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Sample records for study pregnant women

  1. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings ... widely used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, ...

  2. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  3. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  4. Studies of dental and oral changes of pregnant diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G

    1987-01-01

    The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women. PMID:3497504

  5. Anthropometric equations for studying body fat in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Lederman, S A; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1998-01-01

    Anthropometric data from 200 pregnant women were used to estimate body fat at gestation weeks 14 and 37 and changes in body fat from week 14 to week 37 with four formulas from the literature. The resulting estimates were evaluated against the estimation of fat by a four-compartment model that determined fat from weight, total body water, bone mineral mass, and body density. The estimates of fat by existing anthropometric models were statistically different from those by the four-compartment model in both early and late pregnancy. Most importantly, the change in body fat estimated by the anthropometric models (all > 4 kg) was considerably higher than that estimated by the four-compartment model (3.3 kg). Two new anthropometric equations were developed, both of which used the four-compartment model as the reference method. The equation for predicting change in fat mass from week 14 to 37 of pregnancy was as follows: 0.77 (change in weight, kg)+ 0.07 (change in thigh skinfold thickness, mm)-6.13 (r2 = 0.73). The equation for determining fat (kg) at term was as follows: 0.40 (weight at week 37, kg)+ 0.16 (biceps skinfold thickness at week 37, mm) + 0.15 (thigh skinfold thickness at week 37, mm)-0.09 (wrist circumference at week 37. mm)+ 0.10 (prepregnancy weight.kg)-6.56 (r2 = 0.89). Both equations were derived on a randomly selected half of the total sample and validated on the remaining half. Both equations were found to be valid for use in studying pregnant women with different prepregnancy body mass indexes, different gestational weight gains, different ethnicities, and different socioeconomic status. PMID:9440383

  6. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  7. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  9. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  11. The First Serological Study of Coxiella burnetii among Pregnant Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHAYYAT KHAMENEIE, Maryam; ASADI, Javad; KHALILI, Mohammad; ABIRI, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. There is no information about this disease in pregnant women in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in southwestern (Ahvaz) and northern (Parsabad) Iran and further to comparison its prevalence in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Methods: A total of 400 samples were collected randomly from pregnant women who referred to diagnostic laboratories of Ahvaz and Parsabad in 2014. An indirect ELISA kit, designed in Veterinary Faculty, was used to detect the specific antibodies against phase II humanC. burnetii in serum samples. Results: The overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sera from pregnant women was 29.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25–34%). The prevalence of C. burnetii infection was significantly different in Ahvaz and Parsabad with, respectively, 22 (95% CI: 16–28%) and 36.5% (95% CI: 30–43%). Total prevalence of C. burnetii infection in serum was significantly higher in women with abnormal pregnancy history (39.8%) compared with normal pregnancies (23.8%). Furthermore, maternal age had significant association with seropositivity and the prevalence increased with maternal age. This could be due to higher probability of encountering C. burnetii in older women. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated ahigh seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in Iran for the first time. Seropositivity was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal age. The pregnant women who experienced abnormal pregnancy had higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii compared to women with normal pregnancy. PMID:27252922

  12. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women

  13. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  14. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  15. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  16. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  17. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  18. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ≥27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland

  19. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  20. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  1. Pilot study of pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alyson N; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B; Riederer, Anne M

    2012-09-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers' agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  2. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  3. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  4. [Sexuality in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Marcyniak, Marek; Sieńko, Jacek; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Brandt, Maciej; Jalinik, Katarzyna; Labusiewicz, Wojciech; Romankiewicz, Kamila

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on women's sexuality. The studies were conducted using questionnaires to interview 120 women from 35 weeks' of gestation or just after the delivery. There were no medical contraindications for sexual intercourse in pregnancy in this group. More than half of respondents reported a decrease in libido during gestation. A reduction in coital frequency, oral intercourse, gratification of coitus, caress of breasts or genitals and erotic dreams occurred during pregnancy. Lateral position was mainly used during coitus in pregnancy. Most of women didn't discuss the problems of sexual activity in pregnancy with their obstetricians. PMID:15537259

  5. HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women's perspectives about Option B+ in Malawi: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Katirayi, Leila; Namadingo, Hazel; Phiri, Mafayo; Bobrow, Emily A; Ahimbisibwe, Allan; Berhan, Aida Yemane; Buono, Nicole; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The implementation of lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant women (Option B+) in Malawi has resulted in a significant increase in the number of HIV-positive pregnant women initiating treatment. However, research has highlighted the challenge of retaining newly initiated women in care. This study explores barriers and facilitators that affect a woman's decision to initiate and to adhere to Option B+. Methods A total of 39 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, living with HIV and either pregnant and receiving antenatal care from a study site or had delivered a child within the last 18 months, breastfed their child and received services at one of the study sites. Eligible women were identified by healthcare workers (HCWs) in the antenatal clinic and ART unit. Focus groups were also conducted with HCWs employed in these departments. Qualitative data were analyzed using Maxqda version 10 (VERBI Software, Berlin, Germany). Results The general perception towards the drug regimen used in Option B+ was positive; women reported fewer side effects and acknowledged the positive benefits of ART. Women felt hopeful about prolonging their life and having an HIV-uninfected baby, yet grappled with the fact that ART is a lifelong commitment. Women and HCWs discussed challenges with the counselling services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission under the new Option B+ guidelines, and many women struggled with initiating ART on the same day as learning their HIV status. Women wanted to discuss their circumstances with their husbands first, receive a CD4 count and obtain an HIV test at another facility to confirm their HIV status. HCWs expressed concern that women might just agree to take the drugs to please them. HCWs also discussed concerns around loss to follow-up and drug resistance. Conclusions Although Option B+ has significantly increased the number of women initiating

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  8. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  9. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. PMID:26931504

  10. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  11. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  12. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mary E; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J; Pirkle, James L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction-isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. PMID:24529000

  13. Urinary Concentrations of Environmental Phenols in Pregnant Women in a Pilot Study of the National Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Mary E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J.; Pirkle, James L.; Merrill, Lori S.; Moye, John

    2015-01-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children’s Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction-isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. PMID:24529000

  14. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  15. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  16. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  17. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  18. Disclosure Decisions among Pregnant Women who Received Donor Oocytes: A Phenomenological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia; Klock, Susan C.; Barnes, Randall B.

    2007-01-01

    Capsule Controversy surrounding disclosure among donor oocyte recipients is escalating worldwide. This in-depth analysis captures the voice of pregnant women who received donor oocytes and the factors that influence their decision to disclosure. OBJECTIVE Controversy surrounding disclosure among donor oocyte recipients is escalating worldwide, yet little research has sought to understand the disclosure experience of pregnant, donor oocyte recipient women. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the disclosure experience, and identify factors that were significant to recipient women which influenced their reasoning as they formulated disclosure decisions. DESIGN Qualitative, naturalistic design using a phenomenological approach. SETTING The home or private office of the recipient woman. PARTICIPANTS Donor oocyte recipient women between 9 and 23 weeks gestation. RESULTS Disclosure decisions were influenced by multiple factors emerging from the women’s values and beliefs and their social and cultural environment. Values and beliefs consisted of the right to know and the duty to protect. Social and cultural factors included social support, culture of the family, evolution of the social process, and personal testimonials. Women’s age and selection of donor type are interrelated with disclosure decisions. CONCLUSIONS Disclosing women voiced the right of the child to know and perceived social and cultural factors as conducive to disclosure. Non-disclosing and undecided women emphasized protecting normative relationships, perceived social stigma, and were unable to identify a benefit to disclosing. Women’s age and choice of oocyte donor should be considered when counseling recipient women. PMID:17094982

  19. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Davis, Karelyn; Marro, Leonora; Fisher, Mandy; Legrand, Melissa; LeBlanc, Alain; Gaudreau, Eric; Foster, Warren G; Choeurng, Voleak; Fraser, William D

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) μg/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02 μg/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59 μg/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was

  20. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  1. The development of a standard training toolkit for research studies that recruit pregnant women in labour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment of pregnant women in labour to clinical trials poses particular challenges. Interpretation of regulation lacks consistency or clarity and variation occurs as to the training required by clinicians to safely contribute to the conduct of intrapartum studies. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Intrapartum Clinical Study Group initiated the development of a pragmatic, proportionate and standardised toolkit for training clinical staff that complies with both regulatory and clinician requirements and has been peer-reviewed. This approach may be useful to researchers in acute care settings that necessitate the integration of research, routine clinical practice and compliance with regulation. PMID:24171801

  2. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Mary E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J.; Pirkle, James L.; Merrill, Lori S.; Moye, John

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were

  3. The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = −0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

  4. Awareness of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Pregnant Women in Geneva, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Willame, Alexia; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Combescure, Christophe; Irion, Olivier; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). Methods: The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Conclusions: Most women are unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn. PMID:26633451

  5. Assessment of the Cervix in Pregnant Women Using Shear Wave Elastography: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Muller, Marie; Aït-Belkacem, Dora; Hessabi, Mahdieh; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Grangé, Gilles; Goffinet, François; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Cabrol, Dominique; Tanter, Mickaël; Tsatsaris, Vassilis

    2015-11-01

    The quantitative assessment of the cervix is crucial for the estimation of pre-term delivery risk and the prediction of the success of labor induction. We conducted a cross-sectional study using shear wave elastography based on the supersonic shear imaging technique. The shear wave speed (SWS) of the lower anterior part of the cervix was quantified over an 8-mm region of interest in 157 pregnant women. Cervical SWS is slightly but significantly reduced in patients diagnosed with pre-term labor and in patients who actually delivered pre-term. PMID:26278635

  6. Diet and nutrition: a knowledge, attitude and practice study of pregnant women in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Zobairi, S E; Freitas, M L; Wasti, S A

    1998-05-01

    This study determines knowledge, attitude, and practice of diet and nutrition during pregnancy among women in Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from a randomized convenience sample of 150 pregnant women from outpatient clinics of 3 hospitals: Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi Adventist Hospital, and Civil Hospital. Daily caloric intake was based on a single day. Two dietary patterns were observed. Meals among individuals with monthly income under Rs. 5000 consisted of flatbread, lentils, and/or vegetables. Meat was eaten under twice/week. Calories came primarily from flatbread, cereals, and cooking oil. Those with income over Rs. 10,000/month ate a great variety of foods and meat frequently. The source of calories was diverse and more balanced. The women preferred milk and fresh fruit during pregnancy. Milk was desired for fetal bone development, enhanced lactation, good skin, and a settled stomach. Desired foods were described as cold and justified since the womb was a source of heat production. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups did not trust their judgment about beneficial foods and could not afford the foods they desired. Many women had food avoidances, such as hot foods. The percentage of women with food avoidances increased with increased SES. Most women valued increased food consumption during pregnancy, but 68% did not increase their caloric intake and 40% decreased caloric intake. The mean caloric intakes, from low to high SES, were 1087, 1656, and 1750 kcal/day/woman, respectively. PMID:9653858

  7. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  8. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  9. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  10. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  11. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26405382

  12. Cortisol level and perinatal outcome in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Low, Lisa Kane; Ben-Ami, Dorit; Liberzon, Israel

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 12% of women in the United States and could affect childbearing via behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. This pilot study collected preliminary data about the extent to which the low cortisol profile found in patients with PTSD also occurs in the hormonal context of pregnancy, as well as the association between PTSD and less optimal processes and outcomes of pregnancy. Standardized psychiatric diagnostic telephone interviews, salivary cortisol assays, and medical records review were evaluated in a community sample of 25 women pregnant with their first child. Higher PTSD symptom counts correlated with worse overall perinatal outcomes summarized by an Optimality Index Score (n = 22; r = -.725; P < .001). The women whose symptoms met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or partial PTSD had lower peak basal salivary cortisol concentrations (n = 14; mean = .4584 versus .8123; P = .010). Further research on the effects of PTSD on pregnancy processes and outcomes is warranted. Differences in cortisol levels were consistent with the pattern seen in nonpregnant women with PTSD. This finding suggests that salivary cortisol would be a useful biological measure to include in perinatal research on PTSD and childbearing. PMID:16154066

  13. Recruitment of healthy first-trimester pregnant women: lessons from the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy study (CHirP).

    PubMed

    Webster, Glenys M; Teschke, Kay; Janssen, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising, recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting a study booth at baby "trade shows" were used to advertise the study. Participants had to meet a strict set of eligibility criteria, and were asked to donate two-second-trimester blood samples, complete two questionnaires, have samples of air, dust, lint and tap water collected from their homes, and donate a cord blood sample at delivery. Over 17 months, 171 women enrolled (49% of initial contacts, and 99% of all eligible women) and 152 women completed the study (89% retention). Total recruitment costs were approximately $400 Cdn per final participant. Posters, study booth presentations and online advertising generated the most inquiries about the study. Word of mouth, referral from another study and direct email were the most cost-effective strategies. Not surprisingly, the recruited study population was less ethnically diverse, more affluent and more educated than the background population of pregnant women in Vancouver. A combination of passive and active recruitment techniques were successful for recruiting healthy women in roughly the first trimester of pregnancy (<15 weeks gestation). While a convenience sample of women is suitable for our study questions, additional strategies may be required to recruit a more representative pregnant population in future studies. PMID:21210200

  14. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study

    PubMed Central

    King, Bridget; Bryan, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants 20 074 pregnant women with a median age of 30 who received the pertussis vaccine and a matched historical unvaccinated control group. Main outcome measure Adverse events identified from clinical diagnoses during pregnancy, with additional data from the matched child record identified through mother-child linkage. The primary event of interest was stillbirth (intrauterine death after 24 weeks’ gestation). Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth in the 14 days immediately after vaccination (incidence rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.62) or later in pregnancy (0.85, 0.44 to 1.61) compared with historical national rates. Compared with a matched historical cohort of unvaccinated pregnant women, there was no evidence that vaccination accelerated the time to delivery (hazard ratio 1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Furthermore, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth, maternal or neonatal death, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, haemorrhage, fetal distress, uterine rupture, placenta or vasa praevia, caesarean delivery, low birth weight, or neonatal renal failure, all serious events that can occur naturally in pregnancy. Conclusion In women given pertussis vaccination in the third trimester, there is no evidence of an increased risk of any of an extensive predefined list of adverse events related to pregnancy. In particular, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth. Given the recent increases in the rate of pertussis infection and morbidity and mortality in neonates, these early data provide initial evidence for evaluating the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy for health professionals and the public and can help to inform vaccination policy making. PMID:25015137

  15. Thyroid antagonists and thyroid indicators in U.S. pregnant women in the Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mary E; Birch, Rebecca; Wong, Lee-Yang; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Boyle, Elizabeth B; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-08-01

    The sodium iodide-symporter (NIS) mediates uptake of iodide into thyroid follicular cells. This key step in thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited by perchlorate, thiocyanate (SCN) and nitrate (NO3) anions. When these exposures occur during pregnancy the resulting decreases in thyroid hormones may adversely affect neurodevelopment of the human fetus. Our objectives were to describe and examine the relationship of these anions to the serum thyroid indicators, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), in third trimester women from the initial Vanguard Study of the National Children's Study (NCS); and to compare urine perchlorate results with those in pregnant women from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Urinary perchlorate, SCN, NO3, and iodine, serum TSH, FT4, and cotinine were measured and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to pregnant women enrolled in the initial Vanguard Study. We used multiple regression models of FT4 and TSH that included perchlorate equivalent concentration (PEC, which estimates combined inhibitory effects of the anions perchlorate, SCN, and NO3 on the NIS). We used multiple regression to model predictors of each urinary anion, using FFQ results, drinking water source, season of year, smoking status, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were calculated for pregnant women in NHANES 2001-2012. The geometric mean (GM) for urinary perchlorate was 4.04µg/L, for TSH 1.46mIU/L, and the arithmetic mean for FT4 1.11ng/dL in 359 NCS women. In 330 women with completed FFQs, consumption of leafy greens, winter season, and Hispanic ethnicity were significant predictors of higher urinary perchlorate, which differed significantly by study site and primary drinking water source, and bottled water was associated with higher urinary perchlorate compared to filtered tap water. Leafy greens consumption was associated with higher urinary NO3 and higher urinary SCN. There was

  16. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  17. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥ 1 to ≥ 3. The ~ 80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥ 1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  18. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  19. Determinants of serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Swedish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Darnerud, Per Ola; Cnattingius, Sven; Bjerselius, Rickard; Becker, Wulf; Lignell, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    Background We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between personal characteristics and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of certain PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 323 pregnant primiparous women from Uppsala County (age 18–41 years) sampled 1996–1999. Methods Extensive personal interviews and questionnaires about personal characteristics were performed both during and after pregnancy. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in serum lipids in late pregnancy were analysed by gas chromatography. Associations between personal characteristics and serum levels of organochlorine compounds were analysed by multiple linear regression. Results Participation rate was 82% (325 of 395 women). Serum concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 105 and 167, and o, p'-DDT and -DDE, p, p'-DDT and -DDD, oxychlordane, and γ- and α-HCH were in many cases below the limit of quantification (LOQ). No statistical analysis of associations with personal characteristics could be performed for these substances. Concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180, HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor and p, p'-DDE increased with increased age and were highest in women sampled early during the 4 year study period. This shows that older women and women sampled early in the study had experienced the highest life-time exposure levels, probably mainly during childhood and adolescence. The importance of early exposures was supported by lower PCB concentrations and higher β-HCH and p, p'-DDE concentrations among women born in non-Nordic countries. Moreover, serum concentrations of certain PCBs and pesticide/metabolites were positively associated with consumption of fatty fish during adolescence, and concentrations of CB 156, CB 180 and p, p'-DDE increased significantly with number of months women had been breast-fed during infancy. Short-term changes in bodily constitution may, however, also influence serum concentrations, as

  20. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. Setting A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Measures IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. Results The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18–24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25–29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. Conclusions HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be

  1. Effectiveness of community-based support for pregnant women living with HIV: a cohort study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains inadequate, and there is a severe shortage of professional healthcare workers in the region. The effectiveness of community support programmes for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants in SSA is unclear. This study compared initiation of maternal antiretrovirals and infant outcomes amongst HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants who received and did not receive community-based support (CBS) in a high HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa. A cohort study, including HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, was conducted at three sentinel surveillance facilities between January 2009 and June 2012, utilising enhanced routine clinical data. Through home visits, CBS workers encouraged uptake of interventions in the ART cascade, provided HIV-related education, ART initiation counselling and psychosocial support. Outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox and log-binomial regression. Amongst 1105 mother-infant pairs included, 264 (23.9%) received CBS. Amongst women eligible to start ART antenatally, women who received CBS had a reduced risk of not initiating antenatal ART, 5.4% vs. 30.3%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P < .0001). Women who received CBS initiated antenatal ART with less delay after the first antenatal visit, median 26 days vs. 39 days; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.15-2.14; P = .004). Amongst women who initiated antenatal zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent vertical transmission, women who received CBS initiated ZDV with less delay, aHR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01; P = .001). Women who received CBS had a lower risk of stillbirth, 1.5% vs. 5.4%; aRR = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07-1.00; P = .050). Pregnant women living with HIV who received CBS had improved antenatal triple ART initiation in eligible women, women initiated ART and ZDV with shorter

  2. Effectiveness of community-based support for pregnant women living with HIV: a cohort study in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains inadequate, and there is a severe shortage of professional healthcare workers in the region. The effectiveness of community support programmes for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants in SSA is unclear. This study compared initiation of maternal antiretrovirals and infant outcomes amongst HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants who received and did not receive community-based support (CBS) in a high HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa. A cohort study, including HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, was conducted at three sentinel surveillance facilities between January 2009 and June 2012, utilising enhanced routine clinical data. Through home visits, CBS workers encouraged uptake of interventions in the ART cascade, provided HIV-related education, ART initiation counselling and psychosocial support. Outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier analyses and multivariable Cox and log-binomial regression. Amongst 1105 mother–infant pairs included, 264 (23.9%) received CBS. Amongst women eligible to start ART antenatally, women who received CBS had a reduced risk of not initiating antenatal ART, 5.4% vs. 30.3%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08–0.44; P < .0001). Women who received CBS initiated antenatal ART with less delay after the first antenatal visit, median 26 days vs. 39 days; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.15–2.14; P = .004). Amongst women who initiated antenatal zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent vertical transmission, women who received CBS initiated ZDV with less delay, aHR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.18–2.01; P = .001). Women who received CBS had a lower risk of stillbirth, 1.5% vs. 5.4%; aRR = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07–1.00; P = .050). Pregnant women living with HIV who received CBS had improved antenatal triple ART initiation in eligible women, women initiated ART and

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  5. Health service barriers to HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains critical in the global efforts to reach a goal of universal access to prevention and timely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and health care. Routine HIV testing has been shown to be cost-effective and life-saving by prolonging the life expectancy of HIV patients and reducing the annual HIV transmission rate. However, these benefits of routine HIV testing may not be seen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) due to health facility related factors. This paper presents the influence of health facility related factors on HTC to inform HTC implementation. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and used structured questionnaire and interview guides to gather information from 300 pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years and had attended ANC for more than twice at the time of the study. Twelve health workers were interviewed as key informants. Respondents were selected from the five sub metro health facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. Pregnant women who had not tested after two or more ANC visits were classified as not utilizing HTC. Data was analyzed with STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women had not undergone HTC, with “never been told” emerging as the most cited reason as reported by 29.5% of respondents. Decisions by pregnant women to take up HTC were mostly influenced by factors such as lack of information, perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, waiting time, poor relationship with health staff and fear of being positive. Conclusions Access to HTC health facility alone does not translate into utilization of HTC service. Improving health facility related factors such as health education and information, confidentiality, health staff turnaround time and health staff-client relationship related to HTC will improve

  6. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  7. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  8. Could 'Aunties' Recruit Pregnant Indigenous Women Who Smoke Into a Trial and Deliver a Cessation Intervention? A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Cornell, Tracey; Smith, Ces

    2016-06-01

    Objective Māori (indigenous New Zealand) women have the highest smoking prevalence rates in New Zealand and whilst pregnant. We hypothesized that community health workers ('Aunties') could find pregnant Māori women who smoke, recruit them into a study and deliver an acceptable cessation intervention. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of such an intervention. Method A community health organization was engaged to, using a participatory approach, conduct a feasibility study. Participants were ten Aunties and the pregnant women the Aunties recruited. The Aunties advised their participants to abstain from smoking, offered a Quitcard (for subsidized nicotine replacement) or referral to local cessation providers. A booklet on healthy eating for pregnancy was given and discussed and the Aunties offered help if needed to register with a lead maternity carer (LMC). All women completed a baseline questionnaire. Semi-structured follow up face-to-face interviews were conducted with a subsample of women and hospital birth records were examined. Descriptive statistics were produced using quantitative data. Qualitative data was deductively analysed. Results During 4 months eight Aunties recruited 67 pregnant women who smoked, 88 % were Māori, 84 % were of low socio economic status and 73 % had up to high school education. Only 36 % of the recruited women had registered with an LMC. The participants described the Aunties as supportive, nice and non-judgmental. The only criticism was a lack of follow up. Aspects of the intervention that the Aunties thought worked well were knowing and being involved with their community, and being able to give a gift pack to the participating women. Insufficient follow up was one aspect that didn't work well. The infant's birth record was found for 54 % of the participants. Conclusion Aunties were able to identify and recruit pregnant Māori women who smoked. The study method and intervention were acceptable to Aunties and

  9. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Li, Hong-Tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  10. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Li, Hong-tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-xia; Xu, Gao-sheng; Bai, Man-xi; Liu, Jian-meng

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  11. Study of the significance of iron deficiency indexes and erythrocyte parameters in anemic pregnant women and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Xiao, Y; Zou, B; Zhao, L L

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the iron deficiency index and erythrocyte parameters in anemic pregnant women and their newborns, and explore their implications for anemia during pregnancy. Pregnant women (70) in the third trimester with hemoglobin (Hb) <100 g/L who registered and delivered from June 2012-2013 were randomly selected as the observation group, 70 pregnant women at similar gestational ages with Hb >110 g/L were selected as the control group, and 70 newborns delivered by women in each group were included in corresponding offspring observation and control groups, respectively. Periodic physical examinations were conducted on the infants, and blood samples were drawn from the women and infants at birth, 42 days, 4 months, and 6 months old for detection of Hb and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels. Pregnant women and their 6-month-old infants in the observation group had significantly different Hb and sTfR levels compared to controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in Hb and sTfR levels of infants at birth, 42 days, and 4 months old (P > 0.05). The detection rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was significant, at 61.43% among 6-month-old infants in the observation group and 22.86% among controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the detection rate of IDA among infants at birth, 42 days, and 4 months old between observation and control groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, anemia during pregnancy is a major contributing factor of IDA and subclinical iron deficiency among 6-month-old infants. PMID:25966117

  12. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  13. Nutrient Intakes of Pregnant Women and their Associated Factors in Eight Cities of China: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-Li; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Parés, Gerard Vinyes; Reidy, Kathleen C; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Ai; Chen, Cheng; Ning, Celia Y; Zheng, Ying-Dong; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: During the last 3 decades, China has dramatic changes of the dietary pattern among its citizens, particularly in urban cities. This study aimed to determine the nutrient intake status and factors associated with nutrient intakes of urban Chinese pregnant women now-a-day. Methods: The multistage stratified random sampling method was applied in the cross-sectional study. 479 women in three trimesters of pregnancy from eight cities of China were recruited. Nutrient intakes were evaluated with one 24 h dietary recall, and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013 for available nutrients. Results: Most pregnant women had imbalanced macronutrient distribution with excessive energy derived from fat. Intakes of Vitamin A, B6, calcium, magnesium, and selenium were below Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) and Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) in all trimesters. Most pregnant women took more folic acid in the first trimester with a significant decrease in the second and third trimester (P < 0.05). Shortfall in iron intake was found in the third trimester whereas some women may be at the risk of excessive iron intake. Intakes of thiamin met RNI in the first trimester but were below EAR in all trimesters. Trimester phasing was positively associated with most nutrients (P < 0.05). Prepregnancy body mass index was inversely associated with energy, fat, Vitamin C, and calcium intake (P < 0.05). Educational level and household income were positively associated with folic acid intake (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Current prenatal dietary choices of urban pregnant women in China are imbalanced in the nutrient intake when compared with national DRIs 2013, particularly in intakes of energy derived from fat and micronutrients. Appropriate dietary advice to pregnant women should promote a balanced diet with emphasis on avoidance of foods of high fat content and incorporation of foods that are good sources of the key micronutrients that are usually

  14. Antenatal care and uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Asaolu, Ibitola O; Center, Katherine E; Gibson, Steven J; Wightman, Patrick; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Ehiri, John E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines recommend inclusion of HIV testing in routine screening tests for all pregnant women. For this reason, antenatal care (ANC) represents a vital component of efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. To elucidate the relationship between ANC services and HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, we undertook an analysis of data from four countries. Methods Four countries (Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda) were purposively selected to represent unique geographical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Using Demographic and Health Survey datasets, weighted crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore factors that influenced HIV testing as part of ANC services. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Arizona. Results Pooled results showed that 60.7% of women received HIV testing as part of ANC. Ugandan women had the highest rate of HIV testing as part of ANC (81.5%) compared with women in Mozambique (69.4%), Nigeria (54.4%) and Congo (45.4%). Difficulty reaching a health facility was a barrier in Congo and Mozambique but not Nigeria or Uganda. HIV testing rates were lower in rural areas, among the poorest women, the least educated and those with limited knowledge of HIV. In every country, crude regression analyses showed higher odds of being tested for HIV if women received their ANC services from a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. After adjusting for confounders, women in the total sample had 1.78 (99% CI: 1.45–2.18) times the odds of having an HIV test as part of their ANC if they went to a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. Conclusions There is a need for integration of HIV testing into routine ANC service to increase opportunities for PMTCT programmes to reach HIV-positive pregnant women. Attention should be paid to the expansion of outreach services for women in rural settings, and to the

  15. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  16. Estimation of inertial parameters of the lower trunk in pregnant Japanese women: A longitudinal comparative study and application to motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Sunaga, Yasuyo; Kanemura, Naohiko; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to quantify the inertial parameters of the lower trunk segment in pregnant Japanese women and compare kinetic data during tasks calculated with parameters estimated in this study to data calculated with standard parameters. Eight pregnant women and seven nulliparous women participated. Twenty-four infrared reflective markers were attached to the lower trunk, and the standing position was captured by eight infrared cameras. The lower trunk was divided into parts, and inertial parameters were calculated. Pregnant women performed a movement task that involved standing from a chair, picking up plates, and walking forward after turning to the right. Kinetic analysis was performed using standard inertial parameters and the newly calculated parameters. There were more significant differences between methods in the kinetic data at the latter stages of pregnancy. The inertial parameters calculated in this study should be used to ensure the validity of biomechanical studies of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:26995047

  17. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  18. Comparison of the BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with mercury sphygmomanometry in pregnant women: validation study according to the British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dorogova, Inna V; Panina, Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the automated BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in pregnant women according to Part II of the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol. Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were randomly asked to participate (n=30). The BPLab sphygmomanometer was tested on pregnant women in this study and achieved A/A ratings according to the BHS protocol when compared with the “gold” standard of mercury sphygmomanometry. The device can therefore be recommended for use in pregnancy. PMID:25926739

  19. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  20. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  1. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  2. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  3. Nutritional status of pre-pregnant and pregnant women residing in Bogor district, Indonesia: a cross-sectional dietary and nutrient intake study.

    PubMed

    Madanijah, Siti; Briawan, Dodik; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Shah, Priyali; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The diet of Indonesian women of childbearing age is relatively poor, posing increased risk for suboptimal pregnancy outcome. In a cross-sectional study including 403 women in three economic quintiles (Q), we investigated differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status and whether regular dietary intakes of pregnant women (PW, n 203) differ from that of pre-pregnant women (PPW, n 200). Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24 h dietary recall and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were calculated utilising Food Composition Tables and compared with Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes <70 % and Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes <77 % of the local recommendation were considered insufficient. A higher intake of milk/dairy products (Q3, Q4), fruits and vegetables (Q2) and snacks (Q3) in PW was observed compared with PPW, but insufficient to meet nutrient requirements. Nutrient intake calculations showed insufficiency in 26 % of PPW for protein and up to 70 % for Fe. Deficient nutrient intakes in PW were found in 49 % of the subjects for energy and up to 85 % for Fe. Energy and protein intakes decreased with decreasing economic quintiles in PPW and PW. Ca and vitamin A intakes were lower in Q2 compared with Q4. The proportion of animal protein in Q2-PW was low (31 %). Biochemical status parameters in a subset showed that anaemia and Fe and Zn deficiencies were prevalent among PPW and PW. Habitual diets in the study area did not meet the nutrient requirements for both PPW and PW across the investigated economic groups. PMID:27079653

  4. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study

    PubMed Central

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. Design A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Setting Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Participants Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Results Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a ‘direct approach’ method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra ‘stress’ in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother–baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the

  5. [Young children, pregnant women and travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne

    2002-06-20

    Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785

  6. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  7. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27239992

  8. Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tamsin; Thebus, Elizabeth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mcintyre, James; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We used routine medical records to follow-up pregnant women initiating ART within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Cape Town, South Africa. Outcomes assessed through six months postpartum were (1) disengagement (no attendance within 56 days of a scheduled visit) and (2) missed visits (returning to care 14–56 days late for a scheduled visit). Results A total of 358 women (median age, 28 years; median gestational age, 26 weeks) initiated ART during pregnancy. By six months postpartum, 24% of women (n=86) had missed at least one visit and an additional 32% (n=115) had disengaged from care; together, 49% of women had either missed a visit or had disengaged by six months postpartum. Disengagement was more than twice as frequent postpartum compared to in the antenatal period (6.2 vs. 2.4 per 100 woman-months, respectively; p<0.0001). In a proportional hazards model, later gestational age at initiation (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00–1.07; p=0.030) and being newly diagnosed with HIV (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33; p=0.022) were significant predictors of disengagement after adjusting for patient age, starting CD4 cell count and site of ART initiation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that missed visits and disengagement from care occur frequently, particularly post-delivery, among HIV-positive women initiating ART during pregnancy. Women who are newly diagnosed with HIV may be particularly vulnerable and there is an urgent need for interventions both to promote retention overall, as well as

  9. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  10. [Longitudinal study of the dental status of pregnant women under prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Papp, E; Kengyeli, I; Bánóczy, J; Csordás, T

    1990-07-01

    The correlation between pregnancy and caries resp. gingivitis has been investigated in 57 pregnant women under care, at least once in each trimester. The caries prevalence was 98.25 per cent, both DMF-T and DMF-S index mean values showed a small increase with progressing pregnancy. The mean number of decayed teeth decreased (from 2.58 to 1.54), the values of filled, resp. extracted teeth increased (7.82 to 8.88, resp. 2.33 to 2.51) for the 3.s trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of gingivitis was 96.5 per cent, showing increasing index values from the first (2.43), through the second (3.10) to the third (3.40) trimester. The mean index values of oral hygiene showed a decrease, which is attributed to continuous dental care and treatment during pregnancy. PMID:2390995

  11. Maternal Anaemia and Neonatal Outcome: A Prospective Study on Urban Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manpreet; Chauhan, Aarti; Manzar, Md Dilshad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal anaemia is a major contributor of adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly compromised birth weight and head circumference. Objective To assess the relationship between maternal anaemia and neonatal measures in a sample of low-middle income group urban mothers. Materials and Methods One hundred pregnant women with population representative prevalence of anaemia were enrolled. Socio-demographic, anthropometry, obstetric profile (parity, abortion history, food habits, gap period with last pregnancy etc), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were documented. Neonatal outcomes (gestational age and type of delivery), and birth anthropometry (weight, length, and head circumference) were measured at delivery. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis for associating maternal haemoglobin levels and neonatal outcomes were performed. Results The anaemic and non-anaemic pregnant women differed significantly in interval between previous & index pregnancy (p=0.031), parity (p=0.009), systolic blood pressure (p=0.026), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.042), maternal Hb (p<0.01). The mean gestational age (p<0.01), weight (p<0.01), length (p<0.01) and head circumference (p<0.01) of the neonates differed significantly between the two groups. On using maternal haemoglobin as a continuous variable, these anthropometric birth outcomes were positively correlated with maternal haemoglobin (p<0.05). Further, univariate linear regression showed similar associations between maternal haemoglobin (g/dL) and birth weight (p=0.004), length (p=0.010) and head circumference (p=0.003). Conclusion Maternal haemoglobin has a positive relationship with the neonatal measures of weight, length and head circumference. PMID:26816949

  12. Predictors of folate status among pregnant Japanese women: the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Yila, Thamar A; Araki, Atsuko; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Kumiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Goudarzi, Houman; Baba, Toshiaki; Braimoh, Titilola; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-06-01

    The International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects, Surveillance and Research reports a rise in the prevalence rate of spina bifida in Japan. We determined first-trimester folate status of Hokkaido women and identified potential predictors. Participants were 15 266 pregnant women of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health Cohort. Data were extracted from self-reported questionnaires and biochemical assay results. Demographic determinants of low folate status were younger maternal age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1·48; 95 % CI 1·32, 1·66), lower educational level (AOR 1·27; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·39) and lower annual income (AOR 1·11; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·22). Plasma cotinine concentrations of 1·19-65·21 nmol/l increased the risk of low folate status (AOR 1·20; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·31) and concentrations >65·21 nmol/l further increased the risk (AOR 1·91; 95 % CI 1·70, 2·14). The most favourable predictor was use of folic acid (FA) supplements (AOR 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22). Certain socio-demographic factors influence folate status among pregnant Japanese women. Modifiable negative and positive predictors were active and passive tobacco smoking and use of FA supplements. Avoiding both active and passive tobacco smoking and using FA supplements could improve the folate status of Japanese women. PMID:27121118

  13. Cancer treatment in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Basta, Pawel; Bak, Anna; Roszkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In general, strategies for the treatment of cancer in pregnancy should not differ significantly from the treatment regimens in non-pregnant women. However, this is difficult due to either the effects of anticancer drugs on the developing foetus or the possibility of long-term complications after the exposure to drugs and radiation. The decision about the introduction and continuation of treatment in the event of pregnancy should be preceded by a detailed analysis of the potential benefits and risks. There are no data to suggest that pregnancy termination alters the biological behaviour of the tumour or patient prognosis in the presence of appropriate antineoplastic therapy. All patients should be given appropriate advice and informed that there are insufficient scientific data to determine any generally accepted consensus. It is very important to always respect the will of the patient, and the moral judgment of the physician should have no impact on the decisions taken by the woman. If the woman decides to undergo active treatment and maintain her pregnancy, it is necessary to carry out consultations with experts in the field appropriate to the type of cancer. This paper presents a basic review of the literature on the targeted therapies currently used in selected cancers diagnosed during pregnancy: breast cancer, cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, melanoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. PMID:26793018

  14. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  15. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases. PMID:26170151

  16. A Diagnostic and Symptomatological Study on Trichomoniasis in Symptomatic Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan, South Central Iran in 2012-13

    PubMed Central

    MANSHOORI, Azita; MIRZAEI, Sakineh; VALADKHANI, Zarrintaj; KAZEMI ARABABADI, Mohammad; REZAEIAN, Mohsen; ZAINODINI, Nahid; BAHRAMABADI, Raza; ZARE-BIDAKI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis, is responsible for more than half of all sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study aimed to determine the frequency of T. vaginalis infection and its clinical manifestations in symptomatic pregnant women in the area based on four different diagnostic methods. Methods: A total of 162 pregnant women with at least one sign or symptom of vaginosis, referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics in Rafsanjan City, south central Iran, were randomly selected in 2012-13. Through speculum examination of patients by gynecologists, clinical diagnosis determined, vaginal discharge were collected by using two sterile cotton swabs from the posterior fornix and vagina pH was measured. Samples were examined by three diagnostic methods including wet mount, culture in TYI-S-33 medium and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: T. vaginalis was detected in 19.5%, 27.2%, 56.2% and 51.6% of subjects according to diagnostic methods of clinical diagnosis, wet mount, culture and PCR, respectively. There was statistically significant relationship between T. vaginalis infection and patients' age, gestational age, marriage age, residence, educational level, parity. The symptomatological pattern in the 91 women infected with T. vaginalis was as follows: leukorrhea, 96.7%; urine frequency, 65.9%; odorous secretion, 63.3%; urogenital itching and irritation, 53.8%; vaginal inflammation, 47.3%; dyspareunia, 39.6%; and dysuria, 16.5%. Conclusion: Our results indicated a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in symptomatic pregnant women, very low sensitivity and relative high specificity of clinical diagnosis and wet mount technique compared to culture and PCR, as well as thatpregnancy increases the susceptibility to the infection in a gestational age-dependent manner. PMID:26622305

  17. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  18. Maternal and foetal outcomes among pregnant women hospitalised due to interpersonal violence: A population based study in Western Australia, 2002-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interpersonal violence is responsible for more ill-health and premature death in women under the age of 45 than other preventable health conditions, but findings concerning the effects of violence during pregnancy on both maternal and foetal health have been inconsistent. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study was undertaken using linked data from the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection and the Western Australian Midwives' Notification System from 2002 to 2008. The aim was to determine the association between exposure to interpersonal violence during pregnancy and adverse maternal and foetal health outcomes at the population level. Results A total of 468 pregnant women were hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during the study period, and 3,744 randomly selected pregnant women were included as the comparison group. The majority of violent events were perpetrated by the pregnant women's partner or spouse. Pregnant Indigenous women were over-represented accounting for 67% of all hospitalisations due to violence and their risk of experiencing adverse maternal outcomes was significantly increased compared to non-Indigenous women (adjusted odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.95, p = 0.01). Pregnant women hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence sustained almost double the risk for adverse maternal complications than the non-exposed group (95% CI 1.34 to 2.18, p < 0.001). The overall risk for adverse foetal complications for pregnant women exposed to violence was increased two-fold (95% CI 1.50 to 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusions The risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the baby increases if a pregnant woman is hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during pregnancy. PMID:21989086

  19. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  20. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention. PMID:24159312

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  3. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees. PMID:8194968

  4. Influenza Illness in Pregnant Indian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A.; Bali, Nargis K.; Mir, Hyder; Jabeen, Farhat; Ahmad, Abida

    2016-01-01

    Data about burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. In order to assess the contribution of influenza to acute respiratory illness (ARI) in pregnancy, 266 north Indian pregnant females with febrile ARI were studied from December 2014 to May 2015. Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Fifty (18.8%) patients tested positive for influenza (A/H1N1pdm09 in 41, A/H3N2 in 8, and influenza B Yamagata in 1). Rigors, headache, and a family history of ARI were significantly more frequent in influenza positive patients. Oseltamivir and supportive therapy were administered to all confirmed cases. Nine influenza positive cases needed hospitalization for their respiratory illness, and 5 developed respiratory failure. Of these, 4 (3 in third trimester) succumbed to their illness. We conclude that influenza viruses are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among pregnant females with ARI in north India. As such, appropriate preventive strategies of influenza vaccination and early initiation of antiviral therapy during illness are stressed. PMID:26903762

  5. Imaging More Imagining less: An Insight into Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Radiation Risk on Pregnant Women among Dentists of Ghaziabad – A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ritu; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The safety of diagnostic imaging during pregnancy is an important aspect for all clinicians. Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care as the dentists are not aware of low diagnostic radiation doses involved in dental radiation. Aim To assess awareness of radiation risks on pregnant women among dentists of Ghaziabad city. Materials and Methods A total of 268 practicing dentists in Ghaziabad were selected for a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. Data consisted of 18 questions which assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of dental professionals regarding radiation risks on pregnant women. The questionnaire was distributed and collected personally by the principal investigator. Data was analyzed by Mann Whitney U test and chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results The results showed that the dentists who had attended continuing dental education program had increased level of knowledge regarding radiation effects among pregnant women as compared to the dentists who had not attended continuing dental education programs (p<0.05). Among them who had attended continuing dental education programs 93.3% were aware of the safe dose of radiation and 62% were aware of threshold radiation doses of pregnancy termination. On the contrary there was no significant difference in the knowledge, attitude and practice scores regarding radiation risks on pregnant women based on their academic qualification (p≥0.05). Conclusion The level of knowledge among dentists was found to be satisfactory, this outcome shows that continuing dental education regarding radiation protection principles and its risks on pregnant women is required to ensure maximum safety both for clinician as well as pregnant women.

  6. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  7. Routine antenatal HIV testing: the responses and perceptions of pregnant women and the viability of informed consent. A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    de Zulueta, Paquita; Boulton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative cross‐sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women's responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their booking interview. None of the women viewed themselves as being particularly at risk for HIV infection. The minority (n = 6) of the participants who declined testing differed from those who accepted, by interpreting test acceptance as risky behaviour, privileging the negative outcomes of HIV positivity and expressing an inability to cope with these, should they occur. Troublingly, only a minority of women (n = 9) had a broad understanding of the rationale for the test, and none fulfilled the standard criteria for informed consent. This study suggests that, although routine screening combined with professional recommendation may be successful in increasing uptake, this may be at the cost of eroding informed consent. Protecting third parties (notably fetuses) from a preventable disease may outweigh the moral duty of respecting autonomy, enshrined in Western bioethical tradition. Nevertheless, such a policy should be made transparent, debated in the public domain and negotiated with women seeking antenatal care. PMID:17526682

  8. The Community Perinatal Care Study: Home Visiting and Nursing Support for Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne; Siever, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes The Community Perinatal Care Study, a community-based study of pregnancy support that was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between 2001 and 2004. The study was conducted to learn how to improve community-based pregnancy care and to improve prenatal care and healthy births, particularly for women with increased…

  9. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  10. Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care. PMID:25414858

  11. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or

  12. The study of physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health-Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Mohamadirizi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but activity barriers during this period are not well understood. The objective was to determine physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 384 in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital in second stage sampling method in 2013. Demographic/prenatal characteristics, physical activity (36Q) and prenatal life quality questionnaire (26Q) were completed by participants. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as the t-test, one-way ANOVA, individual correlation coefficient, and linear regression using SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Based on the findings, 98.7% (n = 378) of pregnant women had low physical activity. Also, there were a correlation among physical activity and parity, age, gestational age (P ≤ 0.005). Conclusion: Since physical activity is recommended for the most of pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity between pregnant women and some intervention suggestions.

  13. [Oral hygiene in pregnant women versus cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Gogacz, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Proper oral hygiene is an essential element of dental caries prophylaxis and periodontitis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oral health state and the state of periodontal in pregnant women in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Survey and clinical studies were conducted in the group of 100 women--80% pregnant women and 20% in the first week of puerperium remaining at the gynaecological and obstetric hospital wards in Lublin and its region. The mean age of the investigated was 27.94. Study results revealed no correlation between the frequency of pregnant women tooth-brushing and the status of cigarette smoking or non-smoking. The average oral hygiene evaluated on the basis of API index was stated essentially more frequently in the group of non-smoking women (50%) in comparison with the smoking women (24.14%),, whereas improper oral hygiene was stated essentially more frequently in the group of smoking women (31.03%) in comparison with non-smokers (11.29%) (chi = 7.82, p < 0.05). No correlation was stated between the state of periodontal in smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. PMID:24501798

  14. Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications arising from an influenza infection. It is suggested that physiological changes such as immunological changes, increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption, as well as lung tidal volume might increase the susceptibility to influenza complications if infection occurs during pregnancy. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries and has been proven to be safe and effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Influenza vaccination is also cost-effective. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage remains low in pregnant women. This might stem from the lack of healthcare workers' education, a feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious disease and a failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. In order to protect pregnant women and infants from influenza related morbidity and mortality an educational programme targeting healthcare workers in charge of pregnant women should be implemented. PMID:25195141

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  16. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%-39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01-3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03-2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92-5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06-4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional

  17. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and

  18. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  19. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43 years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20 years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20 years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Hogan, K; Hankins, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Newfoundland. PATIENTS: A total of 14911 women receiving prenatal care or undergoing an abortion, representing nearly all pregnancies in Newfoundland from Nov. 1, 1991, to Oct. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, as determined by enzyme immunoassay of leftover serum samples (initially obtained for routine screening) and confirmation of reactive samples by the Western blot technique, health region of residence, and age group. RESULTS: Of the 14911 serum samples 13 were positive for HIV, for an overall crude prevalence rate of 1 per 1147 or 8.7 per 10000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 14.9). Seven of the positive samples were from women residing in the Eastern Health Region of the province, for a crude prevalence rate of 1 per 376 or 26.6 per 10000 pregnant women (95% CI 10.7 to 54.8) for that region. All women found to be HIV positive were 15 to 29 years of age, the peak prevalence (20.8 per 10000 pregnant women [95% CI 9.5 to 39.4]) was observed among those 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of 8.7 per 10 000 pregnant women in Newfoundland is the highest provincial rate recorded among those from similar studies in Canada. Although it may be concluded that there are an estimated 125 HIV-positive women of childbearing age in Newfoundland (95% CI 67 to 213), the age-adjusted estimate is 84 (95% CI 36 to 131). This study provides an independent confirmation of an outbreak of HIV infection among women in the Eastern Health Region of the province. PMID:8625023

  1. Advising pregnant women on miminising travel risks.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rosemary

    Pregnant women may face additional risks when travelling overseas, which must be considered with assessment and travel health advice before they decide to travel. A careful risk assessment should be completed to identify the key risks and strategies for staying safe while travelling. PMID:24772798

  2. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  3. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  4. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  5. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Silva dos Santos, Mônica Caroline; Lopes Simplício, Janicéia; Menezes de Medeiros, Jandira; Barroso Gomes, Kelly Cristina; de Carvalho Costa, Isabel Cristina; Batista-Silva, Eva; Teixeira do Nascimento, Cristiana; da Silva Chagas, Eda Cristina; Jardim Sardinha, José Felipe; Simões de Santana Filho, Franklin; Brock, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). Methods/Principal Findings Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54%) were between 20–29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503) reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001) were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16–0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10–0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively). The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19–0.95]; p = 0.037) and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC) attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15–0.70]; p = 0.005). Conclusion This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance. PMID:26675007

  6. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  7. Parenting and Concerns of Pregnant Women in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella OC; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid-dependence. Study Design and Methods We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children’s power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child’s health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS. PMID:25137081

  8. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  9. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  10. Analysis of self-reported problematic tasks for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P L; Dumas, G A; Smith, J T; Leger, A B; Plamondon, A; McGrath, M J; Tranmer, J E

    2006-02-22

    The objective of this study was to identify major components of, and influential factors in, problematic tasks performed by pregnant women employed in education, health care and service areas. Seventy-two pregnant women were surveyed using specially designed questionnaires consisting of an Initial Survey, a Job Analysis Questionnaire and a Task Description Questionnaire. Forty-four subjects (60%) had difficulty performing at least one work task and reported 105 tasks that were problematic at work. Reaching above the head, bending forward, bending and twisting, pushing, repeating actions and working at a fast pace were identified as the task components requiring the greatest level of effort. Excessive effort, excessive time, getting tired, repetitive actions, stress and fear of injury were identified as factors that had strong associations with the six major task components. Findings of this study suggest that these task components and factors should be considered when designing, assigning or analysing tasks for working pregnant women. PMID:16540440

  11. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  12. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  13. Using Web-Based Questionnaires and Obstetric Records to Assess General Health Characteristics Among Pregnant Women: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Naomi PE; Merkus, Peter JFM; Verhaak, Chris M; Roeleveld, Nel; Roukema, Jolt

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-reported medical history information is included in many studies. However, data on the validity of Web-based questionnaires assessing medical history are scarce. If proven to be valid, Web-based questionnaires may provide researchers with an efficient means to collect data on this parameter in large populations. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a Web-based questionnaire on chronic medical conditions, allergies, and blood pressure readings against obstetric records and data from general practitioners. Methods Self-reported questionnaire data were compared with obstetric records for 519 pregnant women participating in the Dutch PRegnancy and Infant DEvelopment (PRIDE) Study from July 2011 through November 2012. These women completed Web-based questionnaires around their first prenatal care visit and in gestational weeks 17 and 34. We calculated kappa statistics (κ) and the observed proportions of positive and negative agreement between the baseline questionnaire and obstetric records for chronic conditions and allergies. In case of inconsistencies between these 2 data sources, medical records from the woman’s general practitioner were consulted as the reference standard. For systolic and diastolic blood pressure, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for multiple data points. Results Agreement between the baseline questionnaire and the obstetric record was substantial (κ=.61) for any chronic condition and moderate for any allergy (κ=.51). For specific conditions, we found high observed proportions of negative agreement (range 0.88-1.00) and on average moderate observed proportions of positive agreement with a wide range (range 0.19-0.90). Using the reference standard, the sensitivity of the Web-based questionnaire for chronic conditions and allergies was comparable to or even better than the sensitivity of the obstetric records, in particular for migraine (0.90 vs 0.40, P=.02), asthma (0.86 vs 0

  14. An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n = 13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous

  15. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction. PMID:26031164

  16. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Metaferia, Yeshi; Dessie, Walelign; Ali, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and data regarding possible risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg among the 269 participants enrolled in the study was 7.8% (n=21). The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was 5.2% (n=14), of whom two participants (14.2%) were also positive for HBsAg. Study participants with no formal education (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 10.68; p<0.05) were more likely to be infected with HBV than those who had completed at least secondary school. Although HBsAg was detected more often in pregnant women who had multiple exposure factors (8.8%, n=13) than in pregnant women who had not experienced possible risk factors (4%, n=1), this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 0.29 to 18.63). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HBV infection was detected in the study population. Neither the type of risk factors nor exposure to multiple risk factors was significantly associated with HBV infection. Hence, screening pregnant women regardless of risk factors and improving awareness of the transmission routes of HBV within this group may reduce the risk of HBV infections. PMID:27336446

  17. Application of the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) in epidemiological studies of women at reproductive age and pregnant women in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological population studies indicate that the nutrition of women at reproductive age and during pregnancy exerts an eff ect not only on the term of delivery, development of the foetus and birth weight, but also on the susceptibility of off spring to civilization diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Heath and Diseases (DOHaD). The author analyses the results of epidemiological studies conducted in 2011 in a randomly selected representative population of 6,000 Polish adolescents aged 14-24 (of the total of adolescents, a population of females was selected for analysis), and the results of foetal period health monitoring of mother and child (PRAMS) which has been conducted in Poland since 2009 in the population of mothers and their newborn babies staying after delivery in all hospitals in Poland. Analysis of these two population studies indicates that a high percentage of Polish women at reproductive age are dieting. At the same time, confirmation of the fact of becoming pregnant occurs between weeks 5-8 after conception. This shows that until that time, the foetuses of women on the Apple weight loss diet develop conditions of nutritional deficits which, according to the DOHaD hypothesis, may result in epigenetic changes which increase the susceptibility of off spring in adulthood to civilization diseases: cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis is confirmed by the high percentages of newborns in Poland born with low birth weight or prematurely born, as well as the fact that the percentage of anemia in pregnant Polish women is twice as high as in other developed countries. Simultaneously, a large number of babies are born with excessive birth weight (macrosomia). The author considers that in the countries of East-Central Europe the phenomenon observed is characteristic at present of the developing countries of the Third World, called the 'double burden of malnutrition'. This

  18. Across-sectional study on anxiety and stress in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Li, Jianju; Lin, Keke; Ji, Ping; Sun, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anxiety and pregnancy-associated stress of pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the People’s Republic of China and analyze the relationship between anxiety and pregnancy-associated stress in the hope of finding ways to reduce the stress or improve the coping skills for these mothers-to-be during pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and sixty chronic HBV-infected pregnant women (HBV group) and 160 healthy pregnant women (control group) selected from three Peking University-affiliated hospitals participated in the study, and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS) survey. Results The mean scores of STAI and PSRS for the HBV group were higher than for the control group. Factor 2 of PSRS (stress caused by worrying about mother and child’s health and safety) was the highest, and was significantly higher in the HBV group than in the control group. Correlation analysis showed STAI scores were significantly correlated with economic status and diagnosis, as well as the total score, factor 1 (stress about identifying with the role of mother), and factor 2 of PSRS, but not significantly correlated with factor 3 of PSRS (stress caused by the changes of body shape and physical activity). Conclusion Pregnant women with chronic HBV infection experienced higher levels of anxiety and stress than healthy pregnant women. Their major stress came from concerns for the health and safety of the mother and the child. PMID:26346004

  19. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20 weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30 weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30 mm up to 28 weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration

  20. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood. PMID:22066293

  1. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  2. Is pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychoses ethically permissible?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-07-01

    There is a consistent view in the literature that research on pregnant woman with psychoses is ethically questionable or impermissible. This paper provides a critical appraisal of these views by asking whether pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychosis for maternal, fetal, and newborn benefit is ethically permissible. We examine separately the documented clinical benefits and risks to the pregnant patient, the fetal patient, and the neonatal and pediatric patient. The outcomes reported in the pertinent literature do not support the conclusion that pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy results in documented, unacceptable risk to the pregnant, fetal, or neonatal patient and is therefore ethically ruled out. Claims that research on the pharmacologic management of psychosis during pregnancy is ethically impermissible because of unacceptable risk of harm to pregnant, fetal, neonatal, or pediatric patients cannot therefore be supported. Having shown that such research is permissible, we then ask what ethical considerations should guide study design. We show that Phase I studies are appropriate and can meet the requirements of the Common Rule, which are more specific than international guidance. As a matter of professionally responsible obstetric practice, pregnant women with psychoses should be included, and not be neglected, in research for both maternal and fetal benefit. PMID:25389981

  3. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  4. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    urinary ethylene thiourea (ETU) concentrations among pregnant women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA). Environ Health Perspect 122:1321–1328; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679 PMID:25198283

  5. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

  6. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  7. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, M.; Goessler, W.; Nermell, B.; Ekstroem, E.C.; Loennerdal, B.; El Arifeen, S.; Vahter, M.

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  8. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  9. Iodine status among pregnant women after mandatory salt iodisation.

    PubMed

    Anaforoğlu, İ; Algün, E; İnceçayır, Ö; Topbaş, M; Erdoğan, M F

    2016-02-14

    I is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development. Various changes occur in thyroid hormone metabolism during pregnancy and I requirements increase significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate I status among pregnant women in Trabzon, formerly a severely I-deficient area but shown to have become I sufficient following mandatory iodisation of table salt based on monitoring studies among school-age children (SAC) in the area. A total of 864 healthy pregnant women with a median age of 28 (25th-75th percentile 17-47) years participated in the study. None of them were using I-containing supplement. All of them were screened for use of iodised salt, obstetric history, thyroid function tests and urinary I concentrations (UIC), and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Median UIC was 102 (25th-75th percentile=62-143) μg/l. Median UIC of the patients according to trimesters were 122 µg/l at the 1st, 97 µg/l at the 2nd and 87 µg/l at the 3rd trimester. UIC in the 1st trimester was higher compared with the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (P<0·017). Nodules were present in 17·7% of women (n 153). The rate of iodised salt usage among pregnant women was 90·7%. Our study demonstrates that, although the I status among SAC has been rectified, I deficiency (ID) is still prevalent among pregnant women. Current knowledge is in favour of I supplementation in this group. Until the effects of maternal I supplementation in mild ID have been clarified by large-scale prospective controlled trials, pregnant women living in borderline defficient and I-sufficient areas, such as Trabzon city, should receive 100-200 µg/d of I-containing supplements in addition to iodised salt. PMID:26596695

  10. Asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hagley, M T; Costa, A J

    1989-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. A review of three textbooks of obstetrics reveals that none of them recommend routine chlamydia screening in prenatal patients, although two recommend routine screening for gonorrhea. A study was done at the Barberton Citizens Hospital Family Practice Residency Program to determine the incidence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection in pregnant women and to compare this to the incidence of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in the same population. A total of 69 patients were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as part of their routine prenatal evaluations at the first prenatal visit and the visit of 36 weeks gestation. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected by growth on standard Martin-Lewis culture plates. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by positive immunofluorescence using a standardized specimen kit (Syva Company, Palo Alto, California). The data were collected over a 12-month period from July of 1987 through July of 1988. There were no positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0%) in this group of patients. On the other hand, five patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (7.2%). The results of this study indicate that routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be considered as part of the routine prenatal care. A larger, multi-centered study could be done in the future to confirm these results, as well as to determine if any regional differences exist. PMID:2601940

  11. Determinants of urinary concentrations of dialkyl phosphates among pregnant women in Canada - Results from the MIREC study.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Katia; Fraser, William; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; Gaudreau, Eric; LeBlanc, Alain; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are commonly used in agriculture. Their use decreased in recent years as they were gradually replaced by other pesticides, but some OPs are still among the insecticides most used in Canada. Exposure to elevated levels of OPs during pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes and poorer neurodevelopment in children. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the concentrations of OP pesticides urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites and various factors that are potential sources of exposure or determinants of DAP levels. In the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, six DAPs were measured in 1st trimester urine samples of 1884 pregnant women living in Canada. They were grouped into sums of dimethyl alkyl phosphates (DMAP) and diethyl alkyl phosphates (DEAP) for statistical analysis. We found that 93% of women had at least one DAP detected in their urine. Geometric means (GM) of specific gravity-corrected levels for urine dilution were 59 (95% CI 56-62) and 21 (95% CI 20-22) nmol/L for DMAP and DEAP, respectively. The following characteristics were significantly associated with higher urinary concentrations of DMAP or DEAP: higher education, nulliparous, normal pre-pregnancy body mass index, non-smoker, not fasting at sampling, winter season at sampling, and early and late day collection times. Dietary items that were significantly related with higher urinary concentrations included higher intake of citrus fruits, apple juice, sweet peppers, tomatoes, beans and dry peas, soy and rice beverages, whole grain bread, white wine and green and herbal teas. This study indicates that exposure to these compounds is quasi-ubiquitous. The factors associated with greater DAP levels identified here could be useful to regulatory agencies for risk analysis and management. However, some exposure misclassification might occur due to the single DAP measurement available, and

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology of Objectively Measured Walking Among US Pregnant Women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine population-based prevalence of walking in the United States among pregnant women. Objectively measured walking data on 197 pregnant women who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were analyzed. In general, pregnant women showed a level of walking below the recommendation; most walking was at low-intensity levels. These findings suggest that walking, particularly at higher intensity than usual, should be promoted among pregnant women. PMID:26652217

  13. Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations of pregnant women at term

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, A; Gbadegesin, A; Adeyemo, T A; Akinbami, A A; Akanmu, A S; Osunkalu, V; Ogbenna, A A; Oremosu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is defined as haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of less than 11 g/dL while low ferritin is defined as serum ferritin (SR) levels of less than 10 µg/L. Hb and ferritin concentrations of pregnant women at term were determined to establish their mean values and to determine the prevalence of anaemia in our locality. Methods Haemoglobin and ferritin levels of 170 non-smoking and HIV-negative pregnant women were determined at term. The majority 143 of 170 (84.1%) of the pregnant women recruited for the study, booked at the beginning of the second trimester and received 200 mg elemental iron in three divided doses and 5 mg folic acid daily which were commenced at booking. Five millilitres of blood were collected from each patient at term into EDTA bottles for full blood count analysis and another 5 mL into plain bottles for SR assay. Results The mean Hb and ferritin values were 10.9 ± 1.9 and 47.84 ± 98.39 µg/L, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia at term was 46.4%. Only 11.2% (19 of 170) of pregnant women at term had low SR (iron stores). A statistically significant relationship was found between women's education and SR (P = 0.032). Booking status also correlated directly with SR and haemoglobin concentrations, while increasing age and parity did not. Conclusion About half of the patients were anaemic. Iron deficiency is not the major cause of anaemia in pregnancy in this study because the majority of the pregnant women had normal iron stores. Education and booking status are possible factors that contribute to anaemia.

  14. Urinary organophosphate metabolite levels in Palestinian pregnant women: results of the Middle East Regional Cooperation Project.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Berman, Tamar; Azmi, Kifaya; Abu Seir, Rania; Agha, Hazem; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Göen, Thomas; Stein, Yael; Richter, Elihu; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure urinary organophosphate (OP) metabolites in Palestinian pregnant women, and to compare levels with those in pregnant women in Jerusalem and women from the general population in Israel. We measured six dialkyl phosphates in urine samples collected from 148 pregnant women from the West Bank area. Median total dimethyl phosphate (DMtotal) levels were significantly lower in Palestinian women compared to Jerusalem pregnant women and women in Israel (p = 0.041). In Palestinian women reporting that their place of residence was near an agricultural field, DMtotal levels were significantly higher (p = 0.037). Lower urinary excretion of dimethyl phosphate pesticide metabolites in Palestinian women compared to Israeli women may result from lower consumption of fruits and vegetables in the Palestinian population. Our findings highlight differences in OP pesticide exposure in populations with close geographical proximity but with differences in culture, diet, lifestyle, and regulatory oversight of pesticides. PMID:26578062

  15. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  17. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T; Solnordal, C B

    2012-06-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event. The aims of this review are to address why pulmonary oedema occurs in pregnant women and to discuss immediate management. We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, acute pulmonary oedema, pregnancy complications, maternal, cardiac function and haemodynamics. We present a simple clinical classification of acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy into pulmonary oedema occurring in normotensive or hypotensive women (i.e. without hypertension), and acute pulmonary oedema occurring in hypertensive women, which allows focused management. Pre-eclampsia remains an important cause of hypertensive acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy and preventive strategies include close clinical monitoring and restricted fluid administration. Immediate management of acute pulmonary oedema includes oxygenation, ventilation and circulation control with venodilators. Pregnancy-specific issues include consideration of the physiological changes of pregnancy, the risk of aspiration and difficult airway, reduced respiratory and metabolic reserve, avoidance of aortocaval compression and delivery of the fetus. PMID:22420683

  18. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  19. Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

  20. Acquired Activated Protein C Resistance, Thrombophilia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Study Performed in an Irish Cohort of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sedano-Balbás, Sara; Lyons, Mark; Cleary, Brendan; Murray, Margaret; Gaffney, Geraldine; Maher, Majella

    2011-01-01

    The combination of thrombophilia and pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis and the potential for adverse outcomes during pregnancy. The most significant common inherited risk factor for thrombophilia is activated protein C resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, which is mainly caused by an inherited single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), factor V G1691A (FV Leiden) (FVL), referred as inherited APCR. Changes in the levels of coagulation factors: FV, FVIII, and FIX, and anticoagulant factors: protein S (PS) and protein C (PC) can alter APC function causing acquired APCR. Prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T are prothrombotic SNPs which in association with APCR can also increase the risk of thrombosis amongst Caucasians. In this study, a correlation between an acquired APCR phenotype and increased levels of factors V, VIII, and IX was demonstrated. Thrombophilic mutations amongst our acquired APCR pregnant women cohort are relatively common but do not appear to exert a severe undue adverse effect on pregnancy. PMID:21869933

  1. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Johargy, Ayman K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V) infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 364 blood (serum) samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 182/364 (50%) of Saudi pregnant women of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that B19V is clearly circulating in the community in a way that is similar to what is found in most nontemperate countries. PMID:27186157

  2. Cardiorespiratory responses of pregnant and nonpregnant women during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bgeginski, Roberta; Almada, Bruna P; Martins Kruel, Luiz F

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cardiorespiratory responses in pregnant and nonpregnant women during the execution of resistance exercises for upper and lower body. Twenty healthy women (10 pregnant: 22-24 weeks, 25.20 ± 4.44 years, 69.80 ± 9.52 kg, 161.60 ± 5.21 cm and 10 nonpregnant: 25.20 ± 3.73 years, 62.36 ± 8.60 kg, 162.40 ± 3.97 cm) performed 5 experimental sessions. Session 1: familiarization with the equipments and the determination of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Sessions 2, 3, 4, and 5: determination of the cardiorespiratory responses during the execution of resistance exercise on the bilateral leg extension and pec-deck fly, with 1 and 3 sets of 15 repetitions, 50% of 1 estimated maximum repetition. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (BP) responses were lower (p = 0.029, 0.018, 0.009, respectively) in the pregnant group. When the exercises were performed with a single set, heart rate showed increased values for bilateral leg extension (pregnant: 109.40 ± 10.75 b·min, nonpregnant: 108.51 ± 19.05 b·min) compared with pec-deck (pregnant: 101.59 ± 14.83 b·min, nonpregnant: 100.37 ± 12.36 b·min); however, when the exercises were performed with 3 sets, bilateral leg extension showed increased values for the heart rate (pregnant: 114.70 ± 13.58 b·min, nonpregnant: 121.29 ± 10.86 b·min), systolic (pregnant: 124.50 ± 17.32 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 136.00 ± 17.79 mm Hg), diastolic (pregnant: 68.10 ± 8.23 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 77.89 ± 15.25 mm Hg), and mean BP (pregnant: 86.90 ± 10.38 mm Hg, nonpregnant: 97.73 ± 12.64 mm Hg), ventilation (pregnant: 12.88 ± 4.05 L·min, nonpregnant: 15.02 ± 4.19 L·min), and oxygen consumption (pregnant: 0.41 ± 0.08 L·min, nonpregnant: 0.42 ± 0.09 L·min) compared with pec-deck fly exercise. We concluded that the pressure response was unaffected by pregnancy and showed to be safe during the performance of resistance exercises. PMID:25226315

  3. Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in

  4. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  5. [Pregnant women, children and international travel].

    PubMed

    Høgh, Birthe; Rønn, Anita Mandrup

    2005-10-17

    Pregnant women and children have special needs and vulnerabilities that should be addressed when preparing for travel abroad. The most stable time for travel during pregnancy is the second trimester. Live vaccines should be avoided during pregnancy. Children should be up to date on both routine and travel-related vaccines. Elective travel to malarious areas, especially where chloroquine-resistant malaria is endemic, should be avoided, as some vaccines and antimalarial drugs may not be used during pregnancy and for children below a certain age. Guidelines on preventive measures are given. PMID:16232399

  6. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Indian Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Parvati; Acharya, Shashidhar; Kamath, Asha; Bhat, Shashikala; Rao, Chythra; Nayak, Sathisha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the maternal risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) with a special emphasis on assessing the proportions of maternal genitourinary and periodontal infections among Indian women and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A hospital-based prospective study comprising 790 pregnant women visiting the obstetrics clinic for a routine antenatal check-up was undertaken. Once recruited, all study participants underwent clinical and microbiological investigations for genitourinary infections followed by a dental check-up for the presence of periodontitis. The study participants were followed up until their delivery to record the pregnancy outcomes. Infectious and non-infectious risk factors for PTB and LBW were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Independent risk factors for PTB and LBW were reported in terms of adjusted relative risk (ARR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Rates of PTB and LBW in the study population were 7.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery (ARR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.5 to 19.1), periodontitis (ARR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9), Oligohydramnios (ARR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.4 to 11.5), presence of Nugent’s intermediate vaginal flora (ARR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1), gestational diabetes mellitus (ARR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.0 to 8.3), and maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1) were risk factors for PTB, while periodontitis (ARR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.9), gestational hypertension (ARR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8), maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.1) and genital infection during later stages of pregnancy (ARR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.1) were independent risk factors for LBW. Conclusions: Our study findings underscore the need to consider screening for potential genitourinary and periodontal infections during routine antenatal care in developing countries. PMID:27255075

  7. Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results. Prevalence of self-reported anal incontinence (St. Mark's score ≥ 3) was the lowest in the group of women with a previous cesarean section only (6.4%) and the highest among women with a previous delivery complicated by obstetric anal sphincter injury (24.4%). Among nulliparous women the prevalence of anal incontinence was 7.7% and was associated to low educational level and comorbidity. Prevalence of anal incontinence increased with increasing parity. Urinary incontinence was associated with anal incontinence in all parity groups. Conclusions. Anal incontinence was most frequent among women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Other obstetrical events had a minor effect on prevalence of anal incontinence among parous women. Prevention of obstetrical sphincter injury is likely the most important factor for reducing bothersome anal incontinence among fertile women. PMID:23819058

  8. Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

  9. Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P.; Gloor, Gregory B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 1010 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. PMID:25293764

  10. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a nationalmore » survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  11. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's α was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  12. A prospective study of a caries prevention program in pregnant women and their children five and six years of age.

    PubMed

    Gomez, S S; Weber, A A; Emilson, C G

    2001-01-01

    A preventive dental program (PDP) instituted in pregnant women and comprising an educational and a preventive part was evaluated when their children were five and six years of age. Dental caries was examined in sixty-seven mother-child pairs belonging to the program and in sixty-nine control mother-child pairs. In the five-year-old children 87 percent of the PDP group were caries free compared with the 50 percent in the control group. Comparable figures for six-year-old children were 89 percent and 62 percent in the PDP and control group, respectively. The mean dft of the PDP children five and six years of age was 0.4 and 0.2, respectively, versus 1.3 and 1.4 for the control children. The differences in caries-free status and caries prevalence were statistically significant. In conclusion, the preventive dental program which started in pregnant women and continued in the mothers and their children were highly effective for a long-term reduction of dental caries. PMID:11693012

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  14. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  15. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  16. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  17. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions. PMID:23215982

  18. Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

  19. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  20. Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6 l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92 min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777 ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30 min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26 min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks. PMID:25073435

  1. Conceptualising Information Literacy as Social Practice: A Study of Pregnant Women's Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papen, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study presents a view of information literacy not primarily as skill but as different practices, situated within specific social and institutional contexts. It suggests that questions of authority of knowledge are central to understanding people's information practices. Method: First, the concept of information…

  2. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  3. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  4. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  5. THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL AND OPIOID DEPENDENCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Leggio, Lorenzo; Stichtenoth, Dirk; Thomas, Hillemacher

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review This article addresses the question of “best treatment options,” which clinicians face when treating pregnant women with alcohol and/or opioid dependence. Recent findings Alcohol Studies show that alcohol consumption is associated with fetal abnormalities and long-term cognitive problems depending on amount consumed, drinking pattern, and time of gestation. Screening and evaluation of specific interventions are important to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy and associated problems in infants. Opioids Withdrawal-induced fetal distress and the risk of relapse are the primary reasons why opioid detoxification is only recommended in the second or third trimesters and only in those pregnant women who refuse opioid maintenance therapy (OMT). Methadone is the most established treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women, but recent investigations suggest that substitution with buprenorphine may have advantages over methadone in terms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Promising results have been also reported for slow-release oral methadone and the heroin equivalent diamorphin. Summary Data regarding the pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse and/or dependence is limited in pregnant women. So far, benzodiazepines seem to be the most recommendable option for managing alcohol withdrawal, and psychosocial interventions succeed in reducing alcohol consumption or in maintaining abstinence in alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Recent data, albeit preliminary, support the use of naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Regarding opioid dependence meta-analyses do not clearly support the superiority of one substitute over the other during pregnancy owing to the presence of interfering factors (such as illicit drug use) in the studies conducted. Current results suggest that factors like the health status of the mother, the need for additional medications (e.g. treatment for HIV), comorbid drug dependence, and

  6. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  7. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-08-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  8. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-01-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  9. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in...

  10. Short-term behavioral changes in pregnant women after a quit-smoking program via e-learning: a descriptive study from Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Turale, Sue

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 20% of Japanese women in their reproductive years are smokers. Therefore, in the present study, we report the behavioral changes of woman who undertook a 3 month stop-smoking program. Sixty-six pregnant smokers in the first trimester of pregnancy participated in this study from two hospitals and an obstetric clinic in Japan. Our newly-developed e-learning program uses a cell phone Internet connection service to support pregnant women who want to quit smoking. Using this, service participants were given guidance concerning smoking, and were breath tested for their carbon monoxide levels every 4 weeks for 3 months. An e-learning cessation smoking-support program was maintained throughout the same period. Consequently, 52 of 66 pregnant smokers from three settings began the program, and 48 of 52 eventually completed it. The achievement rate of non-smoking was 71.1% (37/48), and their carbon monoxide exhalation levels significantly decreased from 6.43 ± 4.5 ppm at the beginning to 0.7 ± 1.0 ppm in 1 month, to 0.29 ± 1.08 in 3 months (P < 0.001). These results suggest the effectiveness of our e-leaning program. This paper reports the results of the study. PMID:22950611

  11. Study of knowledge and attitude regarding prenatal diagnostic techniques act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Pallavi R.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Nagaonkar, Shashikant N.; Shidhaye, Rahul R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study, out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women. Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization in the media of the Act must be scaled up. PMID:23555139

  12. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  13. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  14. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    PubMed

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids. PMID:24319740

  15. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  16. Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:20508755

  17. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-01

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory. PMID:10321255

  18. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  19. Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the infants' environmental health study (ISA) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana M; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Smith, Donald R; Menezes-Filho, José A; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-03-18

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 μg/L (8.9-56.3) and 1.8 μg/g (0.05-53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (β = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (β = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (β = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (β = -3.1; 95% CI: -5.8 to -0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: -1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  20. Blood and Hair Manganese Concentrations in Pregnant Women from the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 μg/L (8.9–56.3) and 1.8 μg/g (0.05–53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (β = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (β = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (β = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (β = −3.1; 95% CI: −5.8 to −0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: −1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  1. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  2. Suicidality and associated factors in pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; da Costa Ores, Liliane; Jansen, Karen; da Silva Moraes, Inácia Gomes; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Magalhães, Pedro; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2012-06-01

    Is important to evaluate suicidal potential and related factors during pregnancy among women who have attended public health services. To determine the suicidal potential, question 10 from Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. In this sample (N = 1,334), 8.1% of pregnant women demonstrated suicidal potential. The potential risk factors for suicide in depressed pregnant women were being single, divorced or widowed, thinking about having an abortion, and having anxiety symptoms; in nondepressed pregnant women were lower age, low education level, low socioeconomic class, thoughts about having an abortion and anxiety symptoms. PMID:22447343

  3. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  4. Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women at Alcohol Serving Establishments in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. DESIGN Women completed computed assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. SETTING Women attending alcohol serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. RESULTS High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65% of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29% consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty four percent of the women reported having 6 or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87%) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g. food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  5. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  6. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates From Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women at Yazd University Hospital, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS ‎molecular capsular serotype ‎and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier ‎women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.‎ Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). Conclusions: The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would ‎be ‎relevant ‎for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine. PMID:27127592

  7. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  8. Effect of Thiocyanate on Iodine Status of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Bivolarska, Anelia; Gatseva, Penka; Nikolova, Julia; Argirova, Mariana; Atanasova, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the thyroid status of pregnant women on the basis of biochemical indicators and to evaluate the potential risk of developing iodine deficiency as a result of tobacco smoke exposure by assessing the association between urinary thiocyanate levels and the manifestation of iodine deficiency. The study included 219 pregnant women from the town of Plovdiv and Plovdiv District in Southern Bulgaria. The levels of urinary iodine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and urinary thiocyanate as indicators of tobacco smoke exposure were measured. Most of the pregnant women (60.1 %) were found to have iodine deficiency, 10.6 % of them had TSH values greater than 4 mIU/L, and 16.4 % had FT4 below 9 pmol/L. There were negative correlations between urinary iodine levels and thiocyanate/creatinine ratio (R = -0.148, р = 0.034) and between thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and FT4 (R = -0.379, p < 0.0001); thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and serum TSH were positively correlated (R = 0.169, p = 0.019). Logistic regression analysis showed that pregnant women in whom the thiocyanate/creatinine ratio was greater than the median value of 3.57 mg/g had a 3.882-fold higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (urinary iodine <150 μg/L) than the pregnant women with lower thiocyanate levels (OR = 3.882, 95 % CI 1.402-10.751, p = 0.009). Higher levels of urinary thiocyanate were found in women exposed to tobacco smoke, and quantification of these ions in urine provided a fast non-invasive method to monitor thiocyanate load. Due to the competitive inhibition of iodine intake by thiocyanates, their levels should be carefully monitored, especially in cases of severe iodine deficiency. PMID:26676231

  9. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ∼12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 μg/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 μg/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 μg/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over

  10. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  11. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  12. Blood transfusion in obstetrics: the pregnant women's point of view.

    PubMed

    Abu-Salem, A N; Qublan, H S

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the views and compliance of a group of pregnant women regarding obstetric-related blood transfusion. In this prospective questionnaire-based analysis, a total of 300 pregnant women who attended the antenatal care clinic were included. The mean age and gestational age of patients were 31.6 years and 27.4 weeks, respectively. All demographic and questionnaire data were recorded and analysed. A total of 41% of participants were aware of the possible need for blood transfusion in pregnancy and 88% of all women would accept blood transfusion when necessary. The remaining 12% would refuse blood transfusion, even if it was life-saving, because of the fear of blood transfusion complications. It is concluded that counselling and a management plan should be scheduled for pregnancy, and management protocols should be developed for women who refuse blood transfusion. Transfusion alternatives should be discussed with women who will not accept the allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:19358029

  13. Implementation of guidelines for HIV counseling and voluntary HIV testing of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Joo, E; Carmack, A; Garcia-Buñuel, E; Kelly, C J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed HIV counseling and testing among pregnant women. METHODS: A survey was administered to 9115 women who gave birth at 66 Chicago-area hospitals in 1997 and 1998. RESULTS: Fifty-eight percent of the women received HIV counseling, and 65% were offered testing. Fifty-six percent were tested for HIV. Among the women tested, 88% were given their test result. Women were more likely to be tested if they received HIV counseling and were more likely to be offered testing if they received such counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of HIV counseling for, and offers of testing to, pregnant women need to be increased. PMID:10667191

  14. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  15. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  16. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of cephradine and cefazolin in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Philipson, A; Stiernstedt, G; Ehrnebo, M

    1987-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cephradine, a cephalosporin with a low degree of protein binding, was studied in 12 women after oral and intravenous administration of the drug during and after pregnancy. Six of the 12 women also received a cephalosporin with a high degree of protein binding, cefazolin, intravenously during and after pregnancy. For both drugs most pharmacokinetic parameters were altered in pregnancy. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) following intravenous administration was smaller for both drugs during as compared to after pregnancy (mean change 39% for cephradine and 31% for cefazolin). Half-lives of both drugs were significantly shorter during compared with after pregnancy (mean change 26% for cephradine and 35% for cefazolin). Consequently, total body clearance was increased during pregnancy. A significant negative correlation between length of gestation and total clearance per kg bodyweight was seen for cephradine. The bioavailability of oral cephradine did not differ significantly during compared with after pregnancy. It is concluded that the dosage of both cefazolin and cephradine should be increased when treating infections in pregnant women in order to obtain the same antibacterial effect as when treating non-pregnant women. PMID:3829560

  17. A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

  18. A qualitative study of vaccine acceptability and decision making among pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

  19. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

  20. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  1. [The perception of domestic violence of pregnant and not pregnant women in the city of Campinas, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women. PMID:19197433

  2. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  3. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  4. Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK): a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their babies in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Catherine; Sanchez, Maria de la Luz; Mathur, Ankur; Yang, Shufang; Sundaram, Vandana; Parsonnet, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK) is an ongoing prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women and their babies established to determine the effect of infectious diseases on weight, linear growth and immune system development during childhood. Additionally, a nested randomised intervention of household and personal cleaning products tests the effects of the microbicides triclosan and triclocarban on these outcomes and incidence of infection. Participants Healthy pregnant women were identified and enrolled primarily at public clinics; their babies, enrolled shortly after birth, are followed to age 36 months. Automated weekly surveys assess daily health status, infectious disease symptoms, healthcare provider visits and antibiotic use, in the mother during pregnancy and the baby once born. At 4-monthly household visits, information and samples are collected from the mother (urine, stool, saliva, skin swab), the baby (blood by heel/toe stick, urine, stool, saliva, skin swab) and the household (environmental swabs). Annual blood samples are obtained by venipuncture (mother and baby). Medical charts are abstracted for allergy and infectious illness in the mother during pregnancy and the baby. Findings to date From 7/2011 to 2/2015, 158 mothers were enrolled at approximately 20 weeks gestation; 127 babies were enrolled. Two-thirds of mothers are Hispanic, one-third are non-US born and one-third speak primarily Spanish; mean years of education is 13 (SD 6.2) years. Households have on average 4.5 residents. Most households (97%) were randomised to participate in the intervention. Completion of weekly surveys (86%) and follow-up (75% after 14 months) is excellent in this young, mobile population; collection of samples is ongoing with thousands of specimens stored. Future plans Enrolled babies will be followed until age 36 months (last anticipated visit: 07/2018) with medical chart review completed soon thereafter. All epidemiological information and

  5. Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; Mwanga, Joseph R; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. Importance: Probiotic food produced locally represents a nutritious and affordable means for people in some developing countries to counter exposures to toxic metals. Further research and field trials are warranted to explore this approach in

  6. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  7. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  8. Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

  9. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hans, S L

    1999-03-01

    Women who abuse drugs and alcohol during pregnancy are an elusive population who often remain unidentified to practitioners and researchers and hence have not been well studied. In trying to understand better the characteristics of women who use drugs during pregnancy, the present article relies extensively on information gathered in studies of women in substance abuse treatment who, as epidemiologic studies show, may be more severely impaired than other substance-abusing women and, therefore, may not be typical of substance-abusing women identified in the course of obstetric practice. Yet, those pregnant women who are actually identified by medical providers as substance users are often those whose behavior raises concerns with health providers (such as presenting for labor having had no prenatal care) and thus also may represent only a relatively impaired group of substance-abusing women. The most objective picture available of the universe of women who use drugs during pregnancy comes from blinded urine toxicology screens conducted at samples of representative hospitals across states and across the country. The startling finding to emerge from these studies is that common perceptions of substance abuse as a problem of poor, ethnic minority, and young individuals is inaccurate and that this perception may all too often be acted on by medical providers in a prejudicial manner. These studies show similar rates of substance use during pregnancy by women of different racial, social class, and age categories. Demographic features are only related to type of substance used, with black women and poorer women more likely to use illicit substances, particularly cocaine, and white women and better educated women more likely to use alcohol, the substance whose teratogenic effects have been most clearly documented. Despite the even distribution of substance use across demographic categories, poor women and women of color are far more likely to be reported to health and child

  10. Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected with Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientists Assess Risk to Pregnant Women Infected With Zika A woman infected in 1st trimester has 1 ... there's more evidence supporting a link between the Zika virus and a serious birth defect. Researchers report ...

  11. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR = 5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p < 0.05). Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:23216887

  13. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  14. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of ESBL production by Vaginal Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaginal Escherichia coli is a reservoir along the fecal-vaginal-urinary/neonatal course of transmission in extraintestinal E. coli infections. They also causes genital tract infections especially vaginitis, so that detection of their antibiotic resistance is an important approach to control these infections. One important mechanism of resistance is ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae especially Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, which is now a worldwide problem that limits therapeutic options. Methods Sixty one vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women, were detected phenotypically and genotypically for ESBL production. Results Most of pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates, were resistant to cefotaxime (100% vs. 81.5%, respectively) and more than half of them to ceftazidime (56.5% vs. 71.0%, respectively). One hundred percent each, 52.1% vs. 68.4%, and 73.9% vs. 60.5%%, were ESBL producers by screening, confirmatory, and PCR tests, respectively. Pregnant women's isolates had: CTX-M- (69.5%), SHV- and OXA-type (each 4.3%) ESBLs. Only one isolate (4.3%) had two types of ESBLs. All 16 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Non-pregnant women's isolates were predominated by SHV and CTX-M -type (44.7% vs. 39.4%, respectively), followed by OXA- (15.7%), and TEM-type (2.6%). Of these isolates, 42.1% had two types of ESBL genes. All 15 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) regarding the expression of SHV- (4.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively) and CTX-M-type (69.5% vs. 39.4%, respectively) ESBLs. In both, CTX-M-1 was the predominant CTX-M group (each 100%). All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, while the highest rate of resistance was against β-lactams. Multidrug resistance was noted in 56.2% of ESBL-producing isolates. Conclusions Ggenital tracts of pregnant and non-pregnant women represent different environments for

  16. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  17. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  18. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth. PMID:15216903

  19. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  20. [Pollution and smoking in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    André, E

    1988-01-01

    For nine months the pregnant woman, and indirectly her fetus, is exposed to an aerosol composed of different pollutants. With some of these, as for smoking, it has been possible to define objectively and statistically an alteration of the health status and of the satisfactory outcome of pregnancy; with others it has not been possible at present to define a dose relation effect or a threshold of risk. In this study, known connections were studied between pregnancy and smoking (specific risks, perinatal mortality, childhood cancer and breastfeeding), industrial pollution and particularly those related to lead, fertilisers and pesticides, opiates and cannabis derivatives (in particular their effect on reproductive function), radioactivity and its correlation with the genetic code and the risk of cancer and pollution by micro-organisms. If these risks exist, even it they are not all assessable objectively, the short term action of the most benefit is certainly a change in individual behaviour, for example with tobacco consumption. PMID:2840722

  1. Feasibility study of a salivary occult blood test to correlate with periodontal measures as indicators of periodontal inflammation in a population of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan G.; Manz, Michael C.; Snipe, Shannon M.; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Wagner, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to investigate the correlation of a salivary occult blood test (SOBT) with traditional periodontal measures to assess the feasibility of the SOBT as a measure of periodontal inflammation in a population of women during pregnancy. Recognizing previous SOBT studies’ limitations, this study evaluated correlation of the Perioscreen® Sunstar SOBT with traditional measures from a full mouth periodontal examination. Data were collected at 3 times during pregnancy (12–14, 24–28, and 36 weeks) from women participating in an ongoing study of pregnancy and inflammation. Descriptive statistics and correlations were generated for SOBT scores with periodontal measures. Preliminary data were analyzed from 7 women with 3 visits, 7 with 2, and 9 with 1 visit’s data. For these 44 visits’ data, mean percent sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) for SOBT scores = 0, 2 and 5 was 58%±18%, 68%±14%, and 72%±19%, respectively. Correlations for percent of sites with BOP and continuous SOBT score was 0.301, p-value=0.0469 and dichotomous SOBT was 0.32, p-value=0.0339. Results for feasibility, measured as recruitment of participants, acceptance of protocols, distribution of periodontal inflammation and preliminary correlations, support SOBT as a correlated marker of periodontal inflammation in this population of pregnant women. PMID:25807909

  2. The association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese pregnant women by obesity class and diabetic status: a population-based historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gavard, Jeffrey A; Artal, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for gestational-age (LGA) infants are associated with increased adverse outcomes. While studies have estimated the association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese women, estimates are lacking by obesity class and diabetic status. A population-based historical cohort study of 66,010 obese pregnant women in Missouri delivering liveborn, singleton, term infants in 2002–2008 was conducted. Adjusted odds ratios for SGA and LGA infants were calculated for gestational weight gain categories with multiple logistic regression using the revised Institute of Medicine(IOM) recommended 11–20 pounds as the reference group. A weight gain of 3–10 pounds was not significantly associated with an increased risk of an SGA infant compared to 11–20 pounds in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations.The exception was Class I Obese non-diabetic women(adjusted odds ratio = 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.07, 1.52). When lower amounts of weight gain were considered, diabetic women who gained ≤2 pounds (including women who lost weight) did not have a significantly increased risk of an SGA infant compared to diabetic women who gained 11–20 pounds in any obesity class. Weight gains less than 11–20 pounds were significantly associated with a decreased risk of an LGA infant in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations. Weight gains lower than the IOM recommendation of 11–20 pounds during pregnancy for obese women generally were significantly associated with decreased risk of LGA infants without being significantly associated with increased risk of SGA infants and differed by obesity class and diabetic status. PMID:24077985

  3. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and the postpartum period provide windows of opportunity to impact perinatal and lifelong preventive health behavior for women and their families, but these opportunities are often missed. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use could inform technology-based interventions in diverse populations. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in the use of ICT between racial and ethnic groups as well as by English language proficiency. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 246 women who were aged 18 years or older and pregnant or within 1 year of delivery. They were recruited from 4 hospital-based outpatient clinics and completed a self-administered survey. We used multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and ICT (mobile phone/short message service [SMS] text message, Internet, and social network) usage by race/ethnicity and perceived English language proficiency after adjusting for age, income, marital status, and insurance status. Results In all, 28% (69/246) of participants were Latina, 40% (98/246) were African American, 23% (56/246) were white, and 9% (23/246) from other racial/ethnic groups. Of the Latinas, 84% (58/69) reported limited English language proficiency and 59% (41/69) were uninsured. More than 90% of all participants reported mobile phone use, but more than 25% (65/246) had changed phone numbers 2 or more times in the past year. Compared to white women, African American women were less likely to SMS text message (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) and Latinas were less likely to use the Internet to find others with similar concerns (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Women with limited English language proficiency were less likely to use the Internet overall (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99) or use email (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) compared to women with adequate English language proficiency. Conclusions Mobile phones are

  4. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers. PMID:26643277

  5. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Result: Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the

  6. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. PMID:26809074

  7. Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Toback, Seth L.; Beigi, Richard; Tennis, Patricia; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Calingaert, Brian; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Toback et al. (2012) Maternal outcomes among pregnant women receiving live attenuated influenza accine. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 44–51. Background  Although the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prescribing information contains warnings/precautions against use during pregnancy, administration of LAIV to pregnant women does occur. Data regarding maternal outcomes after LAIV administration during pregnancy are limited. Objectives  Maternal outcomes after LAIV vaccination during pregnancy were examined. Methods  Data from a health insurance claims database that covers approximately 50 million individuals were analyzed for the six influenza seasons from 2003–2004 through 2008–2009. Emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations occurring within 42 days of vaccination were analyzed by primary diagnosis; outcomes were categorized as cardiopulmonary, obstetric, and other. Cohort characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results  Of 834 999 pregnancies identified, 138 (0·017%) were among women who received LAIV vaccinations. Of the 138 pregnant women, 13% were ≤19 years, 67% were 20–34 years, and 20% were ≥35 years of age. Eight events occurred within 42 days of vaccination: one ED visit for bronchitis, two hospitalizations for hyperemesis gravidarum and premature labor, and five ED visits/hospitalizations for common medical conditions. All outcomes identified after LAIV exposure occurred at rates similar to rates in unvaccinated pregnant women reported in the medical literature. Conclusions  Administration of LAIV to pregnant women is rare; the rate has remained constant since 2004–2005. In this cohort, there was no evidence of significant maternal adverse outcomes after receipt of LAIV. These data may offer some reassurance to providers and pregnant women in the event of inadvertent LAIV administration, but do not support the routine use of LAIV in

  8. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  9. On the Study of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and Weight Gain as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Belonging to Low Socio-Economic Category: A Study from Assam

    PubMed Central

    Mahanta, Lipi B.; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima

    2015-01-01

    Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey. PMID:26170546

  10. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. PMID:23911340

  11. Perceptions of antenatal care services by pregnant women attending government health centres in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Edie, Gregory Edie Halle Ekane; Obinchemti, Thomas Egbe; Tamufor, Emmanuel Njuma; Njie, Martin Mafany; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Achidi, Eric Akum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User'sperception of quality of ANC services crucially impacts continuity of use of these services and hence pregnancy outcome. However in our community, ANC user's perceptions of quality are not known. Methods An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected government health centres in the Buea Health District. We recruited 385 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and exported toEpi-Info (Version 3.5.1) for analysis. Results Geographical accessibility and perceived quality of care were the predominant reasons for choosing or changing a site for ANC. One third of respondents (30.1%) attended a health centre out of their catchment health area with Buea Town health centre receiving the highest proportion of women out of the health area (56.8% of attendees). Knowledge about antenatal care varied and majority of respondents (96.4%) were satisfied with the antenatal services received. However, there were elements of dissatisfaction with health centre services, poor sitting facilities, amenities, few health education talks and poor nursing skills. High educational level (high school and university) (X2 = 8.714; p = 0.01) and first time pregnancy(X2= 4.217; p= 0.04) were significantly associated with poor satisfaction. Conclusion Policy makers should implement changes in the health care delivery system taking into account the users’ preferences, more so in the light of increasing female education in Cameroon. PMID:26405481

  12. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  13. Pregnant Women's Intentions and Subsequent Behaviors Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Service Utilization: Results from a Cohort Study in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Creanga, Andreea A; Odhiambo, George Awino; Odera, Benjamin; Odhiambo, Frank O; Desai, Meghna; Goodwin, Mary; Laserson, Kayla; Goldberg, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1) prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care) at <20 and 30-35 weeks' gestation and their actual use of these services; 2) identify predictors of intention-behavior discordance among women with positive service use intentions; 3) examine associations between place of delivery, women's reasons for choosing it, and birthing experiences. We used data from a 2012-2013 population-based cohort of pregnant women in the Demographic Surveillance Site in Nyanza province, Kenya. Of 1,056 women completing the study (89.1% response rate), 948 had live-births and 22 stillbirths, and they represent our analytic sample. Logistic regression analysis identified predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility and use of postnatal and neonatal care. At <20 and 30-35 weeks' gestation, most women intended to seek MNH services (≥93.9% and ≥87.5%, respectively, for all services assessed). Actual service use was high for antenatal (98.1%) and neonatal (88.5%) care, but lower for delivery in a facility (76.9%) and postnatal care (51.8%). Woman's age >35 and high-school education were significant predictors of intention-behavior discordance regarding delivery in a facility; several delivery-related factors were significantly associated with intention-behavior discordance regarding use of postnatal and neonatal care. Delivery facilities were chosen based on proximity to women's residence, affordability, and service quality; among women who delivered outside a health facility, 16.3% could not afford going to a facility. Good/very good birth experiences were reported by 93.6% of women who delivered in a facility and 32.6% of women who did not. We found higher MNH service utilization than previously documented in Nyanza province. Further

  14. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  15. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  16. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  17. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  18. Health Care Resources for Children and Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Janet D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews evidence about health care resources currently available to children and pregnant women in the United States. Evidence suggests that the maldistribution of resources remains a serious threat to health care access for women and children at greatest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality. (SLD)

  19. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  20. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve

  1. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  3. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Milla, Afredo; Rodríguez, Juan C; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2011-11-01

    In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. For each immigrant woman, one Spanish pregnant woman of the same age cared for in the same day was recruited (Spanish control group). A total of 1,627 migrant pregnant women participated in this study. The adherence to screening among migrants was 91.9% (95% CI, 90.5-93.1%), similar than that found in Spaniards (92.2%; 95% CI, 90.8-93-4%). Among migrant women, 619 were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (41.4%; 95% CI, 38.9-43.9%), compared with 12.0% (95% CI, 10.5-13.8%) among Spaniards (odds ratio (OR), 5.2 (95% CI, 4.3-6.3). Seroprevalence in pregnant women from Latin America, northern Africa, Eastern Europe, Africa Sub-Saharan and Western Europe was higher than in the Spanish control group (OR, 5.4, 5.8, 6.5, 5.4, and 2.4, respectively; p < 0.001). No Asian pregnant woman was immune. Seroprevalence increased with increasing age in migrant pregnant women: 15-25 years, 38.2%; 26-35 years, 40.7%; and 36-45 years, 52.8%. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in migrant pregnant women living in Spain was higher than in the native population. However, no cases were found in Asian immigrants, highlighting the importance of primary prevention of this infection in pregnant women coming from that geographic region. PMID:21541753

  5. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  6. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of providing information on childbirth and postnatal period to partners of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Okamura, Makoto; Sugiura, Naomi; Suto, Maiko; Sasaki, Hatoko; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the distribution of a booklet providing information to fathers during their partners' pregnancies on fathers' and mothers' postpartum mental health and quality of life (QOL), as well as on fathers' childcare participation and living situations. Methods and analysis This randomised controlled trial will comprise 554 couples consisting of pregnant women due to give birth at an obstetric institution in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and their partners. Participants will be recruited during prenatal check-ups in the third trimester, and those who provide written consent will be allocated randomly to an intervention and a control group. The pregnant women's partners allocated to the intervention group will be given a booklet written for men containing information on childbirth and postnatal period. Its content will include matters such as what preparations the partner should make before birth and tips for housework and childcare as well as how to prevent unintentional injury to the baby. The control group will not receive any intervention. A baseline survey in the third trimester and follow-up surveys at 1 and 3 months post partum will be carried out using self-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome is the proportion of new mothers' partners at risk for paternal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥8). Secondary outcomes include the risk of postnatal depression in new mothers, QOL of new mothers and their partners, partners' knowledge of and engagement in housework and childcare, marital relations and parenting stress on the part of new mothers. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethical Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. The results of the study will be widely disseminated as peer-reviewed papers and at international conferences, with the aim of improving public health services in Japan. Trial

  7. Attitudes toward Family Planning among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Enrolled in a Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Study in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Akelo, Victor; Girde, Sonali; Borkowf, Craig B.; Angira, Frank; Achola, Kevin; Lando, Richard; Mills, Lisa A.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lee Lecher, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fisher's exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current pregnancies were unintended. Factors associated with positive intentions to use FP were: marital status (p = 0.04), having talked to their spouse or partner about FP (p<0.001), perceived spouse or partner approval of FP (p<0.001), previous use of a FP method (p = 0.006), attitude toward the current pregnancy (p = 0.02), disclosure of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (p = 0.03) and ethnic group (p = 0.03). Conclusion A significant gap exists between future FP intentions and current FP practices. Support and approval by the spouse or partner are key elements of FP intentions. Counseling services should be offered to both members of a couple to increase FP use, especially given the high number of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-positive women. Condoms should be promoted as part of a dual use method for HIV and STI prevention and for contraception. Integration of individual and couple FP services into routine HIV care, treatment and

  8. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  9. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  10. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers. PMID:16108413

  11. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  12. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women Into Clinical Research Trials: An Overview of Challenges, Facilitators, and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  13. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p < 0.01). In line with the 2010 NICE guidelines, Stop Smoking in Pregnancy and following Childbirth, one in five SSSP identified pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

  14. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Nigerian Women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Famurewa, AC; Ikaraoha, CI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of normotensive pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional subjects of eighty pregnant women living in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 statistical software. Differences between means were compared using Student's t-test with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: While the mean serum calcium was comparable between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women (13.99 [3.29] vs. 14.02 [5.68] μg/dl), the preeclamptic pregnant women have significantly (P < 0.001) lower serum magnesium in comparison to their normotensive counterparts (3.22 [1.05] vs. 4.15 [0.78]). Conclusion: It may be concluded that serum magnesium seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:27144074

  15. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  16. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H.; Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Angerer, Jürgen; Park, Melissa M.; Burdorf, Alex; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Concern about potential health impacts of low level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 nmol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 nmol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 µg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 µg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 µg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation. PMID:18774129

  17. Multiple antenatal bookings among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwogu-Ikojo, E E; Okafor, I I; Ezegwui, H U

    2010-04-01

    Some pregnant women do book concurrently with multiple antenatal care providers. Structured questionnaires were administered to women attending antenatal clinics in 12 facilities in Enugu, Nigeria. A total of 535 women responded: 372 (69.5%) were booked into more than one facility and 163 (30.5%) were booked into a single facility; 280 (52.3%) booked into the two Teaching Hospitals and 91 (12.5%) booked with a traditional birth attendant. Reasons for multiple bookings included selecting a facility with affordable prices (43.9%); selecting a facility promising vaginal delivery (35.3%); avoiding HIV testing (17.9%); avoiding caesarean section (10.8%); avoiding being regarded as unbooked (10.1%) and booking into a facility where they were not known. Possible disadvantages were confusion in deciding where to deliver (53.1%); default on expert advice (27.5%); mismanagement (18.7%); delays, complications and death (12.5%). Multiple bookings were common in this study. Disadvantages of this practice, including risk of death, were identified by the women. PMID:20373923

  18. Dental status of pregnant women attending a Brisbane maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Jago, J D; Chapman, P J; Aitken, J F; McEniery, T M

    1984-12-01

    A sample of 314 consecutive women attending for their first antenatal visit at a public hospital were examined according to the WHO survey procedure. The women's age ranged from 16 to 42 yr with a mean of 23.5 yr. Only 3% were edentulous in both jaws, but 13% had some form of denture. A quarter had pocketing in at least one sextant and only 16% were free of gingivitis. The average number of DMF teeth was 15.8, comprising 2.7 decayed, 4.5 missing and 8.6 filled teeth; 70% had teeth needing restoration and 10% had at least one tooth needing extraction. There were significant relationships between DMF score and age (positive) and between number of teeth needing restoration and age, educational level, and the woman's own perception of her dental health (all inverse). Some form of dental attention was needed by 86% of the women; 12% had conditions needing immediate attention. By comparison with a 1971 study of pregnant women in Brisbane, there has been a marked decline in DMFT score (from 19.1 to 15.8). PMID:6597062

  19. Relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Krause, Kylene; Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah; Gallagher, Erin; Scott, Syreeta

    2013-01-01

    Women experience remarkably high rates of relational trauma including childhood abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence (IPV) during adulthood, and the childbearing years are no exception. The meaning of past and current relational trauma perpetrated by primary caregivers and significant others may be unique during pregnancy, in particular, because pregnancy is a salient time when mothers' important relationships are reworked and reorganized to "make room" for the relationship with the baby. The present study examined associations between different forms of relational trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms in 120 women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Women were between the ages of 18 and 42 years and came from diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds. Results indicated that severity of childhood maltreatment was significantly related to severity of IPV during pregnancy, and both types of trauma made unique, significant contributions to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, emotional/psychological violence had the largest associations with posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to other forms of violence. Findings indicate that it is critically important for clinicians working with pregnant women to conduct a thorough assessment of current and past relational trauma, including emotional/psychological trauma, in order to improve the well-being of the mother, the infant, and the mother-infant relationship. PMID:23713621

  20. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  1. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  2. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  3. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. PMID:27088708

  4. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  5. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  6. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among Asian Indian pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus: A situational analysis study (WINGS-3)

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Bhavadharini, Balaji; Maheswari, Kumar; Kalaiyarasi, Gunasekaran; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ranjit, Unnikrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Uma, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the existing maternal and fetal outcomes in Asian Indian women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before the development of the Women in India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) GDM model of care (MOC). Materials and Methods: Records of pregnant women were extracted retrospectively from three maternity centers in Chennai. GDM was diagnosed using the International Association for Pregnancy Study Groups criteria or the Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Demographic details, obstetric history, antenatal follow-up, treatment for GDM, and outcomes of delivery were collected from the electronic medical records. Results: Of the 3642 records analyzed, 799 (21.9%) had GDM, of whom 456 (57.1%) were treated with insulin and medical nutrition therapy (MNT), 339 (42.4%) with MNT alone, and 4 (0.5%) with metformin. Women with GDM were older than those without (28.5 ± 4.5 vs. 27.1 ± 4.5 years; P < 0.001) and had higher mean body mass index at first booking (26.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2; P < 0.001). Rates of cesarean section (26.2% vs. 18.7%; P < 0.001), preeclampsia (1.8% vs. 0.8%; P = 0.04), and macrosomia (13.9% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.02) were significantly higher among women with GDM. In women with GDM treated with insulin and MNT, emergency cesarean section (16.2% vs. 36.6%; P < 0.0001), preeclampsia (0.7% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.015), and macrosomia (9.9% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.0006) were significantly lesser compared to those treated with MNT alone. Conclusion: Pregnancy outcomes were in general worse in GDM women. Treatment with insulin was associated with a significantly lower risk of complications. However, in countries with limited access to insulin and other medicines may lead to poor follow-up and management of GDM. Data from this retrospective study will form the basis for the development of the WINGS GDM MOC, which will address these gaps in GDM care in low-resource settings. PMID:27366715

  7. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  8. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  9. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  10. Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exercise in Pregnant Women on Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Dawndra M; Tiongco, Cynthia Gorter; Whisner, Sandra M; Geddie, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program (AEP) provided by an occupational therapist for pregnant women on hospitalized bed rest. Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized pregnant women comparing those who attended an AEP (n = 19) to a control group who received no AEP (n = 12). Statistical tests were used to assess evidence of differences in length of gestation as well as blood pressure and amniotic fluid index (AFI) at discharge. Women who received an AEP had increased AFI and length of gestation compared to the control group. This study supports the use of an AEP as an intervention for pregnant women on prescribed bed rest. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger sample. PMID:25924026

  11. Cadmium levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Bottoms, S.F.; Erhard, P.

    1982-04-15

    Previous studies have reported that cigarette smoking is a major source of exposure to cadmium (Cd). This study was carried out to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the disposition of the Cd in the maternal-fetoplacental unit. Our data reveal that pregnant women who smoke expose themselves and their placentas to levels of Cd higher than those to which they would normally be exposed. The percentage increase in Cd due to smoking was 32% in the placenta and 59% in maternal blood; these increases are statistically significant. The mean levels of Cd in maternal blood, cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoked were all higher than the mean levels of Cd in the same tissues and blood of pregnant women who did not smoke. In addition, the levels of Cd in the maternal blood of smokers were significantly higher than levels of Cd in the cord blood of their infants; this relationship was not found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses of pregnant women who smoke apparently receive very little additional exposure to Cd; however, this does not lessen concern for the fetus. The presently reported increase in exposure to Cd of pregnant women due to smoking must be viewed as undesirable because Cd has been shown to alter placental function in animals, and because Cd has no known biologic function.

  12. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  13. Investigating the association between prepregnancy body mass index and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a large cohort study of 536 098 Chinese pregnant women in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Yan, Donghai; Sun, Lizhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective Unhealthy maternal weight before pregnancy increases the risk of various adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nutrition survey to provide baseline data on the prepregnant nutritional status of mothers in order to better understand the association between prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Design A large, prospective, population-based cohort study. Setting Data from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) in China during 2010–2012. Participants 536 098 pregnant women out of 2 120 131 were evaluated. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary adverse pregnancy outcomes included preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), spontaneous miscarriage (SM), ectopic pregnancy (EP) and stillbirth (SB). A χ2 test was used to compare the prevalence of each BMI category during 2010–2012. Univariable and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between prepregnancy BMI and various adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results Between 2010 and 2012, the average BMI decreased from 21.31 to 21.16, while underweight prevalence increased from 10.40% to 14.14%. An age-stratified subgroup analysis indicated that the underweight prevalence increased from 13.52% to 17.02% among women aged 21–24 and from 10.72% to 13.71% among women aged 25–34. Overweight prevalence increased from 9.84% to 10.75% (25–34 years) and from 17.10% to 19.20% (35–49 years). Obesity prevalence increased from 2.17% to 2.42% and from 4% to 4.2% among women aged 25–34 and 35–49 respectively. Prepregnancy underweight was associated with PTB, LBW and SM; overweight women had an increased risk of LBW; obese women had a higher risk of LBW, SM, EP and SB. Conclusions While the average prepregnancy BMI decreased, the prevalence of underweight individuals in a very large population significantly increased. The abnormal prepregnancy BMIs were associated with increased risks of

  14. Acute aortic dissection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaohua; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Fangshun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy represents a lethal risk to both the mother and fetus. Management of parturient with acute aortic dissection is complex. We report our experience of two pregnancies with type A acute aortic dissection. One patient is a 31-year-old pregnant woman (33rd gestational week) with a bicuspid aortic valve and the other is a 32-year-old pregnant woman (30th gestational week) with the Marfan syndrome. In both cases, a combined emergency operation consisting of Cesarean section, total hysterectomy prior to corrective surgery for aortic dissection was successfully performed within a relatively short period of time after the onset. Both patients' postoperative recovery was uneventful, and we achieved a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25085319

  15. Cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposure and risk assessment among pregnant women living in an agricultural community: a case study from the CHAMACOS cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Bradman, Asa; McKone, Thomas E; Barr, Dana B; Harnly, Martha E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 230,000 kg of organophosphate (OP) pesticides are applied annually in California's Salinas Valley. These activities have raised concerns about exposures to area residents. We collected three spot urine samples from pregnant women (between 1999 and 2001) enrolled in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas), a longitudinal birth cohort study, and analyzed them for six dialkyl phosphate metabolites. We used urine from 446 pregnant women to estimate OP pesticide doses with two deterministic steady-state modeling methods: method 1, which assumed the metabolites were attributable entirely to a single diethyl or dimethyl OP pesticide; and method 2, which adapted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) draft guidelines for cumulative risk assessment to estimate dose from a mixture of OP pesticides that share a common mechanism of toxicity. We used pesticide use reporting data for the Salinas Valley to approximate the mixture to which the women were exposed. Based on average OP pesticide dose estimates that assumed exposure to a single OP pesticide (method 1), between 0% and 36.1% of study participants' doses failed to attain a margin of exposure (MOE) of 100 relative to the U.S. EPA oral benchmark dose(10) (BMD(10)), depending on the assumption made about the parent compound. These BMD(10) values are doses expected to produce a 10% reduction in brain cholinesterase activity compared with background response in rats. Given the participants' average cumulative OP pesticide dose estimates (method 2) and regardless of the index chemical selected, we found that 14.8% of the doses failed to attain an MOE of 100 relative to the BMD(10) of the selected index. An uncertainty analysis of the pesticide mixture parameter, which is extrapolated from pesticide application data for the study area and not directly quantified for each individual, suggests that this point estimate could range from 1 to 34%. In future analyses, we

  16. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  17. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  18. [Evaluation of vaginal dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women by using the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) and its comparison with the conventional microbiological study].

    PubMed

    Touzon, María S; Losada, Mirta; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Menghi, Claudia; Gatta, Claudia; Santa Cruz, Gabriela; Malamud de Ruda Vega, Hilda; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Infections of the lower genital tract associated to maternal and perinatal complications frequently occur during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaginal dysfunction through the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) using the methodology of balance of the vaginal content (BAVACO) and to compare it with the microbiological study of candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Pregnant patients (1238) were examined from 2010 to 2012. In asymptomatic (A) (n: 1046) and symptomatic pregnant women (S) (n: 192) BVS I was 59.5% and 26% of the patients, respectively. BVS II was observed in 19.7% of A and in 17.2% of S. BVS III was only detected in A in 0.4%. BVS IV was observed in 14.4% of A and in 38% of S. BVS V was detected in 6% of A and in 18.8% of S. Yeasts were associated to BVS I and II in 55.5% and 23.2% of A, respectively; and in 32.4% and 31% of S, respectively. Trichomonas were associated to BVS I in 50% of A, to IV in 44.4% of S and to V in 33.3% of S. BAVACO susceptibility to detect yeasts was 80.4% and 85.5% in A and S, respectively; 40% and 75% in A and S, respectively, to detect trichomonas and 100% in A and S to detect BV. BAVACO specificity was 100% for all pathogens in A and S. The study of BVS proved useful as a guide to evaluate vaginal dysfunction, regardless of symptomatology. Therefore, this study is recommended as prenatal control. PMID:25444125

  19. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H.

    2015-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in

  20. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  1. Working memory in pregnant women: Relation to estrogen and antepartum depression.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Phillips, Shauna-Dae; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Evans, Kelly L; Merrill, Mia; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Sadée, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Subjective changes in concentration and memory are commonly reported by women during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, but the nature of the problem is poorly understood. We hypothesized that these self-reports might reflect difficulties in working memory (WM). It was further hypothesized that antepartum depression (depression arising during pregnancy) may play an etiological role, either on its own or due to secondary changes in endocrine function or sleep. Using WM tasks that emphasized executive control processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) we compared pregnant women tested at 34-36 weeks of gestation (n = 28) with age- and education-matched non-pregnant controls (n = 26). All pregnant women were screened for depression. Evidence of a WM disturbance was found, and was evident only among pregnant women showing depressive symptoms. In contrast, pregnant women who were not depressed showed WM performance that equalled, or even significantly exceeded, non-pregnant controls. No significant differences were observed on control tests of other cognitive functions. Multiple regression revealed that serum estradiol concentrations, along with severity of depressive affect but not sleep disruption, significantly predicted variation in the WM scores. In agreement with studies of estradiol and WM in other contexts, higher estradiol was associated with better WM, while higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted poorer WM. We conclude that memory disturbance during gestation might not be as widespread as commonly believed, but can be seen among women experiencing antepartum depression. The high level of WM performance found in healthy, non-depressed, pregnant women is discussed from an adaptationist perspective. PMID:26187710

  2. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  3. The effect of dietary estimates calculated using food frequency questionnaires on micronuclei formation in European pregnant women: a NewGeneris study.

    PubMed

    Vande Loock, Kim; Botsivali, Maria; Zangogianni, Marina; Anderson, Diana; Baumgartner, Adolph; Fthenou, Eleni; Chatzi, Leda; Marcos, Ricard; Agramunt, Sylvia; Namork, Ellen; Granum, Berit; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Nielssen, Jeanette K S; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Roelants, Mathieu; Merlo, Franco; Kleinjans, Jos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2014-11-01

    The use of biomarkers of early genetic effects, predictive for cancer, such as micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes, may help to investigate the association between diet and cancer. We hypothesised that the presence of mutagens in the diet may increase MN formation. A 'pooled' standardised analysis was performed by applying the same experimental protocol for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in 625 young healthy women after delivery from five European study populations (Greece, Denmark, UK, Spain and Norway). We assessed MN frequencies in mono- and binucleated T-lymphocytes (MNMONO and MNBN) and the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index using a semi-automated image analysis system. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to estimate intake of fatty acids and a broad range of immunotoxic and genotoxic/carcinogenic compounds through the diet. Pooled difference based on delivery type revealed higher MNMONO frequencies in caesarean than in vaginal delivery (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in MNMONO frequencies with increasing calculated omega-6 PUFA concentrations and a decrease in MNBN frequencies with increasing calculated omega-3 PUFA concentrations. The expected toxic compounds estimated by FFQs were not associated with MN formation in mothers after delivery. In pregnant women, an omega-3 and -6 rich diet estimated by FFQ is associated with lower MN formation during pregnancy and delivery. PMID:25296962

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

    2014-10-01

    Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

  5. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  7. Nausea in pregnancy: attitudes among pregnant women and general practitioners on treatment and pregnancy care

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Kristine; Svendsen, Hans Christian; Sporsheim, Ingvild H.; Holst, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and may have great impact on a woman’s life. The aim of this study was to explore thoughts and attitudes among Norwegian pregnant women and GPs on treatment of NVP and pregnancy care. Design Focus-group study. Setting and subjects Separate focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and GPs. Results Two focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and two with GPs. The GPs thought it was important to normalize NVP symptoms. However, the women felt their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. The women were sceptical towards the use of medicines while pregnant, and avoidance was sought despite being ill. The GPs appeared uncertain with respect to medical treatment of NVP, which was stated to be considered only after progression to quite severe symptoms. Sick leave seemed to be an important part of the treatment regime applied by the GPs. The women had good experiences with graded sick leave. Conclusion This Norwegian study identifies attitudes among GPs and pregnant women that may act as obstacles to appropriate care for women with NVP. The pregnant women and the GPs seemed to talk at cross-purposes; GPs’ normalization of the symptoms made the women feel that their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. Our results indicate that pregnant women with NVP requiring medical treatment probably need comprehensive and reassuring information about treatment options before considering using any medicines. Key pointsNausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and considered to be of clinical significance for 35% of women. While the GPs agreed on the importance of normalizing the symptoms, the women felt their distress was trivialized, and missed being properly evaluated.Both the GPs and the women showed a reluctant attitude to medical treatment of NVP.The GPs gave the impression of considering medical treatment only after progression of

  8. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women. PMID:11302356

  9. A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anita; Jose, JoAnn; Larsen-Reindorf, Roderick; Small, Christina; Nde, Helen; Dugas, Lara; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Nelson, Kenrad; Ezeanolue, Eche; Layden, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission. PMID:26566533

  10. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2007-01-01

    The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters. PMID:17923966

  11. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Health Institutions of Arba Minch Town, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Alemayehu; Tilahun, Marelign

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women in developing countries and has both maternal and fetal consequences. Despite its known serious effect on health, there is very little research based evidence on this vital public health problem in Gamo Gofa zone in general and in Arba Minch town of Southern Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in health institutions of Arba Minch town, Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia. Method. Institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February 16 to April 8, 2015, among 332 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at government health institutions of Arba Minch town. Interviewer-administered questionnaire supplemented by laboratory tests was used to obtain the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of anemia. Result. The prevalence of anemia among antenatal care attendant pregnant women of Arba Minch town was 32.8%. Low average monthly income of the family (AOR = 4.0; 95% CI: 5.62–11.01), having birth interval less than two years (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 6.01, 10.23), iron supplementation (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI: 7.21, 9.31), and family size >2 (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.17, 6.81) were found to be independent predictors of anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion. Anemia is found to be a moderate public health problem in the study area. Low average monthly income, birth interval less than two years, iron supplementation, and large family size were found to be risk factors for anemia in pregnancy. Awareness creation towards birth spacing, nutritional counselling on consumption of iron-rich foods, and iron supplementation are recommended to prevent anemia among pregnant women with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:27022481

  12. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H.; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31–32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  13. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-04-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31-32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  14. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  15. [Laparoscopic splenectomy in immune thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Danishyan, K I; Soboleva, O A; Galstyan, G M; Zvereva, A V; Sorkina, O M

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes 4 cases of laparoscopic splenectomy in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No complications of surgery were noted in all the patients. The postoperative period was marked by sustained clinical and hematological remission that made it possible to discontinue prednisolone therapy and to ensure an uncomplicated course of pregnancy and labor. PMID:27459624

  16. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  17. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results. PMID:27509660

  18. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  20. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  1. Examining Intimate Partner Violence and Health Factors Among Rural Appalachian Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Lisa; Nash, Shondrah; Jackson, Afton

    2016-09-01

    Among pregnant women, intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a critical risk factor in adverse health outcomes for the mother and newborn alike. This pilot study examined IPV and health for rural Appalachian pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable high-risk and high-needs group. Participants were 77 rural, Appalachian pregnant women entering a hospital-based inpatient detoxification unit primarily for Opiate Dependence. Study participants gave informed consent to a face-to-face interview and secondary data abstraction from hospital medical records. IPV was measured via questions from the National Violence Against Women Survey, the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). The majority of the sample reported lifetime psychological (89.6%) and physical (64.9%) violence. A little over three fourths (75.3%) experienced IPV in the past year. Furthermore, over one third (39.0%) experienced stalking, physical, or sexual violence in the past year. Most participants (71.4%) experienced psychological abuse in the past year. IPV experiences, in conjunction with pervasive substance use, mental and physical health problems, and poverty present in rural Appalachia, culminate in a particularly high-risk and high-needs group of pregnant women. These women present unique opportunities and challenges for prevention, intervention, and treatment. PMID:25846757

  2. The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption. PMID:17066506

  3. Identifying Insomnia in Early Pregnancy: Validation of the Insomnia Symptoms Questionnaire (ISQ) in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although a substantial number of pregnant women report symptoms of insomnia, few studies have used a validated instrument to determine the prevalence in early gestation. Identification of insomnia in pregnancy is vital given the strong connection between insomnia and the incidence of depression, cardiovascular disease, or immune dysregulation. The goal of this paper is to provide additional psychometric evaluation and validation of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) and to establish prevalence rates of insomnia among a cohort of pregnant women during early gestation. Methods: The ISQ was evaluated in 143 pregnant women at 12 weeks gestation. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, actigraphy, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV), and likelihood ratio (LR) tests. Results: The ISQ identified 12.6% of the sample as meeting a case definition of insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Good reliability was established with Cronbach α = 0.86. The ISQ had high specificity (most > 85%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used as the validating criterion. Conclusions: Insomnia is a health problem for many pregnant women at all stages in pregnancy. These data support the validity and reliability of the ISQ to identify insomnia in pregnant women. The ISQ is a short and cost-effective tool that can be quickly employed in large observational studies or in clinical practice where perinatal women are seen. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. Citation: Okun ML, Buysse DJ, Hall MH. Identifying insomnia in early pregnancy: validation of the insomnia symptoms questionnaire (ISQ) in pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):645–654. PMID:25766716

  4. Candida isolates from pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility in a Malaysian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Siti Norbaya; Noor, Sabariah Md; Nor, Lailatul Akmar Mat; Osman, Malina; Rahman, MM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of Candida spp in high vaginal swabs of pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility. Methods: High vaginal swab samples received from Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia during 2011 initially had microscopic examination, Gram-staining and fungal culture. These were finally confirmed by growth in chromogenic medium (CHROMagarCandida; Difco BBL, USA) and commercial biochemical identification kit (API 20C AUX; bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test method. Results: Out of 1163 specimens 200 (17.2%) candida spp were confirmed from high vaginal swabs of pregnant women. Candida albicans (83.5%) is the most common species detected followed by Candida glabrata (16%) and Candida famata (0.05%). All C. albicans and C.famata isolates were susceptible to fluconazole while C.glabrata isolates were dose dependent susceptibility. First and second trimester, and diabetes were considered significant factors in patients for the vaginal candidiasis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In pregnant women, C. albicans was the frequently isolated yeast from high vaginal swabs. Routine screening and treatment are important of pregnant women regardless of symptoms. PMID:26150863

  5. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  6. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  7. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to Enhance the Dietary and Iron-Folate Intake during Pregnancy- A Quasi Experimental Study among Rural Pregnant Women of Varanasi, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Srivastava, Ratan Kumar; Singh, Gyan Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavior Change Communications (BCC) play a decisive role in modifying socio-cultural norms affecting the perception and nutritional practices during pregnancy. Objective To examine the effectiveness of ‘Trials of Improved Practices’ (TIPs) on dietary and iron-folate intake during pregnancy. Design Community based quasi experimental study with a control group Setting Four villages of Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi, India from May 2010 and recruited from August 2010. End line assessment, after 12 weeks of intervention, was completed in April 2011. Participants Pregnant women in 13–28 weeks of gestation Intervention TIPs was implemented in addition to ongoing essential obstetric care services in two villages through 3 home (assessment, negotiation and evaluation) visits and only assessment and evaluation visits in the other two control villages. Interpersonal communication, endorsing the active participation of family members and home based reminder materials were the TIPs based strategies. The effect of TIPs was assessed by comparing key outcome variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Outcome Measures Hemoglobin%, anemia prevalence, weight gain, compliance for iron-folate supplementation and dietary intake of calorie, protein, calcium and iron. Results A total of 86 participants completed the study. At the end, mean hemoglobin levels were 11.5±1.24 g/dl and 10.37±1.38 g/dl in the TIPs and control groups, respectively. The prevalence of anemia reduced by half in TIPs group and increased by 2.4% in the control group. Weight gain (grams/week) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in TIPs group (326.9±91.8 vs. 244.6±97.4). More than 85% of the PW in TIPs group were compliant for Iron-folate and only 38% were compliant among controls. The mean intake of protein increased by 1.78gm in intervention group and decreased by 1.81 gm in controls (p<0.05). More than two thirds of PW in TIPs group were taking one extra meal

  8. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10 g/dL) during pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia. PMID:19523075

  10. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  11. Pessary use in pregnant women with short cervix

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Tuncay; Konuralp, Bahar; Kalafat, Erkan; Söylemez, Feride

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case series is to provide preliminary evidence on the efficacy of pessary application in women with short cervix and at risk for preterm labor. Between May 2015 and July 2015, four pregnant women were followed-up with Arabin pessaries. The gestational age at the time of diagnosis was between the 23th and 29th weeks. Pessary application was associated with a prolongation of pregnancy lasting between 28 and 98 days. The gestational age at the time of delivery was between the 33rd and 39th weeks. Pessary use is non-invasive for the prolongation of pregnancy in pregnant women with shortened cervix. The major advantage of pessary use is its easy application without requiring anesthesia.

  12. The comprehensive management of pregnant women with major mood disorders: a case study involving phenelzine, lithium, and quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Thinh; Kohan, Rolland; De Felice, Nick; Rampono, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy in women with severe mental illness (SMI) often bring added dimensions of complexity; considering that this group of women are choosing to have children at increasing rates, more highly complex cases will require management. A 31-year-old primigravida with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder was treated with an antidepressant, mood stabiliser and antipsychotic. This case discusses preconception counselling, pregnancy and labour management that resulted in the delivery of a 4,200 g baby at 39 weeks by emergency caesarian section. This case highlights the collaborative approach to care that is needed in this group of women and the need for increasing awareness and knowledge in health professionals. It follows the management from preconception through to the postpartum period. PMID:24196828

  13. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment. PMID:26137793

  14. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified

  15. Burden of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Infants Under 6 Months in Mongolia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Liling; Kamigaki, Taro; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Urtnasan, Chuluunbatiin; Od, Ishiin; Nyamaa, Gunregjaviin; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women and infants under 6 months are at risk of influenza-related complications. Limited information exists on their community burden of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings This prospective, observational open cohort study was conducted in Baganuur district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) were identified by follow-up calls twice a week. For those identified, influenza and respiratory syncytical virus (RSV) were tested by point-of-care test kits. We calculated overall and stratified (by trimester or age group) incidence rates (IR) and used Cox proportional hazard regression for risk factor analyses. Among 1260 unvaccinated pregnant women enrolled, overall IRs for ILI, sARI and influenza A were 11.8 (95% confidence interval (C.I):11.2–12.4), 0.1 (95%C.I:0.0–0.4), and 1.7 (95%C.I:1.5–1.9) per 1,000person-days, respectively. One sARI case was influenza A positive. IRs and adjusted hazard ratios (Adj.HR) for ILI and influenza A were lowest in the third trimester. Those with co-morbidity were 1.4 times more likely to develop ILI [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.9)]. Among 1304 infants enrolled, overall ILI and sARI IRs were 15.2 (95%C.I:14.5–15.8) and 20.5 (95%C.I:19.7–21.3) per 1,000person-days, respectively. From the tested ILI (77.6%) and sARI (30.6%) cases, the overall positivity rates were 6.3% (influenza A), 1.1% (influenza B) and 9.3% (RSV). Positivity rates of influenza A and RSV tend to increase with age. sARI cases were 1.4 times more likely to be male [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.8)]. Among all influenza A and RSV positive infants, 11.8% and 68.0% were respectively identified among sARI hospitalized cases. Conclusion We observed low overall influenza A burden in both groups, though underestimation was likely due to point-of-care tests used. For infants, RSV burden was more significant than influenza A. These findings

  16. A psychometric analysis of the functional social support questionnaire in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kathy B; Hall, Lynne A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) in pregnant women. A secondary analysis of data from 186 low-income pregnant women in their third trimester was conducted to assess the internal consistency reliability, dimensionality, and concurrent validity of the FSSQ. Cronbach's alpha was .83. Factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the FSSQ. Correlations with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) supported concurrent and construct validity. This secondary analysis provided evidence of the psychometric soundness of the FSSQ in this sample. PMID:22077749

  17. Asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigerian pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, S T; Fehintola, F A; Adeyanju, O A; Adedeji, A A

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium falciparum is increased in pregnant women. In sub-Saharan Africa, the consequences of maternal malaria include preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and increased infant mortality. Malaria transmission requires the circulation of viable gametocytes that can be ingested by the female mosquito taking a blood meal. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinics in south-western Nigeria, an area hyper-endemic for malaria. Gametocyte carriage was about 13%, similar to that documented for children symptomatic for malaria in our area of study.

  18. [The local prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women and newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Celebi, S; Tuncel, E; Babacan, M

    1992-04-01

    In this study, group B streptococcus (GBS) were investigated in vaginal swabs obtained from 76 pregnant women and in samples of newborn infants obtained from different areas of their bodies. GBS were determined in 5.2% of women and 3.96% of infants. GBS were recovered in 15.4% of the women in their first pregnancy and in 13.3% of women in their second pregnancy. GBS could not isolated from the women in their third and more pregnancies. All eight species of GBS were sensitive to AMP + Sulbactam, Clavulanic acid + Amox, Lincomycin, Clindamycin, Penicillin G and SMZ + TMP. PMID:1588850

  19. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  20. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women. PMID:25642091

  1. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  2. Addressing health concerns of pregnant African American women using the lens of complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Sims, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant African American women are at higher risk for multiple complex health issues, including depression, than their European American counterparts (Canady, Bullen, Holzman, Broman, & Tian, 2008; Martin et al, 2011; Mathews & MacDorman, 2007; Orr, Blazer, & James, 2006; Segre, Losch, & O'Hara, 2006). Various strategies must be used to address depression through preventive care and promotion of access to appropriate mental health services. Nurses and other health care providers need to examine the relationships between the multifactorial problems to improve the health and well-being of pregnant African American women and their unborn children. This article presents a case study demonstrating the use of complexity science theory to understand and prevent poor health outcomes for pregnant African American women with depression and their unborn children. PMID:26050422

  3. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  4. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  5. Hot yoga establishments in local communities serving pregnant women: a pilot study on the health implications of its practice and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D

    2014-10-01

    Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice. PMID:25603649

  6. Lost to follow-up among pregnant women in a multi-site community based maternal and newborn health registry: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important when conducting epidemiologic studies to closely monitor lost to follow up (LTFU) rates. A high LTFU rate may lead to incomplete study results which in turn can introduce bias to the trial or study, threatening the validity of the findings. There is scarce information on LTFU in prospective community-based perinatal epidemiological studies. This paper reports the rates of LTFU, describes socio-demographic characteristics, and pregnancy/delivery outcomes of mothers LTFU in a large community-based pregnancy registry study. Methods Data were from a prospective, population-based observational study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). This is a multi-centre, international study in which pregnant women were enrolled in mid-pregnancy, followed through parturition and 42 days post-delivery. Risk for LTFU was calculated within a 95%CI. Results A total of 282,626 subjects were enrolled in this study, of which 4,893 were lost to follow-up. Overall, there was a 1.7% LTFU to follow up rate. Factors associated with a higher LTFU included mothers who did not know their last menstrual period (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4), maternal age of < 20 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), women with no formal education (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and attending a government clinic for antenatal care (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.8). Post-natal factors associated with a higher LTFU rate included a newborn with feeding problems (RR 1.6, 94% CI 1.2, 2.2). Conclusions The LTFU rate in this community-based registry was low (1.7%). Maternal age, maternal level of education, pregnancy status at enrollment and using a government facility for ANC are factors associated with being LTFU. Strategies to ensure representation and high retention in community studies are important to informing progress toward public health goals. Trial registration Registration at the Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475). PMID:26062899

  7. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  8. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  9. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to

  10. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  11. Getting Older Women Pregnant: Contemporary Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-10-01

    For women of advanced age with abnormally increased FSH levels, standardized hormonal stimulation often represents a cost-intensive procedure with a low success rate. It is well established now that with mild ovarian stimulation, there is a greater percentage of good-quality eggs (although a smaller number) than with higher-dose conventional stimulation. Mild stimulation protocols reduce the mean number of days of stimulation, the total amount of gonadotropins used and the mean number of oocytes retrieved. The proportion of high-quality and euploid embryos seems to be higher compared with conventional stimulation protocols, and the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer is comparable. Moreover, the reduced costs, the better tolerability for patients and the less time needed to complete an IVF cycle make mild approaches clinically and cost-effective over a given period of time. The low number of embryos available for transfer poses a great challenge in the management of older women going in for IVF. A potential management of these older women is to create a sufficient pool of embryos by accumulating vitrified good-grade embryos over several minimal stimulation and natural cycles. At the end of the accumulation process, these embryos can be subjected to a preimplantation genetic screening using next-generation sequencing and then the pool would have only chromosomal normal embryos with maximal chances of implantation. This would potentially make the chances of success for older women similar to normal responders. This management, however, is unthinkable without an outstanding vitrification program. The option of accumulating embryos has become a promising reality with the advent of vitrification technologies. PMID:27486273

  12. First validation of a Spanish-translated version of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) for use in pregnant women. A Chilean study.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Rubén; Jadresic, Enrique; Guajardo, Viviana; Rojas, Graciela

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to detect depression during pregnancy in Chile. The EPDS was applied to a sample of 111 pregnant women, who were attending an antenatal appointment in primary care centers. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I) was used to assess the convergent validity, and the Depressive Episode module of the MINI was used to identify cases. The factor analysis showed that there was a good fit, with a factor model that explains 57.6 % of the total variance. There was a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.914) and good convergent validity with the BDI-I (rho = 0.850, p < 0.001). The EPDS was capable of differentiating cases of depression from non-cases. The best cutoff point was between 12 and 13, corresponding to an overall accuracy of 87.4 %. The questionnaire has good psychometric properties and can be useful for detecting cases of depression during pregnancy. PMID:25300676

  13. [Music dynamics: New methodological proposal at work with pregnant women during prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Ana Paula Xavier; da Motta, Maria Graça Corso

    2004-12-01

    It is qualitative research, using and Creative and Sensible Method and Content Analysis. It aimed to find out how pregnant women experience the use of music to understand the gestational process. Participants were seven primiparous pregnant women, during the third trimester of pregnancy. The study happened in the Basic Health Center in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. For data collection, creativity and sensitivity dynamics were employed, called musical dynamics, as well as a semi-structured interviews and observation. Results have showed that music can be employed as a facilitating resource in the teaching/learning process, favoring educators/nurses in their educational activities. PMID:15712807

  14. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kell antigen is highly immunogenic and is the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and maternal alloimmunization, which causes severe anaemia in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and ethnic variation of the Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods Kell antigen status of 150 pregnant women aged 18-45 years and mean age 27.19 ±4.69 years attending antenatal clinic in UDUTH Sokoto Nigeria was determined using the conventional tube method and anti-Kell reagents (Lorne Laboratories, UK). Results Among the 150 subjects studied, 3 (2.0%) of subjects were positive and 147 (98.0) were negative for K antigen. Of the 150 pregnant subjects; 32 (21.3%) were primigravidae while 118 (78.7%) were multigravidae. Kell phenotype was more prevalent among primigravidae (3.1%) compared to multigravidae (1.7%) women. The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p = 0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ≥ 96.8% among all the ethnic groups. Conclusion Our observed prevalence of Kell phenotype is consistent with previous studies among Blacks and Asians but significantly lower than values observed in previous studies among Caucasians. We recommend that all pregnant women should be screened for the presence clinically significant red cell antigens including Kell antigen on their first antenatal visit. Kell negative red cell should be routinely provided for all pregnant women and women with child bearing potential to reduce the risk of Kell-associated HDFN. There is need to introduce routine screening of pregnant women for clinically significant red cell antibodies to facilitate the effective management of HDFN as well as prevent HTR. There is also need

  15. Serum Copper, Zinc and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:25400710

  16. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

    2012-12-01

    This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OTα). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (β-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OTα from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OTα before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OTα levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OTα medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

  17. [Dietary and hygienic aspects of fluoride exposure in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pregnant women to fluoride on the basis of diet preferences and hygienic habits revealed with a questionnaire. The group included 59 women aged 22-39, living in a large urban agglomeration. Questions concerned sources of fluoride such as diet (tap water, tea, fish, poultry), use of fluoride-containing preparations for oral hygiene and substances containing fluoride for additional prophylaxis. The oral health status was clinically examined and caries intensity was assessed with the mean DMF-t index. According to the clinical examination, the mean DMF-t index was 13.64 and ranged from 1 to 23. Consumption of tap water averaged 0.73 L (max. 2.5 L), including 0.55 L (max. 2.5 L) of tea. Poultry was a regular part of the diet in only 14 of the respondents (24%) and only 3 (5%) sporadically (once a week) ate ocean fish. All the respondents used toothpaste containing fluoride, but only 15.3% applied professional prophylaxis with fluoride preparations. As far as the diet is concerned, individual differences in the intake of fluorides were significant. Interestingly, despite the declared everyday use of fluorine-containing toothpaste, the caries intensity index was rather high, suggesting the need for special dental care in this group of patients. PMID:16892578

  18. Efficacy and safety of telbivudine treatment: an open-label, prospective study in pregnant women for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Han, G-R; Jiang, H-X; Yue, X; Ding, Y; Wang, C-M; Wang, G-J; Yang, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine (LdT, 600 mg/day) vs control patients (no treatment) in decreasing vertical transmission of HBV, in HBeAg-positive mothers (HBVDNA >6log(10) copies/mL). HBeAg-positive pregnant women either in the second or third trimester were recruited in a prospective, case-control, open-label study, at the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University, China (February 2008-December 2010). Efficacy (month 7: HBVDNA (+), HBsAg (+) infants) in either the overall group or the treated group and control group was analysed using student's t-test. Infants were followed for at least 1 year. 362 women received LdT (second trimester n = 257; third trimester n = 105) and 92 were untreated. Before delivery, the mean maternal HBVDNA was 2.73, 2.47, 3.34 and 7.94 log10 copies/mL in the overall, second and third trimester treated and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). At birth, 11.8% of babies overall (43/365), 13.5% (35/259) of those treated in the second trimester, 7.5% of those treated in the third trimester (8/106) and 20.7% (19/92) of untreated infants were HBsAg positive. At month 7, none of the LdT-treated infant had detectable HBVDNA, while eight infants from control mothers were HBsAg positive. Vertical transmission was 0% in LdT treated and 9.3% (8/86) in the control groups (P < 0.001). No difference in the vertical transmission rate was found in mothers treated in the second or third trimester. LdT treatment was safe for mothers and infants, and no congenital deformities were reported. PMID:25641421

  19. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929. PMID:27540363

  20. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Methods Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. Results The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48–13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9–1501) Gy/cm2. The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59–5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095–0.80) mSv. Conclusions Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  1. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  2. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  3. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  4. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  5. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  6. Influenza 2014-2015 among pregnant Japanese women: primiparous vs multiparous women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawakami, S; Yoshida, Y; Kawamura, H; Ohta, S; Abe, K; Hamada, H; Dohi, S; Ichizuka, K; Takita, H; Baba, Y; Matsubara, S; Mochizuki, J; Unno, N; Maegawa, Y; Maeda, M; Inubashiri, E; Akutagawa, N; Kubo, T; Shirota, T; Oda, Y; Yamada, T; Yamagishi, E; Nakai, A; Fuchi, N; Masuzaki, H; Urabe, S; Kudo, Y; Nomizo, M; Sagawa, N; Maeda, T; Kamitomo, M; Kawabata, K; Kataoka, S; Shiozaki, A; Saito, S; Sekizawa, A; Minakami, H

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to determine whether multiparous pregnant women are prone to influenza. A questionnaire survey was conducted at 19 centres located throughout Japan, targeting all 6,694 postpartum women within 7 days after birth before leaving the hospital. All women gave birth during the study period between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015. Data regarding vaccination and influenza infection in or after October 2014, age, previous experience of childbirth, and number and ages of cohabitants were collected. Seventy-eight percent (n = 51,97) of women given questionnaires responded. Of these, 2,661 (51 %) and 364 (7.0 %) women reported having been vaccinated and having contracted influenza respectively. Multiparous women had a higher risk of influenza regardless of vaccination status (8.9 % [121/1362] vs 5.7 % [74/1299], relative risk [95 % confidence interval], 1.80 [1.36 to 2.38] for vaccinated and 9.3 % [112/1198] vs 4.3 % [57/1328], 2.18 [1.60 to 2.97] for unvaccinated women) compared to primiparous women. The risk of influenza increased with increasing number of cohabitants: 4.8 % (100/2089), 7.5 %, (121/1618), 9.0 %, (71/785), and 10.4 % (58/557) for women with 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 cohabitants respectively. Family size is a risk factor for influenza infection in pregnancy. PMID:26864040

  7. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the

  8. Acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Mohammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Gehani, Abdulrazzak; Sulaiman, Kadhim

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available information on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) during all stages of pregnancy. We searched the English-language literature indexed in MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO host research databases from 1980 through to August 2010 using the indexing terms 'pregnancy', 'ante-,peri-, and postpartum', 'acute coronary syndrome', 'myocardial infarction', 'STEMI' and 'NSTEMI'. Symptomatic coronary artery disease is still infrequent in women of childbearing age, but the recent increase in its prevalence in pregnancy has been attributed to the modern trend of childbearing in older years because many young working women are postponing having children. Although rare, acute pregnancy-related MI is a devastating event that may claim the life of a mother and her fetus. The incidence of MI is estimated at 0.6-1 per 10,000 pregnancies. The case fatality rate has been reported to be 5-37%. Owing to the rarity of the event, information related to MI in pregnancy is derived from case reports and, therefore, is subject to considerable reporting bias. Treatment needs to be prompt and urgent because of the very high mortality rate. Current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MI should be expanded to include pregnancy-related MI. Screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors should be achieved before pregnancy. PMID:21517733

  9. Patient-centered prenatal counseling: aligning obstetric healthcare professionals with needs of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ruth M; Nutter, Benjamin; Agatisa, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    The first trimester aneuploidy screen (FTS) continues to be a leading approach to identify the risk of fetal aneuploidy. This study evaluated how obstetric (OB) professionals counsel women about FTS as one of a growing number of options to assess fetal health. A survey was completed by OB professionals (board-certified obstetrician/gynecologists and certified nurse midwives) between February and March 2011: (1) to identify knowledge and practice patterns with regard to FTS, and (2) to compare pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences with clinicians' perceptions of these factors. A total of 216 surveys (11 percent) were completed by OB professionals and analyzed. Several barriers to effective patient counseling were identified, including gaps in obstetric professionals' mastery of the screening test characteristics and variable approaches to discuss concepts of aneuploidy risk. OB participants reported limited confidence in discussing patient-valued topics, specifically post-screen options and pregnancy termination. Discordance was identified between OB professionals' perceptions of pregnant women's educational needs and decision-making preferences specific to FTS and historical data recently collected from 139 pregnant women who underwent the FTS. Study findings illustrate the need for clinician-targeted strategies to support pregnant women as they formulate informed decisions about the tests that may have a salient impact on their prenatal care decisions. PMID:25794055

  10. Scorpion stings in pregnant women: an analysis of 11 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kaplanoglu, M; Helvaci, M R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the most important public health problem in many regions of the world. But there is not enough medical data about scorpion stings in pregnant women in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings and treatment modalities of scorpion stings in pregnant women. This study was performed in the Southeast Region of Turkey, retrospectively. Eleven pregnants were studied, totally. All of the patients were detected as class I according to the scorpion envenomization system. They were in different weeks of gestation. Local pain, hyperemia, swelling, and itching were the most frequent complaint in these cases. None of our patients received antivenom, and all of them were treated, symptomatically. Complication of pregnancy was observed in none of them. PMID:26054125

  11. The effects of prolonged fasting on the levels of adiponectin, leptin, apelin, and omentin in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kiyak Caglayan, Emel; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Sari, Nagihan; Gocmen, Ayşe Yesim; Polat, M Fevzi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum adiponectin, leptin, apelin and omentin levels to explore metabolic changes occurring during fasting in the month of Ramadan. The study was designed as a prospective study. The patients were divided into two groups, each comprising 20 patients: Group I, fasting pregnant women, and Group II, non-fasting pregnant women. The patients' age, parity, gestational week and body mass index were recorded. Adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in fasting pregnant women (p < 0.001). When the two groups were compared in terms of serum leptin and apelin levels, both were found to be significantly higher in Group I than in Group II. The findings of the present study suggest that pregnant women who are willing to fast during 24-38 weeks' gestation should be informed about insulin resistance. PMID:26759187

  12. Cytomegalovirus infection in a cohort of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    El Sanousi, S M; Osman, Z A; Mohmed, A B S; Al Awfi, M S H

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 300 pregnant women. Seventeen (5.7%) and 274 (91.3%) women were seropositive for IgM and IgG, respectively. There was significant increase in seroprevalence of CMV IgG and no significant increase in seroprevalence of CMV IgM among tested age groups. CMV IgM and IgG seroprevalence differed nonsignificantly by type of residence, the stage of pregnancy, and the level of education. PMID:26810886

  13. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  14. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens I: Bisphenol A in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Despite its very low oral bioavailability and rapid elimination, multiple reports of unexpectedly high bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in the serum of pregnant mothers or cord blood have raised questions about BPA exposures during pregnancy. Thirty healthy pregnant women recruited to the study were evaluated for total BPA exposure over a 30-h period comprising one-half day in the field and one day in a clinical setting. BPA and its metabolites were measured in serum and total BPA was measured in matching urine samples. The mean total exposure was similar to the 50(th) percentile of exposure for U.S. women and pregnant women in a large North American cohort. Twenty volunteers had total daily exposures equal to or exceeding the U.S. mean, and six volunteers had exposures exceeding the 75th percentile. Women working as cashiers did not have higher total BPA exposure. BPA was detected in some serum samples (0.25-0.51 ng/ml), but showed no relationship to total BPA in corresponding urine samples, no relationship to total BPA exposure, and had unconjugated BPA fractions of 60-80%, consistent with established criteria for sample contamination. We conclude that typical exposures of North American pregnant women produce internal exposures to BPA in the picomolar range. PMID:27038865

  15. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    PubMed

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-12-01

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment. PMID:26996363

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175 ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

  17. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action.

    PubMed

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  18. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  19. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    .02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF β and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  1. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  2. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  3. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  4. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  5. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth. PMID:26785702

  6. Assessing Long-Term Outcomes of an Intervention Designed for Pregnant Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…

  7. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  8. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shoghli, Alireza; Nabavi, Seyed Mahmood; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Namazi, Roshanak; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Mohajeri, Mansor; Mousavinasab, Nouraldin; Zanjani, Rahim Sorouri; Saeini, Mohammad Reza; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their neonates is one of the most important routes of infection. The exact prevalence rate of HBV in Iranian pregnant mothers is not well known but based on different studies it is estimated between 0.35% and 6.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women of selected provinces in Iran. Methods: At this cross-sectional study, seven provinces supposed to be of high and low prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population selected. Multistage sampling was used to enroll 5261 parturient women who attended the target provinces birth facilities, during January to March of 2011, were recruited to study. To determine the statistically significant mean and proportion differences, t-test and χ2 test were used, respectively. Results: Overall 1.2% was positive HBsAg of which 11% of them were hepatitis B e-antigen positive as well. The eastern and north eastern provinces were considerably higher in HBsAg seropositivity than the west and northwest of the country. Conclusions: In view of the considerable prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women, screening all pregnant women prioritizing the eastern and north-eastern provinces is strongly recommended. PMID:26622992

  9. Assessment of noninvasive, percutaneous hemoglobin measurement in pregnant and early postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Saito, Keiko; Ishii, Kenji; Azuma, Isao; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using the Pronto-7® analyzer, we measured percutaneous hemoglobin (SpHb) noninvasively in pregnant and early postpartum women, and assessed the accuracy of the measurements by comparing them with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. Methods We obtained SpHb measurements from 193 pregnant women, 269 early postpartum women, and 76 nonpregnant women. A laboratory total hemoglobin (tHb) measurement, from venous blood sampling, was obtained immediately prior to the SpHb measurement. The total number of measurements obtained from the nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum women was 76, 438, and 347, respectively. Results The mean biases (SpHb − tHb) among the nonpregnant, first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and early postpartum women were −0.20, 0.19, 1.01, 1.32, and 1.10 g/dL, respectively. The Bland–Altman comparison showed neither the tendency of a fixed bias nor proportional biases among the measurements in the category of nonpregnant and first trimester women. But in the second and third trimester and postpartum category, a significant fixed bias was noted, without any tendencies of proportional bias. Conclusion In this study, we found higher hemoglobin values with the Pronto-7 analyzer than were measured in the laboratory. We consider that the device has certain limitations in obstetrical utility and requires further modifications for use in the perinatal period. PMID:24470779

  10. Low pertussis toxin antibody levels in two regional cohorts of Canadian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Mark; Konrad, Stephanie; Van Buynder, Paul; Van Buynder, Jan; Isaac-Renton, Judy; ElSherif, May; Halperin, Scott A

    2014-11-12

    Infants under 6 months of age are at greatest risk of mortality and severe morbidity from pertussis disease. Interventions that increase pertussis protection in newborns are therefore a clear public health imperative. The objective of this study was to assess maternal pertussis toxin antibody (anti-PT) level as a potential source of mother-to-child transfer of pertussis-associated antibodies that may reduce neonatal risk of pertussis disease. Anti-PT level was assessed in a 2013 cohort of pregnant women from two regions in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Basic demographics, health, and pertussis immunization history were collected, along with blood specimens. Anti-PT levels were compared for self-reported vaccination status and prior pertussis disease. To assess secular trend, a parallel analysis was also undertaken, using anonymized residual sera from a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia. A total of 169 pregnant women participated in the study - 50 from Nova Scotia and 119 from British Columbia. The mean and median age of participants from both sites was 31 years of age (range 16-42 years). The lower limit of quantification of the anti-PT assay was 10 ELISA units per milliliter (EU/ml). Overall, 59% of women had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml and anti-PT level did not differ with time since last self-reported pertussis vaccination (χ(2)(2)=3.166, p=0.205). Among a 1996-1997 cohort of pregnant women in British Columbia, 101 of 200 (51%) had anti-PT levels less than 10 EU/ml. Our study found that most pregnant women in two geographically disparate health regions in Canada have low residual anti-PT levels, may be vulnerable to pertussis infection themselves, and would unlikely be a source of passive ante- or postnatal transfer of anti-PT to their newborn. PMID:25269092

  11. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed. PMID:25190332

  12. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  13. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infection Among Pregnant Women in Peshawar, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Irshad

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications. The virus has a high risk of vertical transmission and it has been reported as the leading cause of maternal death. Objectives To study the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections among pregnant women in the Peshawar district of Pakistan. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study took place between July 2013 and April 2014. A total of 10,288 samples were collected from pregnant women living in different areas of the Peshawar district. The samples were centrifuged at a high speed in order to obtain a clear supernatant serum. All samples were screened for HBV and HCV using the immunochromatographic technique. Results The overall prevalence of HBV was found to be 1.16%, although it varied throughout the study period. The highest prevalence of HBV (1.69%) was observed during January 2014. The overall prevalence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was observed to be 1.42%. The highest prevalence of HCV infection (2.22%) was found during March 2014. Conclusions The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 1.16% and 1.42%, respectively. The incidence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was higher than that of HBV infection.

  14. Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n = 311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR = 2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR = 1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health. PMID:22471686

  15. Describing the use of the internet for health, physical activity, and nutrition information in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; Beets, Michael W; Coleman, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how pregnant women in the Midwestern United States use the internet for health information during pregnancy including information related to physical activity and nutrition, and to determine the impact of the internet on women's confidence in making decisions about physical activity participation and eating behaviors during pregnancy. This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a convenient, non-probabilistic sample. Women were recruited through handouts provided in person, fliers posted at venues, or local websites that cater to women who are pregnant or up to 1 year post-partum. Overall, 293 women (28.5 years ± 4.9) completed the survey online (Survey Monkey) or in-print. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and analyses of covariance. Almost all women used the internet for health information during their pregnancy. Half of women used the internet for information related to physical activity during their pregnancy and some increased their physical activity as a result. Women reported an increase in their confidence for making decisions related to physical activity during pregnancy after using the internet for physical activity information. Women that reported increases in physical activity during pregnancy, had greater increases in confidence for making decisions from using the internet compared to women who decreased or did not change their physical activity. Findings related to nutrition were similar to physical activity. However, there were no significant differences in increases in confidence between those who did or did not change the foods they ate. This study provides health promotional professionals useful information to consider when designing future physical activity and/or nutrition interventions for pregnant women. PMID:23090284

  16. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  17. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  18. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. PMID:21541069

  19. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy. PMID:27012975

  20. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Soltani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women. Methods This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20) with descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001). Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling. Discussion Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. PMID:27366105

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis Isolated From Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Azizmohammadi, Sima; Azizmohammadi, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum bring with them an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature membrane rupture, vaginitis and preterm birth. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in pregnant women and to study their resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty high vaginal swabs were taken from pregnant women. Commercial Mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for bacterial isolation. The results of the kits were confirmed using the PCR. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of 350 samples collected, 32 samples (9.14%) were positive for U. urealyticum and 10 samples (2.85%) were positive for M. hominis (P = 0.025). Both U. urealyticum and M. hominis were simultaneously detected in 1.14% of samples. In addition, 40 - 45-year-old pregnant women had the highest levels of U. urealyticum (27.5%), M. hominis (12.5%), and both bacteria (7.5%). U. urealyticum and M. hominis isolates harbored the highest levels of resistance against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Both isolates were susceptible to pefloxacin, clarithromycin, josamycin, and pristinamycin. Conclusions: According to the direct correlation between the increase in the prevalence rate of genital mycoplasmas and increased age of pregnancy, initially, it is better to prevent pregnancy at older ages, and then, should a pregnancy occur, the highest levels of health cares should be provided to older pregnant women. PMID:26756001

  2. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  3. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001). Keeping pet cats was not common and poorly associated with infections (OR = 1.15, p ≥ 0.64). Consumption of undercooked meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age. PMID:26924348

  4. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  5. Safety of tetanus toxoid in pregnant women: a hospital-based case-control study of congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, C. M.; Cáceres, V. M.; Dutra, M. G.; Lopes-Camelo, J.; Castilla, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), a hospital-based case-control study of 34,293 malformed and 34,477 matched nonmalformed newborn controls. No statistical differences were found between the malformed and control groups, exposed or not exposed to tetanus toxoid. PMID:8846486

  6. Iron status in pregnant women: which measurements are valid?

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N R; Letsky, E A; White, S A; Shenkin, A

    1998-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries continues to be a public health problem of significant proportion. At least 50% of the anaemia has been blamed on iron deficiency. In populations where chronic inflammation and iron deficiency anaemia coexist, the criteria to accurately define iron status are not always clear. Similarly, in pregnancy, with marked physiological changes, cut-off points for biochemical parameters need to be re-examined. In this study we examined the diagnostic accuracy of iron parameters including mean cellular volume (MCV), serum iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and its saturation, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), ferritin and serum transferrin receptor (TfR) for the assessment of iron status in a population of anaemic pregnant women in Malawi. Stained bone marrow aspirates were used as the standard for comparison. Results show that for the purpose of screening, serum ferritin is the best single indicator of storage iron provided a cut-off point of 30 microg/l is used. A number of other commonly used parameters of iron status were shown to have limited diagnostic accuracy. Logistic regression was used to obtain mathematical models for the prediction of bone marrow iron status using a combination of available parameters. PMID:9858238

  7. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention. PMID:21120739

  8. Effects of oral environment stabilization procedures on Streptococcus mutans counts in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (p<0.0001) between samples. Considering the age group, 70.0% were between 18 to 30 years old and 30.0% belonged to the 31-43-year-old age group. Data related to the pregnancy period showed that 73.4% were in the second trimester, 13.3% in the first and 13.3% in third trimester. OES showed to be an effective clinical procedure in diminishing the number of S. mutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service. PMID:21861025

  9. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  10. Customized Nutritional Enhancement for Pregnant Women Appears to Lower Incidence of Certain Common Maternal and Neonatal Complications: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, P. Michael; Rydbom, Emily A.; Stone, Lucas A.; Stone, T. Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E.; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  11. Is ACOG guideline helpful for encouraging pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohseni, Mona; Shariat, Mamak; Ranjbar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate physical activity of pregnant women before and after ACOG guideline study. Four hundred and eighty-five pregnant women enrolled in this before-after study. They were asked to study ACOG guideline. A structured questionnaire filled by women at first visit and the last visit in the prenatal clinic.Type, frequency, duration and anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy period. Before education, 411 did exercises before pregnancy onset, among them, 346 were walking out and 65 did light exercises such as aerobics. After studying the protocol, 434 (89.4%) did walking during pregnancy period in comparison to 71% who did walking before pregnancy (P<0.001). Forty two (56.7%) out of 74 who had not done sport before, went for walking after the protocol reading, and nine continued not doing exercise. Among 74 participants who had not done exercise before the protocol reading, 16 (21%) were doing exercise three times a week and 11 (14%) changed their habit to daily exercise practice (P<0.001). Forty percent (195 women) were anxious about doing exercise during pregnancy before guideline study, while 116 reported that after the protocol reading, they had no anxiety about doing exercises during pregnancy (P<0.001). Guidelines providing information about physical activity during pregnancy will help pregnant women to do exercise during pregnancy with convenience and less anxiety. PMID:25130154

  12. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  13. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Donders, G G

    2000-03-01

    Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg

  14. Quality of Life of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Müller, Cristina Heloisa

    2016-05-01

    Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women. PMID:27187928

  15. Symbolic expression of feelings and depressive symptoms in high-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development. PMID:9379164

  16. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  17. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in pregnant women with prior pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Mayes, Linda C.; Magriples, Urania; Epperson, Cynthia Neill

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant women with prior pregnancy complications. Methods Seventy-six pregnant women at a maternal–fetal medicine referral clinic were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Fifty-six women had a prior pregnancy complication (study group), and the remaining 20 had none (comparison group). Subjects were assessed with a questionnaire consisting of a modified patient-rated version of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The modified CAPS was used to approximate the prevalence of full or partial PTSD related to a prior pregnancy complication using two scoring rules, the rule-of-3 (original rule) and rule-of-4 (more stringent rule). Results The prevalence of full PTSD among women with prior pregnancy complications was 12.5% and 8.9% based on the rule-of-3 and rule-of-4, respectively. For partial PTSD, the prevalence was 28.6% based on the rule-of-3 versus 17.9% based on the rule-of-4. The most common type of complication was miscarriage, accounting for 73.5% of the reported complications. None of the women in the comparison group met criteria for full or partial PTSD. Conclusions The prevalence of PTSD in pregnant women with a prior pregnancy-related complication is considerable. These findings provide additional evidence that pregnancy complications can be experienced as traumatic, and as such lead to partial or full PTSD symptoms. PMID:19488936

  18. Constructing a Population-Based Research Database from Routine Maternal Screening Records: A Resource for Studying Alloimmunization in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Gryfelt, Gunilla; Wikman, Agneta; Reilly, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues. Study Design and Methods Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies) presented as online moving graphical displays. Results More than one million (1,191,761) births with valid screening information from 1982–2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time. Conclusion This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important clinical questions

  19. Predictors of serum concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants among healthy pregnant women in an urban environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants commonly used in a wide range of products. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Our objective was to characterize predictors of exposure to PBDEs among a multi-ethnic, low-income cohort of pregnant women enrolled from highly urban communities in New York City between years 2009–2010. Methods During the first half of pregnancy we collected 316 maternal serum samples and administered an extensive questionnaire including items on demographics, diet and lifestyle. We measured 12 PBDE congeners in blood samples. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we regressed the most commonly detected PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) against potential demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictor variables. Results At least one PBDE congener was detected in each serum sample. Our analyses demonstrate unique predictor patterns for PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 based on demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of women. Higher education and increased use of household electronics were associated with higher levels of all 4 congeners. Six characteristics were associated with PBDE-153 serum concentrations, more than for any other congener. These include maternal education, household income, body mass index, solid dairy consumption, processed meat consumption and frequent use of household electronics. Conclusions PBDE exposure in this widespread in this cohort, though levels are lower than previous assessments of US pregnant women. Lower levels may be in response to legislation restricting the production, sale and use of these compounds. In our cohort, we did not observe any individual predictor or a consistent pattern of several predictors representing a significant source of PBDE exposure. These data suggest that legislation and policy may be more effective at reducing exposure than personal lifestyle modifications. PMID

  20. Evaluating Acupuncture and Standard carE for pregnant women with Back pain (EASE Back): a feasibility study and pilot randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nadine E; Bishop, Annette; Bartlam, Bernadette; Ogollah, Reuben; Barlas, Panos; Holden, Melanie; Ismail, Khaled; Jowett, Sue; Kettle, Christine; Kigozi, Jesse; Lewis, Martyn; Lloyd, Alison; Waterfield, Jackie; Young, Julie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many pregnant women experience low back pain. Acupuncture appears to be a safe, promising intervention but evidence is needed about its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVES To assess the feasibility of a future large randomised controlled trial (RCT) testing the additional benefit of adding acupuncture to standard care (SC) for pregnancy-related back pain. DESIGN Phase 1: a questionnaire survey described current care for pregnancy-related back pain. Focus groups and interviews with midwives, physiotherapists and pregnant women explored acceptability and feasibility of acupuncture and the proposed RCT. Phase 2: a single-centre pilot RCT. Participants were identified using six methods and randomised to SC, SC plus true acupuncture or SC plus non-penetrating acupuncture. PARTICIPANTS Phase 1: 1093 physiotherapists were surveyed and 15 midwives, 21 physiotherapists and 17 pregnant women participated in five focus groups and 20 individual interviews. Phase 2: 125 women with pregnancy-related back pain participated. INTERVENTIONS SC: a self-management booklet and onward referral for one-to-one physiotherapy (two to four sessions) for those who needed it. SC plus true acupuncture: the self-management booklet and six to eight treatments with a physiotherapist comprising true (penetrating) acupuncture, advice and exercise. SC plus non-penetrating acupuncture: the self-management booklet and six to eight treatments with a physiotherapist comprising non-penetrating acupuncture, advice and exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Pilot RCT outcomes included recruitment rates, treatment fidelity, follow-up rate, patient-reported pain and function, quality of life and health-care resource use. Birth and neonatal outcomes were also assessed. Staff overseeing outcome data collection were blind to treatment allocation. RESULTS Phase 1: 629 (57.5%) physiotherapists responded to the survey, 499 were experienced in treating pregnancy-related back pain and

  1. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  2. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Al-Mukalla district, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A M

    2005-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnant woman. This study examined the frequency of UTI in 137 pregnant women attending Al Mukalla maternity hospital from January to June 2002. Urine samples were examined for UTI microscopically and by culture, and sensitivity tests were done for the organisms isolated using a range of antibiotics. Information on age, trimester, parity and number of pregnancies were also collected for each woman. This study showed that 30% of the women suffered from UTI; Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (41.5%), and it was highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftizoxime and amikacin. Of the variables examined, 53.7% of the infected women were in the age group 15-24 years, 48.8% were in their 3rd trimester and 75.6% had 1-3 children. PMID:16602474

  3. Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with

  4. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  5. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  6. Evaluation the effect of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate on gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women at risk for preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Rouholamin, Safoura; Zarean, Elahe; Sadeghi, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mellitus exact role of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate in increasing the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the association of treatment with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate with GDM in pregnant women who are at risk for preterm birth (PTB). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 200 singleton pregnant women included 100 pregnant women at risk for PTB or with history of PTB as case group (received weekly injections of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate) and 100 healthy pregnant women without history of PTB as control group (did not receive any drug) were evaluated. All women followed until detect or reject of GDM, and abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) and GDM were calculated in all of them. Results: During study follow-up, 36 women in both groups were excluded and 81 cases 83 controls completed the study and analyzed. Mean of GCT in all studied pregnant women was 128.2 ± 18.1, whereas, in cases was higher than controls but no significant difference was noted between groups (P = 0.56). Abnormality in GCT was observed in 32 (19.5%) of 164 studied women, (18 of cases and 14 of controls), which was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). The frequency of GDM among all studied women was 7.9% (13 of 164), 7 of cases and 6 of controls, which was not significant (P = 0.74). Conclusion: In summary, results demonstrated that weekly administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate is not associated with higher rates of GDM in pregnant women at risk for PTB. PMID:26682208

  7. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  8. Decrease in seroprevalence for herpesviruses among pregnant women in Finland: cross-sectional study of three time points 1992, 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, Laura; Sarvikivi, Emmi; Lappalainen, Maija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Saxen, Harri

    2016-05-01

    Maternal herpesvirus infections during pregnancy may cause fetal and neonatal infections. We investigated the seroprevalence of five herpesviruses: cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in randomly selected samples from pregnant Finnish women from the years 1992, 2002 and 2012. Over 20 years, the seroprevalences decreased significantly for CMV from 84.5% to 71.5% (p = 0.007) and HSV-1 from 69.5% to 45% (p < 0.001). The decrease in seroprevalence for HSV-2 (from 17.5% to 11%) was not statistically significant. The seroprevalence remained unchanged for VZV and EBV. The proportion of mothers with no antibodies to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 increased from 25.5% to 48% (p < 0.001). The seroprevalences for HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased in relation to age, which shows that women of childbearing age do contract primary HSV infections. Our findings indicate that a considerable proportion of women (48%) are at risk for primary HSV infection during pregnancy. PMID:26654892

  9. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  10. Evaluation of pyrethroid exposures in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, Eric; Forde, Martin; Robertson, Lyndon; Kadd