010 to May 2011. Participants 30?448 mothers (7293 vaccinated) and their 30?769 newborns. Main outcome measure Primary composite outcome of low birth weight, preterm delivery, or fetal or early neonatal death up to seven days postpartum. Results Vaccinated women had a lower risk of the primary composite outcome (7.0% (n=513) v 9.3% (n=2160); adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.89). The propensity score analysis showed similar results. Adjusted odds ratios for vaccinated women were 0.74 (0.65 to 0.83) for low birth weight, 0.79 (0.69 to 0.90) for preterm delivery, and 0.68 (0.42 to 1.06) for perinatal mortality. These findings were consistent in further subgroup analysis. No significant differences in maternal outcomes were found. Conclusion This large study using primary data collection found that MF59 adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine did not result in an increased risk of adverse perinatal events and suggested a lower risk among vaccinated women. These findings should contribute to inform stakeholders and decision makers on the prescription of vaccination against influenza A/H1N1 in pregnant women.

2013-01-01

68

Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the behaviour and practice of both users and providers are necessary.

2011-01-01

69

Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine  

PubMed Central

Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768

2011-01-01

70

A prospective study of selenium concentration and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant Iranian women: a nested case-control study.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide; however, its specific etiology still remains obscure. Some studies implicate poor maternal selenium status predisposing the mother to preeclampsia. This study was designed to determine changes in plasma selenium levels in women having preeclampsia as compared with those with normal pregnancy. In a nested case-control study, 650 normal primigravida in their first 24-28 weeks participated in the study. After 3 months of follow-up of all subjects, blood selenium levels were measured in 38 women presenting consecutively with preeclampsia and in 38 women having a normal pregnancy by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Birth outcomes were recorded, such as gestational age at delivery, height, weight, birth head circumflex and 1-min Apgar score. Preeclampsia affects about 5.84 % of pregnancies, and in our study, there were no significant differences in age, anthropometric indices, and family history of preeclampsia between the preeclamptic and control groups. The selenium concentrations in plasma in women with preeclampsia were significantly lower as compared with those in women with normal pregnancy (70.63?±?21.41 versus 82.03?±?15.54 ?g/L, p?pregnant women. The reduced selenium in the maternal circulations observed in the preeclamptic mothers support the hypothesis that insufficient selenium concentration may be a contributing factor to the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with preeclampsia, and optimizing the dietary selenium intake through supplementation could produce demonstrable clinical benefits. PMID:23354545

Ghaemi, Seyede Zahra; Forouhari, Sedighe; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Sayadi, Mehrab; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh; Vaziri, Faride; Tavana, Zohreh

2013-01-26

71

Confidence in breastfeeding among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Little is known about prenatal breastfeeding confidence, although such knowledge is necessary for developing the content of counseling and tailoring it for individuals. The purpose of this study was to describe women's prenatal breastfeeding confidence and how their sociodemographic characteristics, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitudes relate to it. The electronic confidence scale was used in data collection, and 123 Finnish women filled in the questionnaire. The mean confidence score was 83.88 when the maximum possible score was 120. Confidence scores varied when parity, breastfeeding knowledge, and attitudes were involved. Variables regarding breastfeeding as difficult, regarding breastfeeding as exhausting, and parity explained 38.1% of the variation of the breastfeeding confidence scores. Pregnant women need information about managing potential breastfeeding problems and the physiology of breastfeeding. Interventions designed to promote breastfeeding confidence need to be focused on primiparas and women with a lack of breastfeeding knowledge. PMID:21282460

Laanterä, Sari; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Ekström, Anette; Pölkki, Tarja

2011-01-31

72

Severity of Spousal and Intimate Partner Abuse to Pregnant Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Abuse to pregnant women can result in complications to maternal and child health. This study assessed the severity of intimate male partner abuse to Hispanic pregnant women receiving prenatal care at an urban public health department. The mean age of the 329 pregnant, abused Hispanic women was 24 years. The women had an average of eight years of education, annual

William H. Wiist; Judith McFarlane

1998-01-01

73

Severity of Spousal and Intimate Partner Abuse to Pregnant Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse to pregnant women can result in complications to maternal and child health. This study assessed the severity of intimate male partner abuse to Hispanic pregnant women receiving prenatal care at an urban public health department. The mean age of the 329 pregnant, abused Hispanic women was 24 years. The women had an average of eight years of education, annual

DHSc MPH William H. Wiist; DrPH Judith McFarlane

1998-01-01

74

Maternal Serum Screening for Down Syndrome: A Survey of Pregnant Women’s Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess women’s self-reported awareness of Down syndrome before they became pregnant and after they were supposedly informed about screening. We investigated their understanding of the purpose of screening and what a high statistical risk for Down syndrome means, and if there was a high statistical risk whether they would undergo amniocentesis. Methods: Pregnant women

Vlatka Jurcan; Sanja Milotti

1999-01-01

75

Lactose Tolerance in Pregnant African-American Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the investigation was to study lactose (milk sugar) digestion and milk tolerance and its association with dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome in pregnant black women. This study examined two broad areas of interest. The first explored ...

D. M. Paige

1998-01-01

76

Routine antenatal HIV testing: the responses and perceptions of pregnant women and the viability of informed consent. A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women’s responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their

Paquita de Zulueta; Mary Boulton

2007-01-01

77

Predictors of HIV positivity among pregnant women presenting for obstetric care in South India – a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminization of the HIV epidemic in India has increasingly burdened the public health infrastructure to provide prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. A mere 20% of pregnant women in the country receive HIV counseling and testing. One of the strategies, for expansion of PMTCT services is to ascertain an accurate identification of HIV-positive pregnant women. Thus, we sought to characterize

Eileen Solomon; Fehmida Visnegarwala; Philimol Philip; Glory Alexander

2011-01-01

78

Prevalence and correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among US pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePhysical activity is recommended for pregnant women without medical or obstetric complications. This study described the prevalence and correlates of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among United States pregnant women.

Kelly R. Evenson; Fang Wen

2011-01-01

79

Hepatitis B Guidelines for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B Foundation Cause for a Cure www.hepb.org Hepatitis B Foundation · 3805 Old Easton Road, ... PA 18902 · 215-489-4900 · info@hepb.org Hepatitis B Guidelines for Pregnant Women What is hepatitis ...

80

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted bet- ween May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant wo- men attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano

José Luis Vázquez-Martínez; María Ofelia Coreño-Juárez; Luis Felipe Montaño-Estrada; Michaël Attlan; Héctor Gómez-Dantés

2003-01-01

81

Predicting physical abuse against pregnant Hispanic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Abuse during pregnancy is common and has adverse health effects on maternal and infant health. To prevent abuse to pregnant women, predictors must be identified and incorporated into routine screening and intervention protocols.Objective: To investigate whether or not symbolic violence and threats of violence by a male intimate were associated with physical violence against pregnant Hispanic women.Design: Cross-sectional interview

Judith McFarlane; William Wiist; Mary Watson

1998-01-01

82

Changing patterns of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among pregnant women in Norway between 1995 and 2009 examined in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and two cohorts from S?r-Tr?ndelag County: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence and associated risk factors for CMV seropositivity in pregnant Norwegian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in addition to two random samples of pregnant women from Sør-Trøndelag County in Norway. Participants Study group 1 were 1000 pregnant women, randomly selected among 46?127 pregnancies in the MoBa (1999–2006) at 17/18?week of gestation. Non-ethnic Norwegian women were excluded. Study groups 2 (n=1013 from 1995) and 3 (n=979 from 2009) were pregnant women at 12?weeks of gestation from Sør-Trøndelag County. Outcome measures CMV seropositivity in blood samples from pregnant Norwegian women. Results CMV-IgG antibodies were detected in 59.9% and CMV-IgM antibodies in 1.3% of pregnant Norwegian women in study group 1. Women from North Norway demonstrated a higher CMV-IgG seroprevalence (72.1%) than women from South Norway (58.5%) (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.88). The CMV-IgG seroprevalence was higher among women with low education (70.5%) compared to women with higher education (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.90). Between 1995 and 2009 the CMV-IgG seroprevalence increased from 63.1% to 71.4% in pregnant women from Sør-Trøndelag County (study groups 2 and 3; p<0.001). The highest CMV-IgG seroprevalence (79.0%) was observed among the youngest pregnant women (<25?years) from Sør-Trøndelag County in 2009 (study group 3). Conclusions The CMV-IgG seroprevalence of pregnant Norwegian women varies with geographic location and educational level. Additionally, the CMV-IgG seroprevalence appears to have increased over the last years, particularly among young pregnant women.

Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin M; Nordb?, Svein Arne; Forsmo, Siri; Austgulen, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte

2013-01-01

83

Dietary intake, anthropometry and birth outcome of rural pregnant women in two Iranian districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary intake and anthropometric measurements of rural pregnant women and the relationship of these measurements to pregnancy outcome. A total of 90 pregnant women were studied. They included all the eligible pregnant women in two districts of Karaj and Shemiranat, Iran. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 9.13 ± 3.41 kg. Underweight

Anahita Houshiar-Rad; Nasrin Omidvar; Fariba Kolahdooz; Maryam Amini

1998-01-01

84

Factors Associated With Intention To Quit Smoking Among African American Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were: 1) to determine beliefs salient to African American women quitting smoking while pregnant; 2) to determine how these beliefs relate to African American Women's intent to quit smoking while pregnant. The study had two-phases. First, qualitative data was collected in focus groups among 49 pregnant women, recruited from the Black Infant Health Program in

Naomi Modeste; Jerry Lee; V. Joyce Lim; Dixon Anjejo

2004-01-01

85

Recruitment of pregnant women in research.  

PubMed

The aim was to identify factors that could influence recruitment in a prospective longitudinal study involving pregnant women. A total of 269 nulliparous women were enrolled for a prospective longitudinal study, to establish the prevalence of levator ani muscle defects during childbirth. The project was explained verbally and potential participants were given an information leaflet. When eligible and interested, they provided their contact details to enquire if they were willing to participate. Out of the 1,473 women approached, 269 (18.3%) agreed to participate and 1,043 (70.8%) declined; 420 women (40.3%) did not provide a reason for non-participation (see text for further details). Most often mentioned reasons were 'being too busy', 'other pregnancy problems', 'no additional (internal) examination', 'moving (abroad)' and 'husband'. Women from different ethnicities and age groups gave a wide variety of reasons for non-participation. This information can now be used by researchers recruiting women for comparable studies, to enhance recruitment and participation of eligible patients. PMID:23815192

van Delft, K; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

2013-07-01

86

Anti-Toxoplasma antibody prevalence, primary infection rate, and risk factors in a study of toxoplasmosis in 4,466 pregnant women in Japan.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by infection with Toxoplasma gondii and is prevalent worldwide under various climatic conditions. It is usually asymptomatic, but infection in pregnant women can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, epidemiological information regarding toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women is limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, the primary infection rate, and the risk factors for toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women. We measured anti-Toxoplasma antibody titers in 4,466 pregnant women over a period of 7.5 years and simultaneously conducted interviews to identify the risk factors for toxoplasmosis. The overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was 10.3%, and it was significantly higher in women aged above 35 years. The rate of primary Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy was estimated to be 0.25%. A possibility of infection in the later stages of pregnancy was identified for those women who were not infected in the early stages. A history of raw meat intake was identified to be a risk factor related to toxoplasmosis. Therefore, to lower the risk of toxoplasmosis, pregnant women should refrain from eating raw and undercooked meat and maintain personal hygiene. PMID:22205659

Sakikawa, Makiko; Noda, Shunichi; Hanaoka, Masachi; Nakayama, Hirotoshi; Hojo, Satoshi; Kakinoki, Shigeko; Nakata, Maki; Yasuda, Takashi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Kojima, Toshiyuki

2011-12-28

87

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

88

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina  

PubMed Central

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention.

Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

2013-01-01

89

Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. METHODS: 1420 pregnant women were recruited

Yue Cheng; Michael J Dibley; Xueli Zhang; Lingxia Zeng; Hong Yan

2009-01-01

90

Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring.

Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

2012-01-01

91

Supporting Underserved Pregnant Women through Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project assessed smoking behaviors and supported smoking cessation in underserved pregnant women. Using a longitudinal design, women were recruited from a community prenatal center. Using the Transtheoretical model, interventions were designed to support the subjects’ movement along the stages of change. Subjects willing to quit were given a smoking cessation “quit kit.” For subjects not contemplating smoking cessation, information

Emily Bernhard; Lauren Paczkowski; Nathan Matejczyk; Nina Tu; Michelle De Young

2012-01-01

92

Routine antenatal HIV testing: the responses and perceptions of pregnant women and the viability of informed consent. A qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women's responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their booking interview. None of the women viewed themselves as being particularly at risk for HIV infection. The minority (n = 6) of the participants who declined testing differed from those who accepted, by interpreting test acceptance as risky behaviour, privileging the negative outcomes of HIV positivity and expressing an inability to cope with these, should they occur. Troublingly, only a minority of women (n = 9) had a broad understanding of the rationale for the test, and none fulfilled the standard criteria for informed consent. This study suggests that, although routine screening combined with professional recommendation may be successful in increasing uptake, this may be at the cost of eroding informed consent. Protecting third parties (notably fetuses) from a preventable disease may outweigh the moral duty of respecting autonomy, enshrined in Western bioethical tradition. Nevertheless, such a policy should be made transparent, debated in the public domain and negotiated with women seeking antenatal care. PMID:17526682

de Zulueta, Paquita; Boulton, Mary

2007-06-01

93

A treatment for substance abusing pregnant women.  

PubMed

We describe the adaptation of a manualized behavioral treatment for substance using pregnant women that includes components of motivational interviewing and cognitive therapy. In a pilot study conducted in 2006-2007, five non-behavioral health clinicians were trained to provide the treatment to 14 women. Therapy was administered concurrent with routine prenatal care at inner-city maternal health clinics in New Haven and Bridgeport, Connecticut, small urban cities in the USA. Substance use was monitored by self report, and urine and breath tests. Treatment fidelity was assessed using the Yale Adherence and Competence System. Behavioral treatment delivery in this setting is feasible and is being evaluated in a randomized, controlled, clinical trial. PMID:19350369

Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Howell, Heather B; Allen, Amy E; Ball, Samuel A; Pantalon, Michael V; Rounsaville, Bruce J

2009-04-07

94

The Community Perinatal Care Study: Home Visiting and Nursing Support for Pregnant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes The Community Perinatal Care Study, a community-based study of pregnancy support that was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between 2001 and 2004. The study was conducted to learn how to improve community-based pregnancy care and to improve prenatal care and healthy births, particularly for women with increased…

Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne; Siever, Jodi

2006-01-01

95

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study.  

PubMed

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however, few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Self-reported, past week physical activity assessed at 17-22 weeks' gestation was modeled in logistic regression with self-reported depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at 24-29 weeks' gestation. Active women with ?2.67 h/week of total MVPA had almost half the odds of having high depressive symptoms as compared to women with no MVPA (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.38, 0.83). Increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms were found for women participating in some but ?2.25 h/week of adult and child care MVPA (OR?=?1.84; 95% CI?=?1.08, 3.11) and >1 h of indoor household MVPA (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI?=?0.99, 2.70) when compared to women with no MVPA. While overall MVPA may play a role in reducing the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms, adult and child care and indoor household activities may increase it. PMID:21107623

Demissie, Zewditu; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Evenson, Kelly R; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy; Gaynes, Bradley N

2010-11-24

96

Pregnant Women after Physical and Sexual Abuse in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women’s feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an

Katharina Jundt; Kristin Haertl; Angelika Knobbe; Ralph Kaestner; Klaus Friese; Ursula M. Peschers

2009-01-01

97

Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing all the critical nutrients during pregnancy is essential for the mother's and baby's health. Nutrition plays an important role in the outcome of pregnancy. Low birthweight (LBW), which is a common cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States, may be reduced if all the essential nutrients are available in sufficient amounts in the diets of pregnant

J. Arena; E. Kilbashian; Y. Labita; L. Torres; S. Wunderlich

1998-01-01

98

Utilization of preventive services by pregnant women in Jerusalem--a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

A study was made of health service utilization patterns during pregnancy of 279 young mothers, a representative sample of the Jewish population in Jerusalem. Only 47% reported that they used the municipal family health centers (FHCs) for prenatal care. Some 82% reported that they had resorted to more than one source of care during pregnancy. Sources other than the FHC were: regular Sick Fund doctor service (33%); private practitioners (25%); hospital-based services (25%). Among the FHC users, there was an unexpectedly high percentage of women of Asian-African origin and of those living in remote neighborhoods. Under-utilization was frequent among wealthy women, those with higher education and members of the Orthodox religious sector. While there was general satisfaction with the service, lower gratification was associated with higher utilization. This phenomenon may intimate that there may be a process of negative selection among women who use the service, when other alternatives are not readily available. PMID:2253733

Ellencweig, A Y; Ritter, M; Peleg-Olavsky, E; Tamir, D

1990-09-01

99

Validation of self-reported recreational exercise in pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.  

PubMed

We compared the self-reported frequency of recreational exercise and corresponding metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes with physical activity measured with a position and motion sensor in pregnant women. One hundred and twelve women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) completed questions about weekly participation in recreational exercise by week 17 of pregnancy and participated in the validation study around week 20. Data from a validated motion sensor (ActiReg) that measures physical activity and total energy expenditure (TEE) served as the "gold standard." Self-reported recreational exercise was compared with the following ActiReg-based measures: physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), minutes of vigorous physical activity (VPA), physical activity level (PAL) and TEE. Pearson's correlations between self-reported weekly exercise and the objectively assessed variables were: rPAEE=0.26, rVPA=0.32, rPAL=0.30 (all P<0.01) and rTEE=0.17 (P=0.07). The partial correlation coefficients between the questionnaire responses and the ActiReg measurements were similar after adjusting for parity, body mass index, education, age, height and smoking, but rTEE increased (r=0.27, P<0.01). We observed significant positive associations between self-reported exercise activities and motion sensor measurements of physical activity, indicating that the questions used for exercise assessment in MoBa may be useful for ranking pregnant women according to the recreational exercise level. PMID:19486481

Brantsaeter, A L; Owe, K M; Haugen, M; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Longnecker, M P

2009-03-31

100

A cross-sectional study of risk factors for HIV among pregnant women in Guatemala City, Guatemala: lessons for prevention.  

PubMed

Although the Central American HIV epidemic is concentrated in high-risk groups, HIV incidence is increasing in young women. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a large public hospital and an HIV clinic in Guatemala City to describe risk factors for HIV infection and inform prevention strategies. For 4629 consenting patients, HIV status was laboratory-confirmed and participant characteristics were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Lifetime number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 99, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1, 2). 2.6% (120) reported exchanging sex for benefits; 0.1% (3) were sex workers, 2.3% (106) had used illegal drugs, 31.1% (1421) planned their pregnancy and 31.8% (1455) experienced abuse. In logistic regression analyses, HIV status was predicted by one variable describing women's behaviour (lifetime sexual partners) and three variables describing partner risks (partner HIV+, migrant worker or suspected unfaithful). Women in our sample exhibited few behavioural risks for HIV but significant vulnerability via partner behaviours. To stem feminization of the epidemic, health authorities should complement existing prevention interventions in high-risk populations with directed efforts towards bridging populations such as migrant workers. We identify four locally adapted HIV prevention strategies. PMID:21297084

Johri, M; Morales, R E; Hoch, J S; Samayoa, B E; Sommen, C; Grazioso, C F; Boivin, J-F; Barrios Matta, I J; Baide Diaz, E L; Arathoon, E G

2010-12-01

101

Serum Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Calcium, and Magnesium Levels in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women in developing countries are vulnerable to multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Studies assessing serum levels\\u000a of the micronutrients and magnitude of their deficiencies are very scarce in African subjects. This study was aimed at determining\\u000a serum levels of micronutrients in 375 pregnant (42 HIV seropositive) and 76 non-pregnant women (20 HIV seropositive) who visited\\u000a the University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar,

Afework Kassu; Tomoki Yabutani; Andargachew Mulu; Belay Tessema; Fusao Ota

2008-01-01

102

Evaluation of sexual function in Brazilian pregnant women.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sexual function of pregnant women and to identify the potential variables associated with it. The study was conducted on 137 low-risk, sexually active pregnant women who filled out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Although 61% of the women assessed presented an FSFI score ?26.5, they declared that they were satisfied with the emotional proximity to their partner, with their relationship, and with their sex life. A positive association was detected between sexual dysfunction and gestational age and a report of urinary incontinence and excessive weight gain in the current pregnancy. PMID:21400336

Naldoni, Luciane M V; Pazmiño, Maria A V; Pezzan, Patrícia A O; Pereira, Simone B; Duarte, Geraldo; Ferreira, Cristine H J

2011-01-01

103

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

104

Smoking in Dutch pregnant women and birth weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 796 ambulatory singular pregnant women were questioned about their smoking habits both before and during pregnancy (ambispective). Important covariates such as parity, blood pressure, maternal weight gain, salt- and alcohol consumption and length of gestation were taken into account. At the beginning of pregnancy 52% of the questioned women smoked; 36% smoked in the seventh\\/eighth month of

H. P. Adriaanse; J. A. Knottnerus; L. R. Delgado; H. H. Cox; G. G. M. Essed

1996-01-01

105

Pregnant women's attitudes to abortion and prenatal screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in prenatal screening and diagnosis mean that an increasing number of women may be faced with the possibility of terminating a pregnancy on the grounds of fetal abnormality. Little is known, however, about the attitudes of pregnant women on the subject of abortion, either in the case of abnormality, or more generally. As part of a study of

Josephine M. Green; Claire Snowdon; Helen Statham

1993-01-01

106

Sexual Positions and Sexual Satisfaction of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The

Jian Tao Lee; Chao Ling Lin; Gwo Hwa Wan; Ching Chung Liang

2010-01-01

107

Comparison of Antiphospholipid Antibodies between Preeclamptsia and Normal Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) may be detected in nor- mal pregnancies and also may cause thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, placental infarction and preeclampsia. In the present study the possible differences in APLA titer between healthy pregnant women and preeclampsia cases without history of thrombosis was examined. The APLA titer in 50 healthy preg- nant women with 50 preeclampsia cases without the

Fatmeh Vahid

2006-01-01

108

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P<.01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesus; Rifakis, Pedro

2006-01-01

109

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity.

2011-01-01

110

Habitual fish consumption does not prevent a decrease in LCPUFA status in pregnant women (the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study)  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Information on the status of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in pregnancy and breast milk in very high fish eating populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and changes in fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles. Serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased significantly between 28 weeks gestation and delivery (n=196). DHA status did not correlate significantly with length of gestation and was not associated with self reported fish intake which was high at 527 g/wk. In breast milk, the ratio of DHA to arachidonic acid (AA) was consistent with those observed in other high fish eating populations. Overall the data suggest that high exposure to LCPUFAs from habitual fish consumption does not prevent the documented decrease in LCPUFA status in pregnancy that occurs as a result of fetal accretion in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Bonham, M.P.; Duffy, E.M.; Wallace, J.M.W.; Robson, P.J.; Myers, G.J; Davidson, P.W.; Clarkson, T.W.; Shamlaye, C.F; Strain., J.J.

2008-01-01

111

Does increased intake of salmon increase markers of oxidative stress in pregnant women? The salmon in pregnancy study.  

PubMed

The Salmon in Pregnancy Study provided two meals of salmon per week to pregnant women from week 20 of gestation; the control group maintained their habitual diet low in oily fish. Salmon is a rich source of marine n-3 fatty acids. Since marine n-3 fatty acids may increase oxidative stress, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption could affect markers of oxidative stress in mid and late pregnancy. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2?), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and plasma lipid peroxide concentrations did not change from week 20 to 38 of pregnancy and were not altered by increased consumption of salmon. Thus, increased intake of salmon during pregnancy does not increase oxidative stress, as judged by the markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA measured herein. PMID:21689025

García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Mesa, María Dolores; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel; Basu, Samar

2011-07-22

112

Are Pregnant and Postpartum Women: At Increased Risk for Violent Death? Suicide and Homicide Findings from North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant\\/non-postpartum\\u000a women ages 14–44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and\\/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant\\/non-postpartum\\u000a women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum\\u000a women have

Ghazaleh Samandari; Sandra L. Martin; Lawrence L. Kupper; Sharon Schiro; Tammy Norwood; Matt Avery

2011-01-01

113

Health care providers’ attitudes toward current food safety recommendations for pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 health care professionals who work with pregnant women in a preliminary study to understand health care providers’ attitudes regarding current food safety recommendations for pregnant women and interest in education and patient materials on food safety during pregnancy. Only 8 of 23 interviewed currently provided food safety information to their pregnant clients. Limited understanding

Shelly Morales; Patricia A. Kendall; Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia Hillers; Mary Schroeder

2004-01-01

114

Benefits of influenza vaccination during pregnancy for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention efforts among pregnant women. Prior to 2005, data from studies conducted on pregnant women were limited, with much of the supporting evidence coming from influenza vaccine studies conducted among nonpregnant, age-matched populations. Since 2005, however, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine for pregnant women, including evidence of maternal transfer of antibody. In addition, the clinical benefit of influenza vaccination, both for the mother and infant, was demonstrated in a landmark randomized clinical trial conducted in Bangladesh. Additional randomized clinical trials with laboratory-confirmed influenza as the primary outcome are underway in countries without a current influenza vaccination program, but such trials are unlikely to be conducted in the United States or other countries that already recommend the vaccination of pregnant women. However, current evidence supports the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine and its effectiveness in reducing the risk of influenza-related illness among pregnant women. PMID:22920053

Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M; Bridges, Carolyn B; Rasmussen, Sonja A

2012-07-09

115

Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention.

2012-01-01

116

A study on transplacental transfer of thyroid hormones in pregnant Nigerian women of Jos-Plateau State.  

PubMed

Knowledge of transplacental passage of thyroid hormones in pregnant women is very scanty. Seventy paired 'maternal-cord' blood samples were obtained at term (40 week) deliveries from the Nigerian women from Jos Plateau and its environment, and the level of serum T4, T3, TSH, TBG and TBK (thyroxine binding capacity) were determined by 'ELISA' technique (Boehringer). The serum level of FT41 (free thyroxine index) was determined subsequently by dividing the serum values of T4 with those of TBK. The results obtained were compared with those derived from a similar group assessed among white Americans, as well as with an age-matched non pregnant control group selected from Jos metropolis. Results show that the level of thyroid activity in the present group of 'mothers and neonates' assessed were lower compared to the level seen in the corresponding American group. Correlation studies carried out in this work indicated that the maternal and corresponding neonates have significant degree of positive correlations between the serum levels of T4 (r > .9; p < .005); FT4I (r > .88; p < .005); TBK (r > .8; p < .005); TBG (r > .89; p < .005) and TSH (r > .87; p .005), while T3 did not show any correlation. It is concluded, that during pregnancy there is probably significant transplacental passage of iodine (I) from the mother to the growing foetus, in an attempt to build the necessary foetal Iodine pool, and TRH (thyrotrophin releasing hormone) probably acts as mediator between the foetal and maternal 'hypothalamus--pituitary--thyroid' axis, which are, otherwise independent of each other. PMID:7841100

Das, S C; Isichei, U P

117

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2009-10-01

118

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or...

2010-10-01

119

Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.  

PubMed

To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ?10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services. PMID:22798140

Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

2013-08-01

120

Special health care needs of homeless pregnant women.  

PubMed

As women and families join the ranks of the homeless in increasing numbers, many women find themselves confronting both pregnancy and homelessness. When pregnancy accompanies the precarious state of homelessness, the need for adequate shelter is not being met during one of the most critical periods of a woman's life. This article focuses on the unique health needs of homeless pregnant women. Detailed accounts of the daily life experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina homeless pregnant women were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in a large metropolitan area in southern California. Their pregnancies were difficult because normal physiological changes of pregnancy often became pathological, signs of potential complications went unnoticed or unattended, and minor discomforts of pregnancy were exacerbated by the women's environment. Nursing therapeutics that support health maintenance and coping strategies of the women while on the streets or in shelters were explicated. PMID:8585707

Killion, C M

1995-12-01

121

Perception of sodium chloride taste in pregnant women with and without essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the perception of taste of sodium chloride, craving for salt, and values of blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. A group of normotensive pregnant women served as controls.We examined 144 pregnant women with the diagnosis of essential hypertension (including a group of women with blood pressure 140\\/90 mmHg),

Joanna Niegowska; Nina Barylko-Pikielna; Michal J. Wac; Louis G. Keith

2005-01-01

122

Asymptomatic malaria correlates with anaemia in pregnant women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care. PMID:23226937

Douamba, Zoenabo; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W; Compaoré, Tegwinde R; Bazie, Valérie Jean Telesphore; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques

2012-11-11

123

A risk score for the management of pregnant women with increased risk of venous thromboembolism: a multicentre prospective study.  

PubMed

Patients with thrombophilia and/or a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) exhibit a high risk of thrombosis during pregnancy. The present multicentre study prospectively assessed a prophylaxis strategy, based on a risk score, in pregnancies with increased risk of VTE. Among 286 patients included in the study, 183 had a personal history of VTE (63.98%) and 191 patients (66.8%) had a thrombophilia marker. Eighty nine (46.6%) thrombophilic women had a personal history of VTE. Patients were assigned to one of three prophylaxis strategies according to the risk scoring system. In postpartum, all patients received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis for at least 6 weeks. In antepartum, LMWH prophylaxis was prescribed to 61.8% of patients with high risk of VTE. Among them, 37.7% were treated in the third trimester only and 24.1% were treated throughout pregnancy. In this cohort, one antepartum-related VTE (0.35%) and two postpartum-related VTE (0.7%) occurred. No case of pulmonary embolism was observed during the study period. The rate of serious bleeding was 0.35%. There was no evidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or osteoporosis. The use of a risk score may provide a rational decision process to implement safe and effective antepartum thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women at high risk of VTE. PMID:19388925

Dargaud, Yesim; Rugeri, Lucia; Vergnes, Marie Christine; Arnuti, Brigitte; Miranda, Paula; Negrier, Claude; Bestion, Audrey; Desmurs-Clavel, Hélène; Ninet, Jacques; Gaucherand, Pascal; Rudigoz, Rene Charles; Berland, Michel; Champion, Fabienne; Trzeciak, Marie Christine

2009-04-15

124

Pregnant women's working conditions and their changes during pregnancy: a national study in France.  

PubMed Central

In a study of 2387 employed women who had worked for more than three months of their pregnancy the data were extracted from a survey carried out on a national sample of births in France in 1981. Manual, service and shop workers had a higher preterm delivery rate than professional, administrative, or clerical workers. Assembly line work was associated with a higher preterm delivery rate even when production workers only were considered. Cumulated physically tiring working conditions--standing work, carrying of heavy loads, assembly line work, and considerable physical effort--were related to higher preterm delivery and low birthweight rate. During pregnancy, sickness absences were commoner when the working conditions were arduous. Changes in the working conditions were less clearly related to arduous work than sick leaves; they were not significantly more frequent for standing work or for assembly line work. Refusals from employers to grant favourable arrangements were more frequent when the working conditions were tiring and sick leaves were more common among women whose requests had been refused.

Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Kaminski, M

1987-01-01

125

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15-44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Background: This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods: Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 participants and in all 2007-2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results: NHANES median UI concentration in 2009-2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007-2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions: Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005-2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005-20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-07-20

126

An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n?=?13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have recurred in this study – particularly, the difficulties of getting timely reimbursement to facilities, of controlling charging of patients, and of reaching the poorest. This suggests that providing free care through a national health insurance system has not solved systemic weaknesses. The wider concerns about raising the quality of care, and ensuring that all supply-side and demand-side elements are in place to make the policy effective will also take a longer term and bigger commitment.

2013-01-01

127

Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

2013-10-01

128

A case-control study on risk factors associated with death in pregnant women with severe pandemic H1N1 infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the risk factors associated with death in pregnant women with severe pandemic H1N1 infection. Design Case–control study. Setting Anhui, China. Participants A total of 46 pregnant women with severe pandemic H1N1 infection were studied during June 2009–April 2011. Primary and secondary outcome measures All the cases were confirmed by the clinicians and epidemiologists together based on the positive laboratory result. Results Of the seven pregnant women who died of the pandemic H1N1 infection, five (70%) cases were in their third trimester. Twenty-nine (63%) cases from the surviving group were admitted to hospital within 3?days after the onset of symptoms, while only one (2%) case from the death group took the earliest admission 2?days after the onset. There was a significant difference on how soon to be admitted between the death and the surviving groups (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.68). The median time of administrating corticosteroids was 5?days after the onset in the death group and 3?days in the surviving group showing no significant difference between them (p=0.056). Conclusions For the pregnant women with severe p(H1N1) infection, the risk factors associated with death were as follows: the delay of antiviral treatment and being in the third trimester. The corticosteroids therapy appeared to have no effects on preventing the cases from death.

Li, Furong; Chen, Guoping; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jiabing

2012-01-01

129

Abuse disclosure in privately and medicaid-funded pregnant women.  

PubMed

Disclosure of abuse by pregnant women can vary depending on whether the woman is assessed directly by a trained interviewer versus written questionnaires, and if she is asked repeatedly during the course of pregnancy. One thousand pregnant women were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the effects of a nursing case management intervention on the mental and physical well-being of pregnant women experiencing or at risk for abuse. Thirteen percent of the total study participants reported current abuse and/or abuse within the past year, with only 2% of those reporting that the abuse occurred during pregnancy. The incidence of reported abuse was much higher among Medicaid-funded women (28.9%) than privately insured women (8.7%). Regardless of source of payment, women reporting abuse were significantly younger, less educated, nonwhite with lower income, and had significantly higher stress and lower self-esteem than women not reporting abuse. A high incidence of women reporting intimate partner violence described being choked on the Danger Assessment Screen (34%). We strongly urge that choking be added to routine screening questions used during pregnancy and that the Danger Assessment tool is used for further evaluation of women who screen positive. In addition, we believe another barrier to reporting abuse was fear of being reported to child protective services, contributing to the overall low rate of abuse disclosure. PMID:16945784

Bullock, Linda; Bloom, Tina; Davis, Jan; Kilburn, Erin; Curry, Mary Ann

130

A Cross?sectional Study of Physical and Sexual Violence of Pregnant Women in Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decreasing annual mortality rates in India, infant mortality (1999) is approximately 20 times greater while perinatal mortality of women is 100 times greater than that of Japan. Indian women are historically oppressed in the caste system, literacy and health care standards are low. (In light of this, the government has aggressively implemented maternal health measures as the importance from

Michie Baba; Chie Nagahiro; S. Chhabra; K. Nishioka; Ryoko Osaka

2004-01-01

131

Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. METHODS: Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. RESULTS: For 9282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148 g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption, and race. After adjustment the maternal job was no longer significantly associated with birthweight. CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, there were several findings which agreed with publications on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome. The major job groups with the lowest birthweights included the following jobs; metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile trade, and assembling and working with equipment (mobile and stationary). The lack of an association may indicate that the study was of insufficient power to detect a small difference; it may indicate the presence of confounding variables that were not adjusted for or it may indicate that no association exists.  

Farrow, A.; Shea, K. M.; Little, R. E.

1998-01-01

132

Predictors of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Anemia in pregnancy is a worldwide problem, but it is most prevalent in the developing world. This research project was conducted to determine the predictors of anemia in pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study design was conducted and descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Body mass index, Mid-upper arm circumference, and the number of antenatal care visits showed a statistically significant association with anemia. Based on the results, we believe that maintaining a healthy body weight, and frequently visiting an antenatal clinic, will help to lower the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland.

Charles, Alyson M.; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Yatich, Nelly; Jolly, Pauline E.

2010-01-01

133

Hepatotoxicity with antiretroviral treatment of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Hepatotoxicity in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with all classes of antiretroviral drugs and coinfection with hepatitis B and C virus. We treated two HIV-infected pregnant women in whom hepatotoxicity developed after initiating antiretroviral therapy.CASES:The first woman developed icterus, jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels approximately 5 months after beginning combination antiretroviral therapy with

James B. Hill; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Gerda G. Zeeman; George D. Wendel

2001-01-01

134

Patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking cessation: A hospital-based study of pregnant women in Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Objectives:  To describe patterns of cigarette and narghile (hubble-bubble or water-pipe) smoking before and during pregnancy and identify\\u000a predictors of successful smoking cessation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  A survey was conducted on 4 660 pregnant women who delivered single live births between September 1st, 2001 and December 31st,\\u000a 2002 at five hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon. Women were classified into four groups according to patterns

Kalid Yunis; Hind Beydoun; Pascale Nakad; Mustafa Khogali; Faysal Shatila; Hala Tamim

2007-01-01

135

Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.  

PubMed

In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

2011-06-01

136

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Crete.  

PubMed

In Greece there are no official recommendations concerning the management of pregnant women for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. A protocol for monitoring pregnant women was designed in order to differentiate between acute and latent toxoplasmosis and was tested successfully for 7 years. The maternofetal transmission rate in Crete was assessed and a map showing seroprevalence of pregnant women in all prefectures of Greece was prepared. The high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Greece (up to 46% in some areas) may be explained by: (a) the presence of a great number of stray cats; (b) the Greek diet consisting of large amounts of raw, wild vegetables and salads that could easily be contaminated with oocysts; (c) the high consumption of meat, smoked pork and sausages, well-documented sources of T. gondii infection. T. gondii genotypes were characterized, directly from clinical samples, after PCR-RFLP on the SAG2 gene and sequence analysis at the restriction sites. They belonged to all 3 clonal lineages. PMID:18689233

Antoniou, M; Tzouvali, H; Sifakis, S; Galanakis, E; Georgopoulou, E; Tselentis, Y

2007-12-01

137

Assessment of diet quality in pregnant women using the Healthy Eating Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this pilot study were to examine the diets of pregnant women and healthy women of childbearing age, to quantify their diets using the US Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and to assess the validity of the HEI in pregnancy in terms of macronutrients and micronutrients. Dietary information was prospectively collected from nonpregnant women and pregnant

Mary E. Pick; Melissa Edwards; Danielle Moreau; Edmond A. Ryan

2005-01-01

138

The lived experience of maternal-fetal attachment of pregnant incarcerated women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing is a discipline which believes that persons and their environments are integrally related. Little is known about the experience of maternal-fetal attachment for women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of maternal-fetal attachment as told by pregnant incarcerated women.^ The phenomenological method was used. Twelve pregnant incarcerated women representing diverse racial backgrounds

Judith Merenda Wismont

1996-01-01

139

Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:20549551

Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

2011-07-01

140

Estimation of Dietary Fat Intake of Belgian Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the validity and usefulness of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which was designed to evaluate individual fat consumption for a Dutch population relative to 7-day estimated records (7d ER). The FFQ has been validated previously and was adapted to the Belgian situation. Methods: Longitudinal study in 26 healthy pregnant women; FFQ and 7d ER were obtained during

S. R. De Vriese; S. De Henauw; G. De Backer; M. Dhont; A. B. Christophe

2001-01-01

141

Iron and zinc interactions among pregnant Nepali women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the biologic impact of iron and zinc when given at a ratio of 2:1 during pregnancy. We examined the change in serum zinc after 3 weeks among night blind Nepali pregnant women who were randomly assigned to receive zinc (25 mg) or placebo, stratified by whether they received iron (60 mg) - folate (400 ?g) or

Parul Christian; Subarna K Khatry; Steven C LeClerq; Sharada Ram Shrestha; Elizabeth Kimbrough-Pradhan; Keith P West

2001-01-01

142

Asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. A review of three textbooks of obstetrics reveals that none of them recommend routine chlamydia screening in prenatal patients, although two recommend routine screening for gonorrhea. A study was done at the Barberton Citizens Hospital Family Practice Residency Program to determine the incidence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection in pregnant women and to compare this to the incidence of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in the same population. A total of 69 patients were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as part of their routine prenatal evaluations at the first prenatal visit and the visit of 36 weeks gestation. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected by growth on standard Martin-Lewis culture plates. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by positive immunofluorescence using a standardized specimen kit (Syva Company, Palo Alto, California). The data were collected over a 12-month period from July of 1987 through July of 1988. There were no positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0%) in this group of patients. On the other hand, five patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (7.2%). The results of this study indicate that routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be considered as part of the routine prenatal care. A larger, multi-centered study could be done in the future to confirm these results, as well as to determine if any regional differences exist. PMID:2601940

Hagley, M T; Costa, A J

1989-11-01

143

Carriage of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women and newborns: a 2-year study at Perugia General Hospital.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women and their newborns at Perugia General Hospital. METHODS: The number of mother---child pairs examined was 2300. Vaginal swabs were collected from the mothers at delivery, and auricular and pharyngeal swabs and gastric aspirate from the newborns at birth. Maternal risk factors for GBS disease, including premature delivery, intrapartum fever, prolonged rupture of membranes and multiple births, were evaluated. RESULTS: Maternal and neonatal colonization rates were 11.3% and 4.6%, respectively. GBS was isolated in 41.5% of the neonates born to colonized mothers and in 0.1% of those born to non-colonized mothers. No significant difference was observed in vertical transmission rates in the presence or absence of maternal risk factors. The external auditory canal was the most frequent (93.5%) and heavily colonized body site. Type Ib was the most common serotype among GBS isolates from mothers and babies. C surface protein was not detected in serotype V and VIII isolates, but was frequent in all other serotypes. Early-onset disease was observed in 0.4/1000 live births. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of maternal and neonatal colonization at Perugia General Hospital was similar to that obtained in other studies performed in Italy. The external auditory canal was confirmed as the most reliable body site to be sampled for the detection of neonates exposed to maternal GBS colonization. PMID:11864128

Sensini, Alessandra; Tissi, Luciana; Verducci, Nadia; Orofino, Maristella; von Hunolstein, Christina; Brunelli, Bruno; Malà, Gian Luca; Perocchi, Fausto; Brunelli, Roberta; Lauro, Vincenzo; Ferrarese, Remo; Gilardi, Giovanni

1997-06-01

144

Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

2009-01-01

145

Antenatal Mental Health and Retinal Vascular Caliber in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression, anxiety, and poor sleep are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between negative emotion and retinal microvascular changes among adults, yet no study has been done in pregnant women so far. This study aims to examine the association of antenatal mental health and retinal vascular caliber among Asian pregnant women. Methods Nine hundred and fifty two Asian pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were included in this study, who were recruited from two Singapore cohort studies, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study and the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) study conducted from 2009 onwards. A total of 835 Asian pregnant women underwent retinal photography at 26 weeks follow up, of whom 800 had gradable photographs. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, ethnicity, household income, pregnancy outcome history, means of conception, hypertension history, diabetes history, cigarette smoking history, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, and spherical equivalent, each standard deviation (SD) increase in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (4.49 scores) and in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (2.90 scores) was associated with a 0.80 ?m (P = 0.03) and a 1.22 ?m (P = 0.01) widening in retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates relationships of antenatal depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality with retinal arteriolar widening in pregnant women. Translational Relevance We speculate that this might possibly indicate an effect of antenatal depression and poor sleep on the microcirculation during pregnancy.

Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, M. Kamran; Broekman, Leutscher; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Chen, Helen; Gooley, Joshua J.; Soh, Shu-E; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

2013-01-01

146

Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the validity of different algorithms for the diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women consulting health services for vaginal discharge in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Cross sectional study among 621 women with complaints of vaginal discharge in three city council clinics between April and August 1997. Women were interviewed and examined for symptoms and signs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Specimens were obtained for laboratory diagnosis of genital infections, HIV, and syphilis. The data were used to evaluate the Kenyan flow chart as well as several other generated algorithms. Results: The mean age was 24 years and 334 (54%) were pregnant. The overall prevalence rates were: 50% candidiasis, 23% trichomoniasis, 9% bacterial vaginosis, 7% gonorrhoea, 9% chlamydia, 7% syphilis, and 22% HIV. In non-pregnant women, gonococcal and chlamydial infection was significantly associated with (1) demographic and behavioural risk markers such as being single, younger than 20 years, multiple sex partners in the previous 3 months; (2) symptom fever; and (3) signs including presence of yellow or bloody vaginal discharge, cervical mucopus, cervical erythema, and friability. Among pregnant women only young age, dysuria, and fever were significantly associated with cervical infection. However, none of these variables was either sensitive or specific enough for the diagnosis of cervical infection. Several algorithms were generated and applied to the study data. The algorithm including risk markers performed slightly better than the current Kenyan algorithm. Conclusion: STIs form a major problem in the Nairobi area and should be addressed accordingly. None of the tested algorithms for the treatment of vaginal discharge would constitute a marked improvement of the existing flow chart. Hence, better detection tools for the specific aetiology of vaginal discharge are urgently needed. Key Words: algorithm; sexually transmitted diseases; pregnancy; Kenya

Fonck, K; Kidula, N; Jaoko, W; Estambale, B; Claeys, P; Ndinya-Achola, J; Kirui, P; Bwayo, J; Temmerman, M

2000-01-01

147

Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment in Low-Income Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment.

Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth

2010-01-01

148

Acquired Activated Protein C Resistance, Thrombophilia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Study Performed in an Irish Cohort of Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

The combination of thrombophilia and pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis and the potential for adverse outcomes during pregnancy. The most significant common inherited risk factor for thrombophilia is activated protein C resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, which is mainly caused by an inherited single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), factor V G1691A (FV Leiden) (FVL), referred as inherited APCR. Changes in the levels of coagulation factors: FV, FVIII, and FIX, and anticoagulant factors: protein S (PS) and protein C (PC) can alter APC function causing acquired APCR. Prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are prothrombotic SNPs which in association with APCR can also increase the risk of thrombosis amongst Caucasians. In this study, a correlation between an acquired APCR phenotype and increased levels of factors V, VIII, and IX was demonstrated. Thrombophilic mutations amongst our acquired APCR pregnant women cohort are relatively common but do not appear to exert a severe undue adverse effect on pregnancy.

Sedano-Balbas, Sara; Lyons, Mark; Cleary, Brendan; Murray, Margaret; Gaffney, Geraldine; Maher, Majella

2011-01-01

149

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS), are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA), were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks) or the third (32 - 36 weeks) trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L) for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h) for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L) for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h) for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%). Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls.

2011-01-01

150

Body Composition in Pregnant Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was a prospective, longitudinal study of nutritionally important body composition changes occurring during pregnancy in black and white nonsmokers ages 19 to 35. Two prenatal measurements and one postpartum measurement were taken. The measure...

S. A. Lederman

1996-01-01

151

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

152

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies amongst normal pregnant women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous virus belonging to the herpes family, is known to be transmitted frequently to developing fetuses in pregnancy. In an immunocompromised state like pregnancy, primary infection through blood transfusion or reactivation of a latent CMV infection can cause severe illness. The study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to cytomegalovirus amongst pregnant women in correlation with previous exposure to blood transfusion. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out amongst 179 HIV negative pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria. Five mL of blood was collected and stored in a plain bottle, centrifuged on the same day and the serum stored at ?20°C. All samples were screened for anti-CMV IgG antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Consenting participants were instructed to fill a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain demographic and other related information. Statistical analysis of the results was done using Pearson’s chi squared test for analytical assessment. Results A total of 97.2% of the pregnant women recruited for this study were anti-CMV IgG positive. Out of the 179 recruited for the study 174 responded to the question on previous history of blood transfusion, 14.9% of the respondents (26 of 174) had a previous history of blood transfusion and all tested positive to the anti-CMVIgG antibody. However, past history of blood transfusion and educational level were found to be insignificant to the risk of acquiring CMV infection. Conclusion The seroprevalence of the CMV antibody amongst pregnant women in this environment is high in relation to findings in other developing countries. There is the need to assess anti-CMV immunoglobulin M antibodies in pregnant women, which is a determinant of active infection.

Akinbami, Akinsegun Abduljaleel; Rabiu, Kabiru Afolarin; Adewunmi, Adeniyi Abiodun; Wright, Kikelomo Ololade; Dosunmu, Adedoyin Owolabi; Adeyemo, Titilope Adenike; Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent Oluseye

2011-01-01

153

Plasma and Urinary Aluminum Concentrations in Severely Anemic Geophagous Pregnant Women in the Bas Maroni Region of French Guiana: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

The clays consumed by geophagous individuals contain large quantities of aluminum, a known neurological and hematological toxin. This is the first study to evaluate the risk of aluminum poisoning in geophagous individuals. Blind determinations of plasma and urinary aluminum concentrations were carried out in 98 anemic geophagous pregnant women and 85 non-anemic non-geophagous pregnant women. Aluminum concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the geophagous anemic women than in the controls, with odds ratios of 6.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.72–19.31) for plasma concentrations (13.92 ± 14.09 ?g/L versus 4.95 ± 7.11 ?g/L) and 5.44 (95% CI = 2.17–14.8) for urinary concentrations (92.83 ± 251.21 ?g/L versus 12.11 ± 23 ?g/L). The ingested clay is the most likely source of this overexposure to aluminum. If confirmed, the clinical consequences of this absorption for pregnant women and their offspring should be explored.

Lambert, Veronique; Boukhari, Rachida; Nacher, Mathieu; Goulle, Jean-Pierre; Roudier, Estelle; Elguindi, Wael; Laquerriere, Annie; Carles, Gabriel

2010-01-01

154

The perceived effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions aimed at pregnant women: A qualitative study of smokers, former smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an NHS-funded research programme, pregnant women and mothers of preschool children were interviewed about their views on smoking in pregnancy and parenthood. Their partners were also interviewed where consent was obtained. In this paper, respondents' opinions on the perceived effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions aimed at pregnant women are reported. Research participants were able to describe a

Leona Bull; Ronan Burke; Siobhan Walsh; Emma Whitehead

2008-01-01

155

Significance of Fetal Intracardiac Echogenic Foci in Relation to Trisomy 2 I : A Prospective Sonographic Study of High-Risk Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to determine if an association exists between in- tracardiac echogenic foci in the second-trimester fetus and trisomy 2 1. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Over a 2-year period, targeted fetal sonography was per- formed for various indications in 1593 second-trimester high-risk pregnant women. Presence or absence of echogenic foci was recorded for each fetus. Amniocentesis

John E. Manning; Nagesh Ragavendra; James Sayre; Sherelle L. Laifer-Narin; Michelle L. Melany; Edward G. Grant; Barbara F. Crandall

156

Health behaviors of low-income pregnant minority women.  

PubMed

Preventive and health promoting behaviors in pregnant minority women can be used to develop approaches to encourage healthy lifestyle and optimal utilization of health services, and to obtain better outcomes of pregnancy. Using the Health Promotion Model as a theoretical framework, this study employed a cross-sectional survey design to investigate factors that related to health behaviors of low-income pregnant Mexican American and African American women in selected sites in the southeast portion of the state of Texas. Results showed that Mexican American women had a significantly higher mean on the Powerful Others Locus of Control measure than the African American women. For African American subjects, the strongest effect was exerted by the social support variable, which had a negative effect on the health behavior variable. Findings suggest that more studies are needed to identify specific determinants of health promoting activities during pregnancy in ethnic minority groups. Designing programs that would motivate early involvement of low-income pregnant minority women in health care should be a top priority for professionals in maternity practice. PMID:17420521

Esperat, Christine; Du Feng; Yan Zhang; Owen, Donna

2007-04-01

157

Plasma fibronectin concentration in obese/overweight pregnant women: a possible risk factor for preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Plasma fibronectin (FN) levels in obese/overweight and non-obese pregnant women were evaluated as a possible risk factor for preeclampsia. A total of one hundred and sixty three pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital participated in the study and sixty non-pregnant women served as control. About 77 (47.24%) of the pregnant women were followed up for any subsequent development of preeclampsia during the pregnancy. Fibronectin levels in plasma were measured by ELISA assay and serum total protein, urea and creatinine were determined spectrophotometrically. The mean plasma FN concentration of non-obese pregnant women in first trimester was lower than those of the non-pregnant women by 24%, but however, increased to the non-pregnant level in second and third trimesters. Obese/overweight pregnant women had significantly (P < 0.05) higher values than non-obese pregnant women in second and third trimesters. FN in obese/overweight pregnant women correlated positively with mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: r = 0.414, P = 0.04). About 28.57% of the pregnant women with FN above cut off point of 330 ?g/ml at 18-24 weeks of gestation developed preeclampsia. This value increased to 40.0% when only the obese/overweight women were considered. On analysis of both fibronectin >330 ?g/ml and MAP > 90, the predictive value increased to 66.7%. We therefore conclude that elevated FN may be regarded as a risk factor of preeclampsia especially among the obese women. PMID:22468048

Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Bolarin, Debayo M; Udoh, Alphonsus E; Etuk, Saturday J; Udiong, Christopher E J

2011-04-07

158

Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the

N. Adam; R. M. Ramli; M. S. Jaafar

2010-01-01

159

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

160

Declining HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women with HIV.  

PubMed

We assessed recent trends in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in pregnant women with HIV using data from a large national study. Based on 1240 pregnancies, we observed a 3.4-fold decline in HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women with HIV between 2001 (29.3%) and 2008 (8.6%). This decline was the net result of two components: a progressively declining HCV seroprevalence in non-African women (from 35.7% in 2001 to 16.7% in 2008), sustained by a parallel reduction in history of injecting drug use (IDU) in this population, and a significantly growing presence (from 21.2% in 2001 to 48.6% in 2008) of women of African origin, at very low risk of being HCV-infected [average HCV prevalence 1%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for HCV 0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.29]. Previous IDU was the stronger determinant of HCV co-infection in pregnant women with HIV (aOR 30.9, 95% CI 18.8-51.1). The observed trend is expected to translate into a reduced number of cases of vertical HCV transmission. PMID:20096149

Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Anzidei, G; Tibaldi, C; Muggiasca, M L; Guaraldi, G; Fiscon, M; Vimercati, A; Martinelli, P; Donisi, A; Dalzero, S; Ravizza, M

2010-01-25

161

Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results. Prevalence of self-reported anal incontinence (St. Mark's score ? 3) was the lowest in the group of women with a previous cesarean section only (6.4%) and the highest among women with a previous delivery complicated by obstetric anal sphincter injury (24.4%). Among nulliparous women the prevalence of anal incontinence was 7.7% and was associated to low educational level and comorbidity. Prevalence of anal incontinence increased with increasing parity. Urinary incontinence was associated with anal incontinence in all parity groups. Conclusions. Anal incontinence was most frequent among women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Other obstetrical events had a minor effect on prevalence of anal incontinence among parous women. Prevention of obstetrical sphincter injury is likely the most important factor for reducing bothersome anal incontinence among fertile women. PMID:23819058

Laine, Katariina; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv; Staff, Anne Cathrine

2013-05-29

162

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

2011-09-14

163

Utilization of preventive services by pregnant women in Jerusalem — A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of health service utilization patterns during pregnancy of 279 young mothers, a representative sample of the Jewish population in Jerusalem. Only 47% reported that they used the municipal family health centers (FHCs) for prenatal care. Some 82% reported that they had resorted to more than one source of care during pregnancy. Sources other than the FHC

A. Y. Ellencweig; M. Ritter; E. Peleg-Olavsky; D. Tamir

1990-01-01

164

Alcohol consumption patterns among pregnant women in the Moscow region of the Russian Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data regarding the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in the Russian Federation is lacking. As part of a longitudinal pregnancy outcome study being conducted in the Moscow Region of Russia, in the 5-month period from January through May 2005, pregnant women in four prenatal care facilities were screened for self-reported alcohol consumption in the month around

Christina D. Chambers; Lela Kavteladze; Loudmila Joutchenko; Ludmila N. Bakhireva; Kenneth Lyons Jones

2006-01-01

165

Perceptions of soil-eating and anaemia among pregnant women on the Kenyan coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a clinical study at Kilifi District hospital had shown a high prevalence of geophagy among pregnant women, and a strong association of geophagy, anaemia and iron depletion, 52 pregnant women from the same hospital, and 4 traditional healers from the surroundings of Kilifi in Kenya were interviewed on the topic of soil-eating and its perceived causes and consequences. The

P. W. Geissler; R. J. Prince; M. Levene; C. Poda; S. E. Beckerleg; W. Mutemi; C. E. Shulman

1999-01-01

166

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and its Vertical Transmission in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among pregnant women and the possibility of its transmission through the vertical route and through breast-feeding. Blood samples were collected from 300 pregnant women at the perinatal period and at delivery from the cord blood of their newborns, and from other 300 randomly selected

Abdullah A. Al-Ghamdi

2007-01-01

167

Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. METHODS: A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women.

Hamdan Z Hamdan; Abdel Haliem M Ziad; Salah K Ali; Ishag Adam

2011-01-01

168

Comparison of real-time PCR and microscopy for malaria parasite detection in Malawian pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: New diagnostic tools for malaria are required owing to the changing epidemiology of malaria, particularly among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Real-time PCR assays targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pfldh) gene may facilitate the identification of a high proportion of pregnant women with a P. falciparum parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy. These molecular methods will enable further studies

Anne-Maria Rantala; Steve M Taylor; Paul A Trottman; Mari Luntamo; Bernard Mbewe; Kenneth Maleta; Teija Kulmala; Per Ashorn; Steven R Meshnick

2010-01-01

169

Influence of Maternal Factors on Mode of Delivery and Birth Weight in Urban Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy is one of the most critical and unique period in a woman's life cycle. The present longitudinal study was undertaken to assess the influence of certain factors on mode of delivery and birth weight in urban pregnant women visiting hospitals for regular ANC check-up. The sample size included 100 pregnant women. Information was collected on age, type of family,

Asna Urooj

170

Douching and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women in Surabaya, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the association between douching (douching agents and timing) and sexually transmitted disease. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted diseases and habits of vaginal douching was performed on 599 pregnant women who visited a prenatal clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia. RESULTS: Of the 599 pregnant women, 115 (19.2%) had at least one sexually transmitted

M. R. Joesoef; H. Sumampouw; M. Linnan; S. Schmid; A. Idajadi; M. E. St. Louis

1996-01-01

171

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

172

Development of weight gain charts for healthy Egyptian pregnant women.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted to develop weight gain charts for healthy Egyptian pregnant women and to determine the relationship between different anthropometric indicators and favorable birth weight. A total of 830 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The mean total weight gain was 9.3 kg. The velocity growth chart that were developed for weight gain showed that the increment of weight was about one kg up to the 4th gestational month, then, a steady increase of 0.37 kg per week till the end of pregnancy. The mean total gain in mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was 0.8 cm and in triceps skin fold was 1.9 mm. There was a highly positive correlation between all anthropometric indicators studied and the birth weight. However only total weight gain and weight of the mother at first trimester showed significant relation with birth weight after using multi regression analysis. It is recommended to use the developed weight gain charts for monitoring the nutritional status of pregnant women and the MUAC and triceps skin folds are to be used for screening women at risk for malnutrition. PMID:17216933

Mahaba, H M; Ismail, N A; El Teheiwy, M M; El-Goewily, M M; Ramadan, M S

2001-01-01

173

Depressed Antioxidant Status in Pregnant Women on Iron Supplements: Pathologic and Clinical Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) remains a commonly prescribed supplement in pregnancy. Its possible pathologic potential is either uncommonly considered\\u000a or ignored. We determined the antioxidant status in pregnant women with and without Fe supplements. Fifty-eight apparently\\u000a healthy pregnant women on Fe supplements were selected for the study from the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital,\\u000a Ibadan, Nigeria. Fifty-five aged matched pregnant

J. I. Anetor; O. A. Ajose; F. N. Adeleke; G. O. Olaniyan-Taylor; F. A. Fasola

2010-01-01

174

Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.

Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

175

Cord blood coagulation studies in infants of high-risk pregnant women.  

PubMed

A prospective study of cord blood for coagulability, evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and hematocrit was done in 106 infants who were offspring of mothers with high-risk pregnancies (pre-eclampsia, diabets mellitus, third-trimester bleeders, severe erythroblastosis fetalis, maternal hypertension, fetal distress, and spontaneous premature labor). Significant changes of hypercoagulability (low AT-III and abnormal TEG) were seen in the third-trimester bleeder and premature labor groups which also had the highest incidence of IRDS and necrotizing. Infants undergoing "stress" (pre-eclampsia, fetal distress) had elevated levels of factors V and VIII but were not hypercoagulable or AT-III deficient. Except for mild thrombocytopenia, infants of the diabetic mothers, a group with increased thrombotic complications, did not show any cord blood abnormalities. Offspring of third-trimester bleeders were anemic. The EBF infants were also anemic, severely hypercoagulable, and showed coagulation changes compatible with severe liver disease and/or DIC. Mild changes compatible with intravascular coagulation were seen in six infants and were not related to the the development of IRDS. PMID:1115115

Hathaway, W E; Mahasandana, C; Makowski, E L

1975-01-01

176

Pregnant women at work: sociodemographic perspectives.  

PubMed

The 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a stratified random sample of 9,953 live births, shows that women who work during pregnancy are more likely to be non-Hispanic white, married, of higher income and education, to have medical insurance, and of lower parity than nonemployed pregnant women (p < .0001). They begin prenatal care earlier, are less likely to smoke, and are more likely to state that the birth was wanted (p < .0001). Similar trends are seen for full-time as compared to part-time workers. Women employed as precision production workers, operators/fabricators, or in service occupations are disadvantaged with regard to sociodemographic and behavioral risks for pregnancy outcomes relative to women in professional and managerial occupations. Black race, parity, body mass index, and smoking, but not employment, are associated with low birth weight when gestational age is controlled. The effects of stress and its buffers, paternal characteristics, physical activity, and toxic exposures, both in and out of the workplace, should be considered, as should the normative and social policy context. PMID:8338526

Moss, N; Carver, K

1993-04-01

177

Total and unbound darunavir pharmacokinetics in pregnant women infected with HIV-1: results of a study of darunavir/ritonavir 600/100?mg administered twice daily.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and for maternal care management. Physiological changes during pregnancy can affect pharmacokinetics, potentially altering pharmacological activity. We therefore evaluated the pharmacokinetics of twice-daily (bid) darunavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. METHODS: HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving an antiretroviral regimen containing darunavir/ritonavir 600/100?mg bid were enrolled in this study. Total and unbound darunavir and total ritonavir plasma concentrations were obtained over 12?h during the second and third trimesters and postpartum. Total darunavir and ritonavir plasma concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay and unbound darunavir was determined using (14) C-darunavir-fortified plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: Data were available for 14 women. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12?h (AUC12h ) for total darunavir was 17-24% lower during pregnancy than postpartum. The AUC12h for unbound darunavir was minimally reduced during pregnancy vs. postpartum. The minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) of total and unbound darunavir was on average 43-86% and 10-14% higher, respectively, during pregnancy vs. postpartum. The antiviral response (women remaining in the study at delivery were HIV-1-negative; four of these infants were premature. CONCLUSIONS: Total darunavir exposure decreased during pregnancy. No clinically relevant change in unbound (active) darunavir occurred during pregnancy, suggesting that no dose adjustment is required for darunavir/ritonavir 600/100?mg bid in pregnant women. PMID:23731450

Zorrilla, Cd; Wright, R; Osiyemi, Oo; Yasin, S; Baugh, B; Brown, K; Coate, B; Verboven, P; Mrus, J; Falcon, R; Kakuda, Tn

2013-06-01

178

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) The State will, in carrying out this provision...the availability to such women of services from the facilities...the fact that pregnant women receive such preference...television), regular advertisements in local/regional...

2009-10-01

179

45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) The State will, in carrying out this provision...the availability to such women of services from the facilities...the fact that pregnant women receive such preference...television), regular advertisements in local/regional...

2010-10-01

180

Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women  

PubMed Central

Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit.

Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

2010-01-01

181

Short-term behavioral changes in pregnant women after a quit-smoking program via e-learning: a descriptive study from Japan.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of Japanese women in their reproductive years are smokers. Therefore, in the present study, we report the behavioral changes of woman who undertook a 3 month stop-smoking program. Sixty-six pregnant smokers in the first trimester of pregnancy participated in this study from two hospitals and an obstetric clinic in Japan. Our newly-developed e-learning program uses a cell phone Internet connection service to support pregnant women who want to quit smoking. Using this, service participants were given guidance concerning smoking, and were breath tested for their carbon monoxide levels every 4 weeks for 3 months. An e-learning cessation smoking-support program was maintained throughout the same period. Consequently, 52 of 66 pregnant smokers from three settings began the program, and 48 of 52 eventually completed it. The achievement rate of non-smoking was 71.1% (37/48), and their carbon monoxide exhalation levels significantly decreased from 6.43 ± 4.5 ppm at the beginning to 0.7 ± 1.0 ppm in 1 month, to 0.29 ± 1.08 in 3 months (P < 0.001). These results suggest the effectiveness of our e-leaning program. This paper reports the results of the study. PMID:22950611

Fujioka, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Turale, Sue

2012-09-01

182

Health care-seeking practices of pregnant women and the role of the midwife in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the health-seeking practices of pregnant women in a periurban area in Cape Town, South Africa. This qualitative study was based on 103 minimally structured in-depth interviews of 32 pregnant women. Most women were interviewed on several occasions, and a group discussion was held with women. The interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed ethnographically,

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Zodumo Mvo

2001-01-01

183

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

184

Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.  

PubMed

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-02-06

185

Zinc, Iron and Hematological Status in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc (Zn) status to some extent can account for hematological abnormalities and the outcome of the birth weight of newborn in pregnant women. Reviewed is the Zn status and effects of Zn and\\/ or iron supplementation in relation to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), iron deficiency anemia and outcome of birth weight of the newborn in pregnant women. Supplementation

Soroku Nishiyama

186

Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion activities designed to reduce job-related stress during pregnancy. PMID:2702300

Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

1989-01-01

187

Characteristics of pregnant women in motor vehicle crashes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of hospitalized trauma during pregnancy. Maternal injury puts the fetus at great risk, yet little is known about the incidence, risks, and characteristics of pregnant women in crashes. Setting and methods: Police reported crashes were analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Since 1995, this system recorded pregnancy/trimester status. Pregnant and non-pregnant women 15–39 years of age were compared by age, driver status, seat belt use, and treatment. Belt use and seating position were examined by trimester. Results: There were 427 pregnant occupants identified (weighted n=32 810, 2.6%, SE 12 585, rate 13/1000 person years). The mean age was 24.9 compared with 24.8 years (pregnant v non-pregnant). Cases were distributed by trimester as follows: first 29.8%, second 36.4%, and third 33.8%. Pregnant women were drivers 70% of the time compared with 71% for non-pregnant women. No belt use was 14% compared with 13% (pregnant v non-pregnant). Mean injury severity was lower for pregnant women but they were more likely to transported or hospitalized. Improper belt use decreased after the first trimester and there was little change in driver proportion by trimester. Third trimester hospitalization rates increased. Conclusions: Pregnant occupants in crashes have similar profiles of restraint use, driver status, and seat position but different treatment indicators compared to non-pregnant occupants. Trimester status has relatively little impact on crash risk, seating position or restraint use. Undercounting of pregnant cases was possible, even so, 1% of all births were reported to be involved in utero in crashes. Little research has focused on developmental outcomes to infants and children previously involved in exposure to these crashes.

Weiss, H; Strotmeyer, S

2002-01-01

188

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2013-07-01

189

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2009-07-01

190

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...

2010-07-01

191

Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai  

PubMed Central

Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up.

Shidhaye, Pallavi R.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shidhaye, Rahul R.

2012-01-01

192

First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Bergbom, Ingegerd

2011-01-01

193

Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood.\\u000a The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers\\u000a in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total

Kelly R. Evenson; Merry-K. Moos; Kathryn Carrier; Anna Maria Siega-Riz

2009-01-01

194

Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2–3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment

Carmen Hernández-Martínez; Victoria Arija; Albert Balaguer; Pere Cavallé; Josefa Canals

2008-01-01

195

Evaluation of Periodontitis as a Risk for Preterm Birth among Preeclamptic and Non-Preeclamptic Pregnant Women - A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontal disease during pregnancy markedly increases the woman’s risk of developing preeclampsia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare whether periodontal disease increases the risk of preterm birth among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women. Methods: A total of 200 pregnant women (100 preeclamptic and 100 non–preeclamptic) with periodontitis aged 20 to 30 years & < to 26th week of gestation. Maternal demographic and medical data was collected from concerned institutes. In both groups, blood pressure of more than 140/80 mm Hg, presence of protein in 24 hours urine, of more than 1gm per litre in 2 or more mid stream specimens obtained 6 hours apart in the absence urinary tract infection, confirmed by 0.3 g per 24 hours of urine specimens and ankle edema were measured. The periodontal status was categorised as healthy, mild, moderate/severe our worsening. Probing depth (PD), attachment levels and bleeding on probing were measured with UNC–15 probe at six sites per tooth. All the periodontal parameters were measured at second prenatal visit and within 48 hours post–partum. Results: The present study revealed; the Incidence of preterm birth in relation to periodontal status in preeclamptic patients was significantly high (p<0.001). Total incidence of preterm birth in relation to periodontal status in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic had chi–square value of 17.7, which is highly significant (p< 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that pregnant women with preeclampsia are at greater risk for preterm delivery if periodontal disease is present during pregnancy or progress during pregnancy and also rate of preterm delivery is more in preeclamptic women having moderate to severe periodontal disease.

Pattanashetti, Jyoti I.; Nagathan, Veeresh M.; Rao, Subramaniam M.

2013-01-01

196

Antioxidant Vitamins and Lipoperoxidation in Non-pregnant, Pregnant, and Gestational Diabetic Women: Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility Profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Inconsistent reports are available in the literature regarding the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity during the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. Present study was aimed to evaluate oxidative stress during the development of gestational diabetes and to evaluate antioxidant capability in non-pregnant (control), pregnant and gestational diabetics. Methods The study consisted of non-pregnant, healthy pregnant and patients suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Each group consisted of 23 women. We compared their oxidative and anti-oxidative system in blood. Their blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant vitamins (C, E, A) were determined and compared to evaluate the oxidative status and anti-oxidative capacity of these groups. We have also compared the osmotic fragility profiles of the erythrocytes of these groups. Results Plasma MDA content in pregnant was significantly higher compared to non-pregnant (p < 0.001, 67.5%) and even in gestational diabetics; its value was found significantly further elevated (p = 0.001, 13.8%) compared to healthy pregnant. There was significant decline (p < 0.001, 41.9%) in the level of vitamin C in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant. Although in GDM the decrease was significant (p = 0.025, 20.6%) but comparatively lesser when compared to healthy pregnant. Vitamin E showed the increase of 9.6% during pregnancy, although this alteration was non-significant (p = 0.09), but the level was found to decline significantly (p < 0.001, 25.5%) in GDM compared to pregnant group. Vitamin A contents were also decreased in pregnant (p = 0.002, 17.4%) compared to non-pregnant and in GDM (p = 0.012, 11.2%) compared to pregnant group. Osmotic fragility (O.F.) profiles showed insignificant (p = 0.325) enhanced mean erythrocyte fragility (MEF) in pregnant but this increase was significant (p = 0.003) in case of GDM. The O.F. profiles of pregnant and GDM erythrocytes got shifted to the right side of the control one. Conclusions Our findings indicate highly enhanced lipid peroxidation and significant depletion in antioxidant capacity during the development of gestational diabetes, and these alterations are not the cause but the consequence of GDM. However, further studies are warranted to examine a wider range of biochemical parameters to evaluate the potential risks of oxidative damage in GDM. Keywords Gestational diabetes; Oxidative stress; Anti-oxidants; Vitamins C, E, A; Osmotic fragility; Non-pregnant; Pregnant; GDM

Suhail, Mohd; Patil, Shridhar; Khan, Salma; Siddiqui, Sana

2010-01-01

197

Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; T?nnesen, Hanne

2013-01-01

198

Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

2012-01-01

199

Nutritional Assessment of Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate nutrient intake from dietary sources for 95 pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).Subjects\\/Setting Women were recruited from Minneapolis and St Paul area WIC clinics between January and June 1999. Based on estimates from the WIC clinics, the study was described to 159 (63%) of the 251 potentially eligible women.

ANDRINE R SWENSEN; LISA J HARNACK; JULIE A ROSS

2001-01-01

200

Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women at Alcohol-Serving Establishments in South Africa.  

PubMed

South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

2013-03-23

201

A pharmacoeconomical model for choice of a treatment for pregnant women with gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

This study discusses two main questions: the direct medical costs and the clinical effectiveness of the hospital treatment with insulin of pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GD). A prospective study that includes 50 women with GD is performed. The pregnant women are divided into 2 groups: Group I (n=30) - pregnant women treated only with a diet; and Group II (n=20) - pregnant women treated with diet and insulin. We found that the metabolite compensation degree is improved after the applied treatment with insulin. The coefficient cost/effectiveness is 6954 lv./100 women. The analysis decision tree confirms in a very convenient way the fact that insulin treatment is a clinically more effective and financially more profitable strategy. PMID:17721753

Todorova, K; Palaveev, O; Petkova, V B; Stefanova, M; Dimitrova, Zl

2007-08-26

202

Sleep disturbances in Korean pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

This was a prospective, cohort study in Korean pregnant and postpartum women, to estimate the prevalence and patterns of sleep disturbances. The survey was composed of the following validated sleep questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale, Berlin Questionnaire for sleep disordered breathing, the international restless leg syndrome (IRLS) Study Group criteria, and the Johns Hopkins Telephone Diagnostic Interview Form (JHTDIF) for RLS. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Six hundred eighty-nine women completed sleep surveys. The overall percentage of women with very poor sleep quality (a PSQI score greater than 10), clinically significant insomnia (a total score of 9 or more), excessive daytime sleepiness (a total ESS score of 10 or more), short sleep duration (less than 7 hours per night) were 80.7%, 50.5%, 34.0% and 29.5%, respectively, and all of three parameters became increased as pregnancy progressed and after delivery (?p = 0.002, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The overall positive rates in Berlin and RLS questionnaires were 25.4% and 19.4%. In conclusion, sleep disturbances are prevalent among Korean pregnant and postpartum women, and increase significantly as pregnancy progresses and after delivery. PMID:22533904

Ko, HyunSun; Shin, Jongchul; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Yeun Hee; Lee, Jihyun; Kil, Ki Cheol; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Guisera; Sa-Jin, Kim; Kim, Byung In

2012-04-25

203

History of physical abuse and periconceptional drinking in pregnant women.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and periconceptional drinking in women presenting to a mid-Atlantic, urban hospital-based OB/GYN clinic serving a largely indigent population between April 2003 and May 2004. During their first prenatal visit, 308 women completed a screening battery that included the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) and measures of alcohol use, including the CAGE, T-ACE, TWEAK, and the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Bivariate analyses, including odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), revealed that women with a history of physical abuse were more likely to report drinking alcohol within the 3 months prior to their prenatal care visit and were significantly more likely to meet criteria for risk drinking on multiple measures. A history of physical abuse appears to be associated with higher self-reported rates of periconceptional drinking in pregnant women. Study findings support the need for assessment of abuse history as a potential risk factor for alcohol use in pregnant women. PMID:18649233

Alvanzo, Anika A H; Svikis, Dace S

2008-07-01

204

Sexuality of pregnant and breastfeeding women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pregnancy and lactation on the sexual behavior of women was studied, using a retrospective questionnaire answered by a nonrandom sample of 33 women. Sexual functioning was operationally defined by four categories: desire, frequency, enjoyment, and orgasm. Five time periods were studied: the three trimesters of pregnancy, the period of breastfeeding and the period after weaning. Most of

James A. Kenny

1973-01-01

205

Drug-Addicted, Pregnant Women: Punishment Or Treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frustrations over the drug problem in the United States have led to calls for increasing penalties for traffickers and for holding drug users accountable. The latter has been heard more recently with respect to drug-addicted, pregnant women. At the same time, a portion of the public has called for treating these drug-addicted women. Consequently, drug-addicted, pregnant women have received both

Rudolph Alexander

1998-01-01

206

Smoking Among Pregnant Women with Medicaid Insurance: Are Mental Health Factors Related?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking during pregnancy is the single most modifiable risk factor for poor birth outcomes, yet it remains prevalent among\\u000a low-income women. This study examined factors associated with continued smoking and quitting among pregnant women. A total\\u000a of 2,203 Medicaid-eligible pregnant women were screened at their first enhanced prenatal services visit for risk factors including\\u000a demographics, health behaviors (smoking, alcohol and

Jodi Summers Holtrop; Cristian Meghea; Jennifer E. Raffo; Lynette Biery; Shelby Berkowitz Chartkoff; LeeAnne Roman

2010-01-01

207

Evaluation of Serum Copper Level in Pregnant Women with High Hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse outcomes of pregnancy increase among women with high density of hemoglobin. This study evaluates the effects of iron supplementation on serum copper level in pregnant women with hemoglobin higher than 13.2 g\\/dl. Sixty two pregnant women with Hemoglobin >13.2 g\\/dl and normal se- rum copper levels in their 13-18 weeks of gestation were ran- domized into case and control

R. Janghorban; S. Ziaei

2006-01-01

208

Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women?  

PubMed Central

Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than in 723 nonpregnant women of reproductive age (p<0.05 each). We report two cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pregnant Korean women who were admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe pneumonia that led to maternal and fetal death in one of the patients. This case series suggests that pregnant Korean women were also at increased risk of severe illness and complications during the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak.

An, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Choi, Ok-Ja; Kim, Gwang-Sook; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Yong Soo

2013-01-01

209

Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

2009-07-23

210

What are pregnant women eating? Nutrient and food group differences by race  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify foods that contributed most to nutrient and fiber intake in a sample of pregnant women in North Carolina. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (n = 2247 women). Dietary information during the second trimester was collected with the use of a

Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Lisa M. Bodnar; David A. Savitz

2002-01-01

211

[Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women - safety and effectiveness].  

PubMed

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics, pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications from influenza. The factors believed to increase the susceptibility of complicated influenza infection during pregnancy are linked to the physiologic changes, including immunologic changes (attenuation of the cell-mediated immune responses, selective suppression of T-helper 1 cell mediated immunity while the adaptive humoral immunity remains unimpaired), increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption and tidal volume. Pregnant women have similar incidence of seasonal influenza as the general population, however because of the physiological changes, they are at an increased risk of complications (including secondary pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency increased risk of stillbirth, premature deliveries) and death. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries. Vaccination against influenza with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been proven to be safe and effective. Lack of harmful effect of TIV on pregnant women and newborns has been demonstrated in several studies: no increased risk of spontaneous abortions, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations, cesarean section have been reported. Vaccination against influenza has been proven to be effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Several studies revealed a decreased risk of influenza-like illnesses among mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy but also a decreased risk of laboratory confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza and its complications among newborns and infants born to vaccinated mothers. Currently available inactivated influenza vaccines are not licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months. Protection of young infants against the infection in early life thus requires a cocooning strategy to reduce the number of vulnerable individuals among care givers and contacts. Neonates and infants may be also protected against influenza directly by antibodies of maternal origin that cross the placenta or are transferred via breast milk. The duration of passively acquired antibodies depends on the initial blood concentration and is probably less than 6 months. Vaccine coverage among pregnant women rdmains low Possible explanations include lack of education by health care workers, the feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious problem, and the failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. Overall, the most important factor for a woman to decide to be immunized during pregnancy was to have a clear recommendation from the health care provider Reasons evoked by obstetricians for not providing influenza vaccines included lack sufficient data on safety and efficacy concerns about the medical legal risks of vaccination during pregnancy and the perdeption that pregnant women would not want to be vaccinated. Educational intervention targeting health care workers in charge of pregnant women should be primary implemented to provide higher influenza vaccine coverage and to protect pregnant women and young infants from influenza related morbidity PMID:23488311

Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Wo?niak Kosek, Agnieszka; Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta

2013-01-01

212

Leukocyte Esterase Activity in Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women With Vaginitis/Vaginosis and in Controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the leukocyte esterase (LE) activity in vaginal lavage fluid of women with acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC and RVVC respectively), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and in pregnant and non-pregnant women without evidence of the three conditions. Also to compare the result of LE tests in women consulting at different weeks in the cycle and trimesters of pregnancy.The LE activity was correlated to vaginal pH, number of inflammatory cells in stained vaginal smears, type of predominating vaginal bacteria and presence of yeast morphotypes. Methods: One hundred and thirteen women with a history of RVVC, i.e. with at least four attacks of the condition during the previous year and who had consulted with an assumed new attack of the condition, were studied. Furthermore, we studied 16 women with VVC, 15 women with BV, and 27 women attending for control of cytological abnormalities, who all presented without evidence of either vaginitis or vaginosis. Finally, 73 pregnant women were investigated. The LE activity in vaginal fluid during different weeks in the cycle of 53 of the women was measured. Results: In the non-pregnant women, an increased LE activity was found in 96, 88, 73 and 56% of those with RVVC, VVC and BV and in the non-VVC/BV cases, respectively. In 73% of pregnant women in the second trimester, and 76% of those in the third, the LE test was positive. In all groups of non-pregnant women tested, the LE activity correlated with the number of leukocytes in vaginal smears, but it did not in those who were pregnant. There was no correlation between LE activity and week in cycle. The vaginal pH showed no correlation to LE activity in any of the groups studied. Conclusions: The use of commercial LE dipsticks has a limited value in the differential diagnosis of RVVC, VVCand BV. There is no correlation between the LE activity in vaginal secretion on one hand and vaginal pH, week in the menstrual cycle and trimester in pregnancy on the other. Women with BV often have signs of inflammation as evidenced by a positive LE test and inflammatory cells in genital smears.

Novikova, Natalia; Niklasson, Ola; Bekassy, Zoltan; Skude, Lennart

2003-01-01

213

Normative oxygen saturation values for pregnant women at sea level.  

PubMed

Objective: To develop normative ranges of maternal arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) for women residing at sea level throughout gestation and postpartum.Materials and Methods: Healthy, nonsmoking, non-laboring pregnant women, with no obstetrical risk factors, were recruited into this longitudinal study performed at The Stamford Hospital (elevation sea level). Maternal SpO(2) was measured in the dominant index finger while breathing room air with a Nelcor N-200 pulse oximeter and DS-100A sensor (Nellcor Puritan Bennett, Pleasanton, CA) at set antepartum (AP) and postpartum (PP) intervals. Oxygen saturation was measured in the following positions: sitting, lying on the left then right side, knee-chest, and supine. Five minutes were allowed between measurements. Measurements were taken at 12, 24, and 36 weeks of gestation and then at 12 weeks postpartum for each patient.Results: Thirty-six patients were initially enrolled. Three were excluded from this study, secondary to loss of follow-up (1), preterm delivery at 35 weeks (1), and complicated placenta previa (1). Of the 33 patients who remained in the study 5 have delivered and undergone postpartum evaluation. SpO(2) values (%) are summarized as mean +/- 2 SD in the Table.Conclusion: Preliminary data in this ongoing descriptive longitudinal study suggest that maternal SpO(2) is at least 97% throughout pregnancy for healthy, non-smoking women residing at sea level. These normative data may be useful in managing pregnant women at risk for hypoxia. PMID:10838287

Richlin; Cusick; Sullivan; Dildy; Belfort

1998-07-01

214

Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Methods Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. Results As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p?=?0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p?=?0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p?=?0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p?=?0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p?=?0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p?=?0.02) and thoracic (p?

2013-01-01

215

Benevolent Sexism, Perceived Health Risks, and the Inclination to Restrict Pregnant Women’s Freedoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the role of sexist ideology in perceptions of health risks during pregnancy and willingness\\u000a to intervene on pregnant women’s behavior. Initially, 160 female psychology undergraduates in the South East of England completed\\u000a the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick and Fiske 1996). Two months later, in an apparently unrelated study, they rated the safety of 45 behaviours during

Robbie M. Sutton; Karen M. Douglas; Leigh M. McClellan

216

Overcoming liability concerns in vaccine trials involving pregnant women.  

PubMed

Without the protection of vaccines, the health of pregnant women may be compromised. But assessing the safety and efficacy of vaccines in pregnancy requires research in pregnancy. Furthermore, vaccinating women while they are pregnant may convey immunity to the fetus in utero, but assessing this possible benefit of maternal immunization also requires research. This article argues that one factor inhibiting vaccine research involving pregnant women is that vaccine manufacturers fear incurring liability if they fund such research. We argue that vaccine research in pregnancy can be ethical, and we explore some methods for overcoming vaccine manufacturers' fear of liability. PMID:22686632

Kaposy, Chris; Lafferty, Lorraine

2012-05-01

217

Routine HIV counseling and testing during antenatal care in Ukraine: a qualitative study of the experiences and perspectives of pregnant women and antenatal care providers.  

PubMed

Ukraine has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence in Europe. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is routine during antenatal care (ANC) in Ukraine, with nearly all pregnant women receiving HIV testing. National policies state that testing is voluntary, with consent and confidentiality protections, but little is known about actual testing implementation and adherence to these policies. A qualitative study was conducted to explore women's and providers' experiences of HIV testing during ANC, with a focus on consent, counseling, and confidentiality. In-depth interviews were conducted at two urban women's clinics and one semi-urban women's clinic in Donetsk, one of the most HIV-affected regions in Ukraine. Interviews targeted HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recently tested during ANC, as well as health providers involved in administering HIV tests during ANC. Interview analysis revealed gaps between policies and practices, as well as differences in perceptions of aspects of PITC between women and providers. Notable findings included: wide variation in informed consent procedures; providers reporting feeling unequipped to provide adequate counseling; and post-testing practices that may jeopardize patient confidentiality, particularly in the semi-urban site. These findings suggest the need for additional training and support, especially outside major cities, to ensure that HIV testing practices during ANC adhere to Ukrainian policy and global principles regarding PITC. PMID:23317036

Tripathi, Vandana; King, Elizabeth J; Finnerty, Erin; Koshovska-Kostenko, Nataliia; Skipalska, Halyna

2013-01-15

218

Inhibition of autophagy by sera from pregnant women.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis by eliminating senescent or damaged intracellular organelles and proteins. Its role in pregnancy has been scarcely studied. We compared the influence of sera from pregnant and nonpregnant women on autophagy induction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with sera from 35 pregnant or nonpregnant women in the presence or absence of the autophagy inducer, rapamycin. After 48 hours, the cells were assayed for p62, a cytoplasmic protein essential for autophagy induction. Its concentration in the cytoplasm is inversely proportional to the level of autophagy induction. Sera were tested for immune mediators by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median (range) p62 concentrations were 6.7 ng/mL (1.1-22.7) for PBMCs incubated with pregnancy sera versus 2.5 ng/mL (0.8-7.7) for nonpregnant sera (P < .0001). In the presence of rapamycin, median p62 levels were 1.3 ng/mL (<0.1-4.9) with pregnancy sera, when compared to 0.6 ng/mL (<0.1-3.3) with control sera (P = .0191). Among the pregnant patients, the p62 level was inversely proportional to the results of a 50-g glucose challenge test (r = -.5630, P = .0005). Sera from pregnant women had elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin 13 (IL-13), and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). Autophagy during pregnancy may be inhibited by IGF-1, IL-13, and/or TGF-?1 and may influence insulin resistance. PMID:23585342

Kanninen, Tomi T; de Andrade Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro; Jaffe, Shirlee; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara Moreno; Renzo, Gian Carlo Di; Witkin, Steven S

2013-04-12

219

Pharmacokinetics of Piperaquine in Pregnant Women in Sudan with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were investigated in 12 pregnant and 12 well-matched, non-pregnant women receiving a three-day oral fixed dose combination regimen of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum at New Halfa Hospital in eastern Sudan. Frequent venous plasma samples were drawn from the patients over a 63-day period and a complete concentration–time profile was collected for 7 pregnant and 11 non-pregnant patients. Piperaquine was quantified using a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. Pregnant women had a significantly higher total drug exposure (median area under the curve [range] = 1,770 [1,200–5,600] hr × ng/mL versus 858 [325–2,370] hr × ng/mL; P = 0.018) and longer time to maximal concentration (4.00 [1.50–4.03] hr versus 1.50 [0.500–8.00] hr; P = 0.02) after the first dose compared with non-pregnant women. There was no other significant difference observed in piperaquine pharmacokinetics between pregnant and non-pregnant women, including no difference in total drug exposure or maximum concentration. The overall pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine in this study were consistent with previously published reports in non-pregnant patients.

Adam, Ishag; Tarning, Joel; Lindegardh, Niklas; Mahgoub, Hyder; McGready, Rose; Nosten, Francois

2012-01-01

220

Characteristics of pregnant women in motor vehicle crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of hospitalized trauma during pregnancy. Maternal injury puts the fetus at great risk, yet little is known about the incidence, risks, and characteristics of pregnant women in crashes.Setting and methods: Police reported crashes were analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Since 1995, this system recorded pregnancy\\/trimester status. Pregnant

H B Weiss; S Strotmeyer

2002-01-01

221

Use and cost of medication in low risk pregnant women.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to assess the use of medication by pregnant women; classify them regarding therapy group and its risk category; and identify the cost of these drugs. The sample is formed by 47 pregnant women, in the 20 to 29 year-old age group, from July 2001 to June 2003, in the city of São Paulo. A specific instrument was used for data collection in family charts and others from the Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica (Primary Care System Information). Average of medications used by pregnant woman was 3.63. Iron sulfate was the most commonly used, followed by antibiotics (78.7%). Regarding risk category, 34.1% of medications belonged to category B and 16.5% to category C. In the calculation of total costs of care, expenses with medication accounted for 11.13%. We have seen the need for assessing further the criteria for use, especially of medications of category C. The higher costs were related to antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. PMID:18506346

Maeda, Sayuri Tanaka; Secoli, Sílvia Regina

222

Preventing Listeriosis - In Pregnant Hispanic Women in the ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Preventing Listeriosis - In Pregnant Hispanic Women in the US - About This Program. About This Program. ... 1 US Food and Drug Administration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

223

Antioxidant Supplements Don't Help Women Get Pregnant  

MedlinePLUS

... Antioxidant Supplements Don't Help Women Get Pregnant: Review Fertility clinic patients taking these products were no ... antioxidant supplements will improve their chances, a new review shows. Researchers analyzed data from 28 clinical trials ...

224

Effects of influenza on pregnant women and infants.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccination during pregnancy has been shown to decrease the risk of influenza and its complications among pregnant women and their infants up to 6 months old. To adequately assess the benefits and potential risks that are associated with the use of influenza vaccine during pregnancy, it is necessary to examine the influenza-associated complications that occur among pregnant women and their children. Pregnant women have been shown to be at increased risk for morbidity and death with influenza illness during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Newborn infants born to mothers with influenza during pregnancy, especially mothers with severe illness, are at increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birthweight. Infants <6 months old who experience influenza virus infection have the highest rates of hospitalization and death of all children. Here we review the risks for influenza-associated complications among pregnant women and infants <6 months old. PMID:22920056

Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J; Uyeki, Timothy M

2012-07-09

225

Computerized Screening of Pregnant Women for Nutritional Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project sought to develop and test a prenatal food frequency questionnaire which could be used by nonprofessional personnel to screen low-income pregnant women for inadequate food and nutrient intake, assess the acceptability and practicalit...

J. D. Gardner

1993-01-01

226

Preventing Listeriosis In Pregnant Hispanic Women in the US  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Pregnant Women: Don't Eat Queso Fresco, Panela, Asadero or Queso Blanco unless you're sure it is made from pasteurized milk. Cheeses made from ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

227

Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:21989677

Rahman, Mosfequr

2012-08-01

228

Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as

Jade E Bilardi; Deborah L De Guingand; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Suzanne Garland; Christopher K Fairley; Sonia Grover; Euan Wallace; Jane S Hocking; Sepehr Tarbrizi; Marie Pirotta; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

229

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe principal aims of this study were to examine the current prevalence rate, clinical characteristics, and related factors of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Faruk Uguz; Kazim Gezginc; Ismet Esra Zeytinci; Savas Karatayli; Rustem Askin; Ozkan Guler; Figen Kir Sahin; H. Murat Emul; Omer Ozbulut; Omer Gecici

2007-01-01

230

Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous pollutants; epidemiologic data suggest they may be associated with adverse health outcomes, including subfecundity. We examined subfecundity in relation to two perfluorinated compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Methods This case-control analysis included 910 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 and 2004. Around gestational week 17, women reported their time to pregnancy and provided blood samples. Cases consisted of 416 women with a time to pregnancy greater than 12 months, considered subfecund. Plasma concentrations of perfluorinated compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each pollutant quartile using logistic regression. Estimates were further stratified by parity. Results The median plasma concentration of PFOS was 13.0 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR]=10.3-16.6 ng/ml) and of PFOA was 2.2 ng/ml (IQR=1.7-3.0 ng/ml). The relative odds of subfecundity among parous women was 2.1 (95% CI=1.2-3.8) for the highest PFOS quartile and 2.1 (1.0-4.0) for the highest PFOA quartile. Among nulliparous women, the respective relative odds were 0.7 (0.4-1.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.2). Conclusion Previous studies suggest that the body burden of perfluorinated compounds decreases during pregnancy and lactation through transfer to the fetus and to breast milk. Afterwards, the body burden may rise again. Among parous women, increased body burden may be due to a long interpregnancy interval rather than the cause of a long time to pregnancy. Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity.

Whitworth, Kristina W.; Haug, Line S.; Baird, Donna D.; Becher, Georg; Hoppin, Jane A.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Thomsen, Cathrine; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2011-01-01

231

Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ?4 mm and an attachment loss ?3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Silvia Regina; Coutinho, Sonia Bechara

2012-01-01

232

[Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].  

PubMed

A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly in developing countries. The condition and welfare of women are tightly linked to 3 factors: age at marriage, beginning of procreation, and capacity to regulate and space pregnancies. Women's status is also influenced by whether they are married and their rights to divorce. In developing countries about 45% of women are illiterate, compared to 25% of men. The salaries of women do not equal those of men in any country. Only Finland and Sweden have been unreservedly committed to providing equal political rights and legal protection against sexual discrimination. PMID:12157687

1988-12-01

233

Effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The study aimed to investigate the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a case-control study, nine pregnant and eight non-pregnant Sudanese women infected with P. falciparum were treated with intramuscular artemether. Before being given artemether, they received a single dose of quinine hydrochloride\\u000a as intravenous infusion.

Rajaa A. Mirghani; Ishraga Elagib; Gehad Elghazali; Urban Hellgren; Lars L. Gustafsson

2010-01-01

234

Zinc Utilization in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women Fed Controlled Diets Providing the Zinc RDA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pregnant (P) women in their third trimester and 10 nonpregnant (NP) women participated in a 21-day confined metabolic study. The participants were fed semipurified liquid diets providing 20 mg zinc\\/day. Apparent zinc balance was calculated and parameters of zinc status assessed. Even though an adequate amount of a readily available form of zinc was fed, the P women consistently

CHRISTINE A. SWANSON; ANDJANET C. KING

2010-01-01

235

Coping styles of pregnant women after prenatal ultrasound screening for fetal malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ultrasound is a widespread noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis. The detection of fetal abnormalities can provoke anxiety, which needs coping. The coping process of pregnant women with different risk conditions for fetal abnormality were studied in a longitudinal design and compared with a nonrisk control group of women with healthy uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods: The coping strategies of women (n=664)

K. H Brisch; D Munz; K Bemmerer-Mayer; R Terinde; R Kreienberg; H Kächele

2003-01-01

236

The prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women in a Chinesecommunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the incidence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local teaching hospital. Study design: All pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic in Tsan Yuk Hospital between 11th August and 3rd November, 1998 were interviewed by a designated research nurse (Y.Y.J.L.) using a standard questionnaire (Abuse Assessment Screen) to detect the incidence

W. C. Leung; T. W. Leung; Y. Y. J. Lam; P. C. Ho

1999-01-01

237

Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience.  

PubMed

The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821

Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

2013-07-21

238

Pregnant Women’s Attitudes Toward Amniocentesis Before Receiving Down Syndrome Screening Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to evaluate pregnant women's knowledge about features of second- trimester screening for Down syndrome and to assess whether knowledge and educational level influence their attitude toward amniocentesis before receiving test results. Methods. Pregnant Caucasian women (n 300) <35 years old with no personal or family history of Down syndrome were surveyed. Women were randomized to 2 groups.

Bojana Brajenovi?-Mili?; Ivana Babi?; Smiljana Risti?; Jadranka Vranekovi?; Gordana Brumini; Miljenko Kapovi?

2008-01-01

239

Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ?900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

2011-01-01

240

Maternal and neonatal complications of substance abuse in Iranian pregnant women.  

PubMed

There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals). Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines). The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital. PMID:22837120

Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Fallahian, Masoumeh; Haghighi, Ladan; Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi, Maryam; Dashti, Elahe; Dolan, Kate

2012-01-01

241

Demographic and Substance Abuse Trends Among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Eleven Years of Treatment Admission Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment\\u000a over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health\\u000a Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment\\u000a for the first time, 81,818 of whom were

Jennifer E. McCabe; Stephan Arndt

242

[Retrospective study of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus in pregnant women. Future of the child and the mother].  

PubMed

5.4% (108 of 2,000) women have been confirmed for HIV 1 infection in Brazzaville in 1987. 1,172 deliveries have been registered by study, 7.76% have been occurred in HIV+ women. The prevalence of miscarriages was significantly, higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- ones (p less than 0.001). The birth-weight of new-borns was not significantly different among the children born to HIV+ and HIV- mothers. There were the various probable reasons of death of children born to HIV+ mothers. More frequently the respiratory affections with persistent hyperthermia were noticed. During the follow-up, in all groups of age, the fever with failure of thrive were the most frequent signs (50%) with pneumopathy. The clinical picture was completed by diarrhoea after six months of live. PMID:1406211

Makuwa, M; Taty, E; Beuzit, Y; Loemba, H; Miehakanda, J

243

Investigation of the Sexual Behavior of Pregnant Women Residing in Squatter Neighborhoods in Southwestern Turkey: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors designed this study in order to understand changes in sexual behavior during pregnancy. The sample comprised 26 healthy women who were in at least their 37th week of pregnancy. The authors collected data through in-depth individual interviews. Participants reported the following most common reasons for ceasing sexual intercourse in the final stages of pregnancy: (a) physical discomfort during

Hatice Balci Yangin; Kafiye Ero?lu

2011-01-01

244

A descriptive study of pregnant women with gallstones. Relation to dietary and social habits, education, physical activity, height, and weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred and twelve women attending the antenatal clinic of the Rotunda Hospital of Dublin were studied by means of abdominal real time ultrasound (US) scanning to establish some of the characteristics of those subjects found to be gallstone-positive, compared to the gallstone-negative control population.

L. Basso; P. T. McCollum; M. R. N. Darling; W. A. Tocchi; W. A. Tanner

1992-01-01

245

Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).  

PubMed

Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. PMID:23911340

Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

2013-08-02

246

Reduction of primary and secondary smoke exposure for low-income black pregnant women.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking by women during pregnancy continues to be a substantial contributor to poor perinatal outcomes in the United States. Decreasing tobacco smoke exposure for women and children is a lifestyle change that will improve perinatal health. A study was conducted with a sample of 74 low-income black women to evaluate the effectiveness of the Smoke Free Families intervention in moving pregnant women forward in the stages of change toward becoming a non-smoker and reducing exposure to second-hand smoke. Transtheoretical model variables were measured at intake, postintervention, and during the last month of pregnancy. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment and control group in movement forward in the stages of change. The findings raise questions about the conceptual fit of the transtheoretical model with pregnant women. We discuss additional interventions and suggest types of studies that would provide new insight into tobacco exposure issues for pregnant women. PMID:12389272

Pletsch, Pamela K

2002-06-01

247

Homocysteine concentration, related B vitamins, and betaine in pregnant women recruited to the Seychelles Child Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Both folate and betaine are important predictors of total homocysteine (tHcy) during pregnancy. However, studies to date have only been undertaken in populations with Western dietary patterns. Objective: We investigated the predictors of tHcy in pregnant women recruited in the Seychelles, a population where access to fortifiedfoodsislimitedandwherewomenhabituallyconsumediets rich in fish, eggs, rice, and fruit. Design: Pregnant women (n 226) provided

Julie MW Wallace; Maxine P Bonham; JJ Strain; Emeir M Duffy; Paula J Robson; Mary Ward; Helene McNulty; Philip W Davidson; Gary J Myers; Conrad F Shamlaye; Tom W Clarkson; Anne M Molloy; John M Scott; Per M Ueland

248

Pharmacokinetics of Saquinavir plus Low-Dose Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy make it difficult to predict antiretroviral pharmaco- kinetics (PKs), but few data exist on the PKs of protease inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. The objective of the present study was to determine the PKs of ritonavir (RTV)-enhanced saquinavir (SQV) in HIV-infected pregnant women by an area under the curve (AUC)-

Edward P. Acosta; Arlene Bardeguez; Carmen D. Zorrilla; Russell Van Dyke; Michael D. Hughes; Sharon Huang; Lisa Pompeo; Alice M. Stek; Jane Pitt; D. Heather Watts; Elizabeth Smith; Eleanor Jimenez; Lynne Mofenson

2004-01-01

249

Energy expenditure of pregnant women at rest or walking self-paced1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy expenditure during rest and self-paced walking was determined from early to late pregnancy either longitudinally or in a cross-section of women. The cross-sectional study was done with 16 women confined to a metabolic unit: six nonpregnant (NP), six early pregnant (EP 10 to 20 wk gestation), and four late pregnant (LP 30 to 40 wk gestation). In the longitudinal

Janet C King

250

Anaemia, Zinc and Copper Deficiencies Among Pregnant Women in Central Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaemia is a widespread problem in many parts of the world especially in tropic areas. Among pregnant women, it has negative\\u000a consequences on maternal and perinatal outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia,\\u000a iron, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in Wad Medani hospital, central Sudan and to examine the relationship\\u000a of these micronutrients

Mohamed Bushra; Elhassan M. Elhassan; Naji I. Ali; Elfatih Osman; Khalid H. Bakheit; Ishag I. Adam

2010-01-01

251

An ethical analysis of opt-out HIV screening for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Critical advances in prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of the HIV in the perinatal period have changed practice recommendations for HIV screening for pregnant women. Using case studies we illustrate the ethical complexities and implications of opt-out HIV testing for pregnant women. Despite the potential for compromised informed consent, an opt-out HIV screening approach is ethically defensible. PMID:23772686

Wocial, Lucia D; Cox, Elaine G

2013-06-17

252

Objective measurement of physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPromoting increased physical activity (PA) during pregnancy could decrease the risk of obesity related pregnancy complications. At least 30 min of moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA) or 8000 steps\\/day are recommended. There is little information on PA levels in pregnant women. Self-report measurement methods tend to overestimate PA. This study assessed PA in overweight and obese pregnant women objectively using

C McParlin; TI Kinnunen; PWG Tennant; L Poston; R Bell; SC Robson

2010-01-01

253

Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in pregnant Lao women: carrier screening, prevalence and molecular basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide relevant evidence base for implementation of a prevention and control program for thalassemia in the Lao People’s\\u000a Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), we have evaluated a simple screening protocol and examined the prevalence and the molecular\\u000a basis of thalassemia in pregnant Lao women. The study was conducted on 307 pregnant women attending the Mother and Child Health\\u000a Hospital, Vientiane.

Onekham Savongsy; Supan Fucharoen; Goonnapa Fucharoen; Kanokwan Sanchaisuriya; Nattaya Sae-ung

2008-01-01

254

First trimester embryonic\\/fetal heart rate in normal pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish reference ranges for first trimester embryonic\\/fetal heart rate in normal pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We performed ultrasonogram in 319 normal pregnant women, gestation age between 6+0 and 14+6 weeks and measured embryonic\\/fetal heart rates using M-mode. The embryonic\\/fetal heart rates were analyzed according to gestational ages (GA). Results: Data of 319

Tharangrut Hanprasertpong; Vorapong Phupong

2006-01-01

255

Prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Leon, Mexico, from December 18, 2003, through February 28, 2006. In a cross-sectional study, 2,257 pregnant women with at least one risk factor for AIDS were recruited. In these women, a sample of blood to determine HIV antibodies was taken. There were two women with positive HIV antibodies; therefore, the HIV seroprevalence was 0.8 per 1,000. Of the two HIV-positive women, one of them had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases; she was married to a man who was working outside of our country for about 10 months, and also he had tattoos. The other HIV-positive woman had a history of chronic sexually transmitted diseases, and her husband had intercourse with different women. The risk factors of use of tattoos, migration to foreign countries, and use of injectable drugs were more frequent among the male partners than in the pregnant women (P < .001). We concluded that in our country as well as in other developing countries, the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with risk factors is low but still present. Because a significant number of risk factors for AIDS also were found in their male partners, HIV testing should be performed in all pregnant women as well as in their male partners. PMID:19575323

Romero-Gutiérrez, Gustavo; De Luna-Ortega, Fátima Rocío; Horna-López, Alejandra; Ponce-Ponce De Léon, Ana Lilia

2009-08-01

256

Evidence Against a Link Between Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Personality Characteristics from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), a pregnancy-related condition marked by extreme nausea and vomiting, has been considered a psychosomatic illness associated with long-standing personality characteristics (e.g., hysteria). In this pilot study, we examined personality, somatic, and psychological variables with ethnically diverse samples of women with HG and women with typical levels of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Methods Personality (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index-2 [MMPI-2] and MMPI-2RF), somatic (MMPI-2RF), and psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II] and NVP-related quality of life) variables collected during the first trimester of pregnancy were compared between 15 women with HG and 15 women with normal levels of NVP matched for age, education, marital status, insurance source, and race/ethnicity. A secondary analysis was performed comparing these variables among a group of 9 asymptomatic pregnant women to the HG and NVP groups. Results No significant differences were found between the HG and NVP groups on any personality, somatic, or psychological variables. Both groups had clinically significant elevations on the MMPI-2 hypochondriasis scale, which incorporates somatic symptoms. The NVP group had a clinically significant elevation on the MMPI-2RF gastrointestinal complaints scale. Both groups had significantly higher means on the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2RF scales than the asymptomatic group. Predominantly Spanish speakers appeared particularly vulnerable to psychological distress associated with somatic complaints. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that research with HG patients is feasible and that psychological distress expressed by women with HG and NVP may reflect reactions to somatic symptoms. No evidence was found to support an association between HG and personality characteristics. Recommendations for future research are provided, such as examining the potential benefits of translation services for Spanish-speaking HG patients.

D'Orazio, Lina M.; Korst, Lisa M.; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

257

W.H.O. sponsored collaborative studies on nutritional anaemia in India. 1. The effects of supplemental oral iron administration to pregnant women.  

PubMed

A W.H.O. sponsored collaborative study of the effects of iron supplementation to pregnant women was carried out in Delhi (northern India) and Vellore (southern India). Supplementation was given under supervision from the 26th to the 36th or 38th week of pregnancy. A control group received only placebo; one group received vitamin B12 and folic acid alone; four groups received vitamin B12, folate and a daily iron supplement ranging from 30 to 240 mg of elemental iron as ferrous fumerate, and one further group received 120 mg of iron without B12 or folate. Groups receiving no iron showed a fall in mean stet concentration. Those receiving iron showed a rise in haemoglobin, the best results being in the groups receiving 120 and 240 mg of iron together with vitamin B12 and folate. Even in these groups however there was still a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency at the end of the trial period. Iron alone did not produce as good results as iron plus vitamin B12 and folate. The supplementation had no detectable effect on the birth weight of the children, nor on the haemoglobin concentration of the infants at three months of age. The daily absorption of iron in the pregnant women, as judged from the increase in haemoglobin mass, was not as satisfactory as expected. Possible reasons for this are discussed. It is concluded that to provide these women with adequate iron a daily oral supplementation of 120 mg of elemental iron or more is needed. This can only be achieved by medicinal means. Before supplementation can be recommended on a public health scale, further information regarding the cost and expected benefits of such measures must be obtained. PMID:1103213

Sood, S K; Ramachandran, K; Mathur, M; Gupta, K; Ramalingaswamy, V; Swarnabai, C; Ponniah, J; Mathan, V I; Baker, S J

1975-04-01

258

Effective System for Pregnant Women using Mobile GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Health Organization showed at one year about 287 000 women died most of them during and following pregnancy and childbirth in Africa and south Asia. This paper suggests mHealth system for serving pregnant women, that proposed system is first an effective mHealth system works base on mobile GIS to select adjacent care centre or hospital maternity on Google map

Ayad Ghany Ismaeel; Emad Khadhm Jabar

2013-01-01

259

Diagnosis of and Screening for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 2 February 2005\\/Returned for modification 14 March 2005\\/Accepted 20 June 2005 No single diagnostic test for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is currently available for pregnant women at all stages of gestation. Improved accuracy in estimating the timing of primary infections can be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to congenitally infected infants. A diagnostic algorithm utilizing

S. C. Munro; B. Hall; L. R. Whybin; L. Leader; P. Robertson; G. T. Maine; W. D. Rawlinson

2005-01-01

260

Pregnant Women of Mexican Descent: Constructions of Motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research related to pregnancy outcomes has tended to have a bio-medical focus. More recent research has begun to explore possible social and cultural influences on birth outcomes. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 pregnant women of Mexican descent in the Texas\\/Mexico border region to begin to describe the social and cultural contexts of pregnancy of women of Mexican ancestry.

Faith W. Lucas

2010-01-01

261

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600)

2012-01-01

262

Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

2012-01-01

263

Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42%) than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7%) (P = 0.006). Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6). The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5%) in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42%) in group 2 (P = 0.15) and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7). A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047) and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025), ALT (P = 0.032), and AST (P = 0.044) in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

Gad, Yahia Z.; Mousa, Nasser; Shams, Maher; Elewa, Ahmed

2011-01-01

264

Diet and weight gain characteristics of pregnant women with gestational diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:To determine if women with gestational diabetes (GD) modify their diet and nutrient intake in late pregnancy and gain more weight during pregnancy compared with women without GD.Subjects\\/Methods:Food and nutrient intake of 3613 pregnant women was studied using food frequency questionnaires from the Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study.Results:GD was reported in 4.8% of the participating women (n=174).

M Salmenhaara; L Uusitalo; U Uusitalo; C Kronberg-Kippilä; H Sinkko; S Ahonen; R Veijola; M Knip; M Kaila; S M Virtanen

2010-01-01

265

Surveillance of Chagas disease in pregnant women in Madrid, Spain, from 2008 to 2010.  

PubMed

One of the most important modes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in areas where it is not endemic is vertical transmission: from mother to child. The objective of this report is to assess the efficacy of different programmes of serological screening to monitor infection with T. cruzi in pregnant Latin American women living in Madrid (Spain). To achieve this, a retrospective study was undertaken from January 2008 to December 2010 in seven hospitals in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Serological screening programmes were classified in two main strategies: a selective one (pregnant women from Bolivia) and a universal one (pregnant women from Latin America). A total of 3,839 pregnant women were tested and the overall prevalence was 3.96%. The rate of congenital transmission was 2.6%. The current monitoring programmes have variable coverage ranging between 26% (selective screening) and 100% (universal screening). Monitoring of pregnant women from Latin America only reaches full coverage if universal screening of pregnant women is carried out at any moment of pregnancy, including at delivery. A common national regulation is necessary in order to ensure homogenous implementation of screening. PMID:21958533

Flores-Chavez, M D; Merino, F J; Garcia-Bujalance, S; Martin-Rabadan, P; Merino, P; Garcia-Bermejo, I; Delgado, A; Cuadros, J

2011-09-22

266

Longitudinal Study of Methylmercury and Inorganic Mercury in Blood and Urine of Pregnant and Lactating Women, as Well as in Umbilical Cord Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization\\/reduction and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. T-Hg in urine was determined by inductively

Marie Vahter; Agneta Åkesson; Birger Lind; Ulla Björs; Andrejs Schütz; Marika Berglund

2000-01-01

267

Habitual Snoring and Asthma Comorbidity Among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring and asthma are known comorbid conditions in men and non-pregnant women. This comorbidity has not been evaluated among pregnant women. We assessed the habitual snoring-asthma relationship among pregnant women. Methods A cohort of women (N=1,335) were interviewed during pregnancy, and we ascertained participants’ asthma status and collected information about habitual snoring, before and during pregnancy. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Compared with non-asthmatics, the adjusted OR among asthmatics for snoring before pregnancy was 2.13 (95%CI 1.10–4.12). The odds of snoring during early pregnancy was 1.79-fold (OR=1.79; 95%CI 1.07–3.01). Associations were more pronounced among overweight (?25 kg/m2) asthmatics (OR=5.39; 95%CI 2.27–12.75). Conclusions We report a cross-sectional association of habitual snoring and asthma among pregnant women. If confirmed, pregnant asthmatics may benefit from more vigilant screening and management of OSA or habitual snoring during pregnancy.

Williams, Michelle A.; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Fida, Neway; Cripe, Swee May

2011-01-01

268

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THE EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN SOUTHERN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess the current situation of STH in pregnant women, explore factors associated with STH and evaluate the effects of its treatment. A cohort study was conducted in four southernmost provinces. All pregnant women who pre- sented at their first prenatal care visit at participating hospitals were interviewed by trained health care providers and their stool specimens

T Liabsuetrakul

2009-01-01

269

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use during pregnancy may result in premature birth, miscarriage, and a variety of behavioral ...

270

Organochlorine contaminants in the hair of Iranian pregnant women.  

PubMed

In the present study, the hair of pregnant women was sampled between November 2007 and January 2008 in Ahvaz and Noushahr cities and the countryside of Noushahr, Iran. They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and seven polychlorinated (PCBs) congeners (IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180). Significant differences between the concentrations of investigated pollutants were found between the locations (p<0.05). For HCHs, the ?-HCH isomer was measured at higher mean concentrations (6 ng g(-1) hair) compared to the ?-HCH isomer (0.03 ng g(-1)), which generally is the most prevalent HCH in biological matrices. Very high mean concentrations of p,p'-DDT in countryside of Noushahr (24 ng g(-1)) combined with lower values (0.6) of ratio p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in the hair samples suggest recent exposure to "fresh" DDT in this region. Significant differences in OCPs and PCBs were found between primiparous and multiparous mothers (p<0.05). There was no correlation between levels of OCPs and PCBs in the hair of Iranian pregnant women and their age. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the organochlorine levels, including HCHs, between mothers who have eaten fish once a week and those who consumed fish more than once per week in Noushahr. PMID:22047617

Dahmardeh Behrooz, Reza; Barghi, Mandana; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

2011-11-01

271

Economic costs of residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and parenting women and their children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides basic information about the economic cost of substance abuse treatment provided in 39 demonstration projects funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, under its Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC\\/PPW) programs. It integrates data assembled in two studies, a study of annual project

Kenneth Burgdorf; Mary Layne; Tracy Roberts; Dan Miles; James M. Herrell

2004-01-01

272

Motivation for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated an expanded measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation in a population-based sample of 897 pregnant smokers (500 current smokers and 397 recent quitters). The measure assessed motivation related to pregnancy and parenthood in addition to general intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. Current smokers at baseline who quit smoking by 28 weeks of pregnancy (n =

Susan J. Curry; Colleen McBride; Louis Grothaus; Harry Lando; Phyllis Pirie

2001-01-01

273

Knowledge of malaria influences the use of insecticide treated nets but not intermittent presumptive treatment by pregnant women in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania has recently adopted a policy of intermittent presumptive treatment for pregnant women using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). In addition, there is strong national commitment to increase distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women. This study explores the determinants of uptake for both ITNs and

Rhoida Y Nganda; Chris Drakeley; Hugh Reyburn; Tanya Marchant

2004-01-01

274

Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Excess deaths have occurred among pregnant women during influenza pandemics, but the impact of in- fluenza during nonpandemic years is unclear. We evaluated the impact of exposure during nonpandemic influenza sea- sons on the rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. Methods: We conducted a 13-year (1990-2002) population- based cohort study involving

Linda Dodds; Shelly A. McNeil; Deshayne B. Fell; Victoria M. Allen; Ann Coombs; Jeffrey Scott; Noni MacDonald

2007-01-01

275

APCR, factor V gene known and novel SNPs and adverse pregnancy outcomes in an Irish cohort of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, is the commonest heritable thrombophilia. Adverse outcomes during pregnancy have been linked to APCR. This study determined the frequency of APCR, factor V gene known and novel SNPs and adverse outcomes in a group of pregnant women. METHODS: Blood samples collected from 907 pregnant women were

Sara Sedano-Balbás; Mark Lyons; Brendan Cleary; Margaret Murray; Geraldine Gaffney; Majella Maher

2010-01-01

276

Prevalence and related factors of Chinese herbal medicine use in pregnant women of Taipei, 1985-1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is becoming fashionable. The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and related factors of pregnant women using Chinese herbal medicines in Taipei. Methods: During 1985-87, a total of 10,756 pregnant women with 26 or more weeks of gestation who came to the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospi- tal

CHAO-HUA CHUANG; JUNG-NIEN LAI; JUNG-DER WANG; PEI-JEN CHANG; PAU-CHUNG CHEN

277

Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yogurt on Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Due to the enhanced oxygen requirement of the mitochondria-rich placenta primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt on oxidative stress among Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was performed among 70 pregnant women, singleton

Zatollah Asemi; Shima Jazayeri; Mohammad Najafi; Mansoreh Samimi; Vahid Mofid; Farzad Shidfar; Hossein Shakeri; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

2012-01-01

278

Lipid Peroxidation and Ca-ATPase Activity of Basal Plasma Membranes of Syncytiotrophoblast from Normotensive Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Ca-ATPase activity of the plasma membranes of several tissues of preeclamptic pregnant women is significantly reduced when compared with the values of normotensive pregnant women. This has been explained considering the raise in the level of lipid peroxidation of the plasma membranes with preeclampsia. In this work we studied the effect of lipid peroxidation of syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal

Emma Borrego; Teresa Proverbio; Reinaldo Marín; Fulgencio Proverbio

2006-01-01

279

Association between Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria, and bacterial vaginosis scores in pregnant Japanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the etiology of which is still uncertain, increases the risk of preterm birth. Recent PCR-based studies suggested that BV is associated with complex vaginal bacterial communities, including many newly recognized bacterial species in non-pregnant women. METHODS: To examine whether these bacteria are also involved in BV in pregnant Japanese women, vaginal fluid samples were taken from

Renuka Tamrakar; Takashi Yamada; Itsuko Furuta; Kazutoshi Cho; Mamoru Morikawa; Hideto Yamada; Noriaki Sakuragi; Hisanori Minakami

2007-01-01

280

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and correlation of clinical to Gram stain diagnostic criteria in low risk pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, and the correlation of clinical Amsel criteria with Gram Nugent criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a low risk population of pregnant women. Pregnant women under 28 weeks of gestation who were followed in the low risk clinics at two centers were evaluated for the presence of

Eduard Gratacós; Francesc Figueras; Margarita Barranco; Ramon Ros; Antònia Andreu; Pedro L. Alonso; Vicenç Cararach

1999-01-01

281

Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: The Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Concern about potential health impacts of low level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 nmol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 nmol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 µg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 µg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 µg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation.

Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Angerer, Jurgen; Park, Melissa M.; Burdorf, Alex; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2008-01-01

282

Pregnant and recently pregnant women's perceptions about influenza a pandemic (H1N1) 2009: implications for public health and provider communication.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore pregnant and recently pregnant women's perceptions of influenza vaccine and antivirals during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We conducted 18 focus groups with pregnant and recently pregnant women in three US cities in September 2009. Participants were segmented into groups by insurance status (no or public insurance vs. private insurance), vaccine attitudes (higher vs. lower likelihood of acceptance of any vaccines, not only influenza vaccines), and parity (first child vs. other children in the home) based on information they provided on the screening questionnaire at the time of recruitment. We found that women are not well informed about influenza vaccinations and antiviral medicine and have significant concerns about taking them during pregnancy. An interest in their infant's well-being, however, can be strong motivation to adopt preventive recommendations, including vaccination. A woman's health care provider is a highly trusted source of information about the 2009 H1N1. Pregnant women have unique communication needs for influenza. Messages directing pregnant women to adopt public health recommendations, particularly for vaccination or prophylactic medication should include a detailed description of the benefits or lack of risk to the fetus and the safety of breastfeeding. Additionally, messages should recognize that pregnant women are taught to be selective about taking medication and provide a clear rationale for why the medicine or vaccine is necessary. PMID:21822963

Lynch, Molly M; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Williams, Jennifer L; Brumbaugh, Kelly; Jones-Bell, Michelle; Pinkney, Debra E; Layton, Christine M; Mersereau, Patricia W; Kendrick, Juliette S; Medina, Paula Eguino; Smith, Lucia Rojas

2012-11-01

283

Rapid HIV diagnostic test in undocumented pregnant women applied at an inner-city teaching hospital.  

PubMed

A significant number of Brazilian gestational-age women are still not tested for HIV, representing a high risk of transmission to their newborns. The current study sought to identify the number of pregnant women with no previous testing or undocumented for HIV referred to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of a Regional Teaching Hospital and included diagnosis of HIV infection determined by a rapid test and perinatal transmission in pregnancy. Medical records of all pregnant women admitted to hospital from January 2001 to December 2005 were reviewed. Pregnant women without HIV results were submitted to a rapid HIV test. Those who tested positive were further tested by ELISA and confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIA) or Western blot (WB). The viral load from babies born to HIV-infected mothers was assessed by bDNA. Of the 16,424 pregnant women analyzed (6.6%), 1,089 were undocumented for HIV. Eleven women were positive in rapid testing and 10 were confirmed by ELISA, IIA or WB, with 0.9% seropositivity. Mother/infant pairs received zidovudine monotherapy prophylaxis and infant viral load was lower than 50 copies/mL. A higher number of pregnant women previously tested for HIV during antenatal care was verified, compared to that obtained nationwide. PMID:19893980

Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Miguel, Nadia Araújo; Ascêncio, Eloah Lopes; Amâncio, Marisa; Alcântara, Vera Lúcia Maria; Portelinha-Filho, José Alexandre

284

Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian non-pregnant women 20 to 49 years old. A cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Background: Representative national data of prevalence of anemia and casual factors are missing for population group of reproductive aged non-pregnant females in Serbia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence and grades of anemia and its association with risk factors among non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Serbia. Methods: Data were collected as part of the first "National Health Survey", a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey, conducted on 677 households in Serbia. A total of 708 females 20-49-year-old were recruited. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and reproductive data have been collected and hemoglobin levels were determined. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.7% (196/708) [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 24.5-31.1%], and more precisely mild (21.9%), moderate (5.1%) and severe (0.7%) anemia. Belgrade residential area [odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI 1.27-3.50), p=0.004], shortage of living space per person (<16m(2)) [2.18 (1.17-4.03), p=0.014], body mass index (<25) [1.55 (1.04-2.29), p=0.029], alcohol intake [0.52 (0.33-0.81), p=0.004], lack [2.48 (1.31-4.70), p=0.005] or fruit juice consumption 1-2 [2.76 (1.46-5.23), p=0.002] times a week and previously diagnosed, but treated [2.62 (1.29-5.35), p=0.008] or not treated [3.57 (1.71-7.45), p<0.001] anemia were independent predictors of low hemoglobin levels. Deficit of electricity supply and insufficient living space in households, increased risk of moderate anemia, while likelihood of being mild and moderately anemic, augmented with previously diagnosed but, treated or not treated anemia and lack or juice consumption 1-2 times a week. Conclusions: High prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women and its association to casual factors needs continuous monitoring and control efforts for anemia in Serbia. PMID:23935344

Rakic, L; Djokic, D; Drakulovic, Mb; Pejic, A; Radojicic, Z; Marinkovic, M

2013-01-01

285

Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian non-pregnant women 20 to 49 years old. A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Representative national data of prevalence of anemia and casual factors are missing for population group of reproductive aged non-pregnant females in Serbia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence and grades of anemia and its association with risk factors among non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Serbia. Methods: Data were collected as part of the first “National Health Survey”, a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey, conducted on 677 households in Serbia. A total of 708 females 20-49-year-old were recruited. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and reproductive data have been collected and hemoglobin levels were determined. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.7% (196/708) [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 24.5-31.1%], and more precisely mild (21.9%), moderate (5.1%) and severe (0.7%) anemia. Belgrade residential area [odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI 1.27-3.50), p=0.004], shortage of living space per person (<16m2) [2.18 (1.17-4.03), p=0.014], body mass index (<25) [1.55 (1.04-2.29), p=0.029], alcohol intake [0.52 (0.33-0.81), p=0.004], lack [2.48 (1.31-4.70), p=0.005] or fruit juice consumption 1-2 [2.76 (1.46-5.23), p=0.002] times a week and previously diagnosed, but treated [2.62 (1.29-5.35), p=0.008] or not treated [3.57 (1.71-7.45), p<0.001] anemia were independent predictors of low hemoglobin levels. Deficit of electricity supply and insufficient living space in households, increased risk of moderate anemia, while likelihood of being mild and moderately anemic, augmented with previously diagnosed but, treated or not treated anemia and lack or juice consumption 1-2 times a week. Conclusions: High prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women and its association to casual factors needs continuous monitoring and control efforts for anemia in Serbia.

Rakic, L; Djokic, D; Drakulovic, MB; Pejic, A; Radojicic, Z; Marinkovic, M

2013-01-01

286

Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 ?g m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained.

Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

2013-01-01

287

Evidence-based tobacco cessation strategies with pregnant Latina women.  

PubMed

Pregnant Latina women living in the United States are a heterogeneous group represented by various countries, cultures, immigration status, and other socioeconomic factors. Although some of the literature refers to a Latina health paradox that may serve as a protective factor against smoking for recent immigrants, acculturation may increase the vulnerability of pregnant Latina women to begin smoking. Social-support treatments should be individualized based on what types of emotional, informational, or instrumental resources the woman desires. Evidence-based strategies delivered in English or Spanish by bilingual lay health educators and tailored to embrace Latina values are cost-effective and successful. PMID:22289397

Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran

2011-12-15

288

Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.  

PubMed

Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2012-12-01

289

Hepatitis C in a sample of pregnant women in Switzerland: seroprevalence and sociodemographic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles: The aim of this study was to deter- mine the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infec- tion in a sample of pregnant women living in Switzerland in 1990-1991, in order to comple- ment existing data in various populations. Methods: Blood samples were collected from women from consecutive births in obstetric wards in public hospitals of 23 Swiss cantons over

L. R. Prasad; V. Masserey Spicher; R. Kammerlander; Marcel Zwahlen

290

HBsAG and HBeAG Markers Among Pregnant Women in Manila, Philippines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sera of 5,684 pregnant women were tested for HBsAG. All women were asymptomatic. Six of 13 HBsAG-HBeAg-positive mothers delivered infants who became HBsAg-positive within two years of age. The findings support earlier studies on the importance of the ...

N. E. Sy V. Basaca-Sevilla T. Esguerra R. P. Beasley L. Hwang

1986-01-01

291

The Effect of Hypnosis on Pain Relief During Labor and Childbirth in Iranian Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effect of hypnosis on pain relief during labor and childbirth. Using a qualitative approach, 6 pregnant women were trained to use self-hypnosis for labor. Outcomes were analyzed using Colaizzi's procedure. Women described their feelings about hypnosis during labor as: a sense of relief and consolation, self-confidence, satisfaction, lack of suffering labor pain, changing the feeling of

Marzieh Abbasi; Fery Ghazi; Ann Barlow-Harrison; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan; Fatemeh Mohammadyari

2009-01-01

292

Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase alleles and pyrimethamine use in pregnant Ghanaian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum affects prevention of malaria in pregnancy. In a cross- sectional study of 530 pregnant Ghanaian women, P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene mutations linked with pyrimethamine resistance were assessed and associations with pyrimethamine intake were analyzed. P. falciparum infected 69% of women without pyrimethamine use, 59% of those who had a history of pyrimethamine consumption

FRANK P. MOCKENHAUPT; TEUNIS A. EGGELTE; TAMARA BOHME; WILLIAM N. A. THOMPSON; ULRICH BIENZLE

2001-01-01

293

Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

2004-01-01

294

Assessment of risk by pregnant women: Implications for genetic counseling and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central elements of genetic counseling is the transmission of quantitative information concerning risk of defects in an unborn child from counselor to client. In order to investigate this subject, we studied the understanding of numeric and nonnumeric descriptions of genetic risk by 190 pregnant women. Specifically, three risk issues were explored: (1) whether women were able to

Gary A. Chase; Ruth R. Faden; Neil A. Holtzman; A. Judith Chwalow; Claire O. Leonard; Cheryl Lopes; Kimberly Quaid

1986-01-01

295

The comparison of ginger and metoclopramid in treatment of pregnant women's nausea and vomiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Nausea and vomiting are common complaints of pregnancy mainly throughout the first trimester and various herbal and synthetic drugs were used in the treatment of it. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of metoclopramide with ginger in treatment of pregnant women's nausea and vomiting. Methods: Women with Nausea & vomiting in pregnancy, with single fetus

Hemmatzadeh Sh

296

Cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposure and risk assessment among pregnant women living in an agricultural community: a case study from the CHAMACOS cohort.  

PubMed Central

Approximately 230,000 kg of organophosphate (OP) pesticides are applied annually in California's Salinas Valley. These activities have raised concerns about exposures to area residents. We collected three spot urine samples from pregnant women (between 1999 and 2001) enrolled in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas), a longitudinal birth cohort study, and analyzed them for six dialkyl phosphate metabolites. We used urine from 446 pregnant women to estimate OP pesticide doses with two deterministic steady-state modeling methods: method 1, which assumed the metabolites were attributable entirely to a single diethyl or dimethyl OP pesticide; and method 2, which adapted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) draft guidelines for cumulative risk assessment to estimate dose from a mixture of OP pesticides that share a common mechanism of toxicity. We used pesticide use reporting data for the Salinas Valley to approximate the mixture to which the women were exposed. Based on average OP pesticide dose estimates that assumed exposure to a single OP pesticide (method 1), between 0% and 36.1% of study participants' doses failed to attain a margin of exposure (MOE) of 100 relative to the U.S. EPA oral benchmark dose(10) (BMD(10)), depending on the assumption made about the parent compound. These BMD(10) values are doses expected to produce a 10% reduction in brain cholinesterase activity compared with background response in rats. Given the participants' average cumulative OP pesticide dose estimates (method 2) and regardless of the index chemical selected, we found that 14.8% of the doses failed to attain an MOE of 100 relative to the BMD(10) of the selected index. An uncertainty analysis of the pesticide mixture parameter, which is extrapolated from pesticide application data for the study area and not directly quantified for each individual, suggests that this point estimate could range from 1 to 34%. In future analyses, we will use pesticide-specific urinary metabolites, when available, to evaluate cumulative OP pesticide exposures.

Castorina, Rosemary; Bradman, Asa; McKone, Thomas E; Barr, Dana B; Harnly, Martha E; Eskenazi, Brenda

2003-01-01

297

Correlates of in-law conflict and intimate partner violence against Chinese pregnant women in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete the Chinese Abuse Assessment Screen and a demographic questionnaire. About 9% of the pregnant women reported having been abused by their partners in the preceding year. In-law conflict was the characteristic most significantly associated with preceding-year abuse against pregnant women, after controlling for covariates. Findings underscore the need to obtain information on in-law conflict as a risk factor for IPV. In-law conflict should be included in the assessment of risk for IPV. For the prevention of IPV, family-based intervention is needed to work with victims as well as in-laws. PMID:18378806

Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A; Ho, Pak Chung

2008-03-31

298

Dietary habits of pregnant women in Ireland.  

PubMed

This analysis of the Lifeways Cohort study mothers during pregnancy (n = 1124), utilises information from a standard food frequency questionnaire completed at baseline recruitment during early pregnancy. We demonstrate that 76% of women achieved recommended intakes of 5 plus portions of fruit and vegetables daily, though this is strongly socially patterned, inversely associated with age and positively associated with level of education. Achievement of the other recommended shelf intakes of the Food Pyramid is much lower, ranging from 12% achieving the recommended sparing intake of foods high in fat, salt or sugar, to 45% consuming the recommended 3 portions per day of meat and poultry. General medical services eligible respondents are generally less likely to achieve recommended intakes. While 61% of women under 25 years old stopped drinking during pregnancy, this dropped to 38% of expectant mothers over 35 years. Less than half (45%) of those (n = 860) who responded specifically to the question reported peri-conceptual folate supplement intake, again strongly socially patterned. These findings both provide important prevalence data and highlight the need for more concerted and supportive health promotion interventions during pregnancy. PMID:17955694

Murrin, C; Fallon, U B; Hannon, F; Nolan, G; O'Mahony, D; Crowley, D; Bury, G; Daly, S; Morrison, J J; Murphy, A W; Kelleher, C C

2007-09-01

299

Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis: Pregnant Women's Interest and Expected Uptake  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate pregnant women’s level of future interest in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) and what factors might affect expected uptake of this testing. Method Written questionnaires were administered to women in their third trimester. Results One hundred fourteen women returned the questionnaire (80.9% response rate). Of these, 71.9% reported interest in NIPD, 22.7% were ambivalent and 5.4% were uninterested. Safety of the fetus was the single most important factor in 75% of women’s decisions. Factors associated with increased interest in NIPD included: older age (p=0.036), higher education (p=0.013), Caucasian or Asian ethnicity (p=0.011), and higher likelihood to terminate an affected pregnancy (p=0.002). Nearly 20% of women reported that they would do whatever their doctor recommended regarding NIPD, and 94.4% of women wished to meet with a genetic counselor at some point to discuss NIPD. Conclusion The majority of pregnant women report hypothetical interest in NIPD, primarily due to increased safety for the fetus, although a significant minority are uninterested or ambivalent. Discussions with healthcare providers regarding NIPD, and their recommendations, are likely to be an important factor in women’s decisions about this testing. As such, adequate discussion of the implications of prenatal diagnostic testing will be critical.

Tischler, Reana; Hudgins, Louanne; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; Greely, Henry T.; Ormond, Kelly E.

2011-01-01

300

Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.  

PubMed

Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n?=?311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR?=?2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR?=?1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health. PMID:22471686

Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

2012-03-08

301

A study of the risk of mental retardation among children of pregnant women who have attempted suicide by means of a drug overdose  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was to estimate the effect on the fetal development of high doses of prescription drugs taken as a suicide attempt during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women were identified among self-poisoned females in the toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest between 1960 and 1993. Congenital abnormalities, intrauterine development based on birth weight and post-conceptional age, mental retardation, cognitive-behavioral status were compared in exposed children born to mothers who had attempted suicide by means of a drug overdose during pregnancy with their siblings, born either before or after the affected pregnancy, as sib controls. Results: Of a total of 1 044 pregnant women, 74 used the combination of amobarbital, glutethimide and promethazine (Tardyl®, one of the most popular drugs for treatment of insomnia in Hungary) for suicide attempt. Of these 74 women, 27 delivered live-born babies. The mean dose of Tardyl® used for suicide attempts was 24 times the usually prescribed clinical dose. The rate of congenital abnormalities and intrauterine retardation was not higher in exposed children than in their sib controls. However, of the 27 exposed children, eight (29.6%) were mentally retarded (?\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage[substack]{amsmath} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage[mathscr]{eucal} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\DeclareFontFamily{T1}{linotext}{} \\DeclareFontShape{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} { <-> linotext }{} \\DeclareSymbolFont{linotext}{T1}{linotext}{m}{n} \\DeclareSymbolFontAlphabet{\\mathLINOTEXT}{linotext} \\begin{document} $$ {\\mathrm{_{{1}}^{{2}}}} $$ \\end{document} )=79.7, p= Sig) while mental retardation did not occur among 46 sib controls. These exposed children were born to mothers who attempted suicide with Tardyl® between the 14th and 20th post-conceptional weeks. The components of Tardyl® used separately for a suicide attempt during pregnancy were not associated with a higher risk of mental retardation. Therefore the high doses of Tardyl® associated with the high risk for mental retardation may be due to the interaction of its three drug components. Conclusions: The findings of the study showed that the high doses of a drug containing three components may be associated with a significantly increased risk for mental retardation without any structural defects, whereas each of these three component drugs taken alone was not associated with this adverse effect.

Petik, Dora; Czeizel, Barbara; Banhidy, Ferenc; Czeizel, Andrew E.

2012-01-01

302

Relationship among placental cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper levels in smoking pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on Cd-exposed pregnant animals have reported a Cd?Zn interaction that result in increased placental Cd levels\\u000a and decreased placental Zn transport. In this study, placental Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn status in pregnant women exposed to Cd and\\u000a Pb through cigaret smoke was investigated. Placental tissues obtained from 30 nonsmokers (controls), 70 passive smokers, and\\u000a 90 smokers were

Türkan Kutlu; A. Alev Karagozler; Engin M. Gozukara

2006-01-01

303

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04µg/L; Pb soil <3.0µg/g; Pb dust 16.5µg/g; Pb blood 3.67µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0µg/g; Hg dust <1.0µg/g; Hg blood 0.46µg/L; Hg urine <0.40µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70µg/g (range <0.2-7.06µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. PMID:23890969

Hinwood, A L; Callan, A C; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; Heyworth, J; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

2013-07-25

304

45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section...Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research ...with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to...

2009-10-01

305

Expression of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS in pregnant women with periodontal disease.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases. An association between this disease and pregnancy has been suggested, but available findings are controversial. We evaluated the expression levels of interleukins (IL-1? and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pregnant women with and without periodontal disease in comparison with non-pregnant women with and without periodontal disease since studies have suggested a relationship between periodontitis and the expression levels of these genes. The women in the sample were distributed into four groups: pregnant and non-pregnant women, with or without periodontal disease, a total of 32 women. The periodontal condition was evaluated according to the probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time PCR. Comparisons were made of the level of gene expression among the four groups. Expression of IL-1? in the non-pregnant women with periodontal disease was 12.6 times higher than in the non-pregnant women without periodontal disease (P < 0.01), while expression of TNF-? in the non-pregnant women without periodontal disease was 3.5 times higher than in the pregnant women with periodontal disease (P < 0.05). Despite these differences, our overall findings indicate no differences in the expression levels of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS in pregnant women with and without periodontal disease in comparison with expression of the same genes in non-pregnant women with and without periodontal disease, suggesting that periodontal disease is not influenced by pregnancy. PMID:23079986

Otenio, C C M; Fonseca, I; Martins, M F; Ribeiro, L C; Assis, N M S P; Ferreira, A P; Ribeiro, R A

2012-12-17

306

Caesarean delivery or vaginal birth: preference of Turkish pregnant women and influencing factors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the preference of pregnant women for mode of delivery in an uncomplicated pregnancy and reasons of their choice, also to determine if maternal characteristics were predictors of maternal preference. Pregnant women applying to the antenatal clinic for a routine control visit were recruited. After verbal consents, a questionnaire was administered to 1,588 pregnant women. Of the women questioned, 84.1% opted for vaginal delivery whereas only 15.9% opted for an elective caesarean delivery. The main reasons for vaginal delivery preference were; earlier healing and earlier hospital discharge, being a more physiological way of delivery and previous vaginal delivery history. The most common reasons for choosing caesarean delivery were; fear of vaginal delivery, tubal ligation demand and to avoid labour pain. Educational status, occupation and gestational age were not found to be influencing factors but age, parity and monthly income were found to be influencing factors for maternal preference. PMID:20143975

Buyukbayrak, E E; Kaymaz, O; Kars, B; Karsidag, A Y K; Bektas, E; Unal, O; Turan, C

2010-02-01

307

Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

1986-11-01

308

Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence in French pregnant women: Parity and place of birth as major predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we present data on cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence in pregnant women in France. One thousand and eighteen women were enrolled in a prospective study carried out in Grenoble. The overall rate of seropositivity, using a specific IgG ELISA test, was 51.5% (95% CI: 48.5–54.5). Among a homogeneous population of 873 women born in France with high or middle

B. Gratacap-Cavallier; J. L. Bosson; P. Morand; N. Dutertre; B. Chanzy; P. S. Jouk; C. Vandekerckhove; P. Cart-Lamy; J. M. Seigneurin

1998-01-01

309

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Split region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seroepidemiologic survey of pregnant women in Split region was performed in order to determine a strategy for prenatal screening for HBsAg. Thirty (7.5%) of 400 women had the markers of past or current HBV infection, while 3\\/400 (0.75%) were carriers. According to demographic data and risk factors they represent low risk population. General prenatal screening for HBsAg is advisable.

Ivo Ivi?; Ivo Banovi?; Nikola Bradari?

1999-01-01

310

Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesHookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women.

Simon Brooker; Peter J. Hotez; Donald A. P. Bundy

2008-01-01

311

Therapy Insight: drugs for gastrointestinal disorders in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management and treatment of gastrointestinal ailments in pregnant women requires special attention and expertise, since the safety of the mother, fetus and neonate remains the primary focus. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is common, as is symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease. Peptic ulcer disease occurs less frequently and with fewer complications. Gastroenterologists and obstetricians should be familiar with safe treatment

Chandrashekhar Thukral; Jacqueline L Wolf

2006-01-01

312

Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)|

King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

1978-01-01

313

Social acceptability of HIV screening among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of a survey about risk perception, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV infection among 397 pregnant women in France. The survey was carried out between December 1987 and March 1988 in two Paris-region maternity hospitals where HIV testing is routinely proposed during the first prenatal visit.Uptake of HIV prenatal testing has been rapid in France: before

J.-P. Moatti; C. Le Gales; V. Seror; E. Papiernik; R. Henrion

1990-01-01

314

Abortion by Assault Violence against Pregnant Women in Thirteenth and  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to medieval common law, assault against a pregnant woman causing miscarriage after the fi rst trimester was homicide. Some scholars have argued, however, that in practice English jurors refused to acknowledge assaults of this nature as homicide. The underlying argument is that because abortion by assault is a crime against women, male jurors were loath to impose the death

2005-01-01

315

Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were examined as correlates and predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy in a sample of 819 pregnant smokers (454 baseline smokers and 365 baseline quitters). Women who quit early in pregnancy had lower levels of stress and depressive symptoms than baseline smokers. Adjusting for level of addiction and other demographic factors related to stress and

Evette J. Ludman; Colleen M. McBride; Jennifer Clark Nelson; Susan J. Curry; Louis C. Grothaus; Harry A. Lando; Phyllis L. Pirie

2000-01-01

316

[Radiation effects on pregnant women, fetuses, and children].  

PubMed

We conducted a review of literature related to radiation effects on pregnant women, fetuses, and children from the perspective of epidemiology, pathology, and radiobiology. During 8-25 weeks post-conception the central nervous system is particularly sensitive to radiation. Fetal doses in excess of 100 mGy can result in some reduction of IQ (intelligence quotient). Fetal doses in the range of 1000 mGy can lead to severe mental retardation and microcephaly, particularly during 8-15 weeks and to a lesser extent 16-25 weeks after conception. Recent studies of cancers and chromosome aberrations indicated less radiosensitivity in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors compared with postnatally exposed survivors, for which we provide possible hypotheses as an explanation. PMID:22514925

Neriishi, Kazuo; Monzen, Yoshio; Okamoto, Naomasa

2012-03-01

317

Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?  

PubMed

The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents. PMID:18571345

Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

2008-06-20

318

Estimation of Daily Energy Expenditure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Using a Wrist-Worn Tri-Axial Accelerometer  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Methods Non-pregnant (N?=?73) and pregnant (N?=?35) Swedish women (aged 20–35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N?=?99; aged 22–65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). Results There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8–10) and 9(7–10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). Conclusions A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y.; Lof, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, S?ren; Franks, Paul W.

2011-01-01

319

Review of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among pregnant Japanese women.  

PubMed

Pregnant women are prone to serious complications when they contract influenza, and a considerable number of pregnant women died from the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 worldwide; however, no maternal mortality occurred in Japan during this pandemic. This review explores the reasons why maternal mortality did not occur in Japan. Two studies conducted during and soon after the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Japan suggested the following: 40,000-50,000 pregnant Japanese women took antiviral medicines for prophylaxis after close contact with an infected person; 40% of them (16,000-20,000) contracted the novel influenza and accounted for a half of all 30,000-40,000 pregnant patients with the novel influenza; at least 181 of them required hospitalization; and at least 17 of them developed pneumonitis. Hospitalized women had a 2.5 times higher risk of preterm delivery (at <37 weeks) compared with the general population. The two studies suggested that the following may have contributed to the lack of maternal mortality in Japan: (i) more than 60% of candidates were vaccinated within 1.5 months after the availability of a vaccine against the novel virus; (ii) vaccination reduced the infection rate by 89%; (iii) a large number of women took antiviral drugs before symptom onset after close contact with an infected person; and (iv) approximately 90% of hospitalized pregnant patients took antiviral drugs within 48 hours after symptom onset. PMID:22487092

Nakai, Akihito; Saito, Shigeru; Unno, Nobuya; Kubo, Takahiko; Minakami, Hisanori

2012-04-09

320

Issues and concerns of healthy pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

The issues and concerns of the 85 percent of essentially healthy women who have normal pregnancies and births are reviewed. The importance of their issues in relation to their health care and outcomes is discussed.

Burst, H V

1987-01-01

321

[Lower limb varicosity in pregnant women].  

PubMed

Publications of the last years evidence that lower extremity varicosity during pregnancy is a socially important problem. The works describe the etiology and pathogenesis of varicosity, clinical cases, and peculiarities of gestation course in women with varicosity. PMID:17882818

Omarova, Kh M

2007-01-01

322

The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption.

Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

2006-01-01

323

Prevalence of HIV Antibodies in Pregnant Women With Increased Risk for AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in pregnant women varies widely between industrialized and developing countries. There is a lack of information about the status of HIV-infected pregnant women with increased risk for AIDS. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HIV antibodies in pregnant women with increased risk at the Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of

Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez; Fátima Rocío De Luna-Ortega; Alejandra Horna-López; Ana Lilia Ponce-Ponce De León

2009-01-01

324

Effect of vegetarianism on the zinc status of pregnant women1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc status of 12 pregnant vegetarian women, six pregnant nonvegetarian women, and five nonpregnant vegetarian women was evaluated. Zinc intake was calculated from 3-day dietary records. Hair, urinary, and nonfasting plasma samples were collected during an interview. Dietary, plasma, urinary, and hair zinc levels did not differ significantly between the pregnant vegetarians and nonvegetarians. But plasma zinc was about

Janet C. King; Terry Stein; Mary Doyle

1981-01-01

325

Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation Among U.S. Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study examines smoking and smoking cessation behaviors among U.S. pregnant women and seeks to identify the sociodemographic correlates of smoking cessation in pregnancy. Methods: The 1998 NHIS Pregnancy and Smoking supplement was analyzed, including 5288 U.S. women (weighted to represent 13,714,358 women) who gave birth to a live-born infant in the past 5 years. Four categories of smoking

Stella M. Yu; Christina H. Park; Renee H. Schwalberg

2002-01-01

326

Validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relative validity of foods and nutrients calculated by a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Reference measures were a 4-day weighed food diary (FD), a motion sensor for measuring total energy expenditure, one 24-h urine collection for analysis of nitrogen and iodine excretion, and a venous blood specimen for analysis of plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and serum folate. A total of 119 women participated in the validation study, and 112 completed the motion sensor registration. Overall, the level of agreement between the FFQ and the FD was satisfactory, and significant correlations were found for all major food groups and for all nutrients except vitamin E. The average correlation coefficient between the FFQ and the FD for daily intake was 0.48 for foods and 0.36 for nutrients, and on average, 68% of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quintiles by the two methods. Estimated total energy expenditure indicated that under-reporting of energy intake was more extensive with the FD than with the FFQ. The biological markers confirmed that the FFQ was able to distinguish between high and low intakes of nutrients, as measured by vitamin D, folate, protein and iodine. This validation study indicates that the MoBa FFQ produces reasonable valid intake estimates and is a valid tool to rank pregnant women according to low and high intakes of energy, nutrients and foods. PMID:18171405

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2008-01-01

327

Ultrasonography in pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome using salicylic acid and heparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of the present study was to evaluate fetal biometry, Doppler values, and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women\\u000a with antiphospholipid syndrome treated with acetylsalicylic acid and heparin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  Twenty-five pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome using 100 mg\\/day acetylsalicylic acid and 5,000 IU heparin every\\u000a 12 h were evaluated in this prospective observational study. Ultrasonography was performed between 24 and 38 weeks of gestational\\u000a age

Ana Carolina S. Calderon; Aderson T. Berezowski; Alessandra Cristina Marcolin; Wellington P. Martins; Geraldo Duarte; Ricardo C. Cavalli

2011-01-01

328

Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term. PMID:23025219

Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

2012-04-01

329

The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission. PMID:20714003

Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H

2010-01-01

330

Significant changes in physical activity among pregnant women in the UK as assessed by accelerometry and self-reported activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Research on the impact of maternal physical activity on pregnancy outcomes has often employed subjective measures of physical activity obtained by diary or questionnaire. This study investigates the feasibility of using accelerometry as an objective measure of physical activity of pregnant women compared with subjective data obtained via activity recall among pregnant women.Design:Activity data were collected prospectively on 57 women

E K Rousham; P E Clarke; H Gross

2006-01-01

331

Some haematological data on pregnant Gurkha women.  

PubMed

In a retrospective survey of 285 pregnancies in Gurkha women living in the New Territories of Hong Kong, the mean values of Haemoglobin, Mean Cell Volume and Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration were examined with the aim of establishing basic data. PMID:6716356

Jefferson, T O; Reidy, A J; Kennedy, P M

1984-02-01

332

Glucose control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Studies using a continuous glucose monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with neonatal morbidity. It is commonly agreed that the morbidity decreases when diabetic control is tightened. The most common methods for the determination of diabetic control are the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (SMBG) and the measurement of HbA1c-levels. SMBG is used for the observation of daily glucose levels while

Anneloes Kerssen

2005-01-01

333

Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that limits the ability of the pulmonary vascular bed to withstand the physiological changes of pregnancy. Historically, pregnancy in PAH carries a high risk to the parturient. Normal pulmonary vasculature can withstand the hemodynamic and physiological changes associated with pregnancy without the development of respiratory symptomatology. However, in the presence of pulmonary vascular remodeling the capacity to handle these changes is compromised. During pregnancy, increase in cardiac output from the increased intravascular volume can lead to right heart failure. Therefore, all patients with PAH of childbearing potential should receive preconception counseling and be advised to use two methods of contraception. Patients with PAH should be advised against continuing pregnancy if they do become pregnant. According to the literature, deterioration in pregnancy mainly occurs in the second trimester and early in the third trimester; immediately postpartum is the most critical time for patients with PAH. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances in the management of parturient patients with PAH. PMID:23060536

Safdar, Zeenat

2012-10-11

334

Association of naturally acquired IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 with reduced placental parasitemia and normal birth weight in pregnant Ugandan women: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy contributes substantially to malaria burden in both mothers and offspring. Analysis of naturally acquired immune responses that confer protection against parasitemia and clinical disease is important to guide vaccine evaluation as well as identify immune correlates. Unfortunately, few studies have addressed the relationship between immune responses to malaria vaccine candidate antigens and protection against adverse effects on pregnant women and newborn birth weight. This study examines the relationship of maternal antibody responses to serine repeat antigen-5 (SE36) and merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP119 and MSP142) with placental parasitemia and birth weight. In a peri-urban setting in Uganda, pregnant women without placental parasites have high median ODs for antibodies against SE36 (P<0.001). Naturally acquired anti-SE36 IgG was most prevalent in women without placental parasitemia (P<0.001). Furthermore, pregnant women with significantly high levels of anti-SE36 IgG delivered babies with normal birth weights (P<0.001). That antibody to SE36 was associated with both a reduced risk of placental parasitemia and resulting normal birth weight in newborns suggests some protective role. In contrast, although antibody to MSP142 was also associated with reduced placental parasitemia and immune responses to both MSP119 and MSP142 may be of importance, there was no association between anti-MSP119 antibodies and infant birth weight outcomes. This study highlights the need for conducting further studies to investigate the association of antibodies against SE36 and outcomes of malaria infection in pregnant women. PMID:23395684

Owalla, Tonny J; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Shirai, Hiroki; Horii, Toshihiro; Egwang, Thomas G

2013-02-06

335

Lack of Increased Hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women Receiving Nevirapine Compared to Other Antiretrovirals  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether HIV-infected pregnant women were at increased risk of hepatotoxicity when taking nevirapine (NVP) containing regimens compared to HIV-infected pregnant women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) not containing NVP. Methods This analysis included HIV-infected pregnant women on ART from two multicenter, prospective cohorts: The Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) protocol P1025. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between NVP use and hepatotoxicity. NVP use was dichotomized as use or no use and further categorized according to ART exposure history. We investigated two outcomes: any liver enzyme elevation (LEE) (grade 1-4) and severe LEE (grade 3-4). Results A total of 1229 women with ART use during pregnancy were studied, 218 (17.7%) of whom received NVP. Among the women receiving NVP, 137 (62.8%) were NVP naïve. Twenty-nine women (13.3%) who received NVP developed any LEE and one (0.5%) developed severe LEE. Of the 1011 women on non-NVP regimens, 145 (14.3%) developed any LEE and 14 (1.4%) developed severe LEE. There were no maternal deaths. In univariate models, LEE was not significantly associated with CD4+ count > 250 cells/?L or NVP use. In adjusted multivariate models, no significant increased risk of LEE (any or severe) in women taking NVP was detected as compared to those taking other ART regardless of prior exposure history. Conclusions We did not observe an increased risk of hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected pregnant women on NVP versus other ART, including women who were ART naïve.

Ouyang, David W.; Brogly, Susan B.; Lu, Ming; Shapiro, David E.; Hershow, Ronald C.; French, Audrey L.; Leighty, Robert M.; Thompson, Bruce; Tuomala, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

336

Hurricane Katrina Experience and the Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about the effects of disaster exposure and intensity on the development of mental disorders among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to Hurricane Katrina on mental health in pregnant women. Design Prospective cohort epidemiological study. Setting Tertiary hospitals in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, USA. Participants Women who were pregnant during Hurricane Katrina or became pregnant immediately after the hurricane. Main outcome measures Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results The frequency of PTSD was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (13.8%) than women without high hurricane exposure (1.3%), with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 16.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.6-106.6; after adjustment for maternal race, age, education, smoking and alcohol use, family income, parity, and other confounders. The frequency of depression was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (32.3%) than women without high hurricane exposure (12.3%), with aOR of 3.3 (1.6-7.1). Moreover, the risk of PTSD and depression increased with an increasing number of severe experiences of the hurricane. Conclusion Pregnant women who had severe hurricane experiences were at a significantly increased risk for PTSD and depression. This information should be useful for screening pregnant women who are at higher risk of developing mental disorders after disaster.

Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Mattison, Donald R; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Pridjian, Gabriella; Buekens, Pierre

2012-01-01

337

Effect of administered mineralocorticoids or ACTH in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

The role of augmented aldosterone production in pregnancy is poorly understood. Whereas some consider aldosterone secretion in pregnancy excessive, others suggest that this is a compensatory phenomenon. According to yet another view, mechanisms other than the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system control sodium homeostasis in pregnancy. Metabolic balance studies were performed on 14 3rd trimester women. Mineralocorticoid activity was experimentally increased by administering desoxycorticosterone acetate, 9?-fluorocortisol acetate, or ACTH for 4-12 days. Administration of mineralocorticoid or ACTH consistently caused sodium retention. During this mineralocorticoid-induced volume expansion, aldosterone excretion decreased markedly. Natriuresis, which followed discontinuance of the drug, continued while aldosterone excretion, although greatly diminished compared to control values, was greater than that found in normal, nonpregnant individuals. This saline diuresis did not subside until aldosterone excretion returned to its previously high control values. These observations support the concept of the physiological role of increased aldosterone production in pregnancy. Results further revealed a marked dissociation between antinatriuretic and kaliuretic effects of corticoids. Potassium balance was virtually unaltered during continued mineralocorticoid or ACTH administration, despite initially high or abruptly increased sodium intakes. Finally, mineralocorticoid escape was induced by continued desoxycorticosterone acetate therapy in two male volunteers. Kaliuresis occurred which was subsequently abolished when progresterone was administered. Sodium excretion, however, was virtually unaltered. These data, mimicking results observed in gravidas, suggest that progesterone is an important determinant of potassium homeostasis in pregnant women. Images

Ehrlich, Edward N.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.

1972-01-01

338

Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.  

PubMed

This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OT?). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (?-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OT? from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OT? before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OT? levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OT? medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

2012-10-03

339

Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women?  

PubMed

Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than in 723 nonpregnant women of reproductive age (p<0.05 each). We report two cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pregnant Korean women who were admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe pneumonia that led to maternal and fetal death in one of the patients. This case series suggests that pregnant Korean women were also at increased risk of severe illness and complications during the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. PMID:24010074

An, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Choi, Ok-Ja; Kim, Gwang-Sook; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jang, Hee-Chang

2013-08-22

340

Hepatitis B among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study assessed hepatitis B prevalence among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 480 participants. HBsAg was positive in 0.4% of subjects, anti-HBc was positive in 21.5% and anti-HBs was positive in 8.5% of subjects. HBsAg was more prevalent among the older age group. Hepatitis B has a low prevalence among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Existing hepatitis B vaccination schedule in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to vaccinate the children in rural Bangladesh is appropriate. PMID:22299410

Shamsuzzaman, Md; Singhasivanon, P; Kaewkungwal, J; Lawpoolsri, S; Tangkijvanich, P; Gibbons, Robert V; Rahman, M; Alamgir, A S M; Mahtab, M A

2011-11-01

341

Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of integrated yoga on the quality of life and interpersonal relationships\\u000a in normal pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and two pregnant women between 18 and 20 weeks of gestation who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from\\u000a the obstetric units in Bangalore and were randomly assigned to two groups of yoga (n = 51)

Abbas Rakhshani; Satyapriya Maharana; Nagarathna Raghuram; Hongasandra R. Nagendra; Padmalatha Venkatram

2010-01-01

342

The effects of betamethasone treatment on clinical and laboratory features of pregnant women with HELLP syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The present study aims to investigate the effects of betamethasone treatment on clinical outcome and laboratory data of pregnant\\u000a women diagnosed with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken in a total of 60 pregnant women with HELLP\\u000a syndrome who were treated at the perinatology department of the

Alev Ozer; Mine Kanat-Pektas; Serdar Ozer; Omer Lutfi Tapisiz; Ebru Emine Zulfikaroglu; Nuri Danisman

2009-01-01

343

Seasonal variations in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the Rhône-Alpes region (France).  

PubMed

To search for seasonal variations we analysed data on 1998 acute toxoplasmic infections diagnosed between 1988 and 2009 in pregnant women. Two distinctive transmission profiles were observed: one in rural areas, which was strongly influenced by seasons with significantly fewer infections in the first half of the year but maximal risks at the end of summer and end of autumn, and a stable urban distribution with only moderate peaks. Further studies on individual risks and environmental and climatic factors are needed to understand what prevention message should be given to susceptible pregnant women. PMID:22616769

Morin, L; Lobry, J R; Peyron, F; Wallon, M

2012-05-23

344

Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared\\u000a the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement\\u000a between these measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ?25 kg\\/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer

Tarja I Kinnunen; Peter WG Tennant; Catherine McParlin; Lucilla Poston; Stephen C Robson; Ruth Bell

2011-01-01

345

Integrated care for pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of a national cohort of pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to provide treatment outcome data for integrated care programs. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Three different integrated care programs in geographically distinct cities: the Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy in Toronto, Ont; the Herzl Family Practice Centre in Montreal, Que; and the Sheway clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Pregnant women meeting criteria for opioid dependence and attending an integrated care program between 1997 and 2009. Women were excluded if they were on MMT only for chronic pain. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics, concurrent medical and psychiatric disorders, and substance use outcome data. Results A total of 102 opioid-dependent pregnancies were included. The mean age was 29.7 years and 64% of women were white. Women in Montreal were more likely to have partners and had fewer children. Differences in living and housing situations among the sites tended to resolve by the time of delivery. Almost half of this cohort tested positive for hepatitis C. Women had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety across all sites. Half of this cohort was on MMT before conception and for the other half, MMT was initiated at a mean gestational age of 20.7 weeks, resulting in a mean dose of 82.4 mg at delivery. At the first visit, polysubstance use was common. Prescription opioid use was more frequent in Toronto and heroin use was more prevalent in Vancouver and Montreal. For the entire population, significant reductions were found by the time of delivery for illicit (P < .001) and prescription opioids (P = .001), cocaine (P < .001), marijuana (P = .009), and alcohol use (P < .001). Conclusion Despite geographic differences, all 3 integrated care programs have been associated with significant decreases in substance use in pregnant opioid-dependent women.

Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon; Graves, Lisa; Abrahams, Ronald; Boyajian, Talar

2013-01-01

346

A weight gain chart for pregnant women designed in Chile.  

PubMed

The weight gain chart for pregnant women, developed by Rosso and Mardones (RM chart, 1997), is analysed and compared with other charts in terms of its usefulness for targeting nutritional interventions aimed at preventing low or high birth weights. The RM chart defines categories of maternal nutritional status in early gestation based on weight/height, expressed either as percentage of standard weight (PSW) or body mass index (BMI), and desirable gestational weight gains for each of these categories. Weight gain recommendations of the RM chart are proportional to maternal height. For underweight women the weight recommendation was derived from actual data, while for overweight and obese women it is based on data extrapolations. Since 1987 the Chilean National Health Service has used the RM chart as a standard in prenatal care in all its clinics, covering approximately 70% of the country's population, mostly middle and low income women. During the 1987-2001 period the proportion of underweight pregnant women and infants with birth weight < 3000 g decreased significantly and proportionally. Nevertheless, the proportion of obese pregnant women and infants with birth weight > or = 4000 g increased during this period. Multifactorial social changes including a decade of substantial economic growth in the country with improved family income, precludes the possibility of determining the efficacy of the RM chart in this group. However, the widespread use of the RM chart indicates that it is a helpful and easy-to-use instrument in the field. Further, by its clear graphical presentation of maternal nutritional status it helps draw the attention of health personnel to women who need special nutritional advice and support. PMID:16881883

Mardones, Francisco; Rosso, Pedro

2005-04-01

347

[Pregnant women with psychiatric illness are able to stop smoking].  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy is associated with neonatal complications and health problems later in life. However, about 10% of the pregnant women in the Netherlands smoke and those with a psychiatric illness smoke even more frequently. Although giving up smoking may be more difficult for these women, it does not lead to an increase of psychiatric symptoms. We present two patients who smoked during pregnancy. A 28-year-old female started smoking again during her first pregnancy when her depression relapsed. We advised a higher dose of medication and with her midwife's support she gave up smoking. A 35-year-old female, suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, had an increase of symptoms during her second pregnancy. She resumed smoking to feel more relaxed. Treatment with bupropion and an online support program helped her to give up smoking. We advise that every smoking pregnant woman with psychiatric problems be treated concurrently for the psychiatric illness and for smoking. PMID:22929746

Smit, Mirte; Jongedijk, Ellen J; Heres, Marion H B; Dolman, Koert M; Honig, Adriaan

2012-01-01

348

Phylogenetically diverse TT virus viremia among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Infections during pregnancy have been suggested to be involved in childhood leukemias. We used high-throughput sequencing to describe the viruses most readily detectable in serum samples of pregnant women. Serum DNA of 112 mothers to leukemic children was amplified using whole genome amplification. Sequencing identified one TT virus (TTV) isolate belonging to a known type and two putatively new TTVs. For 22 mothers, we also performed TTV amplification by general primer PCR before sequencing. This detected 39 TTVs, two of which were identical to the TTVs found after whole genome amplification. Altogether, we found 40 TTV isolates, 29 of which were putatively new types (similarities ranging from 89% to 69%). In conclusion, high throughput sequencing is useful to describe the known or unknown viruses that are present in serum samples of pregnant women. PMID:22819835

Bzhalava, Davit; Ekström, Johanna; Lysholm, Fredrik; Hultin, Emilie; Faust, Helena; Persson, Bengt; Lehtinen, Matti; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele; Dillner, Joakim

2012-07-21

349

Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy.

Dhiman, S; Yadav, K; Goswami, D; Das, NG; Baruah, I; Singh, L

2012-01-01

350

Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.  

PubMed

Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. PMID:22789395

Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

2012-07-10

351

Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.  

PubMed

Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

1989-12-01

352

Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban®) in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

Chan, BC; Koren, G

2003-01-01

353

Comparison of the OptiMAL rapid test and microscopy for detection of malaria in pregnant women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Malaria during pregnancy causes anaemia in pregnant women and low birthweight in infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the OptiMAL rapid malaria test in comparison with standard microscopy for malaria diagnosis in 268 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the Jos University Teaching Hospital and the Federal Medical Centre-Gombe in Nigeria. Positive results by either method were confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction assay for malaria. Although the OptiMAL assay did not detect malaria in the blood of pregnant women with low levels of parasitaemia, it may be useful for the detection of placental malaria which predisposes to low birthweight infants. PMID:15655012

VanderJagt, T A; Ikeh, E I; Ujah, I O A; Belmonte, J; Glew, R H; VanderJagt, D J

2005-01-01

354

Statewide assessment of a behavioral intervention to reduce cigarette smoking by pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Smoking in pregnancy is the foremost cause of preventable perinatal mortality. We have demonstrated that a behavioral intervention can alter smoking in pregnant women. We tested the utility of this intervention at multiple sites in varied settings across a suburban-rural state. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study at 10 prenatal care sites across North Carolina. Carbon monoxide

L. N. Wright; L. Pahel-Short; K. Hartmann; J. A. Kuller; J THORPJR

1996-01-01

355

Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Hispanic Women Residing in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We explored whether higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher rates of cigarette smoking among pregnant Hispanic women resid- ing in the United States. Methods. We evaluated data from the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective study of 1231 Hispanic prenatal care patients conducted from 2000 to 2004 in Massachusetts. Self-reported data on acculturation, cigarette smoking, and

M. Gabrielle Detjen; F. Javier Nieto; Amy Trentham-Dietz; Michael Fleming; Lisa Chasan-Taber

356

Predictors of use and consumption of public drinking water among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the results from previous epidemiological studies are not consistent, perhaps in part due to individual variation in water use and consumption. This study was performed to evaluate and describe demographic and behavioral characteristics as predictors of ingested water, showering, bathing, and swimming among pregnant women. Water

Ulla M Forssén; Amy H Herring; David A Savitz; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen; Patricia A Murphy; Philip C Singer; J Michael Wright

2007-01-01

357

Carriage Rate of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women in Three Teaching Hospitals in Shiraz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main goal of this study was to assess differences in the vaginal flora of pregnant women and provide a detailed evaluation of vaginal swabs for the presence of group B streptococcus (GBS) and other organisms in three teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southwest of Iran. Subjects and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from April 2006 to March 2007, 310

Parvin Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Motamedifar; Maral Namdari Gharaghani

2011-01-01

358

Clinical Characteristics of Central European and North American Samples of Pregnant Women Screened for Opioid Agonist Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little comparable information is available regarding clinical characteristics of opioid-dependent women from different countries. In the present study, women from the USA, Canada and a Central European country, Austria, screened for participation in the Maternal Opioid Treatment Human Experimental Research study, were compared with respect to their demographic and addiction histories. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 1,074) were screened

A. S. Unger; P. R. Martin; K. Kaltenbach; S. M. Stine; S. H. Heil; H. E. Jones; A. M. Arria; M. G. Coyle; P. Selby; G. Fischer

2010-01-01

359

Determinants of vitamin D status in pregnant fair-skinned women in Sweden.  

PubMed

Low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may have negative consequences for both mother and child. There are few studies of vitamin D status and its determinants in pregnant women living at northern latitudes. Thus, the present study investigates vitamin D status and its determinants during the third trimester of women living in Sweden (latitudes 57-58°N). A total of ninety-five fair-skinned pregnant women had blood taken between gestational weeks 35 and 37. The study included a 4 d food diary and questionnaires on dietary intake, supplement use, sun exposure, skin type, travels to southern latitudes and measure of BMI. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analysed using the chemiluminescence immunoassay. In the third trimester of pregnancy, mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 47.4 (sd 18.1) nmol/l (range 10-93 nmol/l). In total, 65% of women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l and 17 % < 30 nmol/l. During the winter, 85% of the pregnant women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l and 28 % < 30 nmol/l. The main determinants of vitamin D status were as follows: season; use of vitamin D supplements; travels to southern latitudes. Together, these explained 51% of the variation in 25(OH)D. In conclusion, during the winter, the majority of fair-skinned pregnant women had serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l in their third trimester and more than every fourth woman < 30 nmol/l. Higher vitamin D intake may therefore be needed during the winter for fair-skinned pregnant women at northern latitudes to avoid vitamin D deficiency. PMID:23388180

Brembeck, Petra; Winkvist, Anna; Olausson, Hanna

2013-02-06

360

Seropositivity rates for toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis and HIV among pregnant women receiving care at a Public Health Service, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious and parasitic diseases affecting women during their reproductive age may result in vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for TORSCH among pregnant women receiving care at a university hospital. Records of 574 pregnant women who received medical attention from January 2006 to December 2007 were assessed. The mean age was 27.2 ± 6.5

Márcia Aparecida dos Santos Gonçalves; Cinara de Cássia Brandão de Matos; Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco Spegiorin; Denise Cristina Mós Vaz-Oliani; Antonio Hélio Oliani; Luiz Carlos de Mattos

2010-01-01

361

Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the united states during 1988–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine trends in alcohol use among pregnant women in the United States and to characterize pregnant women who use alcohol, with an emphasis on frequent use (at least five drinks per occasion or at least seven drinks per week).Methods: We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1988 through 1995 to obtain the percentage of pregnant

Shahul H Ebrahim; Elizabeth T Luman; R. Louise Floyd; Catherine C Murphy; Eddas M Bennett; Coleen A Boyle

1998-01-01

362

Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-infected pregnant women and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women and to determine the association between serological profile\\u000a and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. The study, conducted in a public maternity ward from May 2002 to April 2005, included\\u000a all HIV-infected women who delivered live infants during the 36 months, and,

E. G. Lago; G. S. Conrado; C. S. Piccoli; R. L. Carvalho; A. L. Bender

2009-01-01

363

An Exploration of Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Pregnant Low-income African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of lifetime trauma exposure in relation to perinatal health outcomes\\u000a in low-income African American women. Methods One hundred and sixteen pregnant African American women recruited from two public prenatal clinics participated in this exploratory\\u000a study. Information was obtained about psychological symptoms, medical conditions, prenatal care utilization, and health behaviors.

Dawn E. Dailey; Janice C. Humphreys; Sally H. Rankin; Kathryn A. Lee

2011-01-01

364

Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

2010-07-01

365

Prevalence & risk factors for hepatitis C virus among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Eighty four (1.03%) pregnant females had HCV antibodies. Of these, 46 (54.8%) were positive for HCV-RNA, 4(4.8%) tested positive for HBsAg, while none tested positive for HIV. The mean age and parity of the anti-HCV antibody positive women was 24.36±3.6 yr and 0.9±0.8, while that of the anti-HCV antibody negative women was 24.13±3.6 yr and 0.8±0.8 respectively. Of the

Ashok Kumar; K. Aparna Sharma; R. K. Gupta; P. Kar; Anita Chakravarti

366

Drug screening and criminal prosecution of pregnant women.  

PubMed

According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the Fourth Amendment rights of 10 women were violated by a hospital that provided them prenatal care. The incidence of prenatal drug testing for criminal prosecution with or without a woman's knowledge is increasing. Concurrently, funding and availability of drug treatment programs for pregnant women are declining. Nurses and physicians who act as advocates for the state rather than the patient damage the patient-provider relationship and breach their ethical responsibility to the patient. PMID:11926395

Foley, Elizabeth M

367

Specialized care for women pregnant after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Growing numbers of women today will seek bariatric surgery before pregnancy. Protein-calorie malnutrition; hyperemesis; intestinal hernias; dumping syndrome; anemia; and deficiencies in calcium, folic acid, and vitamins B12, D, and K are all possible complications that can impact pregnancy. This article reviews the nutritional and pregnancy-related consequences of current surgical procedures and summarizes existing research showing positive and negative effects of weight-loss surgery on pregnancy outcomes. Practice-based clinical recommendations will help guide clinicians caring for the increasing number of women who become pregnant after having bariatric surgery. PMID:20974415

Harris, Amy A; Barger, Mary K

368

Identifying Healthy Eating Strategies in Low-Income Pregnant Women: Applying a Positive Deviance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using positive deviance methodology, we identified strategies that enabled some low-income pregnant women to eat healthy meals while others did not. We used a descriptive design consisting of small group interviews of low-income pregnant women and identified 6 of 18 women as eating healthy diets. Women with healthy diets knew to eat balanced meals, had family support, were willing to

Eileen R. Fowles; Jennifer A. Hendricks; Lorraine O. Walker

2005-01-01

369

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women's empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women's safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and

M. Nojomi; Z. Akrami

370

Drugs, alcohol and pregnant women--changing characteristics of women engaging with a specialist perinatal outreach addictions service.  

PubMed

Pregnant substance misusers present an increased risk to themselves and the unborn child. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the characteristics of women referred to a specialist perinatal addictions outreach service (1989-1991 versus 2002-2005). A cross-sectional audit of health records was conducted. Information was gathered for each woman who contacted the service (2002-2005). Data were compared to an earlier study in the same locality (1989-1991). A total of 167 pregnant substance-using women were referred between 2002 and 2005, of whom 126 made contact. The mean age was 30.2 years at 20.8 weeks' fetal gestation, with 76% not in addictions treatment, 32% from black or minority ethnic (BME) communities, 49% polysubstance users and 29% homeless. The primary substance used was illicit heroin (38%), followed by cocaine (24%). Compared to 1989-1991, there were significantly more pregnant women presenting at an older age, later gestation, with increased polysubstance use and a higher percentage of women from BME communities. This service was able to access vulnerable substance-abusing women with an altered pattern of substance use compared to over 10 years previously. However, improvements are needed for engaging all referred women and accessing women at an earlier gestation. PMID:18696295

Mayet, Soraya; Groshkova, Teodora; Morgan, Louise; MacCormack, Tracey; Strang, John

2008-09-01

371

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Outcomes in Southern Italian Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Recent Italian guidelines exclude women <35 years old, without risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), from screening for GDM. To determine the effectiveness of these measures with respect to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria, we evaluated 2,448 pregnant women retrospectively enrolled in Calabria, southern Italy. GDM was diagnosed following the IADPSG 2010 criteria. Among 538 women <35 years old, without risk factors, who would have not been tested according to the Italian guidelines, we diagnosed GDM in 171 (31.8%) pregnants (7.0% of total pregnants). Diagnosis was made at baseline (55.6%), 1 hour (39.8%), or 2 hours (4.7%) during OGTT. Despite of appropriate treatment, GDM represented a risk factor for cesarean section, polyhydramnios, increased birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care units, and large for gestational age. These outcomes were similar to those observed in GDM women at high risk for GDM. In conclusion, Italian recommendations failed to identify 7.0% of women with GDM, when compared to IADPSG criteria. The risk for adverse hyperglycaemic-related outcomes is similar in low-risk and high-risk pregnants with GDM. To limit costs of GDM screening, our data suggest to restrict OGTT to two steps (baseline and 1 hour).

Capula, Carmelo; Vero, Anna; Arcidiacono, Biagio; Iiritano, Stefania; Puccio, Luigi; Pullano, Vittorio; Foti, Daniela P.; Brunetti, Antonio; Vero, Raffaella

2013-01-01

372

Information-seeking and its predictors in low-income pregnant women.  

PubMed

This study examined information-seeking and its predictors (information needs and barriers) in low-income pregnant women. Eighty-four pregnant women from a prenatal clinic were interviewed using three scales that measured the frequency of information-seeking from eight different sources, information needs for 20 pregnancy health topics, and 15 barriers to seeking information, respectively. Most women were black, unmarried, between 20 and 29 years of age, high school educated or less, multigravidas, and in their third trimester of pregnancy. Information needs and barriers were significant predictors of information-seeking. Together, they explained 26% of the variance in the seeking outcome. High information needs and low barriers predicted more frequent information-seeking. First pregnancy and asthma during pregnancy were significant covariates for information-seeking. Information needs and barriers are related to information-seeking among low-income pregnant women. To facilitate pregnant women's information-seeking, health care providers may assess a woman's need for information and barriers that the woman experiences when seeking information, and factors such as first pregnancy and asthma. PMID:19720337

Shieh, Carol; McDaniel, Anna; Ke, Irene

373

Gestational diabetes mellitus: screening and outcomes in southern italian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent Italian guidelines exclude women <35 years old, without risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), from screening for GDM. To determine the effectiveness of these measures with respect to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria, we evaluated 2,448 pregnant women retrospectively enrolled in Calabria, southern Italy. GDM was diagnosed following the IADPSG 2010 criteria. Among 538 women <35 years old, without risk factors, who would have not been tested according to the Italian guidelines, we diagnosed GDM in 171 (31.8%) pregnants (7.0% of total pregnants). Diagnosis was made at baseline (55.6%), 1 hour (39.8%), or 2 hours (4.7%) during OGTT. Despite of appropriate treatment, GDM represented a risk factor for cesarean section, polyhydramnios, increased birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care units, and large for gestational age. These outcomes were similar to those observed in GDM women at high risk for GDM. In conclusion, Italian recommendations failed to identify 7.0% of women with GDM, when compared to IADPSG criteria. The risk for adverse hyperglycaemic-related outcomes is similar in low-risk and high-risk pregnants with GDM. To limit costs of GDM screening, our data suggest to restrict OGTT to two steps (baseline and 1 hour). PMID:24093064

Capula, Carmelo; Chiefari, Eusebio; Vero, Anna; Arcidiacono, Biagio; Iiritano, Stefania; Puccio, Luigi; Pullano, Vittorio; Foti, Daniela P; Brunetti, Antonio; Vero, Raffaella

2013-09-05

374

Food and macronutrient intake of economically disadvantaged pregnant women in Colombia.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to assess changes in diet composition, defined in terms of macronutrient intake and types of foods consumed, in pregnancy in poor urban women in Colombia. The subjects were 20 pregnant and 20 matched nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) women 19 to 35 years of age. The pregnant women were studied in three measurement rounds at 14.0 +/- 3.6, 27 +/- 2.2, and 35 +/- 1.7 weeks gestation, and the NPNL women in three measurement rounds approximately 3 months apart. Dietary intake was obtained from estimated food records and macronutrient composition from published sources. Types of foods consumed were aggregated into 16 groups: alcohol; breads; candy; coffee, chocolate; juices; fruit; legumes; meat, fish, offal; dairy; vegetable dishes; other; rice, pasta; tubers, plantains; salads; soft drinks; and soups. Macronutrient intakes showed nonsignificant increases in pregnancy. There were no significant differences between pregnant and NPNL women, except for carbohydrate intake in late pregnancy (P = 0.03). Carbohydrate, fat, and protein provided 74%, 17%, and 12% of dietary energy, respectively, in pregnant women at baseline, and did not change significantly. Except for a decrease in fruits, the types of foods consumed did not change significantly in pregnancy. There were no between-group differences in types of foods consumed except for the greater number of fruits consumed by pregnant women at baseline (P = 0.004). We conclude that in this population there were no changes in diet composition in pregnancy, except for an increase in fruit consumption in Round 1. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:753-762, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533991

Dufour, Darna L.; Reina, Julio C.; Spurr, G.B.

1999-11-01

375

Influenza-like illness in pregnant women during summertime: clinical, epidemiological and microbiological features.  

PubMed

It is not known whether influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in pregnant women caused by influenza virus, specifically, those caused by the 2009 Influenza A H1N1 virus (nH1N1), can be clinically distinguished from those caused by other agents. From 1st July 2009 until 20th September 2009, an observational study including all pregnant women presenting at Hospital Universitario La Paz with an ILI was carried out. A specific reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for nH1N1 in nasopharyngeal swabs was prospectively carried out in all patients. Retrospectively, samples were analysed for multiple respiratory virus panel (RT-PCR microarray). Clinical, demographical and other microbiological variables were evaluated as well. A total of 45 pregnant women with ILI were admitted. Of these, 14 (31.1%) women had nH1N1 infection and 11 with a non-influenza ILI (35.48%) were positive for other viruses (five rhinovirus, four parainfluenza virus, one bocavirus and one adenovirus). In 20 patients, no aetiologic agent was identified. The clinical course of nH1N1 was mild, without deaths or severe complications. No significant differences were found when comparing the clinical presentation and course of patients with and without nH1N1 infection. Six women with nH1N1 infection received oseltamivir. Influenza and non-influenza ILI were clinically indistinguishable among pregnant women. Many ILI in pregnant women remain undiagnosed, despite undergoing an RT-PCR microarray for several respiratory viruses. PMID:21556677

Paño-Pardo, J R; Martínez-Sánchez, N; Martín-Quirós, A; Romero-Gómez, M P; Muñoz-Muñiz, M; Sánchez-Pastor, M; Ruiz, G; San-José, B; Prados, M C; Mora-Rillo, M; Rico-Nieto, A; Arribas, J-R

2011-05-10

376

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among

Charles M Goumba; Emmanuel R Yandoko-Nakouné; Narcisse P Komas

2010-01-01

377

Deoxynivalenol exposure assessment in a cohort of pregnant women from Bradford, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a ubiquitous contaminant of cereal crops in temperate regions of the world. It causes growth faltering and immune suppression in animals. Limited information is available on DON exposure in UK subpopulations. The objective of this study was to provide DON exposure assessment in a subset of pregnant women scheduled for an elective caesarean in a large multi-ethnic

S. J. Hepworth; L. J. Hardie; L. K. Fraser; V. J. Burley; R. S. Mijal; C. P. Wild; R. Azad; P. A. Mckinney; P. C. Turner

2012-01-01

378

Deoxynivalenol exposure assessment in a cohort of pregnant women from Bradford, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a ubiquitous contaminant of cereal crops in temperate regions of the world. It causes growth faltering and immune suppression in animals. Limited information is available on DON exposure in UK subpopulations. The objective of this study was to provide DON exposure assessment in a subset of pregnant women scheduled for an elective caesarean in a large multi-ethnic

S. J. Hepworth; L. J. Hardie; L. K. Fraser; V. J. Burley; R. S. Mijal; C. P. Wild; R. Azad; P. A. Mckinney; P. C. Turner

2011-01-01

379

The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in pregnant women in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy is known to be associated with various fetal damage, such as aplastic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Our objective was to study the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in the obstetric population in Kuwait and to compare this with that in the adult population in other regions. Blood samples from 1047 pregnant women were used in

Ma’asoumah Maksheed; A. S Pacsa; Sahar Sultan Essa; Mohammad Abrar Ahmed; Rawiya Abdul Monem; Mansour Surkouh

1999-01-01

380

Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and their children in central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate exposure was found to be associated with endocrine disruption, respiratory effects, reproductive and developmental toxicity. The intensive use of plastics may be increasing the exposure to phthalates in Taiwanese population, particularly for young children.We studied phthalate metabolites in pregnant women and their newborns in a prospective cohort from a medical center in Central Taiwan. One hundred maternal urine samples

Susana Lin; Hsiu-Ying Ku; Pen-Hua Su; Jein-Wen Chen; Po-Chin Huang; Jürgen Angerer; Shu-Li Wang

2011-01-01

381

Executive functioning and general cognitive ability in pregnant women and matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compared the performances of pregnant women with education- and age-matched controls on a variety of measures that assessed perceptual speed, short-term and working memory capacity, subjective memory complaints, sleep quality, level of fatigue, executive functioning, episodic and prospective memory, and crystallized and fluid intelligence. A primary purpose was to test the hypothesis of Henry and Rendell (2007)

Serge V. Onyper; Alan Searleman; Pamela V. Thacher; Emily E. Maine; Alicia G. Johnson

2010-01-01

382

Pregnant Women with Bronchial Asthma Benefit from Progressive Muscle Relaxation: A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asthma is a serious medical problem in pregnancy and is often associated with stress, anger and poor quality of life.The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on change in blood pressure, lung parameters, heart rate, anger and health-related quality of life in pregnant women with bronchial asthma. Methods: We treated a

Cerstin Nickel; Claas Lahmann; Moritz Muehlbacher; Francisco Pedrosa Gil; Patrick Kaplan; Wiebke Buschmann; Karin Tritt; Christian Kettler; Egon Bachler; Christian Egger; Javaid Anvar; Rainhold Fartacek; Thomas Loew; Wolfhardt Rother; Marius Nickel

2006-01-01

383

Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption Among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial\\/ethnic groups. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n =

Shakira Franco Suglia; John Staudenmayer; Sheldon Cohen; Michelle Bosquet Enlow; Janet W. Rich-Edwards; Rosalind J. Wright

2010-01-01

384

Ethnic Differences in C-Peptide\\/Insulin\\/Glucose Dynamics in Young Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are ethnic differences in insulin secretion and resis- tance in healthy nondiabetic adults, children, and adoles- cents. It is not known whether these ethnic differences are also detectable during normal pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine whether ethnic differences in glu- cose homeostasis (C-peptide\\/insulin\\/glucose dynamics) are present in nondiabetic pregnant women. Fasting serum C- peptide, insulin,

XINHUA CHEN; THERESA O. SCHOLL

385

Serum Allopregnanolone Levels in Pregnant Women: Changes during Pregnancy, at Delivery, and in Hypertensive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid measurable in periph- eral circulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the possible changes in serum allopregnanolone and progesterone levels in pregnant women during gestation, at delivery, and in patients with chronic hypertension, with or without superim- posed preeclampsia. We also evaluated allopregnanolone in cord blood. Three groups of

S. Luisi; F. PETRAGLIA; C. BENEDETTO; R. E. NAPPI; F. BERNARDI; M. FADALTI; F. M. REIS; M. LUISI; A. R. GENAZZANI

2000-01-01

386

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

387

Influenza vaccination among pregnant women - massachusetts, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

The emergence of the novel influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (pH1N1) strain in 2009 required a coordinated public health response, especially among high-risk populations. Because pregnant women were at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization compared with the general population, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended pregnant women receive both the pH1N1 vaccine and the annual seasonal vaccine during the 2009-10 influenza season as a safe and effective way of protecting both mother and infant. To describe acceptance, predictors, and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Massachusetts during the 2009-10 influenza season, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) analyzed data from supplemental influenza questions on the Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey. The results indicated that 67.5% of residents who had live births in Massachusetts during September 2009-May 2010 received the seasonal vaccine, and 57.6% received the pH1N1 vaccine. Women who were non-Hispanic blacks, aged <25 years, Medicaid beneficiaries, or lived in a household with an income at or below the federal poverty level were significantly less likely to receive the seasonal vaccine. For the pH1N1 vaccine, only being non-Hispanic black was associated with being less likely to have been vaccinated. Vaccination rates were significantly higher among women whose provider offered or recommended the seasonal (75.8%) and pH1N1 (68.1%) vaccines compared with those who did not receive a recommendation (32.4% and 8.6%, respectively). Coverage in Massachusetts was among the highest of 29 PRAMS sites and might have reflected strategic efforts by MDPH to support vaccine education and equity across the state (5). PMID:24172879

2013-11-01

388

Nutritional behaviours among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland.  

PubMed

Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System); an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). The health behaviour of a pregnant woman, including adequate nutritional behaviours and supply of all the necessary nutrients, exert an effect on the health of a woman, development of the foetus, and the occurrence of diseases among the offspring at the age of maturity. The objective of the study was analysis of the nutritional behaviours among Polish pregnant women, with particular consideration of the recognition of dietary changes caused by the fact of becoming pregnant. The studies were based on questionnaire forms within the Polish Mother and Child Heath Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise day of studies is appointed annually for the whole of Poland by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system, a central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. More than a half of Polish women change their diet in pregnancy. According to the pregnant women examined, the changes in their diet consist in a more frequent consumption of white meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and dairy products. Favourable changes in diet were observed primarily among the respondents from the urban environment. Considering an insufficient awareness with respect to nutritional behaviours among females at reproductive age, the education of pregnant women and those who plan a pregnancy concerning an adequate diet should be jointly conducted by medical circles, schools, and the media, and directed primarily to women from the rural environment. PMID:21736282

Wojty?a, Andrzej; Bojar, Iwona; Boyle, Peter; Zato?ski, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw

2011-06-01

389

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional...for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204...

2011-10-01

390

Combination antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus–infected pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the safety, efficacy, and perinatal transmission rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.Methods: Retrospective study of all HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy after September 1, 1996, and who delivered by September 1, 1998, at Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center.Results: Thirty women received combination therapy, 13 with protease inhibitor. Median baseline CD4

Joseph P McGowan; Marilyn Crane; Andrew A Wiznia; Steve Blum

1999-01-01

391

Smoking cessation counseling with pregnant and postpartum women: a survey of community health center providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed providers' performance of smoking cessation counseling steps with low-income pregnant and postpartum women receiving care at community health centers.\\u000aMETHODS: WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) program staff, obstetric clinicians, and pediatric clinicians at 6 community health centers were asked to complete surveys. Smoking intervention practices (performance), knowledge and attitudes, and organizational

Jane G. Zapka; Lori Pbert; Anne M. Stoddard; Judith K. Ockene; Karin V. Goins; Debra Bonollo

2000-01-01

392

Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hebron district, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, we tested 204 pregnant women for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The study was conducted in Hebron district during the year 2005. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was 27.9% while IgM seroprevalence was 17.6%; the seroprevalence of T. gondii increased with age. More women from

K. I. Nijem; S. Al-Amleh

393

Dialkyl phosphates in meconium as a biomarker of prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a study on pregnant women of rural areas in Crete, Greece.  

PubMed

The authors developed a sensitive analytical method for the determination of dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) in meconium. This method was applied to determine the DAPs, which are non-specific metabolites of the organophosphate pesticides (OPs), in meconium of newborns by mothers who live in rural areas in Crete, Greece. DAPs are considered as biomarkers of exposure to OPs. Meconium is produced in the foetus at approximately 16 weeks of gestation and it acts as a repository of many xenobiotics. The determined organophosphate metabolites were dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). The DAPs were extracted from meconium by liquid-solid extraction, derivatized, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean percentile recoveries were 76.9%, 65.2%, 94.1%, 109.4%, and 107.2% for DMP, DEP, DMTP, DETP, and DEDTP, respectively. The percentage of positive samples was 92.1% for DMP, 36.8% for DEP, 60.5% for DMTP, 63.2% for DETP, and 57.9% for DEDTP. Mean (+/- standard deviation) and the range concentrations of the positive samples (ng g(-1)) were 126.74 +/- 142.73 (10.64-739.45), 11.46 +/- 20.43 (1.50-79.14), 215.05 +/- 187.34 (8.54-662.16), 4.92 +/- 5.09 (1.25-19.04), and 1.84 +/- 2.07 (0.5-8.04) for DMP, DEP, DMTP, DETP, and DEDTP, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in meconium levels between high- and low-risk groups of exposure of pregnant women. However, the results of this study demonstrate that DAPs in meconium may be considered as a potential biomarker for the assessment of foetal exposure to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:19387892

Tsatsakis, A M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Koutroulakis, D; Toutoudaki, M; Sifakis, S

2009-05-01

394

Describing the use of the internet for health, physical activity, and nutrition information in pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine how pregnant women in the Midwestern United States use the internet for health information during pregnancy including information related to physical activity and nutrition, and to determine the impact of the internet on women's confidence in making decisions about physical activity participation and eating behaviors during pregnancy. This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a convenient, non-probabilistic sample. Women were recruited through handouts provided in person, fliers posted at venues, or local websites that cater to women who are pregnant or up to 1 year post-partum. Overall, 293 women (28.5 years ± 4.9) completed the survey online (Survey Monkey) or in-print. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and analyses of covariance. Almost all women used the internet for health information during their pregnancy. Half of women used the internet for information related to physical activity during their pregnancy and some increased their physical activity as a result. Women reported an increase in their confidence for making decisions related to physical activity during pregnancy after using the internet for physical activity information. Women that reported increases in physical activity during pregnancy, had greater increases in confidence for making decisions from using the internet compared to women who decreased or did not change their physical activity. Findings related to nutrition were similar to physical activity. However, there were no significant differences in increases in confidence between those who did or did not change the foods they ate. This study provides health promotional professionals useful information to consider when designing future physical activity and/or nutrition interventions for pregnant women. PMID:23090284

Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; Beets, Michael W; Coleman, Jason

2013-10-01

395

Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Malaria and Anemia in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June–August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12–0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana.

Wilson, Nana O.; Ceesay, Fatou K.; Obed, Samuel A.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Gyasi, Richard K.; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A.; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

2011-01-01

396

Seroprevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of HEV infection in a cohort of pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). (2) The rate of mother-to-infant transmission. Method: Sera of 469 pregnant women residing in the UAE was tested for anti-HEV with ELISA and for HEV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Neonatal cord-blood and infant blood was similarly tested for

Rachana M Kumar; Sayenna Uduman; Sarosh Rana; Jose K Kochiyil; Asad Usmani; Letha Thomas

2001-01-01

397

Survey of HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants regarding measures to prevent maternal-infantile transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is the main contributor to maternal-infantile transmission of HBV. This is a retrospective study of 158 HBsAg-positive pregnant women who delivered children from Jan 1st, 2004 to Dec.31th, 2006 in Wuhan City, China. We investigated the measures taken to prevent maternal-infantile transmission of hepatitis B virus and the infection status of children. METHODS: HBsAg-positive pregnant women were

Yan Guo; Jianqiong Liu; Liping Meng; Hu Meina; Yukai Du

2010-01-01

398

Iron status in pregnant women: which measurements are valid?  

PubMed

Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries continues to be a public health problem of significant proportion. At least 50% of the anaemia has been blamed on iron deficiency. In populations where chronic inflammation and iron deficiency anaemia coexist, the criteria to accurately define iron status are not always clear. Similarly, in pregnancy, with marked physiological changes, cut-off points for biochemical parameters need to be re-examined. In this study we examined the diagnostic accuracy of iron parameters including mean cellular volume (MCV), serum iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and its saturation, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), ferritin and serum transferrin receptor (TfR) for the assessment of iron status in a population of anaemic pregnant women in Malawi. Stained bone marrow aspirates were used as the standard for comparison. Results show that for the purpose of screening, serum ferritin is the best single indicator of storage iron provided a cut-off point of 30 microg/l is used. A number of other commonly used parameters of iron status were shown to have limited diagnostic accuracy. Logistic regression was used to obtain mathematical models for the prediction of bone marrow iron status using a combination of available parameters. PMID:9858238

van den Broek, N R; Letsky, E A; White, S A; Shenkin, A

1998-12-01

399

Immunization of pregnant women: reproductive, medical and societal risks.  

PubMed

Establishing successful vaccine programs for pregnant women would be the quintessence of preventive medicine when you realize the preventive potential for reproductive problems of many of the new and old vaccines. The development of vaccines to prevent maternal, fetal and newborn disease is actually in its infancy. The risks and benefits are discussed in detail as well as the most appropriate and inappropriate time to immunize women of reproductive age and pregnant women. The great majority of risks are theoretical, but the problem is that birth defects and other developmental and reproductive problems are in the group of "diseases of affliction" which means that there are tremendous emotional upheavals in families affected with serious reproductive problems. The failures in reproduction are so common that immunization of a pregnant women has potential deleterious consequences. A consortium of government, academia and industry must work together and an appeal to the more responsible members of the law profession to solve the problem of non-meritorious litigation has be in place before manufacturers of vaccines will be willing to initiate the development of new vaccines. The potential for reducing the incidence of birth defects, prematurity and neonatal infectious disease exists, but it will be difficult to initiate these programs because vaccine makers may be unwilling to assume an additional burden of negligence litigation. Certainly, it is clear that we could provide a safe vaccine for Group B streptococcus and infant botulism that would be of immediate benefit and the potential for reducing other diseases is realistic. This is not going to be an easy task. PMID:12850350

Brent, Robert L

2003-07-28

400

Influenza vaccine for pregnant women in resource-constrained countries: a review of the evidence to inform policy decisions.  

PubMed

Seasonal influenza is responsible for three to five million severe cases of disease annually, and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Pregnant women and infants suffer disproportionately from severe outcomes of influenza. The excellent safety profile and reliable immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine support WHO recommendations that pregnant women be vaccinated to decrease complications of influenza disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine is not routinely used in most low-and middle-income countries and is not widely used in pregnant women worldwide. Two recent prospective, controlled trials of maternal influenza vaccination in Bangladesh and US Native American reservations demonstrated that inactivated influenza vaccine given to pregnant women can decrease laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection in their newborn children. These studies support consideration of the feasibility of targeted influenza vaccine programs in resource-constrained countries. Platforms exist for the delivery of influenza vaccine to pregnant women worldwide. Even in the least developed countries, an estimated 70% of women receive antenatal care, providing an opportunity for targeted influenza vaccination. Challenges to the introduction of maternal influenza vaccination in resource-constrained countries exist, including issues regarding vaccine formulation, availability, and cost. Nonetheless, maternal influenza vaccination remains an important and potentially cost-effective approach to decrease influenza morbidity in two high-risk groups - pregnant women and young infants. PMID:21550377

Ortiz, Justin R; Englund, Janet A; Neuzil, Kathleen M

2011-05-06

401

Predictors of serum concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants among healthy pregnant women in an urban environment: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants commonly used in a wide range of products. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Our objective was to characterize predictors of exposure to PBDEs among a multi-ethnic, low-income cohort of pregnant women enrolled from highly urban communities in New York City between years 2009–2010. Methods During the first half of pregnancy we collected 316 maternal serum samples and administered an extensive questionnaire including items on demographics, diet and lifestyle. We measured 12 PBDE congeners in blood samples. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we regressed the most commonly detected PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) against potential demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictor variables. Results At least one PBDE congener was detected in each serum sample. Our analyses demonstrate unique predictor patterns for PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 based on demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of women. Higher education and increased use of household electronics were associated with higher levels of all 4 congeners. Six characteristics were associated with PBDE-153 serum concentrations, more than for any other congener. These include maternal education, household income, body mass index, solid dairy consumption, processed meat consumption and frequent use of household electronics. Conclusions PBDE exposure in this widespread in this cohort, though levels are lower than previous assessments of US pregnant women. Lower levels may be in response to legislation restricting the production, sale and use of these compounds. In our cohort, we did not observe any individual predictor or a consistent pattern of several predictors representing a significant source of PBDE exposure. These data suggest that legislation and policy may be more effective at reducing exposure than personal lifestyle modifications.

2013-01-01

402

A new method for long-term home monitoring of fetal movement by pregnant women themselves.  

PubMed

Fetal movement is one index of fetal well-being. We designed and built a new recorder based on fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM). The FMAM recorder has a newly developed, capacitive acceleration sensor that can detect the oscillations of the maternal abdominal wall caused by fetal movements. In this study, the recorder was examined for its suitability for long-term home monitoring of fetal movement by pregnant women themselves. Experiment I: Fourteen pregnant women underwent 45 examinations in the laboratory at gestational 20-39 weeks. We simultaneously recorded fetal movement as detected by the recorder, ultrasonography, and maternal perception, and then calculated agreement among the three methods. We evaluated agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). Agreement for gross fetal movement as detected by FMAM and ultrasonography was substantial or almost perfect, while agreement between maternal perception and ultrasonography was moderate or substantial. Experiment II: Six pregnant women undertook 53 experiments at home by themselves. Fetal movement during maternal nocturnal sleep was successfully recorded 50 out of 53 times at home. In conclusion, there was high agreement for gross fetal movement between FMAM and ultrasonography. The recorder is promising for objective, accurate, and long-term home monitoring of gross fetal movement by pregnant women themselves. PMID:21962570

Ryo, Eiji; Nishihara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Sachiyo; Kamata, Hideo

2011-10-02

403

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Pregnant Anemic Women  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant–antioxidant status in iron deficient pregnant anemic women. One hundred thirty pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were divided into three groups, namely mild (50), moderate (50) and severe (30) anemic along with pregnant healthy women as controls (50). The complete blood count, plasma lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were measured according to respective protocols. The levels of complete blood count, iron, ferritin along with antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione were significantly reduced in all IDA groups. However, the level of oxidized glutathione, lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, conjugated dienes were found significantly increased in all anemic patients. Antioxidant vitamins, namely C, E and A were also found significantly decreased in IDA patients. On the basis of our results, it may be concluded that IDA tends to increase the pro-oxidant components, which may result in various complications including peroxidation of vital body molecules resulting in increased risk for pregnant women as well as fetus.

Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Zahra, Fatima; Chandyan, Sudarshna; Srivastava, Vinod Kumar; Negi, Mahendra P. Singh

2010-01-01

404

Trends in Influenza Vaccine Coverage in Pregnant Women, 2008 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Context: Pregnant women are at increased risk of severe influenza-related complications and hospitalizations and are a priority group for influenza vaccination. Objective: To examine coverage of seasonal and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in pregnant women in a managed care setting, from 2008 to 2012. Design: Retrospective cohort study of 10,145 pregnant women. Main Outcome Measures: H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination rates. Results: Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage increased from 38% to 63% between the 2008–2009 and 2010–2011 seasons, and then dropped to 61% in 2011–2012. Vaccine coverage was higher in women considered at high risk of influenza complications, increasing from 43% in 2008–2009 to 71% in 2010–2011, before decreasing to 69% in 2011–2012. H1N1 vaccine coverage was greater than seasonal influenza coverage in 2009–2010 in the overall pregnant population (61% vs 53%) and in the high-risk group (64% vs 59%). We observed statistically significant differences in vaccination rates by trimester, gravidity, maternal age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Vaccination rates increased significantly from 2008 to 2011, then dropped slightly in 2011–2012. Continued efforts are needed to ensure adequate vaccination coverage in this high-risk population.

Henninger, Michelle; Crane, Bradley; Naleway, Allison

2013-01-01

405

Association of passive exposure of pregnant women to environmental tobacco smoke with asthma symptoms in children.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a significant risk factor for the presence and increased severity of asthma- and allergy-related symptoms in children. Smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on asthma-associated outcomes in childhood. Whether passive exposure of pregnant women to ETS may also lead to asthma in their offspring, is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of passive exposure of pregnant women to ETS and asthma- and/or allergy-related symptoms in Preschool children. Cross-sectional data were collected with questionnaires from 2374 Preschool children, recruited from public and private nurseries and day-care centers. Parental smoking was significantly associated with wheezing symptoms in their children. Mother's active smoking during pregnancy significantly increased the risk for occurrence of asthma symptoms and/or medically diagnosed asthma in Preschool children in a dose-dependent manner. Passive exposure to ETS, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy, was significantly associated with asthma- and allergy-related symptoms after adjusting for several confounders in a multivariate analysis (current wheeze: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.06-1.91, pruritic rash ever: OR= 1.45, 95% CI = 1.01-2.08). Passive exposure of pregnant women to ETS during the third trimester is positively associated with asthma- and allergy-related symptoms in their Preschool age children. Public health policies should be oriented not only towards smoking cessation, but also reinforce elimination of ETS exposure of pregnant women. PMID:19674350

Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Manios, Yannis; Liarigkovinos, Theodoros; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Kortsalioudaki, Christine; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

2009-08-01

406

Decline in Fish Consumption Among Pregnant Women After a National Mercury Advisory  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE A well-publicized January 2001 federal advisory recommended that pregnant women limit consumption of certain fish because of concerns about mercury contamination. We endeavored to estimate the extent to which pregnant women changed fish consumption habits after dissemination of this national advisory METHODS We performed interrupted time series analysis of data from a cohort of pregnant women (2235 who completed at least one dietary questionnaire) visiting obstetric offices in a multispecialty group practice in eastern Massachusetts, surveyed before the advisory from April 1999 through December 2000 and after the advisory from April 2001 through February 2002. Main outcome measures were consumption of total fish and of four fish types: canned tuna, dark meat fish, shellfish, and white meat fish. Subjects reported fish consumption on semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires administered at each trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS We observed diminished consumption of dark meat fish, canned tuna, and white meat fish after the national mercury advisory. These decreases resulted in a reduction in total fish consumption of approximately 1.4 servings per month (95% confidence interval 0.7, 2.0) from December 2000 to April 2001, with ongoing declines through the end of the study period. There was no change in shellfish intake. CONCLUSION After dissemination of federal recommendations, pregnant women in this cohort reported reduced consumption of fish, including tuna, dark meat fish, and white meat fish. Because these fish may confer nutritional benefits to mother and infant, public health implications of these changes remain unclear.

Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; ScD; Berland, Wendy E.; Simon, Steven R.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

2007-01-01

407

Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1) direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2) direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group members and facilitators participating in the Women’s Groups intervention.

2012-01-01

408

Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

1981-01-01

409

Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

1981-01-01

410

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

2010-03-08

411

Symbolic expression of feelings and depressive symptoms in high-risk pregnant women.  

PubMed

Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different