These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Serological study on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women from Franceville, Gabon].  

PubMed

The serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was studied among 839 pregnant women in two hospitals from Franceville (Gabon), between May 2007 and December 2007. Specific T gondii IgG and IgM were measured by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA). Datation of the infection was carried out by avidity test. Fifty-six percent of women in this study were immunised compare to the 71% who were found as immunised in a previous study carried out fifteen years ago. 2.6% were found to be IgM positive. However, from the avidity test it was found that these infections occurred before pregnancy contact with cats and age increase this prevalence. The lack of information for pregnant women, the lack of continuous training for health personnel and lack of awareness about interpretation of laboratory diagnostic tests like avidity test in these hospitals reduce the level of counselling for women about T gondii. PMID:20084487

Mpiga Mickoto, R; Akue, J-P; Bisvigou, U; Mayi Tsonga, S; Nkoghe, D

2010-02-01

2

Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review  

Cancer.gov

Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

3

Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match

Wim Verbeke; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

2007-01-01

4

Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... and Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ...

5

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and\\/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with

Ing-Marie Claesson; Ann Josefsson; Gunilla Sydsjö

2010-01-01

6

Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, ?stanbul  

PubMed Central

Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Y?ld?z, ?ükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

2014-01-01

7

Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

2014-01-01

8

Online Medicine for Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services. PMID:25132848

Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David

2014-01-01

9

Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

2012-01-01

10

Vaccinations for pregnant women.  

PubMed

In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

2015-01-01

11

Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

2012-01-01

12

Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (?150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

2014-01-01

13

Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987

Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

2014-01-01

14

Using Incentives to Encourage Smoking Abstinence Among Pregnant Indigenous Women? A Feasibility Study.  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous M?ori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant M?ori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as M?ori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest that incentives, in particular a choice of products, may be an effective addition to usual care to increase smoking cessation among pregnant M?ori women, which has the potential to improve health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:25427877

Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

2014-11-27

15

Pregnant women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT programme. We explored pregnant HIV positive and negative women’s experiences of routine counselling and testing in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda and formulated suggestions for improving service delivery. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda between January and May 2010. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 30 pregnant women (15 HIV positive and 15 HIV negative) attending an antenatal clinic, six key informant interviews with health workers providing antenatal care and observations. Data were analyzed using a content thematic approach. Results Prior to attending their current ANC visit, most women knew that the hospital provided HIV counselling and testing services as part of antenatal care (ANC). HIV testing was perceived as compulsory for all women attending ANC at the hospital but beneficial, for mothers, especially those who test HIV positive and their unborn babies. Most HIV positive women were satisfied with the immediate counselling they received from health workers, but identified the need to provide follow up counselling and support after the test, as areas for improvement. However, most HIV negative women mentioned that they were given inadequate attention during post-test counselling. This left them with unanswered questions and, for some, doubts about the negative test results. Conclusions In this setting, routine HIV counselling and testing services are known and acceptable to mothers. There is need to strengthen post-test and follow up counselling for both HIV positive and negative women in order to maximize opportunities for primary and post exposure HIV prevention. Partnerships and linkages with people living with HIV, especially those in existing support groups such as those at The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), may help to strengthen counselling and support for pregnant women. For effective HIV prevention, women who test HIV negative should be supported to remain negative. PMID:23705793

2013-01-01

16

A qualitative interview study exploring pregnant women’s and health professionals’ attitudes to external cephalic version  

PubMed Central

Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs. To address these challenges a number of approaches will be required. PMID:23324533

2013-01-01

17

Buprenorphine versus methadone in pregnant opioid-dependent women: a prospective multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods  In order to investigate the effects of exposure to buprenorphine compared with methadone during pregnancy, a prospective multicenter\\u000a study was conducted in collaboration with maternity hospitals, maintenance therapy centers, and general practitioners involved\\u000a in addiction care. Ninety pregnant women exposed to buprenorphine and 45 to metadone were selected for the study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  During pregnancy, some women were exposed to

Isabelle Lacroix; Alain Berrebi; Daniel Garipuy; Laurent Schmitt; Yamina Hammou; Catherine Chaumerliac; Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre; Jean-Louis Montastruc; Christine Damase-Michel

18

Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

2014-01-01

19

Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study  

PubMed Central

Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

2013-01-01

20

Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

PubMed

We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

21

Designing drug trials: considerations for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

Sheffield, Jeanne S; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L; Savic, Rada M; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E; Nesin, Mirjana

2014-12-15

22

Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

Garman, Jamie L.

23

Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) ?g/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02 ?g/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59 ?g/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was collected later in the day. This study provides the first biomonitoring results for the largest population of pregnant women sampled in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results indicate that exposure among this population of pregnant women to these chemicals is comparable to or even lower than that observed in a Canadian national population-based survey. PMID:24709781

Arbuckle, Tye E; Davis, Karelyn; Marro, Leonora; Fisher, Mandy; Legrand, Melissa; LeBlanc, Alain; Gaudreau, Eric; Foster, Warren G; Choeurng, Voleak; Fraser, William D

2014-07-01

24

The development of a standard training toolkit for research studies that recruit pregnant women in labour  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of pregnant women in labour to clinical trials poses particular challenges. Interpretation of regulation lacks consistency or clarity and variation occurs as to the training required by clinicians to safely contribute to the conduct of intrapartum studies. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Intrapartum Clinical Study Group initiated the development of a pragmatic, proportionate and standardised toolkit for training clinical staff that complies with both regulatory and clinician requirements and has been peer-reviewed. This approach may be useful to researchers in acute care settings that necessitate the integration of research, routine clinical practice and compliance with regulation. PMID:24171801

2013-01-01

25

The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

2014-01-01

26

Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

2010-01-01

27

Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Summary Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals (Chapel Hill, NC). Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration as compared to longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration as compared to shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared to longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

2011-01-01

28

Alcohol-Screening Instruments for Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to new studies, even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can negatively affect the developing fetus, thereby increasing the importance of identifying women who drink during pregnancy. In response, researchers have developed several simple alcohol-screening instruments for use with pregnant women. These instruments, which can be administered quickly and easily, have been evaluated and found to be effective. Because

Grace Chang

29

Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners; a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals, women and partners and the acceptability for screening of the target population. We assessed the knowledge of chlamydia infection among pregnant women and their partners in the Netherlands, their attitudes towards testing, and their experiences of being offered a chlamydia test. In addition, we evaluated the association between participants’ background characteristics and knowledge of chlamydia. Methods Pregnant women aged???30 years and their partners (regardless of their age) attending one of the participating primary midwifery care practices in the Netherlands were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire, pregnant women provided a vaginal swab and partners provided a urine sample to test for C. trachomatis. Results In total, 383 pregnant women and 282 partners participated in the study of whom 1.9% women and 2.6% partners tested chlamydia positive. Participants had high levels of awareness (92.8%) of chlamydial infection. They were knowledgeable about the risk of chlamydia infection; median knowledge score was 9.0 out of 12.0. Lower knowledge scores were found among partners (p-value <0.001), younger aged (p-value 0.02), non-western origin (p-value <0.001), low educational level (p-value <0.001), and no history of sexually transmitted infections (p-value <0.001). In total, 78% of respondents indicated that when pregnant women are tested for chlamydia, their partners should also be tested; 54% believed that all women should routinely be tested. Pregnant women more often indicated than partners that testing partners for chlamydial infection was not necessary (p-value <0.001). The majority of pregnant women (56.2%) and partners (59.2%) felt satisfied by being offered the test during antenatal care. Conclusion Pregnant women and their partners were knowledgeable about chlamydial infection, found testing, both pregnant women and their partners, for chlamydia acceptable and not stigmatizing. PMID:25011479

2014-01-01

30

A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression  

PubMed Central

Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

2013-01-01

31

Urinary metabolites of caffeine in pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

In a study of caffeine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant women, on average 56.8% of the administered caffeine dose was recovered in the urine in both groups. However, compared to the controls, the pregnant subjects produced smaller amounts of 1-methylxanthine and 1-methyluric acid, whereas the excretion of most of the other metabolites, particularly 3,7-dimethylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine tended to be greater. It is suggested that hormonal influences on the hepatic caffeine metabolising enzymes might be implicated. PMID:3768258

Scott, N R; Chakraborty, J; Marks, V

1986-01-01

32

End of life decisions and pregnant women: do pregnant women have the right to refuse life preserving medical treatment? A comparative study.  

PubMed

In this article the practice of end of life decisions is applied to pregnant women. This is not an easy task as shown by the extensive case law and literature on the subject. The main conclusion of the article is that the pregnant woman's wishes should always be respected whatever the consequences for the foetus may be. Another position would unjustly sacrifice the woman's fundamental rights to bodily integrity and self-determination for the benefit of a non-person. The result is repeated in the situation where the woman is found to be incompetent or brain dead. PMID:21133244

Lemmens, Christophe

2010-12-01

33

Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants 20?074 pregnant women with a median age of 30 who received the pertussis vaccine and a matched historical unvaccinated control group. Main outcome measure Adverse events identified from clinical diagnoses during pregnancy, with additional data from the matched child record identified through mother-child linkage. The primary event of interest was stillbirth (intrauterine death after 24 weeks’ gestation). Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth in the 14 days immediately after vaccination (incidence rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.62) or later in pregnancy (0.85, 0.44 to 1.61) compared with historical national rates. Compared with a matched historical cohort of unvaccinated pregnant women, there was no evidence that vaccination accelerated the time to delivery (hazard ratio 1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Furthermore, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth, maternal or neonatal death, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, haemorrhage, fetal distress, uterine rupture, placenta or vasa praevia, caesarean delivery, low birth weight, or neonatal renal failure, all serious events that can occur naturally in pregnancy. Conclusion In women given pertussis vaccination in the third trimester, there is no evidence of an increased risk of any of an extensive predefined list of adverse events related to pregnancy. In particular, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth. Given the recent increases in the rate of pertussis infection and morbidity and mortality in neonates, these early data provide initial evidence for evaluating the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy for health professionals and the public and can help to inform vaccination policy making. PMID:25015137

King, Bridget; Bryan, Phil

2014-01-01

34

Town and Gown Partnerships: Improving Pregnant Women’s Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to move research related to women and children experiencing violence from the university setting to the field, the DOVE study has been implemented to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention for pregnant women experiencing IPV. Using existing home health professionals, the DOVE program is directed at empowering new mothers in order to prevent their children’s exposure

Linda F. C. Bullock; Shreya Bhandari; Phyllis W. Sharps

2009-01-01

35

Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.  

PubMed

While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n?=?207) and non-pregnant women (n?=?370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p?=?0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p?=?0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r?=?0.731, p?pregnant women (p?=?0.008), but not in pregnant women (p?=?0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

2014-10-01

36

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: A pilot study among pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in “high” (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and “low”

Elizabeth Nethery; Amanda J Wheeler; Mandy Fisher; Andreas Sjödin; Zheng Li; Lovisa C Romanoff; Warren Foster; Tye E Arbuckle

2012-01-01

37

Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300??g/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150??g/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC?500??g/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150??g potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

2014-01-01

38

A prospective study of Toxoplasma-positive pregnant women in southern Brazil: a health alert.  

PubMed

We evaluated anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM-reactive pregnant women seen at a high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic. From March 2005 to January 2008 in Paraná, Brazil, pregnant women seen by the Brazilian Public Health System, in any gestational period, who were anti-T. gondii IgM-positive, were followed. Clinical symptoms were noted, and tests performed including IgA, IgG avidity, ultrasonogram, and amniocentesis (PCR/inoculation in mice). Of 75 patients, 8 showed low, 3 intermediate and 31 high IgG avidity. Of those who underwent the avidity test, 31 (70.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. Thirty-two (42.7%) pregnant women received specific treatment. Six received triple combination treatment; in three, tachyzoites were isolated, although only one was PCR-positive, showing changes in the cerebral sonogram, borderline IgA, and the Sabin tetrad. One fetus died, and one non-reactive IgM pregnant woman showed ocular recurrence. The municipality of residence, contact with cats during adulthood, and ingestion of unpasteurized milk were shown to be important risk factors. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in a pregnancy referred late for treatment. Follow-up of children born to mothers with diagnosed or suspected acute toxoplasmosis is crucial in the management of the changes that toxoplasmosis may cause. PMID:20138322

Higa, Lourenço T; Araújo, Silvana M; Tsuneto, Luiza; Castilho-Pelloso, Marcela; Garcia, João L; Santana, Rosangela G; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

2010-06-01

39

Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations.  

PubMed

Little is known about how an expecting woman's view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred three pregnant women participated in a longitudinal study and completed the EPDS and the HADS-D in each pregnancy trimester and between 8 to 12 and 20 to 25 weeks postpartum. In addition, measures of maternal orientation (PPQ), personality (NEO-FFI), coping styles (UCL), adult attachment (RQ), and parental bonding (PBI) were completed antenatally. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Neuroticism and the Regulator orientation are positively associated with the EPDS and HADS-D in both pregnant and postpartum women. These associations decreased in strength but remained significant after controlling for previous responses on the EPDS and HADS-D. Small negative associations were found between the Facilitator orientation and the HADS-D scores during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. However, this association did not hold its statistical significance within the hierarchical multiple regression models. The maternal orientations have a small but significant and independent contribution in the variance of depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:19266251

van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

2009-06-01

40

Health service barriers to HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic; a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains critical in the global efforts to reach a goal of universal access to prevention and timely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and health care. Routine HIV testing has been shown to be cost-effective and life-saving by prolonging the life expectancy of HIV patients and reducing the annual HIV transmission rate. However, these benefits of routine HIV testing may not be seen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) due to health facility related factors. This paper presents the influence of health facility related factors on HTC to inform HTC implementation. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and used structured questionnaire and interview guides to gather information from 300 pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years and had attended ANC for more than twice at the time of the study. Twelve health workers were interviewed as key informants. Respondents were selected from the five sub metro health facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. Pregnant women who had not tested after two or more ANC visits were classified as not utilizing HTC. Data was analyzed with STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women had not undergone HTC, with “never been told” emerging as the most cited reason as reported by 29.5% of respondents. Decisions by pregnant women to take up HTC were mostly influenced by factors such as lack of information, perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, waiting time, poor relationship with health staff and fear of being positive. Conclusions Access to HTC health facility alone does not translate into utilization of HTC service. Improving health facility related factors such as health education and information, confidentiality, health staff turnaround time and health staff-client relationship related to HTC will improve implementation. PMID:24942820

2014-01-01

41

Use of Traditional Medicine among Pregnant Women in Lusaka, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We studied the prevalence of and predictors for traditional medicine use among pregnant women seeking care in the Lusaka, Zambia public health system. Subjects: We surveyed 1128 pregnant women enrolled in a clinical trial of perinatal human immunodefi- ciency virus (HIV) prevention strategies at two district delivery centers. Outcome measures: Postpartum questionnaires were administered to determine demographic characteris- tics,

Yolan Banda; Victoria Chapman; Robert L. Goldenberg; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; Jennifer F. Culhane; Moses Sinkala; Sten H. Vermund; Benjamin H. Chi

2007-01-01

42

Factors Related to Eating Attitudes of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered attitudes toward eating held by pregnant women can affect the nutritional status of the mother and fetus. This retrospective study consisted of 264 pregnant women who attended an obstetrics clinic during their first prenatal visit. Data from their medical records and nutritional evaluations including the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26) were used to pursue the objective. Mean EAT-26

C. M. Bowen; E. S. Parham; E. Applegate

1999-01-01

43

Pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in pregnant women in the peripartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered clindamycin in pregnant women. Seven pregnant women treated with clindamycin were recruited. Maternal blood and arterial and venous umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. Maternal clindamycin concentrations were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM program. The data were best described by a linear three-compartment model.

A. F. Muller; J. W. Mouton; P. M. Oostvogel; P. J. Dörr; R. A. Voskuyl; J. DeJongh; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; M. Danhof

2010-01-01

44

Diagnostic value of single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women with suspected deep vein thrombosis: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the safety of using single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women to rule out deep vein thrombosis. Design Prospective outcome study. Setting Two tertiary care centres and 18 private practices specialising in vascular medicine in France and Switzerland. Participants 226 pregnant and postpartum women referred for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Methods A single proximal and distal compression ultrasonography was performed. All women with a negative complete compression ultrasonography result did not receive anticoagulant therapy and were followed up for a three month period. Main outcome measures Symptoms of venous thromboembolism, second compression ultrasonography or chest imaging, a thromboembolic event, and anticoagulant treatment. Results 16 women were excluded, mainly because of associated suspected pulmonary embolism. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 22 out of the 210 included women (10.5%). 10 patients received full dose anticoagulation despite a negative test result during follow-up. Of the 177 patients without deep vein thrombosis and who did not receive full dose anticoagulant therapy, two (1.1%, 95% confidence interval 0.3% to 4.0%) had an objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis during follow-up. Conclusions The rate of venous thromboembolic events after single complete compression ultrasonography in pregnant and postpartum women seems to be within the range of that observed in studies in the non-pregnant population. These data suggest that a negative single complete compression ultrasonography result may safely exclude the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in this setting. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00740454. PMID:22531869

2012-01-01

45

Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same physician and age) were identified. Prescriptions were set against the Australian risk classification. Results: Thirty-five percent

Eric Schirm; Willemijn M Meijer; Hilde Tobi; Lolkje T. W de Jong-van den Berg

2004-01-01

46

Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

47

Randomized controlled study transitioning opioid-dependent pregnant women from short-acting morphine to buprenorphine or methadone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the safety and withdrawal discomfort associated with transitioning pregnant opioid-dependent women from short-acting morphine onto buprenorphine or methadone under well-controlled double-blind conditions. Participants (n=18) were patients in a comprehensive treatment setting and were part of a larger randomized controlled trial comparing the neonatal abstinence syndrome in mothers treated with individualized doses of sublingual buprenorphine or oral methadone.

Hendree E. Jones; Rolley E. Johnson; Donald R. Jasinski; Lorraine Milio

2005-01-01

48

Longitudinal Studies of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women Living in a Rural Cameroonian Village with High Perennial Transmission  

PubMed Central

A prospective longitudinal study of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women was conducted in the rural village of Ngali II, where malaria is hyperendemic and individuals receive ~0.7 infectious mosquito bites/person/day throughout the year. Pregnant women (N = 60; 19 primigravidae, 41 multigravidae) were enrolled early in pregnancy (median 14 wk) and were followed monthly, with 38 women followed through term (5.7 ± 1.1 prenatal visits and delivery). The total number of times primigravidae were slide-positive during pregnancy was higher than multigravidae (3.3 ± 1.1 versus 1.3 ± 1.3 times; P < 0.001), but no difference in the number of polymerase chain reaction-positive cases (4.6 ± 1.7 and 3.4 ± 1.7 times, P = 0.106) or total genotypes they harbored (8.9 ± 3.2 and 7.0 ± 2.9) was found. Only 7.9% women developed symptomatic infections. All primigravidae and 38% multigravidae were placental malaria-positive at delivery (P = 0.009). Genotyping showed that 77% of placental parasites were acquired ? 30 wks in pregnancy. These results help identify the extent of malaria-associated changes women experience during pregnancy. PMID:21036826

Leke, Rose F. G.; Bioga, Jude D.; Zhou, James; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Leke, Robert J. I.; Tchinda, Viviane; Megnekou, Rosette; Fogako, Josephine; Sama, Grace; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Bomback, Germaine; Nama, Charles; Diouf, Ababacar; Bobbili, Naveen; Taylor, Diane Wallace

2010-01-01

49

Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine  

PubMed Central

Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768 PMID:21385426

2011-01-01

50

Auricular Acupuncture as a Treatment for Pregnant Women Suffering from Low Back and Posterior Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine whether one week of continuous auricular acupuncture could reduce low back and posterior pelvic pain associated with pregnancy. Study Design A randomized controlled trial was conducted on pregnant women suffering from lower back and posterior pelvic pain. These women were randomized into an acupuncture group, a sham acupuncture group, or a waiting list control group. All participants were followed for 2 weeks. Results Baseline and Day 7 showed significant group differences in pain [F= 15, P<0.0001] and in the disability rating index score [F=7, p<0.0001]. The participants in the acupuncture group reported a significant reduction of pain and improvement of functional status as compared to those in the sham acupuncture and control groups. Conclusion One week of continuous auricular acupuncture decreases the pain and disability experienced by women with pregnancy related low back and posterior pelvic pain. PMID:19560110

Wang, Shu-Ming; Dizinno, Peggy; Lin, Eric C.; Lin, Haiqun; Yue, James J.; Berman, Michael R.; Braveman, Ferne; Kain, Zeev N.

2009-01-01

51

CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSES OF PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and non-pregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (ten pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20±4.44 years, 69.80±9.52 kg, 161.60±5.21 cm and ten non-pregnant: 25.20±3.73 years, 62.36±8.60 kg, 162.40±3.97 cm) performed five experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of one estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4 and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of one estimated maximum repetition. Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure responses were lower (p = 0.029, 0.018, 0.009, respectively) in the pregnant group. When the exercises were performed with a single set, heart rate showed increased values for bilateral leg extension (pregnant: 109.40±10.75 bpm, non-pregnant: 108.51±19.05 bpm) compared to pec-deck (pregnant: 101.59±14.83 bpm, non-pregnant: 100.37±12.36 bpm), however, when the exercises were performed with 3 sets, bilateral leg extension showed increased values for the heart rate (pregnant: 114.70±13.58 bpm, non-pregnant: 121.29±10.86bpm), systolic (pregnant: 124.50±17.32 mmHg, non-pregnant: 136.00±17.79 mmHg), diastolic (pregnant: 68.10±8.23 mmHg, non-pregnant: 77.89±15.25 mmHg) and mean blood pressure (pregnant: 86.90±10.38 mmHg, non-pregnant: 97.73±12.64 mmHg), ventilation (pregnant: 12.88±4.05 l.min, non-pregnant: 15.02±4.19 l.min) and oxygen consumption (pregnant: 0.41±0.08 l.min, non-pregnant: 0.42±0.09 l.min) compared to pec-deck fly exercise. We concluded that the pressure response was unaffected by pregnancy and showed to be safe during the performance of resistance exercises. PMID:25226315

Bgeginski, Roberta; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Martins Kruel, Luiz Fernando

2014-09-15

52

Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

2014-01-01

53

Antenatal fear of childbirth and sense of coherence among healthy pregnant women in Japan: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

While antenatal fear of childbirth (FOC) has been associated with many psychosocial variables, few studies have focused on individual stress resiliency. Sense of coherence (SOC) is one of the essential components of individual stress resiliency. This study investigates the relationship between antenatal FOC and SOC in Japanese healthy pregnant women. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 240 women at 37 gestational weeks at an obstetric clinic in Tokyo, Japan. Structural regression modeling was conducted to identify the causal relationships between FOC and SOC. The non-recursive model showed significant acceptance of fit (chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.72, comparative fit index = 0.97, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.05). The model identified SOC as a direct cause of FOC (? = -0.89, p < 0.001), not a reflection of FOC. We found that SOC was negatively linked with antenatal fear of childbirth. High SOC works as a resiliency factor that helps pregnant women cope with the stress of their upcoming childbirth and reduces FOC. PMID:24493148

Takegata, Mizuki; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Okano, Tadaharu; Severinsson, Elisabeth

2014-10-01

54

Lactose Intolerance in Pregnant African-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To state the prevalence and effects of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American womenObjective: To determine the prevalence of lactose intolerance in pregnant African-American women, any change in tolerance that may occur and reported symptoms after consuming 240 ml of 1% milk.Design: This longitudinal study compared lactose status: 1) prior to 16 weeks gestation, 2) between the 30th and

D. M. Paige; F. R. Witter; J. A. Perman; Y. Bronner; L. A. Kessler

1997-01-01

55

Comparison of PCR and serotyping of Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women: The Oslo GBS-study.  

PubMed

Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive neonatal infection. Serotyping of GBS is important in following epidemiological trends and vaccine development. Capsular serotyping of GBS by latex agglutination has been the predominant typing method, but more recently capsular genotyping has been introduced as an alternative method. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative performance of these methods in a contemporary population of pregnant women. We typed isolates from an unselected population of 426 colonized women at delivery using latex agglutination and a combination of four PCR methods. Antibiotic resistance was tested in 449 isolates. Capsular genotyping gave a result in all except three of 426 isolates. Fifty-nine of 426 isolates could not be typed by latex agglutination. Agreement between serotyping and genotyping was shown in 303 (71.1%) of the isolates. 10.2% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 9.6% to clindamycin, 76.6% to tetracycline and none to penicillin. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of the colonizing strains were non-typeable by serotyping, but typeable by genotyping. This suggests that a diagnostic genotyping strategy is preferable to serotyping of the GBS polysaccharide capsule in colonized, pregnant women. PMID:25447890

Brigtsen, Anne Karin; Dedi, Lumnije; Melby, Kjetil K; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Radtke, Andreas; Lyng, Randi Valsø; Andresen, Lise Lima; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Fugelseth, Drude; Whitelaw, Andrew

2015-01-01

56

[Smoking habits in pregnant women after the ban: a study on a sample of puerperae in Piedmont region].  

PubMed

Data collected few months after the introduction of the ban of smoking in all indoor public places showed a reduction in tobacco consumption and in prevalence of Italian smokers. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate smoking habits in pregnant women. Data have been collected from a questionnaire that investigated the way of cessation, the opinion about the ban and its influence on smoking behaviour or passive smoking exposure. Moreover, 6 months after delivery, we investigated the habits of the women who smoked just before and during pregnancy. We found a prevalence of smokers before pregnancy of 25%, a statistically significant association (p<0,01) between passive smoking exposure and the frequency of women who smoked before and in the first trimester of pregnancy, between smoking during a previous and the present pregnancy and a significant cutting down on smoking before and during pregnancy. Although the study showed a significant reduction in second hand smoking exposure in the workplaces, about 30% of the women are exposed to passive smoking in their family environment. Almost all women agreed with law 3/2003 and only 22% of the women of our sample denied any type of influence of the ban on their smoking habit or exposure. We also found that about 50% of the women who had smoked during or before pregnancy relapsed within six months after delivery, even if they were not smoking as many cigarettes as before. Smoking habit among women remains an open issue to cope with because of its prevalence and its effects on health of both women and their children. PMID:18693404

Charrier, L; Serafini, P; Zanetti, M; Zotti, C M

2008-01-01

57

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina  

PubMed Central

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention. PMID:24159312

Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

2013-01-01

58

Prevalence of Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts Among Pregnant Pakistani Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts and to identify demographic variables and mental health correlates such as anxiety/depression and domestic violence among pregnant women in an urban community in Pakistan. Design Cross sectional data from a prospective cohort study are presented. Setting Women enrolled in an antenatal care clinic and followed to delivery in an urban area of Pakistan Population Cohort of pregnant women in Pakistan. Methods 1,369 pregnant women were enrolled and interviewed regarding various maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes, and were asked specific questions about suicidal thoughts and attempts and administered the Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale at 20–26 weeks of gestation. Main outcome measures Suicidal thoughts and attempts, verbal, sexual or physical abuse. Results Overall, 148 of the 1369 (11%) women studied had considered suicide. Of these, 148 women, 67 (45%) had attempted suicide. Eighteen percent of the women were classified as having depression/anxiety, almost half (48%) reported experiencing verbal abuse and 20% reported physical/sexual abuse. Women who had anxiety/depression or had experienced verbal or physical/sexual abuse were significantly more likely to have had suicidal thoughts and attempts. Conclusions Women at greatest risk for having suicidal thoughts or a suicide attempt were those who were depressed/anxious and had experienced some form of domestic abuse. With the high prevalence of these conditions, attention should be given to the establishment of effective mental health treatment programs for pregnant women. PMID:21050149

Asad, Nargis; Karmaliani, Rozina; Sullaiman, Nasreen; Bann, Carla M.; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Pasha, Omrana; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2014-01-01

59

Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

2012-01-01

60

Pregnant Women after Physical and Sexual Abuse in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women’s feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an

Katharina Jundt; Kristin Haertl; Angelika Knobbe; Ralph Kaestner; Klaus Friese; Ursula M. Peschers

2009-01-01

61

Folate levels in pregnant women who smoke: An important gene\\/environment interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether serum and red blood cell folate levels were decreased in pregnant women who smoke and whether total plasma homocysteine levels were elevated. Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, serum folate, red blood cell folate, and homocysteine were measured in pregnant first- and early second-trimester pregnant women who smoked (case subjects)

Sarah D. McDonald; Sherry L. Perkins; Carol Ann Jodouin; Mark C. Walker

2002-01-01

62

The Community Perinatal Care Study: Home Visiting and Nursing Support for Pregnant Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes The Community Perinatal Care Study, a community-based study of pregnancy support that was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between 2001 and 2004. The study was conducted to learn how to improve community-based pregnancy care and to improve prenatal care and healthy births, particularly for women with increased…

Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne; Siever, Jodi

2006-01-01

63

Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure. PMID:25642349

Maiya, Arun G.; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

2015-01-01

64

Syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique.  

PubMed Central

To establish the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique and evaluate present diagnostic methods, 1468 pregnant women in eight of the country's 10 provinces were examined using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Positive serum samples were also analysed using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) assay and one group was also analysed using the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) test. The prevalence of VDRL seroreactivity was found to be between 4.5% and 14.6%, whereas the prevalence of treponemal disease as verified by TPHA or FTA-ABS tests was between 1.6% and 9.8%. It is concluded that syphilis is relatively common among pregnant women in Mozambique. The predictive value of a positive VDRL test, when adequately performed, was PMID:3910543

Liljestrand, J; Bergström, S; Nieuwenhuis, F; Hederstedt, B

1985-01-01

65

Vaccination for Pregnant Women: Need to address.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is a critically important state for any women in her life time. Administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman is not a routine event and it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. Currently vaccination with inactivated vaccines are recommended due to potential risk to mother and fetus with live vaccines. Multiple factors determine the administration of the vaccines for example age, life style, medical conditions (e.g asthma, diabetes etc.), type and location of travel and status of previous vaccination. If pregnant woman is exposed to these vaccines or if pregnancy occurs soon after vaccination, the women should be counselled regarding the risks to the fetus and vaccination should not be a reason to consider termination of pregnancy. Further research in vaccination among pregnancy is warranted for the safety of the pregnant women and their to new born for a healthy living and better life. PMID:25483683

Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir; Choudhry, Sandeep; Jindal, Harashish

2014-11-01

66

Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37%). Speaking was equally prevalent among the 3 groups (12%-19%). Behaviors were associated with nightmares, dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, and altered hormone levels. Citation: Nielsen T; Paquette T. Dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum women. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1162-1169. PMID:17910388

Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

2007-01-01

67

Cross-sectional study on factors associated with influenza vaccine uptake and pertussis vaccination status among pregnant women in Germany.  

PubMed

Pregnant women and their newborns are at increased risk for influenza-related complications; the latter also have an increased risk for pertussis-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. A dose of pertussis-containing vaccine has been recommended since 2004 for women of childbearing age if they have not been vaccinated within the past 10 years. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey among pregnant women in February/March 2013 to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to influenza vaccination during pregnancy and to identify factors associated with their pertussis vaccination status. In total, 1025 pregnant women participated and provided information through a self-administered questionnaire. Of these, 23.2% were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during the 2012/13 season; 15.9% during their pregnancy. Major reasons for being unvaccinated (n=686 respondents) were lack of confidence in the vaccine (60.4%) and the perception that vaccination was not necessary (40.3%). Influenza vaccination during pregnancy was independently associated with having received influenza vaccine in the previous season, having received a recommendation from a physician, a high level of vaccine-related knowledge and of perceived disease severity. In contrast, knowledge of the recommendation for regular hand-washing to prevent influenza and the perception that vaccine-related side effects were likely to occur or likely to be severe were negatively associated with vaccine uptake. Receipt of a pertussis vaccine in the past 10 years was reported by 22.5% of participants. Pertussis vaccine uptake was independently associated with living in the Eastern federal states and receiving seasonal influenza vaccination annually, while a migration background was associated with a lower uptake. To enhance vaccine uptake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age, special efforts must be undertaken to improve knowledge of both recommendations and the benefits of vaccination. Gynecologists could serve as important facilitators. PMID:24928791

Bödeker, Birte; Walter, Dietmar; Reiter, Sabine; Wichmann, Ole

2014-07-16

68

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

69

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and estimated insulin sensitivity and secretion in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity. PMID:21679399

2011-01-01

70

Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

2012-01-01

71

Analysis of Intervention on Stressed Pregnant Women's  

E-print Network

Analysis Analysis of Intervention on Stressed Pregnant Women's Social Networks Robert C Drugan, Ph.D. Intervention Group (N = 6): ·Self-designed and meaningful stress management package, including their choice of 1-2 funded activities each week such as massage, hair/nail care, yoga, and gym membership. ·Weekly

New Hampshire, University of

72

Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four depressed pregnant women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group that received standard prenatal care alone. These groups were compared to each other and to a non-depressed group at the end of pregnancy. The massage therapy group participants received two 20

T. Field; M. A. Diego; M. Hernandez-Reif; S. Schanberg; C. Kuhn

2004-01-01

73

Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)  

PubMed Central

Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ? 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and urinary ethylene thiourea (ETU) concentrations among pregnant women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA). Environ Health Perspect 122:1321–1328;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679 PMID:25198283

Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

2014-01-01

74

Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144??g/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164??g/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131??g/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148??g/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129??g/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172??g/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167??g/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

2013-01-01

75

Fetal macrosomia in pregnant women with gestational diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of fetal macrosomia in newborns from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy mothers, as well as determining the influence of fetal growth on pregnancy termination, on complications in pregnancy, during delivery and puerperium and on neonatal complications. In the study were included 351 pregnant women with GDM, as well as control group of 1502 healthy pregnant women. Newborns of mothers with GDM had significantly higher birth weight and length, ponderal index > 2.85 was more frequent, they were macrosomic and hypertrophic (disproportional and proportional), had smaller Apgar score and more frequent neonatal complications (p < 0.05). Fetal macrosomia and fetal hypertrophy alone or, particularly, connected with disproportional fetal growth, but disproportional hypotrophy as well, had significantly influence on greater frequency of delivery and puerperal complications, delivery completion with Cesarean section and neonatal complications in pregnant women with GDM. PMID:20102057

Segregur, Jadranko; Bukovi?, Damir; Milinovi?, Darko; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Paveli?, Jasminka; Zupi?, Tomislav; Persec, Jasminka; Pavi?, Mato

2009-12-01

76

A Comparative Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by CLIA and ELISA Methods in Chalus City Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most common disease in humans and animals (zoonosis) caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is usually appeared as asymptomatic in immunocompromised individuals but its most common symptom is lymphadenopathy. Shortly before or during the first trimester of pregnancy, this disease can be transferred to the fetus and cause serious infection in the fetus. In late pregnancy (third trimester), the complications of this infection is very low or unsigned. Due to the absence of non-specific clinical symptoms or slight infection in pregnant women, prenatal diagnosis is often impossible. Objectives: Since no research compared these two methods, we decided to compare these methods and determine which method works better for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Patients and Methods: In this study, 50 pregnant women who referred to the Chalus Health Center laboratory were included and the blood samples were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii by both ELISA and Chemiluminescence methods. Results: Of the 50 samples tested by the ELISA method, 26 samples (52%) were positive for IgG . No samples were positive for IgM. Of the 50 samples tested by the Chemiluminescence method, 28 samples (56%) were positive for IgG. No samples were positive for IgM. Conclusions: A significant relationship between the age of the youngest child and the infection rate was seen. No significant correlation between age, number of individuals in the household, number of children, location, type of construction, consumption of greens, the way of greens and meat consumption, drug use, history of stillbirth and infection levels was seen. PMID:24910803

Elahian Firouz, Zahra; Kaboosi, Hami; Faghih Nasiri, Abdolreza; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Golhasani-Keshtan, Farideh; Zaboli, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

77

Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

2013-10-01

78

[Nicotine in the hair as a biomarker of tobacco smoke by pregnant women--preliminary study].  

PubMed

Determination of xenobiotics in hair has become common in evaluation of exposure to drugs. It can be used to assess the drug intake among adults and exposure to these substances in prenatal period. The aim of this study was the nicotine determination in hair of newborns' whose mothers were smoking during pregnancy. Also the relationship between concentration of cotinine--the main metabolite of nicotine in the urine of mothers and nicotine concentration in their infants' hair has been evaluated. The group of 15 women who had been smoking during pregnancy and 10 non-smoking and not exposed to ETS women and their newborns were the subject of the study. The cotinine levels in maternal urine samples was measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a spectrometric detection, with the use of norephedryne as an internal standard, after a prior extraction with the use of liquid-liquid technique. Nicotine assess in infants' hair was carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, with the use of ketamine as an interior standard, after the prior extraction with the use of liquid-liquid technique. The mean cotinine concentration in the group of smoking women amounted to 1132.5+/-1236.3 ng/mg creatinine and the level of nicotine in hair of children amounted to 1.9+/-3.2 ng/mg of hair. In the group of non-smoking women the urine cotinine test showed that two patients were exposed to the tobacco smoke. Nicotine in their children's hair was below the detection limit. The demonstrated correlation between the nicotine concentration in infants' hair and the cotinine levels in mothers' urine shows that the source of fetal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents is smoking during pregnancy. The applied gas chromatography method/mass spectrometry method allows to evaluate the level of nicotine in hair of the newborns, whose mothers were smoking during pregnancy, however it seems that in the case of exposure to ETS a more sensitive method, such as gas or liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has to be applied. PMID:18409297

Se?czuk, Monika; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Stanaszek, Roman; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Kulza, Maksymilian; Kornacka, Maria K

2007-01-01

79

Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.  

PubMed Central

Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test. In all cases detailed histories were obtained and patients were examined for clinical signs of syphilis. The TPHA test result was reactive in 12.5% of antenatal patients and in 42% of women who aborted in the later half of pregnancy. Among 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital, 30 had reactive results to the TPHA test; of these two were stillborn and four had signs of congenital syphilis at birth. Thus, syphilis appears to affect adversely an appreciably high number of pregnant women in Zambia. For this reason a special campaign to screen adequately and treat pregnant women and neonates is needed. PMID:6756542

Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C

1982-01-01

80

Clinical complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: prospective study of factors predicting maternal death or near miss  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate complications in pregnant women with sickle cell disease, especially those leading to maternal death or near miss (severe obstetric complications). Methods A prospective cohort of 104 pregnant women registered in the Blood Center of Belo Horizonte (Hemominas Foundation) was followed up at high-risk prenatal units. They belonged to Group I (51 hemoglobin SS and three hemoglobin S/?0-thalassemia) or Group II (49 hemoglobin SC and one hemoglobin S/?+-thalassemia). Both groups had similar median ages. Predictive factors for ‘near miss’ or maternal death with p-value ? 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic model (significance set for p-value ? 0.05). Results Group I had more frequent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, more transfusions in the antepartum and postpartum, and higher percentage of preterm deliveries than Group II. Infections and painful crises during the postpartum period were similar in both the groups. The mortality rate was 4.8%: three deaths in Group I and two in Group II. One-third of the women in both the groups experienced near miss. The most frequent event was pneumonia/acute chest syndrome. Alpha-thalassemia co-inheritance and ?-gene haplotypes were not associated with near miss or maternal death. In multivariate analysis predictors of near miss or death were parity above one and baseline red blood cell macrocytosis. In Group I, baseline hypoxemia (saturation < 94%) was also predictive of near miss or death. Conclusion One-third of pregnant women had near miss and 4.8% died. Both hemoglobin SS and SC pregnant women shared the same risk of death or of severe complications, especially pulmonary events. PMID:25031164

Resende Cardoso, Patrícia Santos; Lopes Pessoa de Aguiar, Regina Amélia; Viana, Marcos Borato

2014-01-01

81

Risk of intrauterine growth restriction among HIV-infected pregnant women: a cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to study the risk of intrauterine growth restriction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women and to describe the associated risk factors. A cohort study was performed among HIV-infected women who delivered in a single tertiary centre in Barcelona, Spain, from January 2006 to December 2011. Consecutive singleton pregnancies delivered beyond 22 weeks of pregnancy were included. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was defined as a birth weight below the 10th customised centile for gestational age and IUGR babies were compared to non-IUGR newborns. Intrauterine Doppler findings were described among IUGR foetuses. Baseline characteristics, HIV infection data and perinatal outcome were compared between groups. The results were adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 156 singleton pregnancies were included. IUGR occurred in 23.4 % of cases (38/156). In two-thirds of the cases detected before birth, Doppler abnormalities compatible with placental insufficiency were observed. IUGR pregnancies presented a worse perinatal outcome, mainly due to a higher risk of iatrogenic preterm delivery [adjusted odds ratio 6.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-33.5]. IUGR foetuses also had a higher risk of emergent Caesarean section and neonatal intensive care unit admission. No cases of intrauterine foetal death occurred. A high rate of IUGR was observed among HIV pregnancies, and it was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, mainly iatrogenic preterm and very preterm birth due to placental insufficiency. Our results support that ultrasound detection and follow-up of IUGR foetuses should be part of routine antenatal care in this high-risk population to improve antenatal management. PMID:25107626

López, M; Palacio, M; Goncé, A; Hernàndez, S; Barranco, F J; García, L; Loncà, M; Coll, J O; Gratacós, E; Figueras, F

2014-08-01

82

Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Some women continue smoking during pregnancy despite the extensive information available on the dangers smoking poses to their fetus. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of smoking before and during pregnancy and the extent of smoking during pregnancy from a European perspective in relation to maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy, morbidity, and pregnancy-related factors. Methods This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Results Of 8344 women included, 2944 (35.3%) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 771 (26.2%) continued smoking during pregnancy, 88 (11.4%) of whom smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day. There was a wide variation among the 15 European countries in smoking rates before and during pregnancy, ranging from 25.0% (Sweden) to 50.0% (Croatia) before and 4.2% (Iceland) to 18.9% (Croatia) during pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and unplanned pregnancy, who did not take folic acid, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy were the most likely to smoke before pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern or Western Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children and unplanned pregnancy, and who did not take folic acid were the most likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy were the most likely to be living in Eastern Europe and to have a low education level. Conclusion Women with fewer resources living in Western or Eastern Europe are more likely not only to smoke before pregnancy but also to continue smoking during pregnancy. These high-risk women are characterized as living alone, having high school or less as highest education level, having low health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children, having unplanned pregnancy, and no use of folic acid. Our findings indicated that focus on smoking cessation is important in antenatal care in Europe as many women smoke before pregnancy, and still continue to do so in pregnancy. PMID:24964728

2014-01-01

83

The effect of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected pregnant women in Thailand: an embedded mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. PMID:23260038

Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W

2013-01-01

84

Iron deficiency anaemia in Nigerian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Ninety-four Nigerian pregnant women, many of who had mild to moderate anaemia, were investigated for the presence of iron deficiency. Using the bone marrow as the diagnostic index, 90% of these patients were found to be iron deficient. Iron deficiency is thus common among our expectant mothers. They should, therefore, be given iron supplement in addition to the present practice of folic acid and antimalarials, throughout pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:15899

Ogunbode, O; Oluboyede, O A

1976-01-01

85

Lack of efficacy of pyrimethamine prophylaxis in pregnant Nigerian women.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine on the blood stage (suppressive prophylaxis) and liver stage (causal prophylaxis) of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women, in vivo and in vitro field studies were conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, from Jan 1 to June 30, 1988. For pregnant women with P falciparum infections who received 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly for suppressive prophylaxis, 67% (59/88) of in vivo and 60% (6/10) of in vitro tests showed pyrimethamine resistance. A second group of parasitaemic and parasite-free pregnant women was enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine as a primary tissue schizonticide; after receiving a curative dose of chloroquine (25 mg/kg), half the women were given 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly and half received no prophylaxis. Parasitologic failure rates did not differ between the pyrimethamine-treated (8/34) and the control (11/37) groups during the 16-week follow-up. Thus, pyrimethamine is not effective for suppressive or causal prophylaxis in pregnant women in Ilorin. PMID:2571759

Nahlen, B L; Akintunde, A; Alakija, T; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Ogunbode, O; Edungbola, L D; Adetoro, O; Breman, J G

1989-10-01

86

Seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan.  

PubMed

Rubella vaccine is not included in the Sudanese national immunization programme, and data on prevalence of rubella among women of childbearing age are inadequate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 500 pregnant women who visited 7 antenatal clinics from November 2008 to March 2009 were examined for the presence of rubella IgG antibodies using ELISA. Rubella IgG antibodies were detected in 95.1% (95% Cl: 93.2%-97.0%) of women. This seroprevalence was significantly associated with education level, but not with age, residence area, occupation or parity. We presume this high seroprevalence indicates a high circulation of wild rubella virus in Khartoum state. Similar studies in other Sudanese states would be important for informing a decision to introduce rubella vaccine to Sudan. PMID:24313044

Adam, O; Makkawi, T; Kannan, A; Osman, M E

2013-09-01

87

Dietary iron intake of pregnant Nigerian women with anemia.  

PubMed

The daily dietary iron intake of nine pregnant Nigerian women with confirmed iron deficiency anemia was determined. The daily dietary iron intake from hospital meals served to ten other pregnant women was also assessed to serve as a control. The mean daily iron intake of the group of anemic patients on home diet was 14.6 mg (range of individual means = 8.37-25.28 mg), whereas the group of patients served hospital meals had a mean daily dietary iron intake of 36.92 mg (range of individual means = 25.09-46.47 mg). It is, therefore, clear that the etiology of iron deficiency in the patients studied was mainly dietary. Thus, our pregnant patients, many of whom are on diets similar to those of the group studied, should receive iron supplements during pregnancy. PMID:42589

Ogunbode, O; Akinyele, I O; Hussain, M A

1979-01-01

88

Do pregnant women exercise their pelvic floor muscles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to assess the number of women performing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy\\u000a and to compare the background variables in those exercising and in those who did not. Four hundred and sixty-seven pregnant\\u000a women (response rate 84%), mean age 31.5 years (range 20–49), answered a questionnaire on general physical activity level\\u000a during pregnancy

Kari Bø; Lene A. H. Haakstad; Nanna Voldner

2007-01-01

89

Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNF?, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNF? was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production. PMID:24466049

Faas, Marijke M.; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G.

2014-01-01

90

Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

2014-01-01

91

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

92

Influenza Vaccination Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in New Jersey: The Importance of the Prenatal Care Provider Pregnant and  

E-print Network

postpartum women who were either recommended or offered influenza vaccine by their health care providers were 5 times more likely to be vaccinated than women who were not recommended or offered the vaccine. “I was surprised my doctor didn’t talk to me about… flu vaccinations.” –PRAMS mother Background Pregnant women have increased morbidity and mortality from seasonal influenza due to the changes that occur during pregnancy. 1-3 Influenza vaccination with the trivalent inactivated vaccine is the most effective way to protect pregnant women from influenza and its complications. 4-5 Recent studies have demonstrated that vaccination during pregnancy significantly reduced the chance of influenza illness among infants up to 6 months of age. 6-8 Vaccination of pregnant women is a key way to protect these babies who are at high risk of severe illness from influenza, but who are too young to be vaccinated. 5-8 Before 2009, pregnant women had the lowest rates of seasonal influenza vaccination among all adult priority groups. 9-10 In 2009, only about half of pregnant women received the influenza vaccine. 11 Prenatal health care providers play a critical role in increasing rates of influenza vaccination among pregnant women by recommending and providing influenza vaccine to their patients. 10,12

unknown authors

2011-01-01

93

Oxidative stress increased in pregnant women with iodine deficiency.  

PubMed

Iodine is an essential element trace for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development; it also acts as an antioxidant directly or induce antioxidant enzymes indirectly. Iodine deficiency and oxidative stress are associated with pregnancy complications. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship with the antioxidant and oxidative stress status during gestation. Pregnant women were consecutively recruited from an obstetric clinic during all gestation trimesters, and urinary iodine concentration, antioxidant, and oxidative stress were determined. Results showed that 70 % of pregnant women have optimal iodine levels (150-200 ?g/L), while approximately 30 % showed mild iodine deficiency (50-99 ?g/L). Oxidative stress was significantly higher, and the antioxidant status was also compromised as evidenced by decreased total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in pregnant women with mild iodine deficiency than pregnant women with optimal iodine levels. Significant positive correlations were noted between optimal iodine levels and total antioxidant status. Oxidative stress was significantly correlated with mild iodine deficiency. However, no significant correlation was found between iodine levels and SOD and catalase activities. In conclusion, for the first time, these data suggest a correlation between iodine levels and the antioxidant status during pregnancy. PMID:24464603

Vidal, Zendy Evelyn Olivo; Rufino, Sergio Cuellar; Tlaxcalteco, Esteban Hernández; Trejo, Cirenia Hernández; Campos, Raúl Martínez; Meza, Mónica Navarro; Rodríguez, Rocío Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

2014-03-01

94

Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR?=?3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR?=?5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR?=?11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR?=?5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR?=?3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR?=?6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need to be screened for both HIV and HBV infections during antenatal care. Furthermore, health education about modes of transmission of HIV and HBV has to be given. PMID:24580859

2014-01-01

95

Urinary inositol phosphoglycan-P type: near patient test to detect preeclampsia prior to clinical onset of the disease. A study on 416 pregnant Mauritian women.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia and eclampsia account for major pregnancy complications in Mauritius, an emerging country (maternal mortality rate of 60 per 100,000 deliveries). This prospective longitudinal study was carried out in the main regional hospital in the north of the island, to measure inositol phosphoglycan-P type (IPG-P) in the urine of pregnant women (using an ELISA-based assay). Women had approximately 10 prenatal visits per pregnancy and a complete follow-up in this same referral centre after the first trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples were collected every 1-4 weeks in all women. In a cohort of 416 patients, preeclampsia (PE) was diagnosed in 34 women. In established PE (hypertension and proteinuria), the assay as a diagnostic test showed a positive likelihood ratio of 18.73, a negligible negative likelihood ratio with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99, sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 94.8% and remained negative in control women (n=312), women with gestational hypertension (without proteinuria (n=56), and gestational diabetic mothers (n=14). Moreover, as a predictive screening test two weeks before the diagnosis of PE, the assay showed sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 83.6%. Detection of urinary inositol phosphoglycan-P type in pregnant women can be a useful confirmatory marker of PE, as well as a predictive marker, two weeks before the onset of the disease. PMID:23962712

Dawonauth, Lalita; Rademacher, Laurens; L'Omelette, Arnaud Dominique; Jankee, Sarojini; Lee Kwai Yan, Man Yoon; Jeeawoody, Razgia B; Rademacher, Thomas W

2014-03-01

96

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS), are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA), were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks) or the third (32 - 36 weeks) trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L) for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h) for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L) for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h) for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%). Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that higher AS doses would be required to maintain similar DHA levels in pregnant women as achieved in non-pregnant controls. PMID:21548983

2011-01-01

97

Toxoplasma seroconversion with negative or transient immunoglobulin M in pregnant women: myth or reality? A French multicenter retrospective study.  

PubMed

Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Cimon, B; Chemla, C; Darde, M L; Delhaes, L; L'ollivier, C; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Quinio, D; Robert-Gangneux, F; Villard, O; Villena, I; Candolfi, E; Pelloux, H

2013-07-01

98

Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

2013-01-01

99

The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy-a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

2015-02-01

100

Exploratory Analysis of Exercise Adherence Patterns with Sedentary Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background It is not well understood how sedentary women who wish to engage in regular exercise adhere to interventions during pregnancy and what factors may influence adherence over time. Objective To examine longitudinal patterns of pregnant women’s adherence to exercise. Methods Exploratory secondary data analyses were carried out with 124 previously sedentary pregnant women (ages 31 ± 5 years; 85% non-Hispanic White) from a randomized controlled trial. Daily exercise logs (n = 92) from 18 through 35 weeks of gestation were explored using linear regression, functional data, and principal component analyses. Results Adherence decreased as gestation week increased (p < .001); the top adherers maintained levels of adherence, and the bottom adherers decreased levels of adherence; and adherence pattern was influenced by types of exercise throughout the study period. Discussion Exercise behavior patterns were explored in a randomized controlled trial study, using chronometric data on exercise attendance. A new analytic approach revealed that sedentary pregnant women may adopt exercise habits differently from other populations. PMID:20585224

Yeo, SeonAe; Cisewski, Jessi; Lock, Eric F.; Marron, J. S.

2010-01-01

101

Carrier Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) in 107,611 Pregnant Women during the Period 2005–2009: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common neuromuscular autosomal recessive disorder. The American College of Medical Genetics has recently recommended routine carrier screening for SMA because of the high carrier frequency (1 in 25–50) as well as the severity of that genetic disease. Large studies are needed to determine the feasibility, benefits, and costs of such a program. Methods and Findings This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009. A three-stage screening program was used: (1) pregnant women were tested for SMA heterozygosity; (2) if the mother was determined to be heterozygous for SMA (carrier status), the paternal partner was then tested; (3) if both partners were SMA carriers, prenatal diagnostic testing was performed. During the study period, a total of 2,262 SMA carriers with one copy of the SMN1 gene were identified among the 107,611 pregnant women that were screened. The carrier rate was approximately 1 in 48 (2.10%). The negative predictive value of DHPLC coupled with MLPA was 99.87%. The combined method could detect approximately 94% of carriers because most of the cases resulted from a common single deletion event. In addition, 2,038 spouses were determined to be SMA carriers. Among those individuals, 47 couples were determined to be at high risk for having offspring with SMA. Prenatal diagnostic testing was performed in 43 pregnant women (91.49%) and SMA was diagnosed in 12 (27.91%) fetuses. The prevalence of SMA in our population was 1 in 8,968. Conclusion The main benefit of SMA carrier screening is to reduce the burden associated with giving birth to an affected child. In this study, we determined the carrier frequency and genetic risk and provided carrier couples with genetic services, knowledge, and genetic counseling. PMID:21364876

Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Fang-Yi; Chern, Jimmy P. S.; Tsai, Chris; Chang, Tai-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Chao; Li, Hung; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Lee, Chien-Nan

2011-01-01

102

Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

2009-01-01

103

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. METHODS: A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted

Riitta Luoto; Elham Kharazmi; Niina M Saarinen; Annika I Smeds; Sari Mäkelä; Mahdi Fallah; Jani Raitanen; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2010-01-01

104

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

105

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

106

The consumption of food, energy and nutrients in pregnant women: Differences with respect to smoking habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was to study the consumption of food, energy and nutrients in pregnant women, with respect to differences in their smoking habits. Food, energy and nutrient intakes during the third trimester of pregnancy were determined in 82 pregnant women by recording their consumption of foods over a five day period, and by calculation of the

Rosa M. Ortega; Rosa M. Martínez; Ana M. López-Sobaler; Pedro Andrés; María Elena Quintas

1998-01-01

107

Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.  

PubMed

Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

2015-02-01

108

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

109

Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.  

PubMed

Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions. PMID:23215982

Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

2012-12-01

110

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

2012-01-01

111

Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6?l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92?min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777?ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30?min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26?min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.48. PMID:25073435

Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

2014-07-30

112

Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

113

Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... For Men For Women For Seniors Tips on Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns Published ... thaw. Keep Raw Meats and Ready-to-Eat Foods Separate Prevent cross-contamination by keeping raw foods ...

114

Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

2012-01-01

115

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

116

Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

2010-07-01

117

45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204...Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses....

2014-10-01

118

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. METHODS: Two thousand and eight (2008) pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. RESULTS: About 10% (198\\/2008) were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive

Enow R Mbu; Eugene J Kongnyuy; FX Mbopi-Keou; Rebecca N Tonye; Philip N Nana; Robert JI Leke

2008-01-01

119

Predictors of prenatal multivitamin adherence in pregnant women.  

PubMed

There is no study available that has investigated determinants of prenatal multivitamin adherence among pregnant women, based on gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. The objective of this study was to identify determinants predicting adherence to prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women who were randomized to take 2 different supplements. The authors recruited and interviewed 70 women on the importance of various factors that may have affected adherence to previous and assigned multivitamins. The different factors included GI symptoms and swallowing difficulty. The authors used a 5-point scale to measure degree of importance. The highest scoring factors for not taking or discontinuing any previous multivitamins were fear of or experience of nausea, vomiting, and gagging. For women who never took the assigned prenatal multivitamins, the highest scoring factors contributing to that decision were fear of nausea, fear of vomiting, and health care provider advice. For women who started taking the assigned supplements, the most important factors affecting adherence were dosing regimen, health care provider advice, and mode of product distribution. Adherence to assigned prenatal multivitamins significantly correlated only with the importance of constipation in deciding to discontinue any previous multivitamins. It is concluded that predictors of adherence to recommended prenatal multivitamins during pregnancy are rooted in women's prior experiences with multivitamin use. PMID:19386624

Nguyen, Patricia; Thomas, Martin; Koren, Gideon

2009-06-01

120

Conceptualising Information Literacy as Social Practice: A Study of Pregnant Women's Information Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The present study presents a view of information literacy not primarily as skill but as different practices, situated within specific social and institutional contexts. It suggests that questions of authority of knowledge are central to understanding people's information practices. Method: First, the concept of information…

Papen, Uta

2013-01-01

121

Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.  

PubMed

The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and ?-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:24319740

Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

2013-11-01

122

Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood.\\u000a The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers\\u000a in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total

Kelly R. Evenson; Merry-K. Moos; Kathryn Carrier; Anna Maria Siega-Riz

2009-01-01

123

Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai  

PubMed Central

Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up. PMID:23555139

Shidhaye, Pallavi R.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shidhaye, Rahul R.

2012-01-01

124

Chlamydia trachomatis antigen prevalence among pregnant women in West Virginia.  

PubMed

During 1990, more than 2,100 women who received prenatal care at one of four clinics which serve 11 West Virginia counties, were screened for chlamydial antigen. Overall, 5.6 percent of the women screened had positive antigen tests and 90 percent of these individuals were under the age of 25. The prevalence of chlamydia was different at three geographic sites with the highest rate of positive antigen test being 9.4 percent at one site. These findings led to a careful analysis of the prevalence of this disease among women who lived in rural areas versus those who lived in urban areas. This detailed analysis involved only patients seen in the Grafton and Morgantown clinics, and revealed a tendency for most positive antigen tests to occur among women with urban addresses. Our study indicates that a substantial chlamydial problem exists among pregnant women of young age. Although screening all pregnant women for chlamydia may not be cost effective, knowing which individuals are at highest risk may help target limited screening for these patients. PMID:1492405

Glover, D D; Gordon, H; Moore, G; Larsen, B

1992-12-01

125

Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study  

PubMed Central

While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:20508755

Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

2009-01-01

126

Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ?1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection.

Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F.; Murphy, Trudy V.

2014-01-01

127

Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.  

PubMed

South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

2014-06-01

128

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness. PMID:22014241

2011-01-01

129

Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the infants' environmental health study (ISA) in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9-56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05-53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = -3.1; 95% CI: -5.8 to -0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: -1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

Mora, Ana M; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Smith, Donald R; Menezes-Filho, José A; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-03-18

130

Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children  

PubMed Central

Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ?94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 ?g/ml and troughs of >1.75 ?g/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G. L.

2013-01-01

131

Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

2013-01-01

132

Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women. PMID:25332259

de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

2014-01-01

133

Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals  

PubMed Central

Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

2014-01-01

134

The prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka urban clinics in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDomestic violence among pregnant women has many faces in Lusaka, Zambia.Domestic violence among respondents was associated contraction of sexually transmitted infections, loss of pregnancy, bleeding in pregnancy, psychological trauma, divorce and social disharmony.In this study 385 pregnant women were randomly selected and entered into he study.MethodA Cross-sectional Descriptive Study of 385 pregnant women attending six randomly selected Antenatal Clinics in

M D Mwiinga Mtonga

2010-01-01

135

A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

2014-01-01

136

Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

2013-11-01

137

Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. Importance: Probiotic food produced locally represents a nutritious and affordable means for people in some developing countries to counter exposures to toxic metals. Further research and field trials are warranted to explore this approach in countries where communities are located near mining sites and agricultural areas, two types of areas where toxins are likely to be elevated. PMID:25293764

Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; Mwanga, Joseph R; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

2014-01-01

138

[Therapeutic approach in pregnant women with an autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura].  

PubMed

The case presented herein aim to update the existing information about the common diagnostic problems and therapeutic approach in pregnant women that have autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP). PMID:20225499

Christova, R; Lisichkov, T; Chernev, T

2009-01-01

139

Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Effects of Disasters on Pregnant Women: Environmental Exposures Carbon Monoxide Chemicals in Flood Waters Insect ... to Top ] Chemicals in Flood Waters The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Louisiana Department of Environmental ...

140

High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?  

PubMed

Abstract Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

2015-02-01

141

The prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women in a Chinesecommunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the incidence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local teaching hospital. Study design: All pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic in Tsan Yuk Hospital between 11th August and 3rd November, 1998 were interviewed by a designated research nurse (Y.Y.J.L.) using a standard questionnaire (Abuse Assessment Screen) to detect the incidence

W. C. Leung; T. W. Leung; Y. Y. J. Lam; P. C. Ho

1999-01-01

142

[Seroprevalence of treponematosis among pregnant women in Cotonou (Benin)].  

PubMed

A study of frequency of treponematosis among pregnant women in Mother Hood of Zogbo (Cotonou) shows 5.1 +/- 2.8% of positivity with risk of 5% by TPHA and VDRL. The low level of endemicity, associated with the absence of cutaneous lesions of treponematosis in Cotonou may correspond to a syphilis infection. This study points out the necessity to strengthen the struggle against the all other sexually transmitted diseases (MST) in the same way that the HIV infection in Benin. PMID:8124101

Anagonou, S Y; Chabi Tamou, C; Josse, R; Helynck, B; Gninafon, M

1993-01-01

143

Elevated hemoglobin A2 as a marker for ?-thalassemia trait in pregnant women.  

PubMed

?-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited hemoglobin disorders. Compound heterozygotes or homozygous mutations of the ?-globin chain gene account for severe cases of ?-thalassemia that require lifelong transfusion, and make it necessary to identify ?-thalassemia carries for prenatal diagnosis. The increase in hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) level is the most significant parameter in the identification of ?-thalassemia carriers. HbA2, composing of two ? chains and two ? chains, is a minor component of the hemoglobin present in normal adult red blood cells, accounting for about 2.5% of the total hemoglobin in healthy individuals. However, HbA2 level is also elevated in some pregnant women. This study aimed to evaluate the value of HbA2 level in the screening of pregnant women with ?-thalassemia trait. Pregnant and non-pregnant women were randomly recruited who attended the prenatal care or diagnosis at our hospital located in Guangdong, a province in South China. Hemoglobin capillary electrophoresis was performed on high performance liquid chromatography to measure HbA2 levels in blood. The ?-globin gene mutations were detected by the PCR-reverse dot-blot assay, and some were verified by direct sequencing. Pregnant women (n = 96) and non-pregnant women (n = 114) with normal HbA2 level (< 3.5%) had no ?-thalassemia mutation. In contrast, pregnant women (n = 55) and non-pregnant women (n = 85) with elevated HbA2 level (? 3.5%) are ?-thalassemia carriers. In conclusion, HbA2 level is a good marker for screening ?-thalassemia trait in pregnant women in South China population. PMID:21403433

Ou, Zhanhui; Li, Qing; Liu, Weiqiang; Sun, Xiaofang

2011-01-01

144

Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2013-10-15

145

A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP) analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05). Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age) in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination clearance with increasing gestational age could be seen. Conclusions The population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine were well described by a three-compartment disposition model in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. The modelling approach showed no major difference in piperaquine exposure between the two groups and data presented here do not warrant a dose adjustment in pregnancy in this vulnerable population. PMID:23190801

2012-01-01

146

Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

2014-01-01

147

Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n?=?77) or equivocal (n?=?4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. PMID:24909551

Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

2014-08-01

148

Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

Jameil, Noura Al

2014-01-01

149

Vaginal carriage of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacterial species that is involved in gynecological infections and pathology. The incidence of vaginal carriage is largely unknown, and in order to study this, 120 pregnant women attending a general hospital for delivery were examined. Cultures were positive for eight of these women (6.6%). Interestingly, potential clonal relatedness could be demonstrated among several of the nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains. Among the strains, only one produced metalloprotease enterotoxin. The presence of the gene for the metalloprotease, giving rise to the pathogenic effect on cultured eukaryotic HT29/C1 cells, was confirmed by a newly designed specific PCR assay. The enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strain was analyzed with the help of arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and PCR-mediated ribotyping. The ETBF strain was shown to be genetically different compared to several other strains obtained from diverse sources. Our data indicate a relatively high vaginal B. fragilis carriage rate among pregnant women in Warsaw, Poland. Although neither ETBF nor B. fragilis colonization presented a clinical problem, the possible genetic relatedness among the colonizing B. fragilis strains indicates the need for additional research in the field of ETBF transmission and molecular epidemiology. PMID:9350755

Leszczynski, P; van Belkum, A; Pituch, H; Verbrugh, H; Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F

1997-01-01

150

Patient-provider communication about gestational weight gain among nulliparous women: a qualitative study of the views of obstetricians and first-time pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 the Institute of Medicine updated its guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy, in part because women of childbearing age now weigh more pre-pregnancy and tend to gain more weight during pregnancy than women did when the previous set of guidelines were released in 1990. Women who begin pregnancy overweight or obese and women who gain weight outside IOM recommendations are at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. With these concerns in mind, we examined what obstetricians communicate about gestational weight gain to their pregnant patients and how nulliparous patients perceive weight-related counseling from their obstetricians. Methods We conducted one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with 19 nulliparous women and 7 obstetricians recruited from a single clinic at a large academic medical center in the United States. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using thematic analysis. Results We identified 4 major themes: 1) Discussions about the amount and pace of gestational weight gain: obstetricians reported variation in the frequency and timing of weight-related discussions with patients while most patients said that weight was not emphasized by their obstetricians; 2) The content of communication about nutrition and physical activity: obstetricians said they discuss nutrition and activity with all patients while most patients reported that their obstetrician either discussed these topics in general terms or not at all; 3) Communication about postpartum weight loss: obstetricians said that they do not typically address postpartum weight loss with patients during prenatal visits while patients had concerns about postpartum weight; and 4) Patient feelings about obstetrician advice: most patients said that their obstetrician does not tend to offer “unsolicited advice”, instead offering information in response to patient questions or concerns. Women were divided about whether they desired more advice from their obstetrician on weight gain, nutrition, and activity. Conclusions Our analysis revealed discrepancies between obstetricians’ and patients’ perceptions of their weight-related clinical interactions. Our findings suggest that there is a missed opportunity to use prenatal visits as opportunities to discuss healthy eating and exercise during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and beyond. Additional research on the design, implementation, and testing of interventions to address prenatal nutrition and physical activity is warranted. PMID:24330402

2013-01-01

151

Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength  

PubMed Central

The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

2011-01-01

152

Pregnant women’s knowledge of weight, weight gain, complications of obesity and weight management strategies in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is increasingly common in the obstetric population. Maternal obesity and excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with increased perinatal risk. There is limited published data demonstrating the level of pregnant women’s knowledge regarding these problems, their consequences and management strategies. We aimed to assess the level of knowledge of pregnant women regarding: (i) their own weight and body mass index (BMI) category, (ii) awareness of guidelines for GWG, (iii) concordance of women’s own expectations with guidelines, (iv) knowledge of complications associated with excess GWG, and (v) knowledge of safe weight management strategies in pregnancy. Methods 364 pregnant women from a single center university hospital antenatal clinic were interviewed by an obstetric registrar. The women in this convenience sample were asked to identify their weight category, their understanding of the complications of obesity and excessive GWG in pregnancy and safe and/or effective weight management strategies in pregnancy. Results Nearly half (47.8%) of the study population were overweight or obese. 74% of obese women underestimated their BMI category. 64% of obese women and 40% of overweight women overestimated their recommended GWG. Women’s knowledge of the specific risks associated with excess GWG or maternal obesity was poor. Women also reported many incorrect beliefs about safe weight management in pregnancy. Conclusions Many pregnant women have poor knowledge about obesity, GWG, their consequences and management strategies. Bridging this knowledge gap is an important step towards improving perinatal outcomes for all pregnant women, especially those who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:23866845

2013-01-01

153

Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).  

PubMed

Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. PMID:23911340

Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

2013-09-01

154

A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13?627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30?years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

2014-01-01

155

Linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and HIV-related stigma in newly diagnosed pregnant women living with HIV in Kenya: a longitudinal observational study.  

PubMed

BackgroundWhile studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effects of antiretroviral therapy. We examined associations between linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and internalized stigma in a population with a high risk of depression: newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were obtained from 135 HIV-positive women from eight antenatal clinics in the rural Nyanza Province of Kenya at their first antenatal visit (prior to testing HIV-positive for the first time) and subsequently at 6 weeks after giving birth.ResultsAt 6 weeks postpartum, women who had not linked to HIV care after testing positive at their first antenatal visit had higher levels of depression and internalized stigma, compared to women who had linked to care. Internalized stigma mediated the effect of linkage to care on depression. Furthermore, participants who had both linked to HIV care and initiated antiretroviral therapy reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms.ConclusionsThese results provide further support for current efforts to ensure that women who are newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy become linked to HIV care as early as possible, with important benefits for both physical and mental health. PMID:25467187

Turan, Bulent; Stringer, Kristi L; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

2014-12-01

156

High Rates of HIV Seroconversion in Pregnant Women and Low Reported Levels of HIV Testing among Male Partners in Southern Mozambique: Results from a Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. Methods Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2–3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n?=?94) with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. Results HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33–7.16). Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04–13.78, p?=?0.04) and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97–19.45, p?=?0.05). Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner), 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. Conclusions HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach elimination of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25542035

De Schacht, Caroline; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mabunda, Nédio; Lucas, Carlota; Alons, Catharina L.; Madonela, Ana; Vubil, Adolfo; Ferreira, Orlando C.; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda S.; Jani, Ilesh V.; Guay, Laura

2014-01-01

157

Perception of Male Gender Preference Among Pregnant Igbo Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Results: Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands’ hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Conclusion: Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. PMID:24761233

Ohagwu, CC; Eze, CU; Eze, JC; Odo, MC; Abu, PO; Ohagwu, CI

2014-01-01

158

Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

2014-01-01

159

Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

2012-01-01

160

Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

2013-01-01

161

Listeria infection in Chinese pregnant women and neonates from Shandong  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the characters of pregnant women and neonates with listeria monocytogenes infections (L. monocytogenes) in Shandong of China. Method: Pregnant women with premature delivery or prenatal fever were recruited in 2013. Bacterial culture was performed for the umbilical cord blood and placental swab after delivery. The strains isolated were then analyzed for the virulence factors and classified based on the serotype and MLST typing. Results: Four cases (0.34‰) of the neonates were identified with listeriosis. Prenatal fever was observed in mothers of all infected neonates. The pathological examination of placenta showed non-specific inflammatory manifestations and two serotypes including 1/2b and 4b were detected. Six kinds of virulence factors including hly, inlA, actA, plcB, prfA and iap were all identified in the inflected neonates. Conclusion: The results suggested that mother-to-infant was an important transmission mode for listeria. Antibiotic treatment, bacterial culture and placenta pathological examination were highly recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis. PMID:25356132

Lv, Jun; Qin, Zhenli; Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Qiurong

2014-01-01

162

Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2013-01-01

163

Lipid Peroxidation and Ca-ATPase Activity of Basal Plasma Membranes of Syncytiotrophoblast from Normotensive Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Ca-ATPase activity of the plasma membranes of several tissues of preeclamptic pregnant women is significantly reduced when compared with the values of normotensive pregnant women. This has been explained considering the raise in the level of lipid peroxidation of the plasma membranes with preeclampsia. In this work we studied the effect of lipid peroxidation of syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal

Emma Borrego; Teresa Proverbio; Reinaldo Marín; Fulgencio Proverbio

2006-01-01

164

Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis

Ingrid J Rowlands; Nuala M Byrne; H David McIntyre; Leonie K Callaway

2011-01-01

165

High Uptake of HIV Testing in Pregnant Women in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010. PMID:23152762

Remis, Robert S.; Merid, Maraki Fikre; Palmer, Robert W. H.; Whittingham, Elaine; King, Susan M.; Danson, Natasha S.; Vernich, Lee; Swantee, Carol; Major, Carol

2012-01-01

166

Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: The Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Concern about potential health impacts of low level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 nmol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 nmol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 µg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 µg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 µg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation. PMID:18774129

Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Angerer, Jürgen; Park, Melissa M.; Burdorf, Alex; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2008-01-01

167

1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES  

E-print Network

1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

Vertes, Akos

168

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?pregnant women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. J. Med. Virol. 87:446-450, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25164987

Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2015-03-01

169

Increased awareness and health care provider endorsement is required to encourage pregnant women to be vaccinated.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization is an important strategy recommended to protect both mothers and infants from serious infectious diseases; however uptake of maternal immunization is poor in Australia. This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the decision making process and factors influencing a pregnant woman's decisions about recommended immunizations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions to interview pregnant women. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques and drew on the Health Belief Model. Pregnant women (n = 17) were asked about their attitudes toward immunization during pregnancy and their perceptions about risk during pregnancy. Women were also asked to detail their decision making process and factors influencing their decisions about immunizations in relation to pregnancy. Most of the participants were not aware of the immunizations recommended during pregnancy, in pregnancy planning or after delivery. In addition to endorsement by their health care provider (HCP), perception of risk and benefit, including risk of infection, previous vaccination experiences and assessing cost benefit play a vital role in women's decisions whether to be immunized while pregnant. Although the role of the healthcare provider in advising pregnant women about immunizations was identified as vitally important, the majority of women had not been advised of recommended vaccines by their healthcare provider. Healthcare providers are key to ensuring pregnant mothers are informed about recommended vaccines and these need to be more proactively supported and encouraged by healthcare providers. This is likely to have a positive effect on acceptance and uptake of immunization by pregnant women. PMID:25483464

Collins, J; Alona, I; Tooher, R; Marshall, H

2014-10-01

170

[The rates of seropositivity and seroconversion of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women].  

PubMed

Infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii are frequently asymptomatic in healthy adults, however they may be serious in pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of seropositivity and seroconversion in pregnant women and newborn cord blood samples, and to evaluate those data in the view of relation to lifestyle and nutrition. A total of 312 pregnant women (mean age: 28.1 ± 5.2 years) who were admitted to and followed by gynecology clinics of Inonu University Medical School Hospital, Malatya, Turkey were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. Anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in pregnants and newborn cord sera were screened by commercial ELISA and immunofluorescence antibody (BioTek; USA) methods. A total of 312 sera from pregnant women and 312 cord blood samples during delivery were collected. IgG seropositivity rate in pregnants was found as 37.5% (117/312), seroconversion was not determined in restrained pregnants and T.gondii IgM was found negative in all pregnants. Also in all newborns IgM was negative and IgG seropositivity was determined as 33.3% (104/312) in cord blood. There was a statistically significant relationship between IgG seropositivity and raw meat consumption (p< 0.001) and being engaged in agriculture (p< 0.005). It was concluded that toxoplasma antibodies should routinely be searched on the first visit of the pregnants and the seronegative cases should be trained about the preventive measures related to toxoplasmosis. The follow-up of toxoplasma seronegative cases during pregnancy can be achieved by only detecting the IgM class antibodies and this will also reduce the cost of screen test. PMID:22639318

Do?an, Keziban; Kafkasl?, Ay?e; Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Karao?lu, Leyla; Colak, Cemil

2012-04-01

171

Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian non-pregnant women 20 to 49 years old. A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Representative national data of prevalence of anemia and casual factors are missing for population group of reproductive aged non-pregnant females in Serbia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence and grades of anemia and its association with risk factors among non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Serbia. Methods: Data were collected as part of the first “National Health Survey”, a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey, conducted on 677 households in Serbia. A total of 708 females 20-49-year-old were recruited. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and reproductive data have been collected and hemoglobin levels were determined. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.7% (196/708) [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 24.5-31.1%], and more precisely mild (21.9%), moderate (5.1%) and severe (0.7%) anemia. Belgrade residential area [odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI 1.27-3.50), p=0.004], shortage of living space per person (<16m2) [2.18 (1.17-4.03), p=0.014], body mass index (<25) [1.55 (1.04-2.29), p=0.029], alcohol intake [0.52 (0.33-0.81), p=0.004], lack [2.48 (1.31-4.70), p=0.005] or fruit juice consumption 1-2 [2.76 (1.46-5.23), p=0.002] times a week and previously diagnosed, but treated [2.62 (1.29-5.35), p=0.008] or not treated [3.57 (1.71-7.45), p<0.001] anemia were independent predictors of low hemoglobin levels. Deficit of electricity supply and insufficient living space in households, increased risk of moderate anemia, while likelihood of being mild and moderately anemic, augmented with previously diagnosed but, treated or not treated anemia and lack or juice consumption 1-2 times a week. Conclusions: High prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women and its association to casual factors needs continuous monitoring and control efforts for anemia in Serbia. PMID:23935344

Rakic, L; Djokic, D; Drakulovic, MB; Pejic, A; Radojicic, Z; Marinkovic, M

2013-01-01

172

Prevalence of Anxiety, Depression and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women of Hyderabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the relationship between antenatal depression, anxiety and domestic violence in pregnant women in developing countries, despite the World Health Organization's estimates that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of the global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mood disorders, their predictors and sequelae among pregnant women in Pakistan. Aims To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and evaluate associated factors, including domestic violence, among pregnant women in an urban community in Pakistan. Methods All pregnant women living in identified areas of Hyderabad, Pakistan were screened by government health workers for an observational study on maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. Of these, 1368 (76%) of eligible women were administered the validated Aga Khan University Anxiety Depression Scale at 20–26 weeks of gestation. Results 18 percent of the women were anxious and/or depressed. Psychological distress was associated with husband unemployment (p=0.032), lower household wealth (p=0.027), having 10 or more years of formal education (p=0.002), a first (p=0.002) and an unwanted pregnancy (p<0.001). The strongest factors associated with depression/anxiety were physical/sexual and verbal abuse; 42% of women who were physically and/or sexually abused and 23% of those with verbal abuse had depression/anxiety compared to 8% of those who were not abused. Conclusions Anxiety and depression commonly occur during pregnancy in Pakistani women; rates are highest in women experiencing sexual/physical as well as verbal abuse, but they also are increased among women with unemployed spouses and those with lower household wealth. These results suggest that developing a screening and treatment program for domestic violence and depression/anxiety during pregnancy may improve the mental health status of pregnant Pakistani women. PMID:19592433

Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis; Bann, Carla M.; Moss, Nancy; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Pasha, Omrana; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

2013-01-01

173

Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case–control study of a Nigerian project  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

2014-01-01

174

Vaccination during the 2013-2014 influenza season in pregnant Japanese women.  

PubMed

This questionnaire survey was conducted at 11 hospitals in Japan to determine vaccination coverage against seasonal influenza and the prevalence rate of influenza among pregnant Japanese women. Of 2,808 postpartum women who gave birth at the 11 hospitals during the study period from March 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 1,713 (61 %) participated in this study and 876 (51 %) reported having received vaccination against influenza in or after October 2013. Women aged?<25 years had a significantly lower vaccination rate than those aged??25 years (31 % vs. 53 %, respectively; p?=?0.0000). Eighty-seven (5.1 %) and 1,626 (94.9 %) women did and did not contract influenza, respectively. Although prior birth did not affect overall vaccination coverage (50 % for primiparous vs. 53 % for multiparous), multiparous women had a significantly higher rate of contracting influenza than primiparous women, irrespective of vaccination status (5.6 % vs. 2.2 % [p?=?0.0216] and 9.7 % vs. 3.5 % [p?=?0.0003] for women with and without vaccination, respectively). The 2013-2014 vaccination program significantly reduced the influenza infection rate by 35 % (3.9 % vs. 6.3 % for women with and without vaccination, respectively; p?=?0.0272). Seventy-two (83 %) of the 87 women took antiviral agents for the treatment of influenza and two (2.3 %) required hospitalization. These results suggested that pregnant Japanese women had a high level of concern regarding seasonal influenza. However, campaigns targeting young pregnant Japanese women, as well as multiparous women, for vaccination are needed in order to further reduce the incidence of influenza among pregnant Japanese women. PMID:25311988

Yamada, T; Abe, K; Baba, Y; Inubashiri, E; Kawabata, K; Kubo, T; Maegawa, Y; Fuchi, N; Nomizo, M; Shimada, M; Shiozaki, A; Hamada, H; Matsubara, S; Akutagawa, N; Kataoka, S; Maeda, M; Masuzaki, H; Sagawa, N; Nakai, A; Saito, S; Minakami, H

2014-10-14

175

Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region. PMID:25130219

Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

2014-08-01

176

Dietary changes of pregnant women: Compulsions and modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty pregnant women attending county?sponsored, prenatal clinics in Maryland were interviewed about their modifications of customary diets for pregnancy (increases and decreases in usual food intake and avoidances of some foods), appetite compulsions (cravings, aversions and pica) and beliefs regarding causes of appetite compulsions. Nearly all (97 percent) reported modifying their customary diets for pregnancy. Eighty?five percent reported cravings, aversions

Ellen Beerbohm Schwab; Marta L. Axelson

1984-01-01

177

Effectiveness of Health Care Services for Pregnant Women and Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses health care services received by pregnant women and infants, exploring the ways that these services affect child health outcomes, specifically low birth weight and infant mortality rate. Programs that offer the greatest potential to improve newborn survival with the least investment should have high priority. (SLD)

Racine, Andrew D.; And Others

1992-01-01

178

Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to affect baby, but may ... January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

179

Two pregnant women with vomiting and fits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two women with hyperemesis gravidarum were first seen with a short history of confusion diplopia, unsteadiness, and fits caused by Wernicke's encephalopathy. The neurologic presentation had been precipitated by a carbohydrate load inadvertently administered without vitamin supplementation. We stress the importance of prescribing thiamine supplements to all women with prolonged vomiting during pregnancy.(Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:1539-40.)

Jeremy H. Rees; Lionel Ginsberg; Anthony H. V. Schapira

1997-01-01

180

Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

1986-11-01

181

Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal  

E-print Network

Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission--A Working: Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission

Levin, Judith G.

182

Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa, is not known. We therefore evaluated the prevalence and the circulating genotypes of HCV in a large population cohort of pregnant women. Methods Blood samples (947) were collected from pregnant women in the five main cities of the country. The prevalence was evaluated by two ELISA tests, and the circulating genotypes were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Twenty pregnant women (2.1%) were infected with HCV. The seroprevalence differed significantly by region (p = 0.004) and increased significantly with age (p = 0.05), being 1.3% at 14–20 years, 1.1% at 21–25 years, 1.9% at 26–30 years, 4.1% at 31–35 years and 6.0% at > 35 years. Sequencing in the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 4 (4e and 4c). Conclusion We found that the HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Gabon is almost as high as that in other African countries and increases with age. Furthermore, only genotype 4 (4e and 4c) was found. More extensive studies aiming to evaluate the prevalence and heterogeneity of HCV genotypes circulating in the general population of the country are needed. PMID:18559087

Ndong-Atome, Guy-Roger; Makuwa, Maria; Njouom, Richard; Branger, Michel; Brun-Vézinet, Francoise; Mahé, Antoine; Rousset, Dominique; Kazanji, Mirdad

2008-01-01

183

Pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in pregnant women in the peripartum period.  

PubMed

The study presented here was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered clindamycin in pregnant women. Seven pregnant women treated with clindamycin were recruited. Maternal blood and arterial and venous umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. Maternal clindamycin concentrations were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM program. The data were best described by a linear three-compartment model. The clearance and the volume of distribution at steady state were 10.0 liters/h and 6.32 x 10(3) liters, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for the free (unbound) drug (f) in maternal serum for 24 h divided by the MIC (fAUC(0-24)/MIC). At a MIC of 0.5 mg/liter, which is the EUCAST breakpoint, the attainment at the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was 24.6 if the level of protein binding was 65%, and this value concurred well with the target value of 27. However, for higher degrees of protein binding, as has been described in the literature, the attainment was lower, down to 10.2 for a protein binding level of 85% (lower 95% CI). The concentrations in umbilical cord blood were lower than those in maternal blood. The concentration-time profiles in maternal serum indicate that the level of exposure to clindamycin may be too low in these patients. Together with the lower concentrations in umbilical cord blood, this finding suggests that the current dosing regimen may not be adequate to protect all neonates from group B streptococcal disease. PMID:20176904

Muller, Anouk E; Mouton, Johan W; Oostvogel, Paul M; Dörr, P Joep; Voskuyl, Rob A; DeJongh, Joost; Steegers, Eric A P; Danhof, Meindert

2010-05-01

184

Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin in Pregnant Women in the Peripartum Period ?  

PubMed Central

The study presented here was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered clindamycin in pregnant women. Seven pregnant women treated with clindamycin were recruited. Maternal blood and arterial and venous umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. Maternal clindamycin concentrations were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with the NONMEM program. The data were best described by a linear three-compartment model. The clearance and the volume of distribution at steady state were 10.0 liters/h and 6.32 × 103 liters, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for the free (unbound) drug (f) in maternal serum for 24 h divided by the MIC (fAUC0-24/MIC). At a MIC of 0.5 mg/liter, which is the EUCAST breakpoint, the attainment at the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was 24.6 if the level of protein binding was 65%, and this value concurred well with the target value of 27. However, for higher degrees of protein binding, as has been described in the literature, the attainment was lower, down to 10.2 for a protein binding level of 85% (lower 95% CI). The concentrations in umbilical cord blood were lower than those in maternal blood. The concentration-time profiles in maternal serum indicate that the level of exposure to clindamycin may be too low in these patients. Together with the lower concentrations in umbilical cord blood, this finding suggests that the current dosing regimen may not be adequate to protect all neonates from group B streptococcal disease. PMID:20176904

Muller, Anouk E.; Mouton, Johan W.; Oostvogel, Paul M.; Dörr, P. Joep; Voskuyl, Rob A.; DeJongh, Joost; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Danhof, Meindert

2010-01-01

185

Neutralizing Dengue Antibody in Pregnant Thai Women and Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO ‘Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012–2020’ addresses the growing need for the treatment of dengue, and targets a 25% reduction in morbidity and 50% in mortality (using 2010 estimates as baseline). Achieving these goals requires future dengue prevention strategies that will employ both potential vaccines and sustainable vector-control measures. Maternally transferred dengue antibody is an important factor in determining the optimal age for dengue vaccination. Objectives To estimate the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies among mothers living in an area of high endemicity – Ban Pong, Ratchaburi Province – and to assess maternal dengue antibodies transferred to cord blood. Materials & Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 141 pregnant women who delivered at Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Maternal-cord paired sera were tested for dengue neutralizing (NT) antibody by PRNT50 assay. A ratio of ? 1:10 NT titer to dengue serotype was considered seropositive. Results Most mothers (137/141, 97.2%) had NT antibodies to at least one dengue serotype in their sera. At birth, the proportion of cord sera with NT antibodies to DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4, were high and similar to the sera of their mothers, at 93.6%, 97.2%, 97.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. The dengue geometric mean titers (GMT) in cord blood were significantly higher than the maternal antibodies (p<0.001): highest in DEN-2, followed by DEN-3, and then DEN-1. The GMT of DEN-4 was the lowest among all four serotypes. Conclusions Dengue infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in this dengue-endemic area. Most of the cord blood had transferred dengue antibodies, which may have an impact on the disease burden in this population. PMID:25658481

Khamim, Kriangsak; Hattasingh, Weerawan; Nisalak, Ananda; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Thisyakorn, Usa

2015-01-01

186

Prevalence and predictors of over-the-counter medication use among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Over-the-counter-medication (OTC-medication) use during pregnancy can be potentially harmful for the fetus. To successfully counsel the patient it is important to know if the patient is at risk. In this study possible predictors for OTC-medication use were identified and a model was designed to predict OTC-medication use during pregnancy. Methods We performed a post-hoc analysis on data collected for a clustered clinical trial to study a screening strategy for Query fever. Pregnant women under supervision of a midwife were eligible for inclusion. These women filled out questionnaires during their pregnancy and post-partum. These questionnaires were used to determine the prevalence and to select possible predictors for OTC-medication use. These predictors were included in a prediction model using multivariate analysis. The discrimination and calibration of the model were assessed with Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis and the Hosmer and Lemeshow test. Results Of the 1348 women enrolling in the clustered clinical trial, we included 1246 women in this analysis. The prevalence of OTC-medication use was 12.5%. The predictors for OTC-medication use in our cohort were: nulliparity, use of prescription medication, the presence of a comorbidity, Body Mass Index between 26 and 30 kg/m2 and General Practitioner visits. These predictors were used to design a prediction model for OTC-medication use. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic-curve of the prediction model was 0.667 (95% CI 0.620-0.714 P<0.001) and the predictive probabilities ranged from 6.6% to 57.4%. The Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test indicated good calibration of the model (P = 0.640). Conclusion It is possible to indicate women at risk for OTC-medication use during pregnancy, using five maternal characteristics that independently contribute to the prediction model. The predictors are easy to estimate and the model is easy to implement in daily practice. PMID:23452432

2013-01-01

187

Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women.

Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

2015-01-01

188

Substance Use among Pregnant Women: The Report of the Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use among Pregnant Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a report from the North Carolina Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use Among Pregnant Women, a task force established to develop a long-range plan to decrease infant death and disability due to exposure to toxic substances in utero. The executive summary identifies four major problem areas which negatively affect…

Kayye, Paul T.; Relos, Ruth

189

Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women and its relationship with socio-demographic variables.  

PubMed

Certain conditions may have an affect on gingival status and may aggravate pre-existing disease, especially in persons with poor oral hygiene. Pregnancy is one of these conditions. In addition, there is evidence in the literature suggesting an association between periodontal diseases in pregnant women and giving birth to premature, low-birth infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of periodontal health knowledge, and awareness, among pregnant women in Jordan. This was carried out by cross-sectional survey using self-administered, structured questionnaires distributed at six maternity care centres in Irbid City. Questionnaire items addressed personal and socio-demographic variables and periodontal health awareness and knowledge of pregnant women. Women (n = 300) were randomly chosen from attendants to these centres. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, only 275 pregnant women ages 16-45 years with a mean of 29 year responded and were included in the study. Data were analysed by chi-squared test with the level of significance set at (P < 0.05). About one-third of the participants had secondary level of education; it appeared that a minority of the pregnant women had knowledge or ability to identify dental plaque (16.4%) and its harmful effects (22.5%), while most of them (88%) were aware that bleeding gums indicated the presence of periodontal disease. The differences in the responses to knowledge questions were only significant for question number one (What is plaque?) among different educational levels and groups. This study revealed that (71.6%) of the pregnant women knew the main cause of gum disease; however 56% of them do not believe that frequency of teeth brushing should be increased during pregnancy and only 5.1% believed there might be a relationship between gum diseases and premature labour. Knowledge and awareness for pregnant women about their teeth and gingival condition is generally poor. Pregnant women need accurate information about their teeth and oral health. Simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention before and during pregnancy should be provided to improve oral health. PMID:16451386

Alwaeli, H A; Al-Jundi, S H

2005-05-01

190

Lack of Increased Hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women Receiving Nevirapine Compared to Other Antiretrovirals  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether HIV-infected pregnant women were at increased risk of hepatotoxicity when taking nevirapine (NVP) containing regimens compared to HIV-infected pregnant women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) not containing NVP. Methods This analysis included HIV-infected pregnant women on ART from two multicenter, prospective cohorts: The Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) protocol P1025. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between NVP use and hepatotoxicity. NVP use was dichotomized as use or no use and further categorized according to ART exposure history. We investigated two outcomes: any liver enzyme elevation (LEE) (grade 1-4) and severe LEE (grade 3-4). Results A total of 1229 women with ART use during pregnancy were studied, 218 (17.7%) of whom received NVP. Among the women receiving NVP, 137 (62.8%) were NVP naïve. Twenty-nine women (13.3%) who received NVP developed any LEE and one (0.5%) developed severe LEE. Of the 1011 women on non-NVP regimens, 145 (14.3%) developed any LEE and 14 (1.4%) developed severe LEE. There were no maternal deaths. In univariate models, LEE was not significantly associated with CD4+ count > 250 cells/?L or NVP use. In adjusted multivariate models, no significant increased risk of LEE (any or severe) in women taking NVP was detected as compared to those taking other ART regardless of prior exposure history. Conclusions We did not observe an increased risk of hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected pregnant women on NVP versus other ART, including women who were ART naïve. PMID:19926957

Ouyang, David W.; Brogly, Susan B.; Lu, Ming; Shapiro, David E.; Hershow, Ronald C.; French, Audrey L.; Leighty, Robert M.; Thompson, Bruce; Tuomala, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

191

Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155

Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel

2014-01-01

192

Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: a current status in Songklanagarind hospital, southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasmosis, being one of the TORCH’s infections in pregnant women, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. This parasitic infection in pregnancy congenitally causes severe outcomes to their fetus and newborn. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and stages of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and its associated risks exposures. Methods The study was conducted within the pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) at Songklanagarind hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla province, Thailand. The sera of a total of 760 consecutive pregnant women were screened using standard commercial ELISA kits for detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. IgG avidity in the seropositive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were also assessed. The pregnant women’s socio-demographic, obstetrics and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the total 760 pregnant women, 190 (25%, 95% CI = 22.05-28.20) were positive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Of these, 167 (22.0%, 95% CI = 19.0-25.0) were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody and 23 (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.0-4.0) were positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. All these samples were high avidity, indicated the infection occured prior to four to five months. By applying statistical univariate analysis, age group, occupation and sources of drinking water showed a significant association with Toxoplasma seropositivity (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis further indicated that the significant factors associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity are age ?26 (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.11-2.44), working as laborer (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.13-2.18) and drinking unclean (piped/tap/rain) water (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.08-2.84). Conclusion The pregnant women in the active age group, working as laborers and exposure to unclean drinking water from various sources were at higher risk of Toxoplasma infection. Therefore, health education and the awareness of risk exposures regarding this parasitic disease are required to minimize the effects of this parasitic infection in pregnant women as well as in the general population. PMID:24886651

2014-01-01

193

The comprehensive management of pregnant women with major mood disorders: a case study involving phenelzine, lithium, and quetiapine.  

PubMed

Pregnancy in women with severe mental illness (SMI) often bring added dimensions of complexity; considering that this group of women are choosing to have children at increasing rates, more highly complex cases will require management. A 31-year-old primigravida with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder was treated with an antidepressant, mood stabiliser and antipsychotic. This case discusses preconception counselling, pregnancy and labour management that resulted in the delivery of a 4,200 g baby at 39 weeks by emergency caesarian section. This case highlights the collaborative approach to care that is needed in this group of women and the need for increasing awareness and knowledge in health professionals. It follows the management from preconception through to the postpartum period. PMID:24196828

Frayne, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Thinh; Kohan, Rolland; De Felice, Nick; Rampono, Jonathan

2014-02-01

194

Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate future effects of preventable, toxin-induced developmental issues. Prenatal advising should discourage the consumption of dangerous foods, beverages, and medications that women commonly report eating during pregnancy. PMID:23815874

2013-01-01

195

Agreement between pedometer and accelerometer in measuring physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Inexpensive, reliable objective methods are needed to measure physical activity (PA) in large scale trials. This study compared\\u000a the number of pedometer step counts with accelerometer data in pregnant women in free-living conditions to assess agreement\\u000a between these measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pregnant women (n = 58) with body mass index ?25 kg\\/m2 at median 13 weeks' gestation wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer

Tarja I Kinnunen; Peter WG Tennant; Catherine McParlin; Lucilla Poston; Stephen C Robson; Ruth Bell

2011-01-01

196

Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan  

PubMed Central

The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25400710

Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

2014-01-01

197

Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of integrated yoga on the quality of life and interpersonal relationships\\u000a in normal pregnant women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and two pregnant women between 18 and 20 weeks of gestation who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from\\u000a the obstetric units in Bangalore and were randomly assigned to two groups of yoga (n = 51)

Abbas Rakhshani; Satyapriya Maharana; Nagarathna Raghuram; Hongasandra R. Nagendra; Padmalatha Venkatram

2010-01-01

198

Factors associated with prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among 21,889 pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: A cross-sectional hospital-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Folate and iron deficiency during pregnancy are risk factors for anaemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight, and may contribute to poor neonatal health and increased maternal mortality. The World Health Organization recommends supplementation of folic acid (FA) and iron for all pregnant women at risk of malnutrition to prevent anaemia. We assessed the use of prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among women in a geographical area with a high prevalence of anaemia, in relation to socio-demographic, morbidity and health services utilization factors. Methods We analysed a cohort of 21,889 women who delivered at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania, between 1999 and 2008. Logistic regression models were used to describe patterns of reported intake of prenatal FA and iron supplements. Results Prenatal intake of FA and iron supplements was reported by 17.2% and 22.3% of pregnant women, respectively. Sixteen percent of women reported intake of both FA and iron. Factors positively associated with FA supplementation were advanced maternal age (OR?=?1.17, 1.02-1.34), unknown HIV status (OR?=?1.54, 1.42-1.67), a diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy (OR?=?12.03, 9.66-14.98) and indicators of lower socioeconomic status. Women were less likely to take these supplements if they reported having had a malaria episode before (OR?=?0.57, 0.53-0.62) or during pregnancy (OR?=?0.45, 0.41-0.51), reported having contracted other infectious diseases (OR?=?0.45, 0.42-0.49), were multiparous (OR?=?0.73, 0.66-0.80), had preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR?=?0.48, 0.38-0.61), or other diseases (OR?=?0.55, 0.44-0.69) during pregnancy. Similar patterns of association emerged when iron supplementation alone and supplementation with both iron and FA were evaluated. Conclusions FA and iron supplementation are low among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, in particular among women with co-morbidities before or during pregnancy. Attempts should be made to increase supplementation both in general and among women with pregnancy complications. PMID:22734580

2012-01-01

199

Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.  

PubMed

Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

2013-01-01

200

First validation of a Spanish-translated version of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) for use in pregnant women. A Chilean study.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to detect depression during pregnancy in Chile. The EPDS was applied to a sample of 111 pregnant women, who were attending an antenatal appointment in primary care centers. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I) was used to assess the convergent validity, and the Depressive Episode module of the MINI was used to identify cases. The factor analysis showed that there was a good fit, with a factor model that explains 57.6 % of the total variance. There was a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.914) and good convergent validity with the BDI-I (rho?=?0.850, p?

Alvarado, Rubén; Jadresic, Enrique; Guajardo, Viviana; Rojas, Graciela

2014-10-11

201

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K; Perveen Khan, Darakhshan; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M

2014-01-01

202

Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women  

PubMed Central

Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

2015-01-01

203

Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women.  

PubMed

Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; The Ban Study Team

2015-01-01

204

Serum concentration of calcium, magnesium and zinc in normotensive versus preeclampsia pregnant women: A descriptive study in women of Kerman province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease. Objective: In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling. Results: The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia. PMID:25653672

Vafaei, Homeira; Dalili, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Amin

2015-01-01

205

An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in northern Québec.  

PubMed

An ongoing screening program for toxoplasmosis identified a cluster of four women from northern Québec who, over a 4-month period, seroconverted during their pregnancy. An epidemiologic investigation was carried out in an attempt to identify the source of this infection. All potential risk factors were assessed by a questionnaire administered to 22 Inuit women who had delivered babies in the previous year. Seroconversion was significantly associated with skinning of animals for fur (P = .015) and frequent consumption of caribou meat (P = .034). Compared to seronegative women, women who were seropositive were more than four times more likely to have eaten dried seal meat (P = .067), more than six times more likely to have eaten seal liver (P = .064), and more than eight times more likely to have consumed raw caribou meat more than once per week (P = .054). These observations have contributed to the development of guidelines for the prevention of toxoplasmosis in seronegative pregnant women in this arctic region. PMID:1969458

McDonald, J C; Gyorkos, T W; Alberton, B; MacLean, J D; Richer, G; Juranek, D

1990-04-01

206

Protein Z levels in pregnant Omani women: correlation with pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placental insufficiency resulting in fetal loss has been recognized in women with thrombophilic predisposition. Recent studies\\u000a indicate that there is a high prevalence of protein Z (PZ) deficiency in patients with unexplained fetal loss. The objective\\u000a of this study was to measure the PZ levels in pregnant Omani women in the first, second and third trimesters and correlate\\u000a with the

Vaidyanathan Gowri; Mariam Mathew; David Gravell; Karima AlFalahi; Ibrahim Zakwani; Shyam S. Ganguly; Anil V. Pathare

207

Role of dyslipidemia in preeclamptic overweight pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestational age, and body mass index. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia, after 14 hour fasting to determine plasma lipid concentrations. Enzymatic photometric tests were used to determine lipid profile. Data was analyzed with independent “t-test”, Chi-square and one-way ANOVA and post HOC Tukey HSD test. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: In the subjects with preeclampsia, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased compared with the controls, (p<0.05), but plasma LDL cholesterol levels didn’t differ between the two groups. Women who developed severe preeclampsia had higher concentrations of TG and cholesterol and lower levels of HDL compared to noromotensive group. Mean TG: 375.16 vs. 202.85, p<0.001, Mean cholesterol: 245.64 vs. 214.32, p=0.04, Mean HDL: 40.80 vs. 48.95, p=0.03). Conclusion: We noted that dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia was highly correlated with prepregnancy high BMI in preeclamptic women. These findings continue to support a role for dyslipidemia in BMI related preeclampsia. PMID:25242982

Sharami, Seyede Hajar; Tangestani, Azita; Faraji, Roya; Zahiri, Ziba; Amiri, Azam

2012-01-01

208

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

2014-01-01

209

Are SSRIs safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the literature on use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants for pregnant and breastfeeding women. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: MEDLINE was searched over the past 9 years. An examination of the literature over the last 8 years was included in this review. Primary studies consist of prospective investigations and case studies. Evidence for the safety of SSRIs is limited, but some good studies describe the effects of untreated depression. SYNTHESIS: All studies report that infants are exposed to SSRIs; the drugs can be measured in their plasma and urine. Some evidence shows an increase in minor perinatal complications among infants exposed to SSRIs late in gestation or while nursing. No studies, however, have found an increase in major fetal malformations or pregnancy-related complications. The only investigation of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes found no negative outcomes among infants exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy. Data are scarce, and readers are cautioned to take into consideration the limitations of the studies reviewed before making definite treatment decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Major fetal malformations and exposure to SSRIs during pregnancy and lactation do not appear to be associated. Some minor perinatal complications have been reported. Data on the long-term developmental outcomes of children exposed to SSRIs in utero and during breastfeeding are limited. PMID:10752001

Misri, S.; Burgmann, A.; Kostaras, D.

2000-01-01

210

HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654), attending primary health clinics for routine

Sia E Msuya; Elizabeth Mbizvo; Akhtar Hussain; Jacqueline Uriyo; Noel E Sam; Babill Stray-Pedersen

2006-01-01

211

Comparison of culture with two different qPCR assays for detection of rectovaginal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci) in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women remains useful in order to adequately identify pregnant women at risk of transferring GBS to their neonate. This study compared the CDC recommended sampling and culture method with two qPCR methods for detecting GBS colonization.For a total of 100 pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of

Nabil Abdullah El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Hans Verstraelen; Pieter Deschaght; Ellen Decat; Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago; Piet Cools; Marleen Temmerman; Mario Vaneechoutte

2011-01-01

212

Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.  

PubMed

This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

2014-09-10

213

Major Influences on Nutrient Intake in Pregnant New Zealand Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate factors associated with maternal diet during pregnancy and rank these in order of influence using data from\\u000a a prospective cohort of 196 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 35 years of mostly European origin. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken, questionnaires administered and 16 days of weighed diet intakes recorded, eight in\\u000a the fourth and eight in the seventh month

Patricia E. Watson; Barry W. McDonald

2009-01-01

214

Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the united states during 1988–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine trends in alcohol use among pregnant women in the United States and to characterize pregnant women who use alcohol, with an emphasis on frequent use (at least five drinks per occasion or at least seven drinks per week).Methods: We used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1988 through 1995 to obtain the percentage of pregnant

Shahul H Ebrahim; Elizabeth T Luman; R. Louise Floyd; Catherine C Murphy; Eddas M Bennett; Coleen A Boyle

1998-01-01

215

Neutralizing and IgG Antibodies against Simian Virus 40 in Healthy Pregnant Women in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy. Methods Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples. Results Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123) and 12.7% (14/110), respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods. Conclusions SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines. PMID:25335106

Comar, Manola; Wong, Connie; Tognon, Mauro; Butel, Janet S.

2014-01-01

216

Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175?ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

2013-01-01

217

Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda.  

PubMed

Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether-lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175?ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether-lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2013) 2, e83; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.59; advance online publication 13 November 2013. PMID:24226803

Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

2013-01-01

218

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus and rubella among pregnant women in western Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella infections have adverse neonatal outcomes. Basic epidemiological data concerning CMV and rubella is necessary for health planners and care providers. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at El-Rahad hospital, Sudan to investigate seroprevalence of CMV and rubella infections and associated possible risk factors among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and ELISA was used to detect CMV and rubella infections using IgG and IgM. Results Out of 231 pregnant women, 167 (72.2%) and 151 (65.3%) were CMV-IgG and rubella-IgG positive, respectively. Only 6 (2.5%) and 8 women (3.4%) were CMV-IgM and rubella-IgM positive, respectively. While, high parity (OR = 14.7, 95%CI = 1.7 - 123.6; P = 0.01] and illiteracy (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.4 - 6.5; P = 0.004) were significantly associated with seropostive CMV-IgG in multivariate analysis, none of the other obstetrical and medical characteristics were significantly associated with CMV or rubella infections. Conclusion CMV prevalence was 72.2% and rubella susceptibility among pregnant women was 34.6%. Rubella vaccine and routine screening for rubella and CMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. Further research is needed. PMID:21569321

2011-01-01

219

Survey on prevalence and risk factors on HIV1 among pregnant women in North-Rift, Kenya: a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted between 2005 and 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Kenya is a major public-health problem. Estimating the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of HIV\\/AIDS control measures and monitoring of HIV spread within a country. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection, risk factors for HIV\\/AIDS and immunologic (lymphocyte profile) characteristics

Michael Kiptoo; Solomon Mpoke; Zipporah Ng'ang'a; Jones Mueke; Fredrick Okoth; Elijah Songok

2009-01-01

220

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

2015-03-01

221

Clinical Needs of In-treatment Pregnant Women with Co-occurring Disorders: Implications for Primary Care.  

PubMed

We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders. PMID:24770992

Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

2015-01-01

222

Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in northeastern Romania.  

PubMed

We conducted a serological survey of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in northeastern Romania to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in this population. Overall, 162 (28%) of 573 women had evidence of past or current HBV infection, and 48 (8.4%) were carriers. The prevalence of past or current infection rose with age, but did not differ by educational level, occupation, or rural versus urban residence. Integration of hepatitis B vaccine into routine childhood immunization schedules, with the first dose given at birth, may have a substantial impact on HBV infection in Romania by preventing both perinatal and early childhood transmission. PMID:8282474

Woodruff, B A; Popovici, F; Beldescu, N; Shapiro, C N; Hersh, B S

1993-10-01

223

SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND CATS IN GRENADA, WEST INDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in 534 pregnant women and 40 domestic cats in Grenada, West Indies. Antibodies (IgG) for T. gondii were sought in human sera by an enzyme linked immunoabsorvent assay (ELISA) and in cat sera by using the modified agglutination test (M...

224

Single dose fosfomycin trometamol versus multiple dose nitrofurantoin in pregnant women with bacteriuria: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pregnancy induces anatomical and physiological changes in the urinary tract. In this condition a bacteriuria, even asymptomatic, may lead more frequently to pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women has therefore got to be treated. According to recent studies, long course antibiotherapy did not prove to be more effective than a single-dose one in the case of non-complicated bacteriuria. Moreover,

H. Thoumsin; M. Aghayan; R. Lambotte

1990-01-01

225

Pregnant Women with Bronchial Asthma Benefit from Progressive Muscle Relaxation: A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asthma is a serious medical problem in pregnancy and is often associated with stress, anger and poor quality of life.The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on change in blood pressure, lung parameters, heart rate, anger and health-related quality of life in pregnant women with bronchial asthma. Methods: We treated a

Cerstin Nickel; Claas Lahmann; Moritz Muehlbacher; Francisco Pedrosa Gil; Patrick Kaplan; Wiebke Buschmann; Karin Tritt; Christian Kettler; Egon Bachler; Christian Egger; Javaid Anvar; Rainhold Fartacek; Thomas Loew; Wolfhardt Rother; Marius Nickel

2006-01-01

226

Economic evaluation of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Drug abuse and transmission of HIV during pregnancy are major public health problems that adversely affect pregnant women, their children and surrounding communities. Programs that address this vulnerable population have the ability to be cost effective due to resulting cost savings for mother, child and society. Economic evaluations of programs that address these issues are an important tool to better understand the costs of services and create sustainable healthcare systems. This study critically examined economic evaluations of drug abuse treatment and HIV prevention programs in pregnant women. A systematic review was conducted using the criteria recommended by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine and the British Medical Journal (BMJ) checklist for economic evaluations. The search identified 6 economic studies assessing drug abuse treatment for pregnant women, and 12 economic studies assessing programs that focus on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Results show that many programs for drug abuse treatment and PMTCT among pregnant women are cost-effective or even cost-saving. This review identified several shortcomings in methodology and lack of standardization of current economic evaluations. Efforts to improve methodological challenges will help make future studies more comparable and have more influence on policy makers, clinicians and the public. PMID:21962429

Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Lazar, Christina M.

2011-01-01

227

[Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].  

PubMed

This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live. PMID:18468813

Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

2008-06-01

228

Nutritional behaviours among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland.  

PubMed

Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System); an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). The health behaviour of a pregnant woman, including adequate nutritional behaviours and supply of all the necessary nutrients, exert an effect on the health of a woman, development of the foetus, and the occurrence of diseases among the offspring at the age of maturity. The objective of the study was analysis of the nutritional behaviours among Polish pregnant women, with particular consideration of the recognition of dietary changes caused by the fact of becoming pregnant. The studies were based on questionnaire forms within the Polish Mother and Child Heath Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise day of studies is appointed annually for the whole of Poland by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system, a central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. More than a half of Polish women change their diet in pregnancy. According to the pregnant women examined, the changes in their diet consist in a more frequent consumption of white meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and dairy products. Favourable changes in diet were observed primarily among the respondents from the urban environment. Considering an insufficient awareness with respect to nutritional behaviours among females at reproductive age, the education of pregnant women and those who plan a pregnancy concerning an adequate diet should be jointly conducted by medical circles, schools, and the media, and directed primarily to women from the rural environment. PMID:21736282

Wojty?a, Andrzej; Bojar, Iwona; Boyle, Peter; Zato?ski, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw

2011-06-01

229

Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women and hospitalized children in Palestine  

PubMed Central

Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections. The maternal immune status plays a major role in the likelihood of congenital infection. The aim of this study is to shed light on the seroprevalence of HCMV in pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns including cases of congenital infections in Palestine. Methods We analyzed HCMV IgG and IgM test results that had been ordered for pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns in the years 2006–2012 at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital (MICH) in East Jerusalem. Furthermore, we reviewed the medical charts of newborns and HCMV IgM-positive children. Results HCMV IgG was positive in 96.6% of pregnant women, in 88% of hospitalized children and in 98.4% of hospitalized newborns. HCMV IgM was positive in 11.5% of pregnant women, in 11.7% of hospitalized children and in 2% of hospitalized newborns respectively. The HCMV avidity assay revealed that 95% of IgM-positive pregnant women had high avidity (>60%) indicating that most Palestinian women were undergoing a recurrent HCMV infection. Real time PCR on limited number of cases indicated that 62.5% of infants, mostly born to IgM-positive mothers and 83.3% of HCMV IgM-positive children had detectable HCMV DNA in their urine. Out of the 249 newborns tested during this study period, four (1.6%) were subjected to Gancyclovir treatment because of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection. Conclusions This is the first report to provide an insight into HCMV seroprevalence in Palestine. Despite the high rate of seropositivity, the importance of HCMV testing during pregnancy should not be underestimated. A comprehensive study with a long term follow-up examination of offspring born to HCMV IgM-positive mothers would be required to provide estimates of an accurate percentage of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection in Palestine. PMID:24206533

2013-01-01

230

Low pertussis toxin antibody levels in two regional cohorts of Canadian pregnant women.  

PubMed

Infants under 6 months of age are at greatest risk of mortality and severe morbidity from pertussis disease. Interventions that increase pertussis protection in newborns are therefore a clear public health imperative. The objective of this study was to assess maternal pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) level as a potential source of mother-to-child transfer of pertussis-associated antibodies that may reduce neonatal risk of pertussis disease. Anti-PT level was assessed in a 2013 cohort of pregnant women from two regions in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Basic demographics, health, and pertussis immunization history were collected, along with blood specimens. Anti-PT levels were compared for self-reported vaccination status and prior pertussis disease. To assess secular trend, a parallel analysis was also undertaken, using anonymized residual sera from a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia. A total of 169 pregnant women participated in the study - 50 from Nova Scotia and 119 from British Columbia. The mean and median age of participants from both sites was 31 years of age (range 16-42 years). The lower limit of quantification of the anti-PT assay was 10 ELISA units per milliliter (EU/ml). Overall, 59% of women had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml and anti-PT level did not differ with time since last self-reported pertussis vaccination (?(2)(2)=3.166, p=0.205). Among a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia, 101 of 200 (51%) had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml. Our study found that most pregnant women in two geographically disparate health regions in Canada have low residual anti-PT levels, may be vulnerable to pertussis infection themselves, and would unlikely be a source of passive ante- or postnatal transfer of anti-PT to their newborn. PMID:25269092

Bigham, Mark; Konrad, Stephanie; Van Buynder, Paul; Van Buynder, Jan; Isaac-Renton, Judy; ElSherif, May; Halperin, Scott A

2014-11-12

231

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in south western, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169

Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M

2014-03-01

232

Prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant women of Luanda, Angola.  

PubMed

Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ?18?years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola. PMID:21729222

Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique

2011-10-01

233

Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the safe use of medicinal plants in pregnancy may promote safer pregnancies and better health for mothers and their unborn infants in Mali. PMID:24041441

2013-01-01

234

Comparison of Pregnancy-Specific Interventions to a Traditional Treatment Program for Cocaine-Addicted Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol and drug use in pregnancy is a significant concern. There is a paucity of treatment programs for substance-abusing pregnant women, especially if indigent. Futhermore, treatment retention is compromised when the drug of choice is crack-cocaine. This paper reports the results of a study comparing treatment retention of cocaine-abusing indigent pregnant women before and after incorporating pregnancy-specific interventions. Audits were

Thea Weisdorf; Theodore V. Parran; Antonnette Graham; Clint Snyder

1999-01-01

235

Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

2013-01-01

236

How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?  

PubMed Central

Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

2014-01-01

237

Trends in Influenza Vaccine Coverage in Pregnant Women, 2008 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Context: Pregnant women are at increased risk of severe influenza-related complications and hospitalizations and are a priority group for influenza vaccination. Objective: To examine coverage of seasonal and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in pregnant women in a managed care setting, from 2008 to 2012. Design: Retrospective cohort study of 10,145 pregnant women. Main Outcome Measures: H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination rates. Results: Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage increased from 38% to 63% between the 2008–2009 and 2010–2011 seasons, and then dropped to 61% in 2011–2012. Vaccine coverage was higher in women considered at high risk of influenza complications, increasing from 43% in 2008–2009 to 71% in 2010–2011, before decreasing to 69% in 2011–2012. H1N1 vaccine coverage was greater than seasonal influenza coverage in 2009–2010 in the overall pregnant population (61% vs 53%) and in the high-risk group (64% vs 59%). We observed statistically significant differences in vaccination rates by trimester, gravidity, maternal age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Vaccination rates increased significantly from 2008 to 2011, then dropped slightly in 2011–2012. Continued efforts are needed to ensure adequate vaccination coverage in this high-risk population. PMID:23704840

Henninger, Michelle; Crane, Bradley; Naleway, Allison

2013-01-01

238

Placenta-secreted circulating markers in pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with placenta-mediated adverse clinical outcomes. We aimed at comparing placenta-secreted proteins, such as first and second trimester Down syndrome screening markers which have been linked to preeclampsia, and markers of angiogenesis in pregnant women with OSA, and pregnant controls at low risk for OSA. Methods: A case-control study of pregnant women with OSA and controls at low risk for OSA was performed. Levels of first and second trimester markers were reported as multiple of median (MoM), and adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Stored samples were tested for markers of angiogenesis and adjusted for gestational age, BMI, and chronic hypertension. Results: A total of 24 women with OSA and 166 controls had screening markers. BMI was higher in cases compared to controls, P=0.01. MoM levels of placenta associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were significantly lower in cases versus controls, even after adjusting for BMI (0.52 IQR 0.48 vs. 1.01 IQR 0.63, P=0.009). The ratio of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 to placental growth factor was significantly higher in cases than controls, even after adjusting for confounders (4.42 IQR 2.52 vs. 2.93 IQR 2.01, P=0.009). Conclusion: Circulating placenta-secreted glycoproteins and markers of angiogenesis are altered in pregnant women with OSA. PMID:24846956

Bourjeily, Ghada; Curran, Patrizia; Butterfield, Kristen; Maredia, Hasina; Carpenter, Marshall; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn

2014-05-20

239

Prevalence of iodine deficiency among pregnant and lactating women: Experience in Kolkata  

PubMed Central

Objective: The cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the iodine status of pregnant and lactating mothers, using median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) as the measure of outcome, to document the prevalence of iodine deficiency. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the UIE in the morning urine samples from 237 pregnant women, 73 lactating mothers and 59 healthy non-pregnant female controls. Results: Out of 237 pregnant women, 88 (37%) exhibited insufficient iodine nutrition (UIE < 150 ?g/l), out of 73 lactating mothers, 24 (33%) exhibited insufficient iodine nutrition (UIE < 100 ?g/l) and only 3% female control subjects exhibited insufficient iodine nutrition (UIE < 100?g/l). Additionally, a number (32.3%) of babies born of iodine deficient mothers had respiratory distress at birth. Conclusion: It appears that the present salt iodination program is adequate for the general population but insufficient for the pregnant and lactating mothers. They need to be targeted with iodine supplements throughout pregnancy and lactation. Increased incidence of respiratory distress in the new born of iodine deficient mothers merits further study. PMID:25143903

Majumder, Anirban; Jaiswal, Arvinda; Chatterjee, Sudip

2014-01-01

240

Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (?28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population. PMID:22567090

Vidwan, Navjyot K.; Regi, Annie; Steinhoff, Mark; Huppert, Jill S.; Staat, Mary Allen; Dodd, Caitlin; Nongrum, Rida; Anandan, Shalini; Verghese, Valsan

2012-01-01

241

Factors influencing acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Guided by the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model, this study aimed to identify factors associated with pregnant women's expressed willingness to accept voluntary counselling and HIV-testing (VCT). A cross-sectional interview survey of 500 pregnant women, complemented by focus group discussions, was conducted in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Constructs derived from the Health Belief Model explained 41.7% of women's willingness to accept VCT. Perceived high personal susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, barriers related to confidentiality and partner involvement, self-efficacy regarding alternative feeding methods and religion were all shown to be associated with willingness to accept VCT. The women's acceptance of VCT seems to depend upon their perceiving that VCT and alternative feeding strategies provide clear benefits, primarily for the child. Whether a positive attitude to VCT and alternative feeding strategies are transformed into actual behaviour depends on a set of complicated decisions in which several potential psychological consequences are assessed. Sharing the diagnosis with partners may not have the intended effect if there is a lack of sensitivity to the women's fear of blame and rejection. If pregnant women are to fully participate in and benefit from mother-to-child-transmission prevention efforts, their partners must be committed and involved in the process. PMID:15203410

de Paoli, M M; Manongi, R; Klepp, K-I

2004-05-01

242

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

2010-07-01

243

Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881

Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok

2013-01-01

244

Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were performed between January 2007 and November 2012. Imaging findings, clinical management and outcome were extracted from patient’s file and electronic records. Image quality was evaluated. Results Ten studies of 9 patients were included. MRE protocol was modified to maximize maternal and fetal safety, and intravenous gadolinium was not used. In 7 patients, CD diagnosis was previously established; six were admitted with clinical symptoms consistent with CD exacerbation, and an additional patient with a recurrent groin abscess without apparent luminal symptoms. In all seven patients, imaging features consistent with active CD were detected; new penetrating complications were detected in 4 patients. Two patients underwent MRE for suspected CD which was not comforted by study results. The clinical management was significantly impacted by MRE results in all positive cases. The image quality of the fast MRE sequences obtained without gadolinium was satisfactory and allowed meaningful interpretation. Conclusion MRE with an adapted protocol for pregnancy is a reliable imaging modality to manage in pregnant women with known or suspected CD. PMID:25129422

2014-01-01

245

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in non-vaccinated, pregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the main characteristics of non-vaccinated pregnant women who were hospitalised for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic versus pregnant women hospitalised for non-influenza-related reasons in Spain, and to characterise the clinical presentation of the disease in this population to facilitate early diagnosis and future action programmes. Understanding influenza infection during pregnancy is important as pregnant women are a high-risk population for increased morbidity from influenza infection. We investigated the socio-demographic and clinical features of 51 non-vaccinated, pregnant women infected with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Spain (cases) and compared them to 114 controls (non-vaccinated and non-infected pregnant women) aged 15-44 years. Substantial and significant odd ratios (ORs) for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were found for the pregnant women who were obese compared with controls (body mass index > 30) (OR 3.03; 95% confidence intervals 1.13-8.11). The more prevalent symptoms observed in pandemic influenza-infected pregnant women were high temperature, cough (82.4%), malaise (80.5%), myalgia (56.1%), and headaches (54.9%). Our results suggest that the initial symptoms and risk factors for infection of pregnant women with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus are similar to the symptoms and risk factors for seasonal influenza, which make early diagnosis difficult, and reinforces the need to identify and protect high-risk groups. PMID:24162551

Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Soldevila, Núria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José Maria; Tamames, Sonia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Domínguez, Angela

2014-08-01

246

Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

2007-01-01

247

Pharmacokinetics of Amodiaquine and Desethylamodiaquine in Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Plasmodium vivax Malaria?†  

PubMed Central

In order to study the pharmacokinetic properties of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine during pregnancy, 24 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and with Plasmodium vivax malaria were treated with amodiaquine (10 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 3 days. The same women were studied again at 3 months postpartum. Plasma was analyzed for amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine by use of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Individual concentration-time data were evaluated using noncompartmental analysis. There were no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine between pregnant (n = 24) and postpartum (n = 18) women. The results suggest that the current amodiaquine dosing regimen is adequate for the treatment of P. vivax infections during pregnancy. PMID:21709098

Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Jullien, Vincent; Tarning, Joel; Lindegardh, Niklas; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Win, Aye Kyi; Hsi, Poe; Cammas, Mireille; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François

2011-01-01

248

Nutrient intake and food consumption among pregnant women from an agricultural region of Morocco.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess dietary intake and nutrient adequacy in pregnant women selected from an agricultural region of Morocco. On a sample of 172 pregnant women from rural and urban area, data on socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits by a quantified food frequency were collected using questionnaires. Mean daily intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated and compared to reference nutrient intakes (RNI). The results show that the mean daily intakes of energy (3110.9 kcal in urban; 2707.5 kcal in rural) and some nutrients were adequate. However, iron, folate, zinc and calcium intakes were inadequate for the majority of women and more markedly in rural area. Education level appeared to affect nutrient intakes while no differences were registered across pregnancy stages or according to household size. The study suggests that an education program should be conducted to improve dietary intakes in order to prevent risks for pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:16849111

Belgnaoui, Salwa; Belahsen, Rekia

2006-01-01

249

Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women’s personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts. PMID:19386406

Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

2013-01-01

250

Longitudinal study of antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibodies in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to perform a longitudinal follow-up of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and anticardiolipin antibodies titers (aCL) throughout pregnancy in a group of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients during their therapy for the prevention of fetal loss and to examine their relationship with pregnancy outcome. Thirty patients and 15 controls were

Mario Salazar-Páramo; Luis J. Jara; Azucena Ramos; Leonor Barile; Guadalupe Machado; Ignacio García-De La Torre

2002-01-01

251

Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.  

PubMed

A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

2014-11-01

252

Predictors of serum concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants among healthy pregnant women in an urban environment: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants commonly used in a wide range of products. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Our objective was to characterize predictors of exposure to PBDEs among a multi-ethnic, low-income cohort of pregnant women enrolled from highly urban communities in New York City between years 2009–2010. Methods During the first half of pregnancy we collected 316 maternal serum samples and administered an extensive questionnaire including items on demographics, diet and lifestyle. We measured 12 PBDE congeners in blood samples. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we regressed the most commonly detected PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) against potential demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictor variables. Results At least one PBDE congener was detected in each serum sample. Our analyses demonstrate unique predictor patterns for PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 based on demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of women. Higher education and increased use of household electronics were associated with higher levels of all 4 congeners. Six characteristics were associated with PBDE-153 serum concentrations, more than for any other congener. These include maternal education, household income, body mass index, solid dairy consumption, processed meat consumption and frequent use of household electronics. Conclusions PBDE exposure in this widespread in this cohort, though levels are lower than previous assessments of US pregnant women. Lower levels may be in response to legislation restricting the production, sale and use of these compounds. In our cohort, we did not observe any individual predictor or a consistent pattern of several predictors representing a significant source of PBDE exposure. These data suggest that legislation and policy may be more effective at reducing exposure than personal lifestyle modifications. PMID:23497089

2013-01-01

253

Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2013-06-28

254

Dietary Assessment in Pregnant Women and Children  

Cancer.gov

In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.

255

Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole. PMID:24646407

2014-01-01

256

[Nutritional consistency of rations of pregnant and breast feeding women with anemia].  

PubMed

Nutrient density has been studied in healthy and anemic women's rations. The examinees were either pregnant or breast-feeding. The diets were found out from questionnaires and check-weighing. Chemical composition of the nutrients was calculated using tables. The findings were computer processed. The nutrient density appeared different in healthy and anemic females by content of protein, calcium, vitamins A and C. Food of anemic pregnant and breast-feeding females should be rich in proteins, mineral substances and vitamins. PMID:8042291

Salpynov, L N; Zhumabaeva, G G; Musabekov, S M

1993-01-01

257

Escherichia coli bacteraemia in pregnant women is life-threatening for foetuses.  

PubMed

In order to improve knowledge on Escherichia coli bacteraemia during pregnancy, we studied clinical data and performed molecular characterization of strains for 29 E. coli bacteraemia occurring in pregnant women. Bacteraemia mostly occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (45%) and was community-acquired (79%). Portals of entry were urinary (55%) and genital (45%). E. coli strains belonged mainly to phylogroups B2 (72%) and D (17%). Four clonal lineages (i.e. sequence type complex (STc) 73, STc95, STc12 and STc69) represented 65% of the strains. The strains exhibited a high number of virulence factor coding genes (10 (3-16)). Six foetuses died (27%), five of them due to bacteraemia of genital origin (83%). Foetal deaths occurred despite adequate antibiotic regimens. Strains associated with foetal mortality had fewer virulence factors (8 (6-10)) than strains involved in no foetal mortality (11 (4-12)) (p 0.02). When comparing E. coli strains involved in bacteraemia with a urinary portal of entry in non-immunocompromised pregnant vs. non-immunocompromised non-pregnant women from the COLIBAFI study, there was no significant difference of phylogroups and virulence factor coding genes. These results show that E. coli bacteraemia in pregnant women involve few highly virulent clones but that severity, represented by foetal death, is mainly related to bacteraemia of genital origin. PMID:24979689

Surgers, L; Bleibtreu, A; Burdet, C; Clermont, O; Laouénan, C; Lefort, A; Mentré, F; Carbonne, B; Bingen, E; Meynard, J-L; Denamur, E

2014-12-01

258

Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in tropical regions such as the Caribbean as household insecticides, pet sprays, and where malaria is endemic, impregnated into mosquito-repellent nets. Of particular concern is exposure during pregnancy, as these compounds have the potential to cross the placental barrier and interfere with fetal development, as was shown in limited animal studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to pyrethroids to pregnant women residing in 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Pyrethroid exposures were determined by analyzing five pyrethroid metabolites in urine samples from 295 pregnant women: cis-DBCA, cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA, and 4-F-3-PBA. Pyrethroid metabolite concentrations in Caribbean pregnant women were generally higher in the 10 Caribbean countries than levels reported for Canadian and U.S. women. In Antigua & Barbuda and Jamaica participants the geometric mean concentrations of cis-DBCA was significantly higher than in the other nine countries together (p<0.0001 and <0.0012 respectively). For cis- and trans-DCCA, only Antigua & Barbuda women differed significantly from participants of the other nine Caribbean countries (p<0.0001). Urinary 4-F-3-PBA and 3-PBA levels were significantly higher in Antigua & Barbuda (p<0.0028 and p<0.0001 respectively) as well as in Grenada (p<0.0001 and p<0.007 respectively). These results indicate extensive use of pyrethroid compounds such as permethrin and cypermethrin in Caribbean households. In Antigua & Barbuda, the data reveals a greater use of deltamethrin. This study underscores the need for Caribbean public health authorities to encourage their populations, and in particular pregnant women, to utilize this class of pesticides more judiciously given the potentially adverse effects of exposure on fetuses and infants. PMID:24317226

Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kaddar, Nisrin; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Gaudreau, Eric; Drescher, Olivia; Ayotte, Pierre

2014-02-01

259

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

260

Perceptions by pregnant and childbearing-age women in southern Brazil towards teratogenic risk from medicines and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Mistaken perception of teratogenic risk can keep pregnant women from using safe medicines. The current study analyzed women's concepts and perceptions towards teratogenic risk from medicines and exposure to radiotherapy during pregnancy. The quantitative data resulted from interviews with 287 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Two qualitative focus groups were conducted. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of perceptions of teratogenic risk. Median perceptions of non-teratogenic exposures (paracetamol and metoclopramide) were close to the expected values, while higher values were found for teratogenic exposures (misoprostol and radiotherapy). The logic women used to estimate risk was classification of medicines as "strong" or "weak". Medicines perceived as "weak" by the women do not pose any teratogenic risk, as shown by the median perceptions close to the true values. Meanwhile, "strong" medicines were viewed as dangerous, thus explaining the high median perceptions of teratogenic exposures. PMID:25317525

Pons, Emilia da Silva; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Knauth, Daniela Riva

2014-09-01

261

Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age. PMID:21895350

Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

2012-06-01

262

Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme Impact in Pregnant Women and Status of Universal Salt Iodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies pertaining to current status of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme in India have revealed goiter prevalence in the range of 1.5–44.5%, mean urinary iodine excretion level ranging from 92.5–160 mcg/L and iodized salt coverage ranging from 37–62.3%. Most of these studies were based on school children. However, very few studies have focused on pregnant women. This population is very sensitive to marginalized iodine deficiency throughout their gestational period. Methods: This 40 cluster cross sectional study was done in Raipur district. Iodine content of salt was estimated by using “Rapid Salt Testing Kits” along with observing salt storage practices, at household and in shops. Pregnant women were interviewed by using semi structured comprehensive questionnaire, which was based on knowledge attitude, and practices about salt use pattern and awareness about IDDCP, UIE level were also estimated. Results: Prevalence of goiter was 0.17%. Many (41.12%) pregnant women had <15ppm iodine content in the salt sample and 51.58% of women had subnormal iodine uptake. Wrong salt storage practice was observed in 36.3% of households. Conclusions: There were lacunae in Iodine deficiency control program in Chhattisgarh. Implementation and monitoring of program was weak. Thus for monitoring purpose IDD Cell & IDD Laboratory should be established at district level. This will lead to periodic assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, by monitoring of Iodine intake and all other preventive, promotive as well as curative measures in the state. PMID:23113082

Sinha, AK; Tripathi, S; Gandhi, NK; Singh, AJ

2011-01-01

263

Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--United States, 2012-13 influenza season.  

PubMed

Pregnant women and infants aged <6 months are at increased risk for influenza-related severe illness and hospitalization. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women has been shown to reduce the risk for illness in both mother and infant. To help protect pregnant women, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend influenza vaccination for all women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of trimester. To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2012-13 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted April 1-12, 2013. Among 1,702 self-selected survey respondents pregnant at any time during the 4-month period of October 2012-January 2013, 50.5% reported they received influenza vaccination before or during their pregnancy. Influenza vaccination coverage was higher among women reporting both a health-care provider recommendation and offer of influenza vaccination (70.5%) compared with women who received a recommendation but no offer of vaccination (46.3%) and women who received no recommendation (16.1%). Vaccination coverage of women who will be or are pregnant during an influenza season might be improved by implementing a combination of community-based interventions, including enhanced access to low-cost vaccination services, provider recommendation and offer of influenza vaccination, and education of pregnant women about influenza vaccination safety and efficacy during pregnancy to increase demand. PMID:24067583

2013-09-27

264

Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

2014-01-01

265

Carnitine status of pregnant women: effect of carnitine supplementation and correlation between iron status and plasma carnitine concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:It has been shown that plasma carnitine concentrations markedly decline during gestation in women. The reason for this, however, is unknown. One objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine concentrations in pregnant women. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that reduced plasma carnitine concentrations during gestation are caused by a

U Keller; C van der Wal; G Seliger; C Scheler; F Röpke; K Eder

2009-01-01

266

Assessment of client satisfaction in a peer counseling substance abuse treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and human service agencies routinely use client satisfaction information as a measure of accountability. This study examines the utility of client satisfaction in the evaluation of a peer counseling treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women in recovery from crack cocaine addiction. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used to assess satisfaction in a sample of 25 women receiving peer

L. M. Sanders; C. Trinh; B. R. Sherman; S. M. Banks

1998-01-01

267

Effect of Passive Leg Raising on Systemic Hemodynamics of Pregnant Women: A Dynamic Assessment of Maternal Cardiovascular Function at 22–24 Weeks of Gestation  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate functional hemodynamic response to passive leg raising in healthy pregnant women and compare it with non-pregnant controls. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study with a case-control design. A total of 108 healthy pregnant women at 22–24 weeks of gestation and 54 non-pregnant women were included. Cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics were studied at baseline and 90 seconds after passive leg raising using non-invasive impedance cardiography. Main outcome measures Trends and magnitudes of changes in impedance cardiography derived parameters of cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics caused by passive leg raising, and preload responsiveness defined as >10% increase in stroke volume or cardiac output after passive leg raising compared to baseline. Results The hemodynamic parameters in both pregnant and non-pregnant women changed significantly during passive leg raising compared to baseline, but the magnitude and trend of change was similar in both groups. The stroke volume increased both in pregnant (p?=?0.042) and non-pregnant (p?=?0.018) women, whereas the blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased (p<0.001) following passive leg raising in both groups. Only 14.8% of pregnant women and 18.5% of non-pregnant women were preload responsive and the difference between groups was not significant (p?=?0.705). Conclusion Static measures of cardiovascular status are different between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the physiological response to passive leg raising is similar and not modified by pregnancy at 22–24 weeks of gestation. Whether physiological response to passive leg raising is different in earlier and later stages of pregnancy merit further investigation. PMID:24732308

Vårtun, Åse; Flo, Kari; Acharya, Ganesh

2014-01-01

268

Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH  

SciTech Connect

Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

1988-10-01

269

The use of complementary and alternative medicine by pregnant women: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgroundthe use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly prevalent in industrialised countries, with women being the most prolific users. Some women continue to consume these therapies when they become pregnant.

Helen G. Hall; Debra L. Griffiths; Lisa G. McKenna

270

FDA Issues New Drug Label Rules to Better Inform Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. FDA Issues New Drug Label Rules to Better Inform Pregnant Women ... Medicines WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new labeling system should give women and their doctors ...

271

Seroprevalence and Seroconversion Rates of Cytomegalovirus pp65 Antigen and Cord Blood Screening of Pregnant Women in Malatya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective: The rates of seropositivity, seroconversion and fetal infection with human cytomegalovirus were analyzed in pregnant women and newborn cord blood in this study. The relationships between maternal age, parity, cytomegalovirus serology and polymerase chain reaction results were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 pregnant women attended our pregnancy clinic between April 2004 and October 2005. During each trimester, 5 cc of maternal blood was obtained and 5 cc of cord blood was collected after birth. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess these samples for the presence of human cytomegalovirus protein pp65 antigen (in leukocytes) and cytomegalovirus DNA (in plasma). Results: The mean age of the pregnant women in our study was 28.1±5.3 years. No seroconversion was observed. Among the pregnant women, 212 (97.7%) were IgG positive, and 29 (13.4%) were IgM positive. Five of the pregnant women were positive for IgM alone (2.3%), whereas 24 (11.3%) were positive for both IgM and IgG. The 29 IgM-positive patients were reevaluated using the polymerase chain reaction, and no seropositivity was found. None of the cord blood samples were IgM positive, whereas 211 (97.3%) were IgG positive. There was no significant correlation between parity and seropositivity (p=0.487). The relationship between human cytomegalovirus seropositivity and maternal age was evaluated by dividing the pregnant women into two groups, with a cut-off age of 35 years. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between these two groups (p=0.045). Conclusion: Clearly, there is no need to screen pregnant women for Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Malatya region. Confirming serology results using the polymerase chain reaction and antigenemia testing to detect false positive results offers the advantage of avoiding unnecessary invasive interventions.

Dogan, Keziban; Kafkasli, Ayse; Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Huseyin

2013-01-01

272

The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (p< 0.05). Fasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

2014-01-01

273

Interdependence between urinary cobalt concentrations and hemoglobin levels in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Cobalt is an essential trace element but may cause toxic effects upon occupational or environmental exposure. Women accumulate more cobalt than men at similar exposure levels which may be related to higher metabolic iron loss. During pregnancy these losses are much stronger but their influence on cobalt intake has not been studied. We have studied the associations between changes in hemoglobin and cobalt urinary excretion during pregnancy. 391 pairs of urine and blood samples from pregnant women were collected during the 12th and 32nd weeks of pregnancy and were analyzed for cobalt and hemoglobin. Mean concentrations of urinary cobalt were 0.73 and 1.6µg/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively (p<0.001). 84% of pregnant women had higher levels of cobalt in the third than in the first trimester. Cobalt concentrations were negatively associated to hemoglobin levels in the third trimester (p<0.05). Women with higher iron decreases between both trimesters had significant cobalt increases between these two periods. This correspondence involved a statistically significant difference in third trimester mean cobalt concentrations of anemic and non-anemic women, 1.8 and 1.5µg/g creatinine, respectively (p<0.05). No significant differences between these two groups were found during the first trimester. These results were used to construct generalized additive models both in normal and anemic women. The strong association between the changes of both iron status and cobalt urine levels found in pregnant women may be related to higher intestinal absorption of cobalt at iron depletion such as in the last pregnancy period when iron body demands are high. Possible toxicity effects of these cobalt increases along pregnancy should be considered in cases of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to this metal. PMID:25460631

Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

2015-01-01

274

Folate, vitamin D, and iron intakes are low among pregnant Finnish women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate dietary habits and nutrient intake of Finnish pregnant women, to relate these to the use of dietary supplements, and to explore possible dietary variations according to age and education.Design: A random dietary survey using two five day estimated food records.Setting: Pregnant women from 13 maternity clinics in the city of Oulu, Finland.Subjects: One hundred and eighteen pregnant

M Erkkola; M Karppinen; A Järvinen; M Knip; SM Virtanen

1998-01-01

275

Physical violence against pregnant women by an intimate partner, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mazandaran Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1%) (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001), secondary level education (0.003), and in low income households (0.0001) were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse.

Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Abhari, Farrideh R.; Delavar, Mouloud A.; Charati, Jamshid Y.

2015-01-01

276

Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

2008-01-01

277

Adherence to walking or stretching, and risk of preeclampsia in sedentary pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia may benefit from the positive effects of exercise, but they may be unlikely to adhere to an exercise program. A randomized trial was conducted with 124 sedentary pregnant women to compare the effects of walking exercise to a stretching exercise on adherence and on the preeclampsia risk factors of heart rate (HR), blood pressure,

SeonAe Yeo

2009-01-01

278

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2012-07-01

279

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2013-07-01

280

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2014-07-01

281

40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational...Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as...

2011-07-01

282

Recruitment and Retention of Substance-Using Pregnant and Parenting Women: Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to current estimates, approximately 5.5 percent of all American pregnant women use an illicit drug during pregnancy. National concern for drug-exposed infants prompted interest in the needs of substance using pregnant women and in the development of drug treatment programs for them. A total of 147 comprehensive programs have been funded…

Laken, Marilyn Poland; Hutchins, Ellen

283

Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Illness in Florida, 2009-2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection (pH1N1). Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes. Methods We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness. Results A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI): 1.78 (1.11-2.860)], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330)], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00)], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes. Conclusions Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue to be targeted for appropriate prophylaxis and early treatment. PMID:24205364

Doyle, Timothy J.; Goodin, Kate; Hamilton, Janet J.

2013-01-01

284

Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.  

PubMed

Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection. PMID:25533327

Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

2015-01-29

285

Factors associated with HIV RNA levels in pregnant women on non-suppressive HAART at conception  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about pregnancy patterns and levels of HIV RNA in HIV-infected women conceiving on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with non-suppressed viral load (VL), nor their therapeutic management. Methods Linear mixed models were fitted to study changes in VL and potential associated factors including HAART type/duration and immune status among 127 women receiving HAART at conception with detectable VL enrolled in the prospective European Collaborative Study. Results Median duration of HAART at conception was 10 months. Seventy-eight (61%) women conceived on PI-based HAART. Seventy-two (57%) women remained on the same HAART regimen throughout pregnancy, 24 (19%) switched regimens and 31 (24%) interrupted HAART during early pregnancy. The intention-to-treat model indicated constant VL up to 10 gestational weeks; thereafter levels decreased significantly, by 0.06 log10 copies/ml weekly until delivery. At baseline, immune status was significantly associated with HIV RNA levels. Excluding treatment-interrupters, there was no significant difference in VL slope between women who did and did not modify their HAART regimens (p=0.14); women conceiving on NNRTI-based HAART had consistently lower VL throughout pregnancy than those on PI-based HAART (p=0.02). Most (64/103, 62%) women had detectable VL within four weeks of delivery (median 2.40 log10 copies/ml). The MTCT rate overall was 1.72% (95%CI 0.21-6.1%). Conclusion Practices regarding management of women conceiving on HAART with detectable VL vary in Western Europe. The existence of this group of pregnant women highlights the need for improved monitoring of and support for treated women before they become pregnant, as well as during pregnancy itself. PMID:20167990

2012-01-01

286

Utilization of Mental Health Services by Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women on Medical Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines mental health service use among publicly insured white and African-American pregnant and postpartum women who live in a metropolitan area. The study examines the extent to which ethnicity, physical health problems, and behavioral health risk factors are associated with the probability of service use during the pre-natal-postpartum period. It also analyzes the patterns of service utilization for

Dayoung Song; Roberta G. Sands; Yin-Ling Irene Wong

2004-01-01

287

Perfusion scintigraphy: diagnostic utility in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major preventable cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy and accurate diagnosis is essential.\\u000a Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is a robust diagnostic test in non-pregnant patients with suspected PE. The\\u000a potential latent carcinogenic effects of CTPA-related breast irradiation mandates careful use of this technique in young women.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine

Andrew Frederick Scarsbrook; Kevin Martin Bradley; Fergus Vincent Gleeson

2007-01-01

288

Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women living in an area of stable malaria transmission such as Lagos, Nigeria, have been identified as being at an increased risk of the effects of malaria infection. In this area, most of the infections are asymptomatic which means they are overlooked and untreated much to the detriment of the mother and her foetus. The reality of scaled-up malaria interventions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets, vector control, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is that it is also essential to determine the risk factors at play in these kinds of circumstances. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with risk of malaria infection in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods Demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women studied were captured using structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, species identification and parasite density. Relative risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare factors associated with malaria in pregnant women. Results Malaria microscopy details, demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malaria using peripheral blood from 1,084 pregnant women that participated in the study was 7.7%. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) was seen in 95.2% of the cases as either mixed infection with P. malariae (3.6%) or as a mono infection (91.6%). Malaria preventive practices associated with a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the malaria infection was the use of insecticide sprays (RR = 0.36, 95 C.I. 0.24-0.54), and the combined use of insecticide spray and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (RR= 6.53, 95% C.I. 0.92-46.33). Sleeping under ITN alone (RR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 0.55-2.09) was not associated with significant reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135

2013-01-01

289

Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

2015-01-01

290

An anonymous seroprevalence survey of HIV infection among pregnant women in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.  

PubMed Central

We performed an anonymous seroprevalence survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection through HIV antibody testing of blood samples from 22,512 women aged 15 to 44 years receiving prenatal care in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory from Mar. 15 to Sept. 30, 1989. Of the samples six were confirmed to be HIV positive; this yielded a crude overall seroprevalence rate of 2.7 per 10,000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 5.8). All of the positive samples were from women 20 to 29 years of age; four were from Vancouver, one was from Victoria, and one was from elsewhere. The highest seroprevalence rates were among women aged 15 to 29 years in Vancouver and Victoria (7.2 and 9.4 per 10,000 pregnant women respectively). Thus, 1 in 1300 pregnant women in that age group in the metropolitan areas of British Columbia was HIV positive. Application of seroprevalence rates to the total female population in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory revealed that as many as 401 women had HIV infection in 1989. Our estimates likely represent the minimum. As a subset of women of childbearing age pregnant women are likely at lowest risk of HIV infection, and so the true number of women 15 to 44 years of age with HIV infection is probably several times higher. Our study has provided a baseline assessment and will be repeated annually to analyse trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. PMID:2224695

Schechter, M T; Ballem, P J; Buskard, N A; Le, T N; Thompson, M; Marion, S A; O'Shaughnessy, M V

1990-01-01

291

Goitre prevalence in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a teaching hospital.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine goitre prevalence in pregnant women. Seven hundred pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, were interviewed and examined. The mean age of the subjects was 27.8 years, with mean parity of 2.65. Mean gestation was 28.5 weeks. A total of 97.4% were resident in Ilesa and surrounding towns and villages. Well or stream was the main water supply for nearly all the subjects. Only 7.3% of the subjects showed no thyroid enlargement. Early enlargement (1(a) and 1(b)) occurred in 441 (63%) patients, Grade 2 enlargement in 166 (23.2%) and a grossly enlarged goitre in 40 (5.7%). The goitre rate was correlated with the age and parity of the patients. PMID:12745559

Adesunkanmi, A R K; Makinde, O N

2003-03-01

292

[Social support scale: test-retest reliability in pregnant women and structures of agreement and disagreement].  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in research on the association between social support and health outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and structure of agreement of a social support scale. Test-retest reliability was measured in a group of pregnant women (n = 65) in a public maternity ward. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and quadractically weighted kappa (kw2) were used as agreement measures. Log-linear statistical models were fitted to describe patterns of agreement. ICC for social support score was 0.90. The kw2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.70. Log-linear models that provided the best fit to the data were diagonal agreement plus linear-by-linear association and quasi-independence models. The scale was considered a reliable instrument to measure social support scale in low-income pregnant women. PMID:15868059

Silva, Kátia Silveira da; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

2005-01-01

293

Agreement of self-reported physician diagnosis of migraine with international classification of headache disorders-II migraine diagnostic criteria in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder among reproductive age women, has emerged as a novel risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Diagnostic reliability of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine has not been investigated in pregnancy cohort studies. We investigated agreement of self-report of physician-diagnosed migraine with the diagnostic criteria promoted by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 women who provided information on a detailed migraine questionnaire that allowed us to apply all ICHD-II diagnostic criteria. Results Approximately 92% of women reporting a diagnosis of migraine had the diagnosis between the ages of 11 and 40 years (<10 years 6.8%; 11–20 years 38.8%; 21–30 years 42.7%; 31–40 years 10.7%; and >40 years 1.0%). We confirmed self-reported migraine in 81.6% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for definitive migraine (63.1%) and probable migraine (18.5%). Conclusion There is good agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II-based migraine classification in this pregnancy cohort. We demonstrate the feasibility of using questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in epidemiological studies of pregnant women. PMID:24330724

2013-01-01

294

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following oral treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kinshasa DRC  

E-print Network

postpartum, and non-pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infectionpostpartum, and non-pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infectionmonths postpartum; one of these had a mixed infection with (

2011-01-01

295

[Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in central Italy].  

PubMed

Between 2005 and 2007 we examined 2356 pregnant women. We interviewed the patients concerning their dietary behaviour and lifestyles during pregnancy in correlation with the possibility of contracting toxoplasmosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the importance of different risk factors in a group of Italian patients and assess the level of knowledge on this matter. The survey questions were related to: 1) eating rare/raw meat; 2) eating commercial or homemade ham or other pork derivatives such as dry sausage and salami; 3) owning a garden or a plot for fruit and vegetables; 4) owning pets, especially cats; 5) living in town or in the country; 6) eating fresh uncooked vegetables. On the basis of serological tests (Toxo IgG, IgM, IgA, avidity test) we identified three groups of women: those with primary infection, seronegative women (control), and those with inactive infections. Comparison of the first two groups showed that each risk factor significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring toxoplasmosis. Higher odds ratios were observed for those living in the country and for those consuming homemade cured meat. PMID:22212163

Thaller, R; Tammaro, F; Pentimalli, H

2011-12-01

296

Determinants of Hypovitaminosis D in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns in a Sunny Region  

PubMed Central

Introduction. This study aims to assess the factors associated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in pregnant women and their newborns in a sunny region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. It comprised 100 nulliparous singleton pregnant women, selected by random cluster sampling. Laboratory tests were assessed before delivery in mothers and after delivery in their infants' umbilical cord blood. The P for trend of variables was assessed across the air quality index (AQI) quartiles. The associations of AQI and 25(OH)D were assessed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dietary intake. Results. Sera of 98 mothers and an equal number of newborns were analyzed. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of serum 25(OH)D of mothers and neonates was 15.1(12.6, 18.2)?ng/mL in mothers and 15.7(12.0, 18.1)?ng/mL in neonates, respectively. AQI had an inverse association with serum 25(OH)D (Beta = ?0.58, P = 0.04). The corresponding figure was also inverse and significant for newborns (Beta (SE)= ?0.51(0.04), P = 0.01). Conclusion. The independent inverse association of 25(OH)D with air quality can explain the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women living in this sunny region. PMID:23935619

Kelishadi, Roya; Sharifi-Ghazvini, Faezeh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Ferdous; Farajian, Sanam; Yousefy, Hosseinali; Movahedian, Mahsa; Sharifi-Ghazvini, Sanaz

2013-01-01

297

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

298

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.  

PubMed

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

2014-01-01

299

Estimating the Risk of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Blood Donors and Pregnant Women in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0–4 and 5–9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30–39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Conclusions Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy. PMID:24658180

Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

2014-01-01

300

A meta-synthesis of pregnant women's decision-making processes with regard to antenatal screening for Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The diffusion of antenatal screening programmes for Down syndrome has triggered much discussion about their powerful potential to enhance pregnant women's autonomy and reproductive choices. Simultaneously, considerable debate has been engendered by concerns that such programmes may directly contribute to the emergence of new and complex ethical, legal and social dilemmas for women. Given such discussion and debate, an examination of women's decision-making within the context of antenatal screening for Down syndrome is timely. This paper aims to undertake a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies examining the factors influencing pregnant women's decisions to accept or decline antenatal screening for Down syndrome. The meta-synthesis aims to create more comprehensive understandings and to develop theory which might enable midwives and other healthcare professionals to better meet the needs of pregnant women as they make their screening decisions. Ten electronic health and social science databases were searched together with a hand-search of eleven journals for papers published in English between 1999 and 2008, using predefined search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a quality appraisal framework. Nine papers met the criteria for this meta-synthesis, providing an international perspective on pregnant women's decision-making. Twelve themes were identified by consensus and combined into five core concepts. These core concepts were: destination unknown; to choose or not to choose; risk is rarely pure and never simple; treading on dreams, and betwixt and between. A conceptual framework is proposed which incorporates these themes and core concepts, and provides a new insight into pregnant women's complex decision-making processes with regard to antenatal screening for Down syndrome. However, further research is necessary to determine whether or not the development of a model of decision-making may empower pregnant women in making choices about screening. PMID:19783085

Reid, Bernie; Sinclair, Marlene; Barr, Owen; Dobbs, Frank; Crealey, Grainne

2009-12-01

301

Drug use in pregnancy: Knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

More than 90% of pregnant women take prescription or non-prescription drugs at some time during pregnancy. In general, unless absolutely necessary, drugs should not be used during pregnancy because many of them are harmful to the fetus. Appropriate dispensing is one of the steps for rational drug use; so, it is necessary that drug dispensers should have relevant and updated knowledge and skills regarding drug use in pregnancy. To assess the knowledge of drug dispensers and pregnant women regarding drug use in pregnancy, focusing on four commonly used drugs that are teratogenic or cause unwanted effects to the fetus and babies. The study was conducted in two parts: consumers? perception and providers? practice. It was a cross-sectional study involving visits to 200 private retail community pharmacies (as simulated client) within Temeke, Ilala and Kinondoni municipals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The second part of the study was conducted at the antenatal clinics of the three municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from pregnant women. In total, 200 pregnant women were interviewed. Out of 200 drug dispensers, 86 (43%) were willing to dispense artemether-lumefantrine (regardless of the age of pregnancy), 56 (29%) were willing to dispense sodium valproate, 104 (52%) were willing to dispense captopril and 50 (25%) were willing to dispense tetracycline. One hundred and thirty-three (66.5%) pregnant women reported that they hesitated to take medications without consulting their physicians, 47 (23.5%) indicated that it was safe to take medications during pregnancy, while 123 (61.5%) mentioned that it was best to consult a doctor, while 30 (15%) did not have any preference. Sixty-three (31.5%) women reported that they were aware of certain drugs that are contraindicated during pregnancy. It is evident that most drug dispensers have low knowledge regarding the harmful effects of drugs during pregnancy. Drug dispensing personnel should be considered part of the therapeutic chain and, if appropriately trained, they will play a very important role in promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:21713045

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary; Jalal, Rashida

2011-01-01

302

Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma, malaria, rubella, cytomegalovirus, HIV and treponemal infections among pregnant women in Cotonou, Republic of Benin.  

PubMed

Seroprevalences for toxoplasmosis, malaria, rubella, cytomegalovirus, HIV and treponemal infections were evaluated among 211 pregnant women residing in the Cotonou area, Republic of Benin. One hundred and thirteen women (53.6%) had toxoplasma antibodies, 185 (87.7%) malaria antibodies and 181 (85.8%) rubella antibodies. Among the 205 (97.2%) women with cytomegalovirus antibodies, 6 presented recent or current infection. No HIV seropositivity was detected. Five (2.4%) of these women had a positive treponematosis serology corresponding to previous infection or reinfection. These results were compared with previous studies conducted in Africa. Routine serological screening should be recommended in young age and in pregnancy for rubella, only in pregnant women for HIV and toxoplasma infections, in order to control their possible consequences on women and newborns. PMID:8533662

Rodier, M H; Berthonneau, J; Bourgoin, A; Giraudeau, G; Agius, G; Burucoa, C; Hekpazo, A; Jacquemin, J L

1995-08-01

303

Prevalence of serious psychological distress and mental health treatment in a national sample of pregnant and postpartum women.  

PubMed

This study examines the prevalence and correlates of past month serious psychological distress (SPD) and past year mental health treatment (MHT) across pregnancy and the postpartum. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence estimates of SPD as well as MHT among women with SPD were generated for each trimester and across the postpartum period. Correlates of SPD and MHT were examined among pregnant and postpartum women. The prevalence of past month SPD was 6.4 % in first trimester women and 3.9 % in third trimester women. In postpartum women, SPD prevalence ranged from 4.6 % (0-2 months) to 6.9 % (3-5 months). Correlates of SPD among pregnant and postpartum women included being younger; non-Hispanic black; unmarried; making under $20,000 annually; having past month cigarette use; or having a past year alcohol or illicit drug use disorder. Only 38.5 % of pregnant and 49.5 % of postpartum women with past month SPD reported past year MHT. Those who received MHT were more likely to be white; widowed, divorced, or separated; have insurance; and have a history of depression or anxiety than their counterparts with no MHT. Pregnant women with SPD were less likely to report past year MHT than postpartum women, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Over half of pregnant and postpartum women with past month SPD are not receiving MHT. Increased contact with health care professionals during this time may be an opportunity for screening, identification, and referral to MHT. PMID:24802262

Glasheen, Cristie; Colpe, Lisa; Hoffman, Valerie; Warren, Lauren Klein

2015-01-01

304

Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

1997-01-01

305

Association of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Biological Markers Among U.S. Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background To examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviors, and biological markers in a national sample of U.S. pregnant women, as few studies have examined these relationships among this population. Methods The sample of noninstitutionalized U.S. civilians was selected by a complex, multistage probability design. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Examination Survey were used. Two hundred six pregnant women were included in the data analysis. Physical activity and sedentary data were objectively measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph 7164). Biomarker data was obtained in the mobile examination center from urine, blood samples, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements. Urine and blood samples were obtained to determine pregnancy status, C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and cotinine as well as fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides, and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol data. Multivariable regression was employed to examine the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and biomarker levels. Results There was a positive association between sedentary behavior and CRP levels (beta coefficient [b]=0.001, p=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (b=0.12, p=0.02). There was an inverse association between light-intensity physical activity and CRP (b=?0.003; p=0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (b=?0.03; p=0.02), with those engaging in higher levels of MVPA having higher HDL cholesterol (b=6.7; p=0.01). Conclusion Physical activity and sedentary behavior were favorably associated with various biomarkers among pregnant women, suggesting that healthcare providers should encourage pregnant women to participate in safe forms of physical activity behaviors while also reducing their amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors. PMID:23968237

Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M.; Woekel, Erica; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

306

Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability  

PubMed Central

We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

2015-01-01

307

Colonization of pregnant women and their newborn infants with group-B streptococci.  

PubMed

As group B streptococci (GBS) prevalence varies from place to place and this organism is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septicaemia and meningitis, the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women and their neonates. From June 1998 to April 1999 a total of 317 pregnant women and their neonates were examined for GBS. GBS colonization rate was 2.52% and 1.26% in pregnant women and their neonates respectively. Four sites - viz. throat, external ears, external nares and stump of umbilicus from neonates were found to be equally colonized by GBS immediately after birth and at the time of discharge from hospital, except the umbilicus which was not swabbed at the time of discharge. None of the neonates developed GBS related sepsis. Selective broth medium (SBM) was found to be a superior transport method over Stuart transport medium and filter paper method. All the isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Penicillin followed by Chloramphenicol 66.6% (12/18). All the strains were resistant to Gentamicin, followed by Tetracycline 94.4% (17/18) and Kanamycin 88.8% (16/18). PMID:17664797

Kulkarni, A A; Pawar, S G; Dharmadhikari, C A; Kulkarni, R D

2001-01-01

308

Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.  

PubMed

The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

2015-02-01

309

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument in Pregnant Women: Results from the BRISA Prenatal Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. Methods Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA) were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. Results The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] ?=?0.060, p<0.001 for the combined model). The multidimensional WHO VAW model showed good fit (RMSEA?=?0.036, p?=?0.999 for the combined model) and standardized factor loadings higher than 0.70, except for the sexual dimension for SL (0.65). The models suggested by the modification indices with cross loadings measuring simultaneously physical and psychological violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p<0.001 for the difference between the model chi-squares). Conclusions Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW model and the modified models are suitable for measuring violence against pregnant women. PMID:25531654

Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e.; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

2014-01-01

310

Vitamin D nutrition in pregnant Nigerian women at term and their newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

In view of the high incidence of rickets in infants of women practising purdah (the use of veils) in northern Nigeria we conducted a study on plasma calcium, phosphate, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) concentrations in pregnant Nigerian women and in cord blood obtained from the newborns. Plasma calcium, phosphate, and serum 25 OHD concentrations were lower in practising women and their newborns than those not practising purdah and their infants, respectively. The concentrations of 25 OHD in all Nigerian women were greater than those observed in caucasian women in the United Kingdom. These data emphasise the role of exposure to sunshine in regulating serum 25 OHD concentrations and the adverse effect of deliberate exclusion of sunshine and are consistent with previous data indicating hypovitaminosis D in purdah clad women and their newborns in Saudi Arabia. These data do not, however, provide an explanation for the pathogenesis of the high incidence of neonatal rickets and tetany in infants born of purdah clad women as these women have 25 OHD concentrations greater than those in caucasian women in the United Kingdom. PMID:3722419

Okonofua, F; Houlder, S; Bell, J; Dandona, P

1986-01-01

311

The Prevalence of Anemia Among Pregnant Women at Booking in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background More than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia. Knowledge of the current situation of the condition in our environment is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward early detection and prompt management of anemia in pregnancy. Aims Our aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at registration for antenatal care at a major tertiary healthcare center in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study of 530 normal pregnant women registered with the antenatal unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between January 1, 2005 and October 30, 2005. Data on the age, parity, gestational age at booking, interval between last confinement and last menstrual period in the index pregnancy, hemoglobin concentration at booking, and HIV status were obtained and analyzed. Results The mean gestational age at booking was 21.7 ± 7.1 weeks (range, 6–37). Two hundred fourteen (40.4%) of the women were anemic (hemoglobin [Hb] < 11.0 g/dL). The majority (90.7%) of these anemic patients were mildly anemic, whereas 9.3% were moderately anemic. There was no case of severe anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). The prevalence of anemia at booking was significantly higher in those who registered for antenatal care in the third trimester than in those who registered in the second trimester, and in HIV-positive pregnant women than in HIV-negative ones (P = .00). The patients' age, parity, and the interval between the last confinement and the index pregnancy had no significant relationship with the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women at booking (P > .05). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at booking is still high in Enugu. Preconception care, including iron and folic acid supplementation, is advocated to reduce this problem. Early antenatal booking and improved antenatal care are also necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. All would ensure safe motherhood. PMID:18092018

Dim, Cyril C.; Onah, Hyacinth E.

2007-01-01

312

Prenatal screening and pregnant women's attitudes toward the abortion of defective fetuses.  

PubMed

We studied the attitudes of 490 pregnant women toward the abortion of defective fetuses. Three hundred of these women were participating in a prenatal screening program for neural tube defects. Although theoretical accounts of the effects of behavior on attitude would suggest that participation in a screening program would affect abortion attitudes, evidence in support of such an association was weak. The overwhelming majority of women, regardless of whether they had participated in the screening program, believed that women are justified in having an abortion in the face of fetal abnormality. There was a sharp increase in the number of screening program participants who said they would have an abortion when the probability of the fetus being affected with a neural tube defect rose from 95 per cent to 100 per cent. PMID:3812832

Faden, R R; Chwalow, A J; Quaid, K; Chase, G A; Lopes, C; Leonard, C O; Holtzman, N A

1987-03-01

313

An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation  

PubMed Central

Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

2015-01-01

314

Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics. Objectives To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI. Methodology This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software. Results A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5%) had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%), Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%), S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%), Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%), Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%), Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%). Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%), ofloxacin (77.4%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ceftriaxone (66.7%), and gentamicin (50.8%). Conclusion E. coli was the most common etiological agent of UTI in pregnancy with Enterococcus (Staphylococcus) gaining prominence. Cephalosporin and quinolones were shown to be very effective against the organisms causing UTI in these pregnant women. PMID:24324344

Onoh, RC; Umeora, OUJ; Egwuatu, VE; Ezeonu, PO; Onoh, TJP

2013-01-01

315

[Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women and mother-child transmission in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women and the rate of mother-child transmission. Over one month (April 26 to May 25, 2002) blood samples of 200 pregnant women who gave birth at the maternity of the university hospital and Gounguin center medical of Ouagadougou were tested for anti-HVC antibodies (Ac HCV) and anti HIV antibodies (Ac HIV). Infants born to mother tested positive for Ac HCV and their mother were tested for HCV-RNA. The prevalence of HCV (positive Ac HCV and HCV-RNA) was 2% in pregnant women (4/200). One case of mother-child transmission was found. The virus transmitted was 2a (A/C) genotype. The mother had a high titre of HCV-ARN, was co-infected by HIV and had had history of blood transfusion, excision and tattoo of the gums. PMID:16821441

Serme, A K; Ilboudo, P D; Samandoulgou, A; Simpore, J; Bougouma, A; Sombie, A R

2006-05-01

316

Candida albicans and non-albicans species as etiological agent of vaginitis in pregnant and non-pregnant women.  

PubMed

Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy), and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%), as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%). The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans ( test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%). The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 %) and C. krusei (3,2%), and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,2%). The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%), and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%) , in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida colonisation. Our results indicate that gravidity, as the risc factor for incidence of infection, has the significant role in the incidence of vaginal candidosis. PMID:20192939

Babic, Mirela; Hukic, Mirsada

2010-02-01

317

The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851

Sarkar, N N

2013-04-01

318

The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Pregnant Women in Ohio: A Cohort Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of mandatory HMO enrollment for Medicaid-covered pregnant women on prenatal care use, smoking, Cesarean section (C-section) use, and birth weight. Data Sources/Study Setting Linked birth certificate and Medicaid enrollment data from July 1993 to June 1998 in 10 Ohio counties, 6 that implemented mandatory HMO enrollment, and 4 with low levels of voluntary enrollment (under 15 percent). Cuyahoga County (Cleveland) is analyzed separately; the other mandatory counties and the voluntary counties are grouped for analysis, due to small sample sizes. Study Design Women serve as their own controls, which helps to overcome the bias from unmeasured variables such as health beliefs and behavior. Changes in key outcomes between the first and second birth are compared between women who reside in mandatory HMO enrollment counties and those in voluntary enrollment counties. County of residence is the primary indicator of managed care status, since, in Ohio, women are allowed to “opt out” of HMO enrollment in mandatory counties in certain circumstances, leading to selection. As a secondary analysis, we compare women according to their HMO enrollment status at the first and second birth. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Linked birth certificate/enrollment data were used to identify 4,917 women with two deliveries covered by Medicaid, one prior to the implementation of mandatory HMO enrollment (mid-1996) and one following implementation. Data for individual births were linked over time using a scrambled maternal Medicaid identification number. Principal Findings The effects of HMO enrollment on prenatal care use and smoking were confined to Cuyahoga County, Ohio's largest county. In Cuyahoga, the implementation of mandatory enrollment was related to a significant deterioration in the timing of initiation of care, but an improvement in the number of prenatal visits. In that county also, women who smoked in their first pregnancy were less likely to smoke during the second pregnancy, compared to women in voluntary counties. Women residing in all the mandatory counties were less likely to have a repeat C-section. There were no effects on infant birth weight. The effects of women's own managed care status were inconsistent depending on the outcome examined; an interpretation of these results is hampered by selection issues. Changes over time in outcomes, both positive and negative, were more pronounced for African American women. Conclusions With careful implementation and attention to women's individual differences as in Ohio, outcomes for pregnant women may improve with Medicaid managed care implementation. Quality monitoring should continue as Medicaid managed care becomes more widespread. More research is needed to identify the types of health maintenance organization activities that lead to improved outcomes. PMID:15230930

Howell, Embry M; Dubay, Lisa; Kenney, Genevieve; Sommers, Anna S

2004-01-01

319

Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire

Hanne Torjusen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Geir Lieblein; Hein Stigum; Gun Roos; Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

2010-01-01

320

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Results Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is recommended. In addition, it is recommended that antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are determined. PMID:24679107

2014-01-01

321

Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women.  

PubMed

Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS-IGF2-H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS-IGF2-H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS-IGF2-H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

2014-09-01

322

Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

2013-10-01

323

Pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda.  

PubMed

Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many drugs used in the treatment of malaria, usually resulting in lower drug exposures. This increases the risks of treatment failure, adverse outcomes for the fetus, and the development of resistance. The pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and its principal metabolite dihydroartemisinin (n = 21), quinine (n = 21), and lumefantrine (n = 26) in pregnant Ugandan women were studied. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in a nonpregnant control group (n = 17) were also studied. Frequently sampled patient data were evaluated with noncompartmental analysis. No significant correlation was observed between estimated gestational age and artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, or quinine exposures. Artemether/dihydroartemisinin and quinine exposures were generally low in these pregnant women compared to values reported previously for nonpregnant patients. Median day 7 lumefantrine concentrations were 488 (range, 30.7 to 3,550) ng/ml in pregnant women compared to 720 (339 to 2,150) ng/ml in nonpregnant women (P = 0.128). There was no statistical difference in total lumefantrine exposure or maximum concentration. More studies with appropriate control groups in larger series are needed to characterize the degree to which pregnant women are underdosed with current antimalarial dosing regimens. PMID:23917320

Tarning, Joel; Kloprogge, Frank; Dhorda, Mehul; Jullien, Vincent; Nosten, Francois; White, Nicholas J; Guerin, Philippe J; Piola, Patrice

2013-10-01

324

HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women’s human rights?  

PubMed Central

Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

2014-01-01

325

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

326

Prenatal multivitamins containing folic acid do not decrease prevalence of depression among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported an association between depression and folic acid deficiency. We investigated whether intake of prenatal multivitamins containing folic acid (MVandFA) was associated with decreased rates of depression among pregnant women. A questionnaire was given to 1,314 low-risk pregnant women. Of them, 1,277 (97.2%) women completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of depression was 8.1%. Of 652 participants who did not take MVandFA, 9.4% had depression, whereas 6.9% of 624 women who had MVandFA had depression (p = 0.11). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, family history of depression (adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.9-7.3) and premenstrual syndrome (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) were identified as risk factors for depression during pregnancy. In conclusion, intake of MVandFA was not associated with lower rates of depression during pregnancy whereas family history of depression and personal history of premenstrual syndrome were significant risk factors. PMID:18850419

Cho, Y J; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Kim, M Y; Yang, J H; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Koren, G

2008-07-01

327

Lean on me: effects of social support on low socioeconomic-status pregnant women.  

PubMed

This study identified how close relationships are related to low-income pregnant women's ability to cope and overall health. Previous research has shown that stress during pregnancy is related to long-term negative physical and psychological health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. Lower socioeconomic status has been related to higher morbidity and mortality across the lifespan. Women typically rely on close relationships for social support to help reduce stress. However, stress levels can be elevated when women engage in co-rumination. Co-rumination is defined as excessive problem discussion with negative-affect focus. Thirty-one low-income pregnant women from central Oklahoma, USA, reported their daily stressors, social support, communication habits with friends and family, and general health in a series of questionnaires at a prenatal visit. The results revealed that daily stressors, co-rumination with friends, and the relationship with the baby's father were related to physical pain and depressive symptoms. The results suggested that specific social support dynamics, such as co-rumination, during pregnancy have implications for the health of low-income mothers and their infants. PMID:23656532

Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Massey, Amber R

2013-09-01

328

Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ? 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

2014-01-01

329

Intestinal helminth infections in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at kitale district hospital, kenya.  

PubMed

Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87-11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88-11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ? 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06-0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

Wekesa, A W; Mulambalah, C S; Muleke, C I; Odhiambo, R

2014-01-01

330

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions  

PubMed Central

Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during pregnancy in the overweight and obese population. There is a need for a detailed description of physical activity patterns during pregnancy in women who are overweight or obese, and more randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions for women who are overweight or obese, with a focus on clinical outcomes. PMID:23861603

Sui, Zhixian; Dodd, Jodie M

2013-01-01

331

The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

2013-01-01

332

The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its related maternal factors in pregnant women in Beijing.  

PubMed

Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

2013-01-01

333

Translation and Adaptation of Smoking Relapse–Prevention Materials for Pregnant and Postpartum Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse–prevention booklets;

Vani Nath Simmons; Ligia M. Cruz; Thomas H. Brandon; Gwendolyn P. Quinn

2010-01-01

334

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Pregnant Women for Emerging Infections and Bioterrorism Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterror- ism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Healthcare providers must be able to discuss the benefits and risks of these interventions with their pregnant patients. Recent experiences with outbreaks

Joanne Cono; Janet D. Cragan; Denise J. Jamieson; Sonja A. Rasmussen

2006-01-01

335

Inadequacy of nutrients intake among pregnant women in the Deep South of Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors. PMID:20863408

2010-01-01

336

Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with previous history of spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome, and stress has been suggested to be important factor. We hypothesized that those female pregnant women with previous spontaneous abortion will have higher anxiety and depression than female pregnant women without previous spontaneous abortion and controls (healthy non-pregnant women). Age and socio-demographic parameters did not differ significantly between the three groups of participants. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no significant differences in the scores on Beck Depression Inventory between three groups of participants at the week 10 of gestation-1st assessment and week 20 of gestation-2nd assessment. Contrary of these results, pregnant women with history of spontaneous abortion have had statistically significant higher anxiety score than pregnant women without history of spontaneous abortion and control group-non-pregnant women, on both assessment of anxiety. Negative correlations between months passed form the last spontaneous abortion and anxiety on both assessment, emphasize the role of psychological support for the women who have experienced spontaneous abortion. PMID:21648338

Marcinko, Vesna Medjedovi?; Marcinko, Darko; Dordevi?, Veljko; Oreskovi?, Slavko

2011-01-01

337

[Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that no re-testing was requested for none of the seronegative cases (3428/4758; 72%) during their follow-up. In our study, total Toxoplasma seropositivity rate among pregnant women was detected as 28% (1330/4758), showing statistically significant increase (p< 0.05) with age. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) in the seropositivity rate between the years (2010-2013). Following the evaluation of the test orders, the problems related to test orders and interpretation of the test results were determined and a diagnostic algorithm to be used in our hospital, was established to minimize such problems in toxoplasma serology. It was concluded that a diagnostic algorithm related to toxoplasmosis serology should be implemented for the appropriate evaluation of the risk of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Such an approach is necessary to support the clinical diagnosis and to minimize the anxiety in pregnant women about congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24819265

Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

2014-04-01

338

Metabolomics Tools for Describing Complex Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women in Brittany (France)  

E-print Network

could be responsible for adverse developmental effects. However, human health risks associatedMetabolomics Tools for Describing Complex Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women in Brittany (France Research (INSERM) UMR 1085 IRSET (Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health), Rennes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women Jaroslav 44 Prague, Czech Republic; 2 National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute toxoplasmosis, pathology, permutation test, gravidity Abstract. The latent toxoplasmosis is usually considered

Flegr, Jaroslav

340

Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practices Regarding Malaria Prevention and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, and reported using potentially effective prevention methods, usually untreated bed nets. However, most conveyed misinformation and described using unproven prevention and/or treatment methods. Many described using different ineffective traditional malaria remedies. The majority also showed willingness to try new prevention methods and take medications if doctor-prescribed. Misconceptions and use of unproven prevention and treatment methods are common among pregnant women in eastern India. Policy makers should focus on improving knowledge and availability of effective malaria control strategies in this population. PMID:20519593

Sabin, Lora L.; Rizal, Abanish; Brooks, Mohamad I.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Tuchman, Jordan; Wylie, Blair J.; Joyce, Katherine M.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Singh, Neeru; Hamer, Davidson H.

2010-01-01

341

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2014-10-01

342

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2014-10-01

343

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2012-10-01

344

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2011-10-01

345

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2012-10-01

346

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2013-10-01

347

42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2013-10-01

348

42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

2011-10-01

349

Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women at Booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR = 0.4; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.3–0.7), HIV positive status (OR = 0.2; P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.1–0.6), and low social class (OR = 0.3; P = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.2–0.7). Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted. PMID:24982910

Olatunbosun, Olujimi A.; Abasiattai, Aniekan M.; Bassey, Emem A.; James, Robert S.; Morgan, Anyiekere

2014-01-01

350

Gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate correlations between insulin secretion and resistance in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT). Methods: Three hundred thirty six pregnant women with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were tested and measured insulin function indices (IFI), insulin resistance indices (HOMA-IR) as well as blood serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. GIGT patients were further divided into subgroups according to hyperglycemia appearance 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Results: GDM and GIGT correlated with age (p<0.05), family history of diabetes (p<0.05) and pre-pregnancy body mass indices (BMIs) (p<0.05). Blood pressures were higher in GDM than in GIGT and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) patients (p<0.05). The IFIs were gradually reduced (p<0.05), whereas HOMA-IR was gradually enhanced (p<0.05) in the GIGT and GDM patients. Blood serum TG, TCH and LDL-C concentrations were higher in the GIGT and GDM groups (p<0.05) and the GIGT 1 hour hyperglycemia subgroup had highest pregnancy weight gain and HOMA-IR values (p<0.05). Conclusions : Advanced age, family history of diabetes, high BMIs and blood pressure were risk factors for GIGT and GDM, which were both caused by reduced insulin secretion and enhanced insulin resistance.

Wei, Jinhua; Gao, Jianbo; Cheng, Jinluo

2014-01-01

351

Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women's perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during pregnancy in the overweight and obese population. There is a need for a detailed description of physical activity patterns during pregnancy in women who are overweight or obese, and more randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions for women who are overweight or obese, with a focus on clinical outcomes. PMID:23861603

Sui, Zhixian; Dodd, Jodie M

2013-01-01

352

Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.  

PubMed

We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 ?g/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ? 45 ?g/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning. PMID:22302239

Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

353

Screening pregnant women for autoimmune thyroid disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Untreated maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can have adverse consequences on maternal health and child intelligence quotient (IQ). Our objective was to examine the cost- effectiveness of screening pregnant women for autoimmune thyroid disease. Design: We developed a state-transition Markov model and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of screening pregnant US women, aged 15-45 years, with no known history of thyroid

Chrysoula Dosiou; Gillian D Sanders; Sally S Araki; Lawrence M Crapo

2008-01-01

354

Prevalence of Clinical Periodontitis and Putative Periodontal Pathogens among South Indian Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

In view of recent understanding of the association of periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the present investigation was undertaken to study the periodontal infections among 390 asymptomatic pregnant women and to find an association of bacterial etiologies with the disease. Prevalence of gingivitis was 38% and clinical periodontitis was 10% among the study population. Subgingival plaque specimens were subjected to multiplex PCR targeting ten putative periodontopathogenic bacteria. Among the periodontitis group, high detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis (56%), Prevotella nigrescens (44%), Treponema denticola (32%), and Prevotella intermedius (24%) were noted along with significant association with the disease (P < 0.05). PMID:24899898

Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Parvati; Kamath, Asha; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

2014-01-01

355

The quadruple test for Down syndrome screening in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not the quadruple test for screening Down syndrome is an effective\\u000a method to replace direct amniocentesis in pregnant women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study analyzed the screening performance of the quadruple test according to maternal age at delivery among subjects who\\u000a had a quadruple screening test at 1 of

Ji Young Kwon; In Yang Park; Seong-min Kwon; Chan Joo Kim; Jong Chul Shin

356

Effect of Thrombophylaxis on Uterine and Fetal Circulation in Pregnant Women with a History of Pregnancy Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thromboprophylactic therapy on fetal and maternal Doppler flow parameters in pregnant women with severe complications in previous pregnancies and evidence of acquired or congenital thrombophilia in the current pregnancy. Methods: Sixty-five patients with a history of recurrent abortions, intrauterine fetal death, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and severe early-onset

Jacob Bar; Reuven Mashiah; Bina Cohen-Sacher; Moshe Hod; Raoul Orvieto; Zion Ben-Rafael; Judith Lahav

2001-01-01

357

Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and their children in central Taiwan.  

PubMed

Phthalate exposure was found to be associated with endocrine disruption, respiratory effects, reproductive and developmental toxicity. The intensive use of plastics may be increasing the exposure to phthalates in Taiwanese population, particularly for young children. We studied phthalate metabolites in pregnant women and their newborns in a prospective cohort from a medical center in Central Taiwan. One hundred maternal urine samples and 30 paired cord blood and milk samples were randomly selected from all of participants (430 pregnant women). Eleven phthalate metabolites (MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, 2cx-MEHP, 5cx-MEPP, 5oxo-MEHP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, OH-MiNP, oxo-MiNP, and cx-MiNP) representing the exposure to five commonly used phthalates (DEHP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), DnBP, BBP, DiNP) were measured in urine of pregnant women, cord serum and breast milk after delivery, and in urine of their children. Exposure was estimated with excretion factors and correlation among metabolites of the same parent compound. Thirty and 59 urinary samples from 2 and 5 years-old children were randomly selected from 185 children successfully followed. Total urinary phthalate metabolite concentration (geometric mean, ?g L?¹) was found to be higher in 2-years-olds (398.6) and 5-years-olds (333.7) than pregnant women (205.2). Metabolites in urine are mainly from DEHP. The proportion of DiNP metabolites was higher in children urine (4.39 and 8.31%, ages 2 and 5) than in adults (0.83%) (p<0.01). Compared to urinary levels, phthalate metabolite levels are low in cord blood (37.45) and milk (14.90). DEHP metabolite levels in women's urine and their corresponding cord blood are significantly correlated. Compared to other populations in the world, DEHP derived metabolites in maternal urine were higher, while phthalate metabolite levels in milk and cord blood were similar. The level of phthalate metabolites in milk and cord blood were comparable to those found in other populations. Further studies of health effects related to DEHP and DiNP exposure are necessary for the children. PMID:21075419

Lin, Susana; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jein-Wen; Huang, Po-Chin; Angerer, Jürgen; Wang, Shu-Li

2011-02-01

358

Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain. Conclusion: The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings.

Haque, Monoarul; Kamal, Farah; Chowdhury, Shahanaz; Uzzaman, Monir; Aziz, Itrat

2014-01-01

359

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Pregnant Women Entering the 2010 Influenza Season in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To audit the uptake of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine in pregnant women entering the 2010 influenza season in Western Australia, and to identify why some women did not receive the vaccine. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients attending the Joondalup Health Campus public antenatal clinics in WA in January 2010. Intervention: Audit of uptake of

Scott W White; Rodney W Petersen; Julie A Quinlivan

2010-01-01

360

Exploring the adequacy of smoking cessation support for pregnant and postpartum women  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, programming and practice; how geographical and sociocultural factors influence provision and uptake of support; and how barriers and challenges can be addressed through a comprehensive approach. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key informants (31) and pregnant or postpartum women (29) were conducted to examine the cessation needs of this subpopulation, barriers to the provision and uptake of cessation support and directions for policy, service provision and programming. Results Key barriers included: the absence of a provincial cessation strategy and funding, capacity and engagement/accessibility issues. Geographical features presented additional challenges to provision/uptake, as did the absence of resources tailored to Aboriginal women and adolescents. Key informants recommended a comprehensive cessation strategy to facilitate coordination of cessation resources provincially and locally and elucidated the need for capacity building within tobacco control and within reproductive, child and maternal health. Participants also highlighted the need to further develop tobacco control policies and target the social determinants of health through poverty reduction, housing and education support. The provision of incentives, transportation, childcare and meals/snacks; adoption of woman-centred, harm-reduction and stigma reduction approaches; and promotion of programs through a variety of local venues were recommended by participants to address engagement and accessibility issues. Conclusions The current cessation system in Ontario is not equipped to adequately reduce smoking among pregnant and postpartum women. A comprehensive, multi-sector strategy designed to provide tailored and sustainable support through different system entry points is needed. A cultural shift in practice is also necessary to eliminate mixed messaging, strengthen practice and encourage open channels of communication about smoking between women and their providers. The study highlights the need to address smoking among women in a more holistic manner and for capacity building strategies that focus on strengthening providers’ competency and confidence in practice. Future research should explore: capacity building strategies, especially among rural and remote communities; the smoking and cessation experiences of different subpopulations of pregnant and postpartum women; the effectiveness of tailored strategies; and interventions that address smoking among partners and other family members. PMID:23672201

2013-01-01

361

Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ?19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ?40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2?IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7?IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres. PMID:24114849

Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

2014-05-01

362

Influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to define the influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women and to establish the socio-demographic and personality predictors of mood changes. The sample was comprised of a total of 109 pregnant women aged 19-37 years. Of the group, 62 women participated in physical exercise for pregnant women (the experimental group) and 47 women participated in traditional childbirth education classes (the control group). Emotional states were assessed with the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist; personality traits were measured with the NEO-FFI, LOT-R and STAI questionnaires. Socio-demographic data were collected with a survey developed by the authors. A single physical exercise class improved the emotional state of pregnant women significantly more than a traditional childbirth education class. Within the experimental group, a significant improvement of mood was observed in all dimensions, while in the control group only hedonic tone increased. Greater improvements in mood can be expected in a group of women who are younger, less optimistic, and who evaluate their health better but physical fitness worse. As a single session of exercise helps improve the mood of pregnant women, this may be an effective strategy to prevent the deterioration of mood state during pregnancy. PMID:23646888

Guszkowska, Monika; Langwald, Marta; Dudziak, Diana; Zaremba, Agnieszka

2013-06-01

363

Morphometric characteristics of placental villi in pregnant women with diabetes.  

PubMed

We conducted a comparative morphological study of placentas from women with gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus. Morphometry of histological preparations revealed similar type of changes in the studied parameters of placental villi in diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes. The maximum deviation of the studied parameters from the control was noted in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22462069

Dubova, E A; Pavlov, K A; Yesayan, R M; Nagovitsyna, M N; Tkacheva, O N; Shestakova, M V; Shchegolev, A I

2011-09-01

364

Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

2014-01-01

365

Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15-19 years) and the oldest age group (40-49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

Alsibiani, Sharifa A

2014-01-01

366

Characteristics and quality of life of opioid-dependent pregnant women in Austria.  

PubMed

This study investigated pregnant opioid-dependent women under