Science.gov

Sample records for study pregnant women

  1. Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Table 2.4 presents summary data from several epidemiologic surveys collecting food and supplement intake data from pregnant or lactating women. More details on the specific surveys are included in Table 2.5. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess diet and supplement intake. Neither survey included a sizable number of pregnant or lactating women.

  2. A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22217127

  3. Cancer Treatment Should Proceed for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154851.html Cancer Treatment Should Proceed for Pregnant Women: Study Researcher says no risk found for unborn ... 28, 2015 MONDAY, Sept. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who are diagnosed with cancer do not need ...

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  5. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p?pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women were especially impaired by striae gravidarum and it is considered important to prevent or reduce the severity of striae gravidarum of the multiparae group. PMID:22905939

  6. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  7. Toxoplasma prevalence among pregnant women in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Findal, Gry; Barlinn, Regine; Sandven, Irene; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Nordbø, Svein A; Samdal, Helvi H; Vainio, Kirsti; Dudman, Susanne G; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-04-01

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii may lead to complications in the foetus if the mother suffers from primary infection during pregnancy. Previously infected women have produced toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. The most recent study on prevalence of toxoplasma IgG in the Norwegian pregnant population was conducted 20 years ago. The present study is part of a research programme initiated by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We aimed to update the knowledge regarding the prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway. In this cross-sectional study, sera from 1922 pregnant women in Buskerud (992) and Sør-Trøndelag counties (930) in Norway were collected consecutively. The presence of toxoplasma IgG was identified by values ?8 IU/mL using an ELISA test. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was 9.3% (95% CI 8.1-10.7); Sør-Trøndelag 10.4% (95% CI 8.6-12.6) and Buskerud 8.3% (95% CI 6.7-10.2). There was no difference between the counties (p = 0.13), and the result did not differ from prevalences found in 1974 (12.1%) and 1994 (10.7%). We found a higher prevalence among women ?40 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.30-5.42). The prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway is low and has been stable during the last decades. PMID:25628065

  8. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  9. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ?18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ?27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ?27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland. PMID:26582354

  10. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  11. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (?150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  12. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987

  13. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Mary E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J.; Pirkle, James L.; Merrill, Lori S.; Moye, John

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were highly correlated. • Exposure information can expand the utility of biospecimens in the NCS Main Study.

  14. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy-related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content. PMID:23986734

  15. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content. PMID:23986734

  16. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  17. National Children's Study Workshop: Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring

    Cancer.gov

    Page 1 of 42 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment September 21–22, 2004 Draft 3 11-16-04 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring September

  18. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  19. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  20. A Study on Atherogenic Indices of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Patients as Compared to Normal Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Paul, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) includes Gestational hypertension, Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia and is one of the most common obstetric complication. Worldwide about 76,000 pregnant women die each year from pre-eclampsia and related hypertensive disorders. The aetiology of Pre-eclampsia is unknown but it is thought to be related to abnormal development of placenta. Several studies have shown the presence of reduced endothelial function in pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction is also a feature of atherosclerosis. Aim To assess fasting lipid profile and atherogenic indices in women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia as well as in women with normal pregnancy and to correlate the findings of pre-eclamptic women with that of normal pregnant women, in an attempt to utilize the data for the development of a new clinical approach for early recognition and prevention of risk of future cardiovascular diseases in women with PIH. Materials and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 50 pre-eclampsia patients who were in third trimester of pregnancy (Case group). A control group of 50 age and gestational age matched normal pregnant women was taken. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed. Fasting Lipid profile parameters were assessed and used to calculate the atherogenic indices namely Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), Cardiac risk ratio (CRR) and Atherogenic coefficient (AC). Statistical Analysis was done by using student’s t-test. Mann-Whitney U-test was used wherever applicable and correlations between the variables were estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results There was an extremely significant (p<0.0001) increase in Atherogenic indices (AIP, CRR and AC) in case group as compared to the control group. A positive and significant correlation of systolic blood pressure with AIP (r=0.3583), CRR (r=0.3137), AC (r=0.3193) was found in cases. There was a positive and significant correlation between gestational age and atherogenic indices in the case group. Conclusion Women with pre-eclampsia present abnormalities in lipid profile and these lipids turn out to be a risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Evaluation of the atherogenic indices during pregnancy may help prevent this risk. PMID:26393117

  1. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Behr, M; Thollon, L

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  2. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: study about the repercussions on the obstetric and neonatal results].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Driéli Pacheco; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Stefanelo, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    This observational, descriptive and analytic study aimed to identify the prevalence of IPV cases among pregnant women and classify them according to the type and frequency; identify the obstetric and neonatal results and their associations with the intimate partner violence (IPV) occurrence in the current pregnancy. It was developed with 232 pregnant women who had prenatal care at a public maternity hospital. Data were collected via structured interview and in the patients' charts and analyzed through the statistic software SAS® 9.0. Among the participants, 15.5% suffered IPV during pregnancy, among that 14.7% suffered psychological violence, 5.2% physical violence and 0.4% sexual violence. Women who did not desire the pregnancy had more chances of suffering IPV (p<0.00; OR=4.32 and 95% CI [1.77 - 10.54]). With regards to the obstetric and neonatal repercussions, there was no statistical association between the variables investigated. Thus, for the study participants there were no negative obstetric and neonatal repercussions related to IPV during pregnancy. PMID:24918877

  3. Awareness of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Pregnant Women in Geneva, Switzerland: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Willame, Alexia; Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Combescure, Christophe; Irion, Olivier; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland). Methods: The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable. Conclusions: Most women are unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn. PMID:26633451

  4. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... become pregnant. For example, if you have a history of chronic liver disease, your doctor may recommend the Hepatitis A vaccine. If you work in a lab or are traveling to a country where you may be exposed to meningococcal disease, ...

  5. [Over the counter medication in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Mikou, Sofia; Buire, Anne-Claire; Trenque, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    A prospective survey is conducted in a population of pregnant women in order to evaluate the prevalence of pregnant women using over the counter medication, to define their profile and to evaluate the information received about prenatal drug exposure and teratogen risk. During the study period, 223 women were interviewed, 23.3% of them use over the counter medication. In most cases, the drugs are "comfort drug". One woman, only, had taken anti-inflammatory during the first trimester. Only 51% had received information on drug and teratogen risk. Self medication is not frequently used by the pregnant women. The information provided by health professionals, about the risk and OTC medications during pregnancy, is insufficient. PMID:19236832

  6. Recruitment of healthy first-trimester pregnant women: lessons from the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy study (CHirP).

    PubMed

    Webster, Glenys M; Teschke, Kay; Janssen, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising, recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting a study booth at baby "trade shows" were used to advertise the study. Participants had to meet a strict set of eligibility criteria, and were asked to donate two-second-trimester blood samples, complete two questionnaires, have samples of air, dust, lint and tap water collected from their homes, and donate a cord blood sample at delivery. Over 17 months, 171 women enrolled (49% of initial contacts, and 99% of all eligible women) and 152 women completed the study (89% retention). Total recruitment costs were approximately $400 Cdn per final participant. Posters, study booth presentations and online advertising generated the most inquiries about the study. Word of mouth, referral from another study and direct email were the most cost-effective strategies. Not surprisingly, the recruited study population was less ethnically diverse, more affluent and more educated than the background population of pregnant women in Vancouver. A combination of passive and active recruitment techniques were successful for recruiting healthy women in roughly the first trimester of pregnancy (<15 weeks gestation). While a convenience sample of women is suitable for our study questions, additional strategies may be required to recruit a more representative pregnant population in future studies. PMID:21210200

  7. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n?=?20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n?=?20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n?=?16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV disclosure among pregnant women and partners, especially in the home-setting. PMID:24294994

  8. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections...

  9. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study

    PubMed Central

    King, Bridget; Bryan, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants 20?074 pregnant women with a median age of 30 who received the pertussis vaccine and a matched historical unvaccinated control group. Main outcome measure Adverse events identified from clinical diagnoses during pregnancy, with additional data from the matched child record identified through mother-child linkage. The primary event of interest was stillbirth (intrauterine death after 24 weeks’ gestation). Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth in the 14 days immediately after vaccination (incidence rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.62) or later in pregnancy (0.85, 0.44 to 1.61) compared with historical national rates. Compared with a matched historical cohort of unvaccinated pregnant women, there was no evidence that vaccination accelerated the time to delivery (hazard ratio 1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Furthermore, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth, maternal or neonatal death, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, haemorrhage, fetal distress, uterine rupture, placenta or vasa praevia, caesarean delivery, low birth weight, or neonatal renal failure, all serious events that can occur naturally in pregnancy. Conclusion In women given pertussis vaccination in the third trimester, there is no evidence of an increased risk of any of an extensive predefined list of adverse events related to pregnancy. In particular, there was no evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth. Given the recent increases in the rate of pertussis infection and morbidity and mortality in neonates, these early data provide initial evidence for evaluating the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy for health professionals and the public and can help to inform vaccination policy making. PMID:25015137

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000?mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4?g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9?g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7?g/dL (9.8; 11.5?g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8?g/dL [9.8; 11.8?g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy.

  11. Moving targets: The challenges of studying infectious diseases among pregnant women in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Divala, Titus H; Mungwira, Randy G; Laufer, Miriam K

    2015-11-25

    Conducting clinical trials to prevent and treat infectious diseases in pregnancy is essential to saving maternal and newborn lives, though it is fraught with challenges. We have been conducting research in malaria treatment and prevention in children and pregnant women in Blantyre, Malawi for over a decade. Here, we review some of the unique challenges that we have faced in leading research studies that with rigor and integrity and maintaining the highest ethical standard. We conclude with concrete strategies to overcome some of the apparent obstacles that frequently focus on building trust through bidirectional communication with local health workers and communities. We also highlight the key role of local and international investigators to advocate for the health of the communities in which they work. PMID:26319059

  12. Clinical study of skin changes in low and high risk pregnant women*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Lana Bezerra; do Amaral, Waldemar Naves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During pregnancy there is immunological, metabolic, endocrine and vascular changes responsible for physiological and pathological skin changes. OBJECTIVES determine the prevalence of specific physiological changes and pregnancy, comparing the period of gestation of their appearances and compare type of prenatal care as the skin changes. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 905 pregnant women. RESULTS The prevalence of physiological skin changes was 88.95% and the most common was pigment. The prevalence of specific dermatoses was 8.72% and atopic eruption was the most common. CONCLUSION Physiological changes were seen more in the 3rd quarter, as well as the specific dermatoses. No statistical difference in prenatal low risk compared to high risk was observed, whereas the cutaneous physiological changes and specific pregnancy dermatoses.

  13. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  14. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n?=?207) and non-pregnant women (n?=?370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p?=?0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p?=?0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r?=?0.731, p?pregnant women (p?=?0.008), but not in pregnant women (p?=?0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  15. Preliminary study of blood methylmercury effects on reproductive hormones and relevant factors among infertile and pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Chen, Po-Hsi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous mercury species and an endocrine-disrupting chemical that could cause reproductive and developmental harm effects in animals. In this study, we recruited 310 infertile women and 57 pregnant women and investigated their blood MeHg levels. The distribution of blood reproductive hormone, selenium and zinc levels, and the difference of relevant factors by the reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 ?g/L) of infertile women were further examined. Results showed that greater percentages of sashimi consumption, frequencies of Chinese herbal medicine use, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity were observed in infertile women than those for pregnant women. Blood MeHg concentration was significantly greater in infertile than that in pregnant women. Significant concentration differences for FSH and LH by the dichotomized reference level of blood MeHg (5.8 ?g/L) in infertile women were not observed, which may stem from that these reproductive hormones in participated infertile women were mostly in the normal reference range. Consumption of fish and sashimi represented the major source of MeHg exposure in infertile women. MeHg levels were elevated in infertile women, and consistent with fish consumption frequency. Compared to the referent level of blood MeHg levels <5.8 ?g/L, the elevated blood MeHg levels (?5.8 ?g/L) in infertile women were 3.35 and 4.42 folds risk in categorized frequencies of fish consumption 1-2 meals per week and more than 3 meals per week, respectively. The obtained results provide evidences and help updating the advisory of fish consumption and improving women's reproductive health. PMID:26002048

  16. Preoperative preparation of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liki?-Ladjevi?, Ivana; Argirovi?, Rajka; Kadija, Sasa; Maksimovi?, Milica; Zivaljevi?, Biljana; Terzi?, Milan

    2011-01-01

    All the elective surgeries are to be avoided during pregnancy and pregnant women should undergo only emergency surgical interventions. Pregnancy is associated with different physiological changes in the organism, which should be taken into account in preparative preparation of the pregnant women. Expanded body fluid volume leads to dilutional anemia, however other hematological disorders may be present as well. Extreme obesity is a frequent comorbidity, while hypertension is associated with the highest risks since it may lead to a life-threatening complication--eclampsia. As for other coexisting diseases, urinary tract infections and gestational diabetes are the most common as well as hyperthyroidism and other diseases that may also develop. The type and severity of the acute surgical disease, extensiveness of the planned surgery as well as the type of planned anesthesia to be applied, occasionally necessitate, depending on the gestational age, termination of pregnancy to be considered. Gynecological-obstetric consultations are mandatory in all surgical interventions planned in pregnant women. PMID:21879671

  17. Parity as a factor affecting the white-coat effect in pregnant women: the BOSHI study.

    PubMed

    Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Iwama, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Mikiko; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Narikawa, Yoko; Yagihashi, Katsuyo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.3±4.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.1±9.8, 3.4±7.1 and 1.8±6.0?mm?Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.8±7.4, 1.6±5.8 and 2.4±4.9?mm?Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.07±0.61?mm?Hg and multiparous women: 2.78±0.74?mm?Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2?mm?Hg, was small. PMID:26311165

  18. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of < 0.05 was considered. Results: The age range was between 30 to 45 years with mean age of 30±4.1 years in both groups. Overweight pregnant women had significantly high frequency of pre-eclampsia (27% versus 9% in controls), PIH (24% versus 8% in controls), gestational diabetes mellitus (22% versus 5% in controls), prolonged labour (4% versus 6% in controls), Caesarean section (44% versus 16% in controls), Wound infection (3% versus 2% in controls) and Postpartum Hemorrhage (5% versus 2% in controls). P-value < 0.001 was considered significance. Fetal complications in overweight pregnant women compared to controls i.e. Still birth (13% versus 2%), Early neonatal death (11% versus 1%), shoulder dystocia (5% versus 1%) and NICU admission (47% versus 10%). Results were statistically significant except shoulder dystocia. Conclusion: We conclude that the result of present study indicates obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome. PMID:26101496

  19. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  20. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Li, Hong-tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-xia; Xu, Gao-sheng; Bai, Man-xi; Liu, Jian-meng

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  1. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Li, Hong-Tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  2. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Olley, Mitsan; Anunibe, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae. PMID:22363076

  3. Epidemiological study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Nyari, T.; Deak, J.; Nagy, E.; Vereb, I.; Kovacs, L.; Meszaros, G.; Orvos, H.; Berbik, I.

    1998-01-01

    A multicentre survey was carried out in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the pregnant population in Hungary. The nucleic acid hybridisation method (PACE 2 Gen-Probe) was applied for the examination of C trachomatis. The overall average prevalence of C trachomatis cases during an 18 month survey on 6161 pregnant women was 5.87%. There were significant differences in the proportions of chlamydial infection in the different survey centres, and also in the different age groups and the different family status groups. The perinatal mortality rate exhibited a significantly higher prevalence (8.52%) among C trachomatis positive than among negative patients (2.03%). In the anamnestic histories of C trachomatis infected patients, the frequency of premature uterine activity was 8.13%, in contrast with 5.18% in the non-infected group (p < 0.05). We suggest that all pregnant women be tested for C trachomatis infection. ????? PMID:9849559

  4. A comparison of food frequency and diet recall methods in studies of nutrient intake of low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Suitor, C J; Gardner, J; Willett, W C

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for use with low-income pregnant women and to evaluate its performance in classifying women according to nutrient intake. Index nutrients used were energy, protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, B-6, and C. Two hundred ninety-five Massachusetts women, aged 14 to 43 years, participated in the field test of the questionnaire. A subset of 95 women provided three 24-hour diet recalls for use in comparative studies. Correlation coefficients between questionnaire and diet recall scores were adjusted for measurement error resulting from the limited number of 24-hour recalls per subject, and their confidence intervals were computed. When subjects with implausibly high energy scores (greater than 4,500/day) were removed from the sample, reducing sample size by about 15%, correlation coefficients increased substantially (25% to 64%) for all nutrients except vitamin A. Adjusted correlation coefficients exceeded 0.5, excluding vitamin A (r approximately 0.15), and quintile comparisons indicated that the questionnaire would correctly identify a high proportion of the women having low intake of selected nutrients. We conclude that a self-administered questionnaire can provide useful data about individual recent intake of selected nutrients in a majority of English-speaking, low-income pregnant women, but that overestimation of food use may occur among up to 20% of this population. PMID:2592710

  5. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

  6. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768 PMID:21385426

  7. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  8. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400??g/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (?1000??g/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ?1000??g/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  9. Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Shang, Xiaoping; Guo, Yu; Liu, Gangqiong; Yang, Jinjian; Xue, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy, and studies show that pregnant women are more likely to suffer from restless legs syndrome (RLS). Pregnant women with hypertension and RLS often experience disrupted sleep patterns because of activation of the nervous system. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between hypertension and RLS in pregnant women, and their impact on sleep. We enrolled 3,781 pregnant women who were admitted at our hospital for delivery between May 2011 and May 2014. The face-to-face questionnaire used to gather data included the International RLS Study Group criteria for diagnosis, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and hypertension diagnosis. Depending on the time of occurrence of hypertension, it was divided into two different types: pregnancy-induced hypertension and chronic hypertension in pregnancy. Out of 3,781 patients, 453 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for RLS and 486 met the diagnostic criteria for hypertension. Among patients with RLS, prophylactic iron supplementation was less frequently taken during pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension, rather than chronic hypertension in pregnancy, was found to be more frequent in patients with RLS; pregnant women with RLS had higher PSQI and ESS scores than pregnant controls. In our study, RLS was frequent in pregnant women, especially in those without prophylactic iron supplementation. Patients with RLS described more serious sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In addition, pregnancy-induced hypertension was more common in patients with RLS. PMID:25647293

  10. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Know Pregnant? What to Expect Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins? Print A A A Text ...

  11. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases. PMID:26170151

  12. Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women

    E-print Network

    Original Research Article A Test of Three Hypotheses of Pica and Amylophagy Among Pregnant Women and amylophagy were tested in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women (Study 2, n 5 95). Logistic regression samples of pregnant women in the United States (Corbett et al., 2003; Ephros and Lee, 1988), with a few

  13. A Diagnostic and Symptomatological Study on Trichomoniasis in Symptomatic Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan, South Central Iran in 2012-13

    PubMed Central

    MANSHOORI, Azita; MIRZAEI, Sakineh; VALADKHANI, Zarrintaj; KAZEMI ARABABADI, Mohammad; REZAEIAN, Mohsen; ZAINODINI, Nahid; BAHRAMABADI, Raza; ZARE-BIDAKI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis, is responsible for more than half of all sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study aimed to determine the frequency of T. vaginalis infection and its clinical manifestations in symptomatic pregnant women in the area based on four different diagnostic methods. Methods: A total of 162 pregnant women with at least one sign or symptom of vaginosis, referred to two gynecologic and obstetrics clinics in Rafsanjan City, south central Iran, were randomly selected in 2012-13. Through speculum examination of patients by gynecologists, clinical diagnosis determined, vaginal discharge were collected by using two sterile cotton swabs from the posterior fornix and vagina pH was measured. Samples were examined by three diagnostic methods including wet mount, culture in TYI-S-33 medium and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: T. vaginalis was detected in 19.5%, 27.2%, 56.2% and 51.6% of subjects according to diagnostic methods of clinical diagnosis, wet mount, culture and PCR, respectively. There was statistically significant relationship between T. vaginalis infection and patients' age, gestational age, marriage age, residence, educational level, parity. The symptomatological pattern in the 91 women infected with T. vaginalis was as follows: leukorrhea, 96.7%; urine frequency, 65.9%; odorous secretion, 63.3%; urogenital itching and irritation, 53.8%; vaginal inflammation, 47.3%; dyspareunia, 39.6%; and dysuria, 16.5%. Conclusion: Our results indicated a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in symptomatic pregnant women, very low sensitivity and relative high specificity of clinical diagnosis and wet mount technique compared to culture and PCR, as well as thatpregnancy increases the susceptibility to the infection in a gestational age-dependent manner.

  14. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

  15. Association of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Hongling; Geng, Qingshan; Ma, Qingling; Long, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM. Methods We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Results Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR), and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic ?-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24–28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and reticulocytes (P = 0.029) at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002) and monocytes (P = 0.006) in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI. Conclusions Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited ?-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM. PMID:25915047

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study?

    PubMed Central

    Chasela, Charles S.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Study design Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ? 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Results Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%). Conclusions HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. PMID:22658797

  17. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  18. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve. PMID:25798847

  19. The Community Perinatal Care Study: Home Visiting and Nursing Support for Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, David; Tough, Suzanne; Siever, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    This article describes The Community Perinatal Care Study, a community-based study of pregnancy support that was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between 2001 and 2004. The study was conducted to learn how to improve community-based pregnancy care and to improve prenatal care and healthy births, particularly for women with increased…

  20. Antidepressant Use in Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Forray, Ariadna

    2014-01-01

    Women in their reproductive years are at increased risk of experiencing depressive and anxiety disorders. As such, it is likely that pregnant women will undergo treatment with antidepressants. We review the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal and neonatal complications of the offspring related to in utero exposure to antidepressants. The literature shows that antidepressant exposure is associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, although effects are small. There are a number of reports of transitory neonatal signs after exposure to antidepressants. No specific pattern of malformations has been consistently associated with antidepressants, with the possible exception of paroxetine and cardiac malformations. There is inconclusive evidence of a link between antidepressants in late pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. While antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, confounding factors that can adversely affect pregnancy and birth outcomes may contribute to some of the findings. PMID:24313569

  1. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11?g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%-39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01-3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03-2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92-5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06-4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women. PMID:26137321

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  3. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  4. Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

  5. Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications arising from an influenza infection. It is suggested that physiological changes such as immunological changes, increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption, as well as lung tidal volume might increase the susceptibility to influenza complications if infection occurs during pregnancy. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries and has been proven to be safe and effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Influenza vaccination is also cost-effective. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage remains low in pregnant women. This might stem from the lack of healthcare workers' education, a feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious disease and a failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. In order to protect pregnant women and infants from influenza related morbidity and mortality an educational programme targeting healthcare workers in charge of pregnant women should be implemented. PMID:25195141

  6. Magnitude of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melku, Mulugeta; Kebede, Asmarie; Addis, Zelalem

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, causing numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of study was to assess the magnitude of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Method The study was conducted between March and May, 2012. Sociodemographic data were collected through face-to-face interview. HIV1/2 was tested following current national HIV1/2 testing algorithm. Syphilis infection was also tested using the rapid plasm reagin test for screening and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination as a confirmatory test. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with HIV and syphilis seroprevalence from selected sociodemographic variables. Results Of 300 women, 31 (10.33%), eleven (3.7%), and three (1%) were seroreactive for HIV, syphilis, and HIV–syphilis coinfection, respectively. High seroprevalence of HIV was found in women ages 25–30 years (13.4%), and women whose husbands attended primary school (19.7%). Syphilis was high in women occupationally housewives (15.2%) and whose husbands were illiterate (11.5%). HIV was associated with husband illiteracy (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] of 4.13, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 16.95]) and primary educational level of husbands (AOR [95% CI] =3.83 [1.50, 9.90]), whereas syphilis was associated with illiteracy of husband (AOR [95% CI] =7.25 [1.74, 30.30]). Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis was high. Low husband educational status was a risk factor for HIV and syphilis. Therefore, substantial efforts have to be made to reinforce prevention strategies and to screen as early as possible to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmission. PMID:26082663

  7. Too Many Pregnant Women Gain Too Much Weight: Doctors' Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155862.html Too Many Pregnant Women Gain Too Much Weight: Doctors' Group Obesity can ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). In pregnant women, obesity increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, ...

  8. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Silva dos Santos, Mônica Caroline; Lopes Simplício, Janicéia; Menezes de Medeiros, Jandira; Barroso Gomes, Kelly Cristina; de Carvalho Costa, Isabel Cristina; Batista-Silva, Eva; Teixeira do Nascimento, Cristiana; da Silva Chagas, Eda Cristina; Jardim Sardinha, José Felipe; Simões de Santana Filho, Franklin; Brock, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). Methods/Principal Findings Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54%) were between 20–29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503) reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001) were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16–0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10–0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively). The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19–0.95]; p = 0.037) and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC) attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15–0.70]; p = 0.005). Conclusion This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance. PMID:26675007

  9. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ? 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and urinary ethylene thiourea (ETU) concentrations among pregnant women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA). Environ Health Perspect 122:1321–1328;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307679 PMID:25198283

  10. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu. Antibodies can be passed on to your unborn baby, and help protect the baby for up to ... shot is safe for you and for your unborn child. FACT: The flu shot is safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. You can receive the flu shot at any ...

  11. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory...

  12. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... require all entities that serve women and who receive such funds to provide preference to pregnant...

  13. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... require all entities that serve women and who receive such funds to provide preference to pregnant...

  14. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... require all entities that serve women and who receive such funds to provide preference to pregnant...

  15. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... require all entities that serve women and who receive such funds to provide preference to pregnant...

  16. Parenting and Concerns of Pregnant Women in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella OC; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid-dependence. Study Design and Methods We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children’s power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child’s health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS. PMID:25137081

  17. Beverage consumption and the prevalence of tooth loss in pregnant Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Hirota, Yoshio; Hajime, Oda; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Kitada, Mitsuyoshi; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Ishiko, Osamu; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nishio, Junko; Yamamasu, Seiichi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Kawai, Seigo; Yanagihara, Kazumi; Wakuda, Koji; Kawashima, Tokio; Narimoto, Katsuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiko; Orino, Katsuhiko; Tsunetoh, Itsuo; Yoshida, Junichi; Iito, Junichi; Kaneko, Takuzi; Sanfujinka, Kaneko; Kamiya, Takao; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Takemura, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko

    2008-04-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in the impact of beverage consumption on dental health because changes have occurred in the types and quantities of beverage consumed. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between consumption frequencies of various beverages and the prevalence of tooth loss among young adult women. Study subjects were 1002 pregnant Japanese women. Tooth loss was defined as previous extraction of one or more teeth. Dietary habits were evaluated by a validated dietary history questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of tooth loss. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, parity, cigarette smoking, passive smoking at home and at work, family income, education, changes in diet in the previous one month, season when data were collected and body mass index. Of the 1002 subjects, 256 women had lost one or more teeth. Coffee consumption was independently associated with an increased prevalence of tooth loss. When subjects were divided according to consumption of coffee with or without sugar, an increased prevalence of tooth loss was found only in subjects who consumed coffee without addition of sugar. Compared with the lowest consumption of green tea, the intermediate but not the highest consumption of green tea was associated with an increased prevalence of tooth loss. There was no measurable association of intake of milk, black tea, cola, or 100% fruit juice with the prevalence of tooth loss. The findings suggest that coffee consumption might be associated with an increased prevalence of tooth loss among young adult women. PMID:18646593

  18. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  19. Abuse disclosure in privately and medicaid-funded pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Linda; Bloom, Tina; Davis, Jan; Kilburn, Erin; Curry, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Disclosure of abuse by pregnant women can vary depending on whether the woman is assessed directly by a trained interviewer versus written questionnaires, and if she is asked repeatedly during the course of pregnancy. One thousand pregnant women were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the effects of a nursing case management intervention on the mental and physical well-being of pregnant women experiencing or at risk for abuse. Thirteen percent of the total study participants reported current abuse and/or abuse within the past year, with only 2% of those reporting that the abuse occurred during pregnancy. The incidence of reported abuse was much higher among Medicaid-funded women (28.9%) than privately insured women (8.7%). Regardless of source of payment, women reporting abuse were significantly younger, less educated, nonwhite with lower income, and had significantly higher stress and lower self-esteem than women not reporting abuse. A high incidence of women reporting intimate partner violence described being choked on the Danger Assessment Screen (34%). We strongly urge that choking be added to routine screening questions used during pregnancy and that the Danger Assessment tool is used for further evaluation of women who screen positive. In addition, we believe another barrier to reporting abuse was fear of being reported to child protective services, contributing to the overall low rate of abuse disclosure. PMID:16945784

  20. Using Web-Based Questionnaires and Obstetric Records to Assess General Health Characteristics Among Pregnant Women: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Naomi PE; Merkus, Peter JFM; Verhaak, Chris M; Roeleveld, Nel; Roukema, Jolt

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-reported medical history information is included in many studies. However, data on the validity of Web-based questionnaires assessing medical history are scarce. If proven to be valid, Web-based questionnaires may provide researchers with an efficient means to collect data on this parameter in large populations. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a Web-based questionnaire on chronic medical conditions, allergies, and blood pressure readings against obstetric records and data from general practitioners. Methods Self-reported questionnaire data were compared with obstetric records for 519 pregnant women participating in the Dutch PRegnancy and Infant DEvelopment (PRIDE) Study from July 2011 through November 2012. These women completed Web-based questionnaires around their first prenatal care visit and in gestational weeks 17 and 34. We calculated kappa statistics (?) and the observed proportions of positive and negative agreement between the baseline questionnaire and obstetric records for chronic conditions and allergies. In case of inconsistencies between these 2 data sources, medical records from the woman’s general practitioner were consulted as the reference standard. For systolic and diastolic blood pressure, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for multiple data points. Results Agreement between the baseline questionnaire and the obstetric record was substantial (?=.61) for any chronic condition and moderate for any allergy (?=.51). For specific conditions, we found high observed proportions of negative agreement (range 0.88-1.00) and on average moderate observed proportions of positive agreement with a wide range (range 0.19-0.90). Using the reference standard, the sensitivity of the Web-based questionnaire for chronic conditions and allergies was comparable to or even better than the sensitivity of the obstetric records, in particular for migraine (0.90 vs 0.40, P=.02), asthma (0.86 vs 0.61, P=.04), inhalation allergies (0.92 vs 0.74, P=.003), hay fever (0.90 vs 0.64, P=.001), and allergies to animals (0.89 vs 0.53, P=.01). However, some overreporting of allergies was observed in the questionnaire and for some nonsomatic conditions sensitivity of both measurement instruments was low. The ICCs for blood pressure readings ranged between 0.72 and 0.92 with very small mean differences between the 2 methods of data collection. Conclusions Web-based questionnaires can be used to validly collect data on many chronic disorders, allergies, and blood pressure readings among pregnant women. PMID:26081990

  1. An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n?=?13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have recurred in this study – particularly, the difficulties of getting timely reimbursement to facilities, of controlling charging of patients, and of reaching the poorest. This suggests that providing free care through a national health insurance system has not solved systemic weaknesses. The wider concerns about raising the quality of care, and ensuring that all supply-side and demand-side elements are in place to make the policy effective will also take a longer term and bigger commitment. PMID:23446355

  2. Across-sectional study on anxiety and stress in pregnant women with chronic HBV infection in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Li, Jianju; Lin, Keke; Ji, Ping; Sun, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anxiety and pregnancy-associated stress of pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the People’s Republic of China and analyze the relationship between anxiety and pregnancy-associated stress in the hope of finding ways to reduce the stress or improve the coping skills for these mothers-to-be during pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and sixty chronic HBV-infected pregnant women (HBV group) and 160 healthy pregnant women (control group) selected from three Peking University-affiliated hospitals participated in the study, and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS) survey. Results The mean scores of STAI and PSRS for the HBV group were higher than for the control group. Factor 2 of PSRS (stress caused by worrying about mother and child’s health and safety) was the highest, and was significantly higher in the HBV group than in the control group. Correlation analysis showed STAI scores were significantly correlated with economic status and diagnosis, as well as the total score, factor 1 (stress about identifying with the role of mother), and factor 2 of PSRS, but not significantly correlated with factor 3 of PSRS (stress caused by the changes of body shape and physical activity). Conclusion Pregnant women with chronic HBV infection experienced higher levels of anxiety and stress than healthy pregnant women. Their major stress came from concerns for the health and safety of the mother and the child. PMID:26346004

  3. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20?weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30?weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30?mm up to 28?weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number UMIN000016853. PMID:26423851

  4. Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some women continue smoking during pregnancy despite the extensive information available on the dangers smoking poses to their fetus. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and determinants of smoking before and during pregnancy and the extent of smoking during pregnancy from a European perspective in relation to maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy, morbidity, and pregnancy-related factors. Methods This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Results Of 8344 women included, 2944 (35.3%) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 771 (26.2%) continued smoking during pregnancy, 88 (11.4%) of whom smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day. There was a wide variation among the 15 European countries in smoking rates before and during pregnancy, ranging from 25.0% (Sweden) to 50.0% (Croatia) before and 4.2% (Iceland) to 18.9% (Croatia) during pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and unplanned pregnancy, who did not take folic acid, and consumed alcohol during pregnancy were the most likely to smoke before pregnancy. Women who lived in Eastern or Western Europe, without a spouse/partner, with a low education level and health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children and unplanned pregnancy, and who did not take folic acid were the most likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy were the most likely to be living in Eastern Europe and to have a low education level. Conclusion Women with fewer resources living in Western or Eastern Europe are more likely not only to smoke before pregnancy but also to continue smoking during pregnancy. These high-risk women are characterized as living alone, having high school or less as highest education level, having low health literacy, being a housewife, having previous children, having unplanned pregnancy, and no use of folic acid. Our findings indicated that focus on smoking cessation is important in antenatal care in Europe as many women smoke before pregnancy, and still continue to do so in pregnancy. PMID:24964728

  5. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  6. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

  7. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  8. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  9. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, M.; Goessler, W.; Nermell, B.; Ekstroem, E.C.; Loennerdal, B.; El Arifeen, S.; Vahter, M.

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  10. Antenatal Mental Health and Retinal Vascular Caliber in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, M. Kamran; Broekman, Leutscher; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Chen, Helen; Gooley, Joshua J.; Soh, Shu-E; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Depression, anxiety, and poor sleep are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between negative emotion and retinal microvascular changes among adults, yet no study has been done in pregnant women so far. This study aims to examine the association of antenatal mental health and retinal vascular caliber among Asian pregnant women. Methods Nine hundred and fifty two Asian pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were included in this study, who were recruited from two Singapore cohort studies, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study and the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) study conducted from 2009 onwards. A total of 835 Asian pregnant women underwent retinal photography at 26 weeks follow up, of whom 800 had gradable photographs. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, ethnicity, household income, pregnancy outcome history, means of conception, hypertension history, diabetes history, cigarette smoking history, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, and spherical equivalent, each standard deviation (SD) increase in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (4.49 scores) and in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (2.90 scores) was associated with a 0.80 ?m (P = 0.03) and a 1.22 ?m (P = 0.01) widening in retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates relationships of antenatal depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality with retinal arteriolar widening in pregnant women. Translational Relevance We speculate that this might possibly indicate an effect of antenatal depression and poor sleep on the microcirculation during pregnancy. PMID:24049713

  11. Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

  12. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli Induce Different Cytokine Production Patterns in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Faas, Marijke M.; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. Methods Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNF?, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. Results We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it’s LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNF? was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. Conclusion Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production. PMID:24466049

  13. Does Smoke from Biomass Fuel Contribute to Anemia in Pregnant Women in Nagpur, India? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Charlotte M.; Patel, Archana; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia affects upwards of 50% of pregnant women in developing countries and is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child. We hypothesized that exposure to smoke from biomass fuel – which is widely used for household energy needs in resource-limited settings – could exacerbate anemia in pregnancy, possibly as a result of systemic inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether exposure to smoke from biomass fuel (wood, straw, crop residues, or dung) as opposed to clean fuel (electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, or biogas) is an independent risk factor for anemia in pregnancy, classified by severity. Methods A secondary analysis was performed using data collected from a rural pregnancy cohort (N = 12,782) in Nagpur, India in 2011-2013 as part of the NIH-funded Maternal and Newborn Health Registry Study. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of biomass fuel vs. clean fuel use on anemia in pregnancy, controlling for maternal age, body mass index, education level, exposure to household tobacco smoke, parity, trimester when hemoglobin was measured, and receipt of prenatal iron and folate supplements. Results The prevalence of any anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dl) was 93% in biomass fuel users and 88% in clean fuel users. Moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) occurred in 53% and 40% of the women, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression showed higher relative risks of mild anemia in pregnancy (hemoglobin 10-11 g/dl; RRR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.19-1.61) and of moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy (RRR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53-2.09) in biomass fuel vs. clean fuel users, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion In our study population, exposure to biomass smoke was associated with higher risks of mild and moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy, independent of covariates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01073475 PMID:26024473

  14. Serum silicon concentrations in pregnant women and newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Anderson, Simon H C; Lakasing, Lorin; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-12-14

    Earlier studies in animals have suggested an essential role for Si in connective tissues, but such works have not been replicated per se. Nonetheless, a study conducted in 2000 has reported that Si may be essential during pregnancy for the growing fetus, since serum Si concentrations in infants were approximately 300 % higher than those in older children and adults and serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were approximately 300 % lower than those in age-matched non-pregnant controls. To reproduce these potentially important findings, in the present study, serum Si concentrations were measured in fourteen pregnant women (15-24 weeks of gestation) and compared with those of seventeen non-pregnant, non-lactating female controls. Serum Si concentrations were also measured in fourteen full-term mothers at the time of delivery and in the umbilical cord (UC) vein and artery where possible. Fasting serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were not significantly different from those of the female controls and showed little change with advancing gestation (r 0·2). Mean serum Si concentrations in the UC vein samples were 52 % higher, while those in the UC artery samples were 235 % higher than those in the maternal forearm vein samples, although data were widely spread and differences were not significant. Mean maternal forearm vein Si concentrations at delivery were 50 % lower than those of pregnant women and female controls, but, again, these were not significant. Overall, we note that there are significant analytical challenges in comparing baseline Si levels between different groups; notwithstanding, our findings cannot confirm a reduction in fasting serum Si levels during pregnancy, but, equally, we cannot rule out higher serum Si levels in newborns than in their mothers, and further work is required. PMID:23702224

  15. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  16. Vitamin D Status in Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in the North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadin, Bita; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the vitamin D status in preeclamptic women. The objective of this case-control study was to determine vitamin D status, in preeclamptic women and compare it with that of healthy pregnant controls. Methods: Forty preeclamptic women, aged 18 to 45yr and forty age- and pregnancy weight-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured and its levels of <10, 10-30, 30-90 and >90 nanogram per milliliter (ng/ml) were considered as vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity, respectively. Results: Sixty and forty percent of preeclamptic women were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, while in the control group they were 10% and 90%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the median intake of vitamin D between preeclamptic and non preeclamptic women (1.45 and 1.20µg/day respectively), but serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in preeclamptic cases compared to controls (10.09 ± 6.66 and 15.73 ± 5.85ng /ml respectively, P= 0.002) . Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women in the north-west of Iran. Preeclampsia can cause decreasing of serum level of 25(OH)D. PMID:26634196

  17. Biomechanics of rising from a chair and walking in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sunaga, Yasuyo; Anan, Masaya; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to assess the changes in the pattern of rising from a chair and walking forward as pregnancy progressed. Twelve pregnant women and 10 nulliparous women were included in this study. Participants were videotaped with a digital video camera in the sagittal plane, and the coordinates of the markers attached to the subjects were identified using image analysis software. The peak trunk-flexion angle in pregnant women during rising was smaller, but the hip-extension angle during the stance phase was larger than in controls. Also, the peak horizontal and vertical velocities of the center of mass were lower, and appeared earlier, in pregnant women than in controls. During rising, pregnant women dampened the propulsion attributable to increased uterus volume, and they enhanced the forward propulsion at gait initiation. To ensure safe motion, pregnant women should not initiate gait until reaching a stable standing position after rising. PMID:23452381

  18. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  19. Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P.; Gloor, Gregory B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 1010 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. PMID:25293764

  20. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, ?ukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielim?ka, Micha?; Soba?ski, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals. PMID:25844409

  1. What factors explain pregnant women’s feeding intentions in Bradford, England: A multi-methods, multi-ethnic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. Methods 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N?=?258), mixed-feeding (N?=?50), bottle-feeding (N?=?88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N?=?88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. Results TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR?=?0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR?=?1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR?=?13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR?=?10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Conclusions Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding. PMID:24472414

  2. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  3. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study wasmore »a national survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed. « less

  4. If nicotine is a developmental neurotoxicant in animal studies, dare we recommend nicotine replacement therapy in pregnant women and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use in pregnancy is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and contributes in major ways to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorders and learning disabilities that emerge in childhood and adolescence. Over the past two decades, animal models of prenatal nicotine exposure have demonstrated that nicotine is a neurobehavioral teratogen that disrupts brain development by preempting the natural, neurotrophic roles of acetylcholine. Through its actions on nicotinic cholinergic receptors, nicotine elicits abnormalities of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, promotes apoptosis and produces deficits in the number of neural cells and in synaptic function. The effects eventually compromise multiple neurotransmitter systems because of the widespread regulatory role of cholinergic neurotransmission. Importantly, the long-term alterations include effects on reward systems that reinforce the subsequent susceptibility to nicotine addiction in later life. These considerations strongly question the appropriateness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation in pregnant women, especially as the pharmacokinetics of the transdermal patch may actually enhance fetal nicotine exposure. Further, because brain maturation continues into adolescence, the period when smoking typically commences, adolescence is also a vulnerable period in which nicotine can change the trajectory of neurodevelopment. There are also serious questions as to whether NRT is actually effective as an aid to smoking cessation in pregnant women and adolescents. This review considers the ramifications of the basic science findings of nicotine's effects on brain development for NRT in these populations. PMID:18380035

  5. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered. PMID:21915154

  6. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo Batista; Trevisol, Daisson José; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s) of identified bacterial(s) and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7). Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin. PMID:25626961

  7. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ? 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  8. Fetal Biometry Studies of Malaysian Pregnant Women and Comparison with International Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N.; Ramli, R. M.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Fetal biometry is a measurement done on fetus anatomy to relate the fetus growth with gestational age (GA). In this study [1], fetal biometry that was studied consists of biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Studies were carried out at Maternity Unit, Hospital Pulau Penang. From the finding, it is understood that fetal biometry distinguish the normal from abnormal fetal structures and it vary among different populations, depending upon their racial [2,3] and nutrition [4,5,6]. True findings are valuable in estimating the gestational age of the fetus, abnormalities in fetus and the consideration of maternal health specific to the Malaysian population.

  9. Conceptualising Information Literacy as Social Practice: A Study of Pregnant Women's Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papen, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study presents a view of information literacy not primarily as skill but as different practices, situated within specific social and institutional contexts. It suggests that questions of authority of knowledge are central to understanding people's information practices. Method: First, the concept of information…

  10. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  11. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24484853

  12. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  13. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  14. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  15. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204...Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses....

  16. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204...Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses....

  17. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

  18. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

  19. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman. PMID:21499449

  20. Characteristics of pregnant women in motor vehicle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H; Strotmeyer, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of hospitalized trauma during pregnancy. Maternal injury puts the fetus at great risk, yet little is known about the incidence, risks, and characteristics of pregnant women in crashes. Setting and methods: Police reported crashes were analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Since 1995, this system recorded pregnancy/trimester status. Pregnant and non-pregnant women 15–39 years of age were compared by age, driver status, seat belt use, and treatment. Belt use and seating position were examined by trimester. Results: There were 427 pregnant occupants identified (weighted n=32 810, 2.6%, SE 12 585, rate 13/1000 person years). The mean age was 24.9 compared with 24.8 years (pregnant v non-pregnant). Cases were distributed by trimester as follows: first 29.8%, second 36.4%, and third 33.8%. Pregnant women were drivers 70% of the time compared with 71% for non-pregnant women. No belt use was 14% compared with 13% (pregnant v non-pregnant). Mean injury severity was lower for pregnant women but they were more likely to transported or hospitalized. Improper belt use decreased after the first trimester and there was little change in driver proportion by trimester. Third trimester hospitalization rates increased. Conclusions: Pregnant occupants in crashes have similar profiles of restraint use, driver status, and seat position but different treatment indicators compared to non-pregnant occupants. Trimester status has relatively little impact on crash risk, seating position or restraint use. Undercounting of pregnant cases was possible, even so, 1% of all births were reported to be involved in utero in crashes. Little research has focused on developmental outcomes to infants and children previously involved in exposure to these crashes. PMID:12226117

  1. Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women at Alcohol Serving Establishments in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. DESIGN Women completed computed assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. SETTING Women attending alcohol serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. RESULTS High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65% of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29% consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty four percent of the women reported having 6 or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87%) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g. food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  2. Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the infants' environmental health study (ISA) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana M; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Smith, Donald R; Menezes-Filho, José A; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-03-18

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9-56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05-53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = -3.1; 95% CI: -5.8 to -0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: -1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  3. Blood and Hair Manganese Concentrations in Pregnant Women from the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9–56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05–53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = ?3.1; 95% CI: ?5.8 to ?0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: ?1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  4. Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Kammerer, Martin; Adams, Diana; Castelberg, Brida von; Glover, Vivette

    2002-01-01

    Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10) were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation) and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks), together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother. PMID:12437774

  5. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ?12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 ?g/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 ?g/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 ?g/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over the course of gestation may not be generalizable to populations with different iodine status from ours and merits further investigation. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN37927591. PMID:25948667

  6. Use of dietary supplements in pregnant women in relation to sociodemographic factors – a report from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study

    PubMed Central

    Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Hay, Kristen; Joslowski, Gesa; Riikonen, Anne; Ballard, Lori; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of dietary supplement use, particularly supplements containing vitamin D and fatty acids, in pregnant women enrolled in a multi-national study. Design The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Maternal dietary supplement use was self-reported through questionnaires at month 3 to 4 postpartum. Setting Six clinical research centres; three in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland and Germany). Subjects Mothers (n 7326) to infants screened for high-risk HLA-DQ genotypes of type 1 diabetes. Results Ninety-two per cent of the 7326 women used one or more types of supplement during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplements were taken by 65 % of the women, with the highest proportion of users in the USA (80·5 %). Overall, 16 % of the women reported taking fatty acid supplements and a growing trend was seen in all countries between 2004 and 2010 (P < 0·0001). The use was more common in Germany (32 %) and the USA (24 %) compared with Finland (8·5 %) and Sweden (7·0 %). Being pregnant with the first child was a strong predictor for any supplement use in all countries. Low maternal age (<25 years), higher education, BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2 and smoking during pregnancy were factors associated with supplement use in some but not all countries. Conclusions The majority of the women used dietary supplements during pregnancy. The use was associated with sociodemographic and behavioural factors, such as parity, maternal age, education, BMI and maternal smoking. PMID:23452986

  7. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  8. A Qualitative Study of Vaccine Acceptability and Decision Making among Pregnant Women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; Barakat, Amal; Dueger, Erica; Restrepo, Suzanne; El Aouad, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination uptake of pregnant women in Morocco during the A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic was lower than expected. A qualitative study using open-ended questions was developed to explore the main determinants of acceptance and non-acceptance of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine among pregnant women in Morocco and to identify information sources that influenced their decision-making process. The study sample included 123 vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women who were in their second or third trimester between December 2009 and March 2010. They took part in 14 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews in the districts of Casablanca and Kenitra. Thematic qualitative analysis identified reasons for vaccine non-acceptance: (1) fear of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, (2) belief in an A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic conspiracy, (3) belief in the inapplicability of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine to Moroccans, (4) lack of knowledge of the monovalent A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine, and (5) challenges of vaccination services/logistics. Reasons for vaccine acceptance included: (1) perceived benefits and (2) modeling. Decision-making was strongly influenced by family, community, mass media, religious leaders and health providers suggesting that broad communication efforts should also be used to advocate for vaccination. Meaningful communication for future vaccine campaigns must consider these context-specific findings. As cultural and religious values are shared across many Arab countries, these findings may also provide valuable insights for seasonal influenza vaccine planning in the Middle East and North Africa region at large. PMID:25313555

  9. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (?20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  10. Missed opportunities for institutional delivery and associated factors among urban resident pregnant women in South Tigray Zone, Ethiopia: a community-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Bayu, Hinsermu; Fisseha, Girmastion; Mulat, Amlaku; Yitayih, Gebre; Wolday, Mengistu

    2015-01-01

    Background Every pregnant woman is considered to be at risk and some risks may not always be foreseeable or detectable. Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant at every delivery is considered to be the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia, the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel in urban settings can be as low as 10%. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting unplanned home delivery in urban settings, where there is relatively good access in principle to modern healthcare institutions. Design A community-based follow-up study was conducted from 17 January 2014 to 30 August 2014, among second- and third-trimester pregnant women who had planned for institutional delivery in South Tigray Zone. A systematic sampling technique was used to get a total of 522 study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Bivariate and multivariate data analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results The study revealed that among 465 pregnant women who planned for institutional delivery, 134 (28.8%) opted out and delivered at their home (missed opportunity). Single women (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.17–4.68), illiterate mothers (AOR 6.14, 95% CI 2.20–17.2), absence of antenatal clinic visit for indexed pregnancy (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.72–5.61), absence of obstetric complications during the index pregnancy (AOR 2.96, 95% CI 1.47–5.97), poor autonomy (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.27–3.49), and absence of birth preparedness and complication readiness (AOR 3.83, 95% CI 2.19–6.70) were significant predictors of unplanned home delivery. Conclusions A significant proportion of pregnant women missed the opportunity of modern delivery assistance. Educational status, antenatal care status, lack of obstetric complications, poor autonomy, and lack of birth preparedness and complication readiness were among the important predictors of unplanned home delivery. PMID:26361348

  11. Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

  12. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  13. Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; Mwanga, Joseph R; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. Importance: Probiotic food produced locally represents a nutritious and affordable means for people in some developing countries to counter exposures to toxic metals. Further research and field trials are warranted to explore this approach in countries where communities are located near mining sites and agricultural areas, two types of areas where toxins are likely to be elevated. PMID:25293764

  14. Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

  15. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy: a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of district health managers, antenatal care staff and pregnant women in Korogwe District, North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Bloch, Paul; Kamugisha, Mathias; Kitua, Andrew; Ijumba, Jasper

    2005-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during antenatal care (ANC) visits. To allow for a proper design of planned scaling up of IPT services in Tanzania it is useful to understand the IPTp strategy's acceptability to health managers, ANC service providers and pregnant women. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these groups in relation to malaria control with emphasis on IPTp services. Methods The study was conducted in February 2004, in Korogwe District, Tanzania. It involved in-depth interviews with the district medical officer (DMO), district hospital medical officer in charge and relevant health service staff at two peripheral dispensaries, and separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with district Council Health Management Team members at district level and pregnant women at dispensary and community levels. Results Knowledge of malaria risks during pregnancy was high among pregnant women although some women did not associate coma and convulsions with malaria. Contacting traditional healers and self-medication with local herbs for malaria management was reported to be common. Pregnant women and ANC staff were generally aware of SP as the drug recommended for IPTp, albeit some nurses and the majority of pregnant women expressed concern about the use of SP during pregnancy. Some pregnant women testified that sometimes ANC staff allow the women to swallow SP tablets at home which gives a room for some women to throw away SP tablets after leaving the clinic. The DMO was sceptical about health workers' compliance with the direct observed therapy in administering SP for IPTp due to a shortage of clean water and cups at ANC clinics. Intensified sensitization of pregnant women about the benefits of IPTp was suggested by the study participants as an important approach for improving IPTp compliance. Conclusion The successful implementation of the IPTp strategy in Tanzania depends on the proper planning of, and support to, the training of health staff and sustained sensitization of pregnant women at health facility and community levels about the benefits of IPTp for the women and their unborn babies. PMID:16033639

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR?=?5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p?pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women. PMID:23216887

  17. Factorial invariance of pregnancy-specific anxiety dimensions across nulliparous and parous pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Westerneng, Myrte; de Cock, Paul; Spelten, Evelien R; Honig, Adriaan; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-02-01

    The 10-item version of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised was developed based on a sample of nulliparous women. Whether this measure is also a valuable tool for future research on pregnancy-specific anxiety is unclear. Our study tested for invariance of this measure across nulliparous women and parous women by using a dataset of 6004 women pregnant up to 35 weeks. Results showed that whereas the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised was noninvariant, removing item 8 from the measure created a measure with invariant factor loadings that can be used for all pregnant women. PMID:24058121

  18. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  19. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  20. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  1. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  2. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  3. The Influence of Doctor-Patient and Midwife-Patient Relationship in Quality Care Perception of Italian Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrissi, Laura; Petraglia, Felice; Giuliani, Alessandro; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Angioni, Stefano; Valensise, Herbert; Vannuccini, Silvia; Comoretto, Nunziata; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background The study focuses on the perceived nature / technique opposition in pregnancy and delivery emerging from gynaecologist/ midwife/ pregnant woman relationships. We developed a cross-sectional survey to identify, by means of a multidimensional data-driven approach, the main latent concepts structuring the between items correlation correspondent to the different general opinions present in the data set. The obtained results can set the basis to improve patient satisfaction while decreasing healthcare costs. Methods The sample is made of 90 pregnant women within 24-48 hours after natural or operative birth, from three maternity units in Italy. Women filled in a questionnaire about their relationship with gynaecologist and midwife during pregnancy and hospital stay for delivery. Results Participation rate approached 100%. The emerging factorial structure gave a proof-of-concept of the hypothesis of ‘nature vs. technique’ as the main dimension shaping women opinions. The results highlighted the role of midwife as the ‘link’ between the natural and technical dimension of birth. The quality of welcome and the establishing of an empathic relation between mother and healthcare professional was shown to decrease further request of care in the post-partum period. Conclusions The “fault plane” between nature and technique is a very critical zone for litigation. Women are particularly sensitive to the consideration and attention they receive at their admission in the hospital, as well as to the quality of human relationship with midwife. The perceived quality of welcome scaled with a decreased need of additional care and, more in general, with a more faithful attitude towards health professionals. We hypothesize that increasing the quality of welcome can exert an effect on both welfare costs and litigation. This opens the way (through an extension of this pilot study to wider populations) to relevant ameliorative actions on quality of care at practically null cost. PMID:25905494

  4. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  5. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...outreach programs, ongoing public service announcements...

  6. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...outreach programs, ongoing public service announcements...

  7. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  8. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  9. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and the postpartum period provide windows of opportunity to impact perinatal and lifelong preventive health behavior for women and their families, but these opportunities are often missed. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use could inform technology-based interventions in diverse populations. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in the use of ICT between racial and ethnic groups as well as by English language proficiency. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 246 women who were aged 18 years or older and pregnant or within 1 year of delivery. They were recruited from 4 hospital-based outpatient clinics and completed a self-administered survey. We used multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and ICT (mobile phone/short message service [SMS] text message, Internet, and social network) usage by race/ethnicity and perceived English language proficiency after adjusting for age, income, marital status, and insurance status. Results In all, 28% (69/246) of participants were Latina, 40% (98/246) were African American, 23% (56/246) were white, and 9% (23/246) from other racial/ethnic groups. Of the Latinas, 84% (58/69) reported limited English language proficiency and 59% (41/69) were uninsured. More than 90% of all participants reported mobile phone use, but more than 25% (65/246) had changed phone numbers 2 or more times in the past year. Compared to white women, African American women were less likely to SMS text message (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) and Latinas were less likely to use the Internet to find others with similar concerns (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Women with limited English language proficiency were less likely to use the Internet overall (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99) or use email (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) compared to women with adequate English language proficiency. Conclusions Mobile phones are widely available for the delivery of health interventions to low-income, racially diverse pregnant and postpartum women, but disparities in Internet use and SMS text messaging exist. Interventions or programs requiring Web-based apps may have lower uptake unless alternatives are available, such as those adapted for limited English proficiency populations. PMID:26142162

  10. Maternal serum lead levels and risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a cohort study in a maternity hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jameil, Noura Al

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. There has been confliction in results on the role of maternal lead in preeclampsia. Keeping in view with the scarcity of data on role of lead in preeclamptic women of Saudi Arabia and the disparity in earlier findings, the present study was carried out to determine the levels of maternal serum lead in patients with preeclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancy. The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into three groups of 40 each, control, HR group and PET group. The serum levels of lead were estimated by Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. We found that the mean value of serum lead was 18.23 ± 2.34, 20.08 ± 2.15 and 27.18 ± 2.13 µg/dl in control, high risk group and preeclamptic group respectively. The levels of Pb were found to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) in preeclamptic group compared to control. However, there was no significant change in levels of Pb when HR group was compared to Control and preeclamptic group. In the present study, we observed that serum levels of lead were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, negative correlation was observed between Pb and BMI ruling out the association of BMI with preeclampsia. It is thus concluded that preeclampsia is associated with significant increase in maternal lead and these increasing levels of serum lead pose a significant risk in pregnant women to preeclampsia. PMID:25031738

  11. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  12. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  13. Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

  14. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta–Indonesia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary objective of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the Four Pillars Approach. The barriers, the facilitators, and the patients’ as well as the midwives’ satisfaction with the Four Pillars Approach will also be measured. Methods/Design This study will use a cluster randomised controlled trial. This intervention study will be conducted in the Public Health Centres with basic emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province and in Central Java Province. We will involve all the Public Health Centres (24) with emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province. Another 24 Public Health Centres with emergency obstetric care in Central Java Province which have similarities in their demographic, population characteristics, and facilities will also be involved. Each Public Health Centre will be asked to choose two or three nurse-midwives to participate in this study. For the intervention group, the Public Health Centres in Yogyakarta Special Province, training on the Four Pillars Approach will be held prior to the model’s implementation. Consecutively, we will recruit 360 pregnant women with anaemia to take part in part in the study to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. The outcome measurements are the differences in haemoglobin levels between the intervention and control groups in the third trimester of pregnancy, the frequency of antenatal care attendance, and the presence of a nurse-midwife during labour. Qualitative data will be used to investigate the barriers and facilitating factors, as to nurse-midwives’ satisfaction with the implementation of the Four Pillars Approach. Discussion If the Four Pillars Approach is effective in improving the outcome for pregnant women with anaemia, this approach could be implemented nationwide and be taken into consideration to improve the outcome for other conditions in pregnancy, after further research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN35822126. PMID:24884497

  15. High Rates of HIV Seroconversion in Pregnant Women and Low Reported Levels of HIV Testing among Male Partners in Southern Mozambique: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    De Schacht, Caroline; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mabunda, Nédio; Lucas, Carlota; Alons, Catharina L.; Madonela, Ana; Vubil, Adolfo; Ferreira, Orlando C.; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda S.; Jani, Ilesh V.; Guay, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. Methods Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2–3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n?=?94) with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. Results HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33–7.16). Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04–13.78, p?=?0.04) and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97–19.45, p?=?0.05). Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner), 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. Conclusions HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach elimination of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25542035

  16. [Wishes, expectations, fears--pregnant women before labor].

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, W; Scharkus, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the medical knowledge of the prenatal expectations and wishes of pregnant women with respect to themselves, their partners and the maternity ward selected for the approaching birth, and also of the anxieties arising in this connection. In summary, our study shows that the desire to experience birth in the most natural, undisturbed and unmanipulated form possible is reiterated frequently, but is relativized by the intense need to be reassured of the safety of the unborn child. Fears experienced before the birth were focused accordingly on the condition of the child, although 25% of the women questioned acknowledged a marked fear of helplessness and failure. The obstetric team were expected to offer, as far as possible, the continuous personal supervision of a doctor and a midwife who were prepared to allow the patient the responsibility of being involved in obstetric decisions. PMID:8165837

  17. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  18. Pregnant women’s knowledge, practices, and needs related to food safety and listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; Kelly, Meghan; Noël, Mélissandre; Brisdon, Shendra; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Gustafson, Larry; Galanis, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and needs of pregnant women regarding food safety, including the risk of listeriosis, in order to develop targeted messages and educational resources in British Columbia (BC). Design Qualitative study using focus groups and quantitative study using a standardized questionnaire. Setting Seven family practice clinics in BC. Focus groups were conducted in 3 program groups for new mothers. Participants Pregnant women and women who had recently delivered babies. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with women who had recently delivered. Qualitative analysis to identify common themes was conducted. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women at their health care providers’ (HCPs’) offices. Statistical analysis was done to assess associations between demographic features, knowledge, and practices. Results from both study methods were compared and common findings were presented. Main findings Participants reported that food safety and the risk of listeriosis were important to them during pregnancy; however, their knowledge of high-risk foods and safe food practices was limited. Although they identified their HCPs as a valuable source of information, they explained there were barriers to getting information from them. Participants reported doing their own research using books, websites, and social networks. They made recommendations to improve food safety messages, as well as the availability and format of resources. Conclusion Women in BC identified a gap between the information on food safety and listeriosis that they needed during pregnancy and the resources that were available. Using the information collected from this study, resources that are targeted at women of childbearing years, as well as their HCPs, are under development in BC. PMID:23064922

  19. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  20. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection.

    PubMed

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  1. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  2. Pregnant Women’s Perceptions of Harms and Benefits of Mental Health Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; McDonald, Sheila W.; Vermeyden, Lydia; Heaman, Maureen; Hegadoren, Kathleen; Lasiuk, Gerri; Kingston, Joshua; Sword, Wendy; Jarema, Karly; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; McDonald, Sarah D.; Biringer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background A widely held concern of screening is that its psychological harms may outweigh the benefits of early detection and treatment. This study describes pregnant women's perceptions of possible harms and benefits of mental health screening and factors associated with identifying screening as harmful or beneficial. Methods This study analyzed a subgroup of women who had undergone formal or informal mental health screening from our larger multi-site, cross-sectional study. Pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English were recruited (May-December 2013) from prenatal classes and maternity clinics in Alberta, Canada. Descriptive statistics were generated to summarize harms and benefits of screening and multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting at least one harm or affirming screening as a positive experience (January-December 2014). Results Overall study participation rate was 92% (N = 460/500). Among women screened for mental health concerns (n = 238), 63% viewed screening as positive, 69% were glad to be asked, and 87% took it as evidence their provider cared about them. Only one woman identified screening as a negative experience. Of the 6 harms, none was endorsed by >7% of women, with embarrassment being most cited. Women who were very comfortable (vs somewhat/not comfortable) with screening were more likely to report it as a positive experience. Limitations Women were largely Caucasian, well-educated, partnered women; thus, findings may not be generalizable to women with socioeconomic risk. Conclusions Most women perceived prenatal mental health screening as having high benefit and low harm. These findings dispel popular concerns that mental health screening is psychologically harmful. PMID:26696004

  3. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  4. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week. PMID:24959115

  5. Attitudes toward Family Planning among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Enrolled in a Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Study in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Akelo, Victor; Girde, Sonali; Borkowf, Craig B.; Angira, Frank; Achola, Kevin; Lando, Richard; Mills, Lisa A.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lee Lecher, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fisher's exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current pregnancies were unintended. Factors associated with positive intentions to use FP were: marital status (p?=?0.04), having talked to their spouse or partner about FP (p<0.001), perceived spouse or partner approval of FP (p<0.001), previous use of a FP method (p?=?0.006), attitude toward the current pregnancy (p?=?0.02), disclosure of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (p?=?0.03) and ethnic group (p?=?0.03). Conclusion A significant gap exists between future FP intentions and current FP practices. Support and approval by the spouse or partner are key elements of FP intentions. Counseling services should be offered to both members of a couple to increase FP use, especially given the high number of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-positive women. Condoms should be promoted as part of a dual use method for HIV and STI prevention and for contraception. Integration of individual and couple FP services into routine HIV care, treatment and support services is needed in order to avoid unintended pregnancies and to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. PMID:23990868

  6. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C; Cheung, Mary Mae M; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

  7. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  8. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C.; Cheung, Mary Mae M.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20–29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. PMID:24966855

  9. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women Into Clinical Research Trials: An Overview of Challenges, Facilitators, and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  10. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  11. [Clinical and socio-medical factors related to anemia in pregnant women: prevalence study in Mara Township, Venezuela, 2013].

    PubMed

    Avila, Ayari Guadalupe; García, Lenis; Gómez, María; Villanueva, Nixon; Benítez, Betty; Fuentes, Belkis

    2014-01-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is a frequent finding and can increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and child. This paper aims to identify clinical, social and healthcare-related factors that affect the incidence of anemia in pregnant patients in a primary care prenatal clinic in Mara municipality. This is a descriptive field study that took place between November and December, 2013. Sixty-two patients were selected through non-probability sampling among four primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara. A high prevalence of anemia (76%) was found, with normal MCV (mean corpuscular volume), normal MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), and normal MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). In only 36% of cases serum iron levels fell below 50 ug/dl. Some clinical factors found to be related to anemia in pregnancy are multiparity (69.9%), infections before or during pregnancy (77.5%), low protein intake (91.8%), less than a year birth interval (63.3%), and gestational age (89.8%). The main socioeconomic factor related to anemia is poverty (89.8%). Prenatal checkup schedule needs to be adjusted in primary care clinics in the municipality of Mara taking into consideration clinical and socioeconomic factors in order to lower the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in this population. PMID:25353165

  12. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  13. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  14. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  15. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  16. Iodised salt contribution to iodine nutrition status of pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Lv, Shengmin; Mu, Zhenguo; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yuchun; Rutherford, Shannon

    2015-07-14

    Sufficient iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women is crucial to their offspring's cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of iodised salt intake on the iodine status of pregnant and lactating women. Thirty towns were selected from 211 towns in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city using probability proportionate to size sampling in this cross-sectional survey. In each selected town, forty pregnant women and forty lactating women were randomly selected to contribute urine samples to determine iodine content. The median urinary iodine content (UIC) of 1200 pregnant women in all was 146 (interquartile range (IQR) 88-239) ?g/l. The median UIC in the first, second and third trimesters were 166 (IQR 92-276) ?g/l, 145 (IQR 83-248) ?g/l and 134 (IQR 79-221) ?g/l, respectively. The median UIC in the first trimester was significantly higher than that in the third trimester (P= 0.04). The median UIC of 1200 lactating women in all was 120 (IQR 66-195) ?g/l. Their median UIC in every 4-week block was higher than the WHO criteria except in weeks 25-28 and weeks 33-36 of lactation. Pregnant women's median UIC did not correlate with median salt iodine (MSI) (P= 0.402); however, there was a linear correlation between MSI and the lactating women's median UIC (P= 0.007). Iodised salt failed to provide adequate iodine to pregnant women possibly due to limited intake of iodised salt during pregnancy, though it was found to provide adequate iodine to lactating women in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city. PMID:26058867

  17. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women, against leishmaniasis. PMID:14763305

  18. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 ?g m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability in PM2.5 could be explained.

  19. Cadmium levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Bottoms, S.F.; Erhard, P.

    1982-04-15

    Previous studies have reported that cigarette smoking is a major source of exposure to cadmium (Cd). This study was carried out to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the disposition of the Cd in the maternal-fetoplacental unit. Our data reveal that pregnant women who smoke expose themselves and their placentas to levels of Cd higher than those to which they would normally be exposed. The percentage increase in Cd due to smoking was 32% in the placenta and 59% in maternal blood; these increases are statistically significant. The mean levels of Cd in maternal blood, cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoked were all higher than the mean levels of Cd in the same tissues and blood of pregnant women who did not smoke. In addition, the levels of Cd in the maternal blood of smokers were significantly higher than levels of Cd in the cord blood of their infants; this relationship was not found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses of pregnant women who smoke apparently receive very little additional exposure to Cd; however, this does not lessen concern for the fetus. The presently reported increase in exposure to Cd of pregnant women due to smoking must be viewed as undesirable because Cd has been shown to alter placental function in animals, and because Cd has no known biologic function.

  20. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.81 How must funds...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds...

  1. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

  2. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203...SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in...connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In...

  3. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? The...

  4. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

  5. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26...Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational...observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. The provisions of 45...

  6. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found at " Thimerosal and Flu Vaccines" Can a breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Yes. Breastfeeding women should get the flu vaccine to protect ... they are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Breastfeeding women can get either a flu shot or ...

  7. [Evaluation of vaginal dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women by using the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) and its comparison with the conventional microbiological study].

    PubMed

    Touzon, María S; Losada, Mirta; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Menghi, Claudia; Gatta, Claudia; Santa Cruz, Gabriela; Malamud de Ruda Vega, Hilda; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Infections of the lower genital tract associated to maternal and perinatal complications frequently occur during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaginal dysfunction through the analysis of basic vaginal states (BVS) using the methodology of balance of the vaginal content (BAVACO) and to compare it with the microbiological study of candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Pregnant patients (1238) were examined from 2010 to 2012. In asymptomatic (A) (n: 1046) and symptomatic pregnant women (S) (n: 192) BVS I was 59.5% and 26% of the patients, respectively. BVS II was observed in 19.7% of A and in 17.2% of S. BVS III was only detected in A in 0.4%. BVS IV was observed in 14.4% of A and in 38% of S. BVS V was detected in 6% of A and in 18.8% of S. Yeasts were associated to BVS I and II in 55.5% and 23.2% of A, respectively; and in 32.4% and 31% of S, respectively. Trichomonas were associated to BVS I in 50% of A, to IV in 44.4% of S and to V in 33.3% of S. BAVACO susceptibility to detect yeasts was 80.4% and 85.5% in A and S, respectively; 40% and 75% in A and S, respectively, to detect trichomonas and 100% in A and S to detect BV. BAVACO specificity was 100% for all pathogens in A and S. The study of BVS proved useful as a guide to evaluate vaginal dysfunction, regardless of symptomatology. Therefore, this study is recommended as prenatal control. PMID:25444125

  8. Working memory in pregnant women: Relation to estrogen and antepartum depression.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Phillips, Shauna-Dae; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Evans, Kelly L; Merrill, Mia; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Sadée, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Subjective changes in concentration and memory are commonly reported by women during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, but the nature of the problem is poorly understood. We hypothesized that these self-reports might reflect difficulties in working memory (WM). It was further hypothesized that antepartum depression (depression arising during pregnancy) may play an etiological role, either on its own or due to secondary changes in endocrine function or sleep. Using WM tasks that emphasized executive control processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) we compared pregnant women tested at 34-36 weeks of gestation (n = 28) with age- and education-matched non-pregnant controls (n = 26). All pregnant women were screened for depression. Evidence of a WM disturbance was found, and was evident only among pregnant women showing depressive symptoms. In contrast, pregnant women who were not depressed showed WM performance that equalled, or even significantly exceeded, non-pregnant controls. No significant differences were observed on control tests of other cognitive functions. Multiple regression revealed that serum estradiol concentrations, along with severity of depressive affect but not sleep disruption, significantly predicted variation in the WM scores. In agreement with studies of estradiol and WM in other contexts, higher estradiol was associated with better WM, while higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted poorer WM. We conclude that memory disturbance during gestation might not be as widespread as commonly believed, but can be seen among women experiencing antepartum depression. The high level of WM performance found in healthy, non-depressed, pregnant women is discussed from an adaptationist perspective. PMID:26187710

  9. A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Anita; Jose, JoAnn; Larsen-Reindorf, Roderick; Small, Christina; Nde, Helen; Dugas, Lara; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Nelson, Kenrad; Ezeanolue, Eche; Layden, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission. PMID:26566533

  10. A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anita; Jose, JoAnn; Larsen-Reindorf, Roderick; Small, Christina; Nde, Helen; Dugas, Lara; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Nelson, Kenrad; Ezeanolue, Eche; Layden, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission. PMID:26566533

  11. [The biochemical changes in overweight pregnant women during the pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kr?steva, M; Malinova, M; V?lcheva, Z; Milchev, N; Grozdanov, G

    1993-01-01

    The degree of weight gain during pregnancy as a risk factor for a mother and her newborn is a disputable problem. Most of the studies have shown, that maternal overweight gain has a bad effect on labor delivery outcome. The present study included 108 pregnant women, subdivided into three groups, according to weight gain during pregnancy: Group I(32) - < 12 kg, Group II(42) - 12 < - < 20 kg. Group III(34) - > 20 kg. The patients were estimated according to their age, parity, pregnancy induced hypertension and mode of delivery. The authors investigated biochemical indicators of protein, lipid and electrolyte balance. The results illustrate the influence of prenatal overweight gain on the pregnancy complication, mode of delivery and some biochemical changes. PMID:8037320

  12. Dietary recommendations for obese pregnant women: current questions and controversies.

    PubMed

    Poston, Lucilla; Patel, Nashita

    2014-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity is now one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions. Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are important modifiable risk factors for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Maternal obesity, associated with neonatal adiposity and high birthweight, has been implicated in increased risk of childhood obesity. Considerable effort has been directed towards improving clinical outcomes by lifestyle change in pregnant obese women, but there is at present no evidence-based intervention of adequate efficacy which can be recommended. The focus has been on preventing excessive weight gain, but studies have lacked the power to address effects on clinical outcomes; therefore preventing clinical practice translation. Adequately powered intervention studies devised to reduce neonatal adiposity by improvement of maternal glucose homeostasis, are needed to inform the optimal dietary and/or physical activity regimen. PMID:25230591

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Callan, A C; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; Heyworth, J; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2013-10-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2-7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. PMID:23890969

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the population of Bangladesh. PMID:26404372

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H.

    2015-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the population of Bangladesh. PMID:26404372

  16. Families at Risk: Home and Car Smoking Among Pregnant Women Attending a Low-Income, Urban Prenatal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Maria S.; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has been identified as a distinct risk factor for adverse obstetric and gynecological outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of SHSe reduction practices (i.e., home and car smoking bans) among pregnant women in a large U.S. prenatal clinic serving low-income women. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 820) attending a university-based, urban prenatal clinic in Houston, Texas, completed a prenatal questionnaire assessing bans on household and car smoking and a qualitative urine cotinine test as part of usual care. Data were collected from April 2011 to August 2012. Results: Nearly one-third (n = 257) of the sample reported at least 1 smoker living in the home. About a quarter of the women in the full sample did not have a total smoking ban in their home and car. Within smoking households, 44% of the pregnant women reported smoking, 56% reported smoking by another household member, and in 26% of smoking households both the pregnant woman and at least one other person were smoking. Only 43% of women with a household smoker reported a total ban on smoking, with higher rates among Hispanic women. Smoking bans were less common when the pregnant women smoked, when more than 1 smoker resided in the home, and when pregnant with her first child. Conclusions: SHSe among low-income pregnant women is high, and interventions to raise awareness and increase the establishment of smoking bans in homes and cars are warranted. PMID:24692668

  17. Undocumented pregnant women: what does the literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Munro, Kimberly; Jarvis, Catherine; Munoz, Marie; D'Souza, Vinita; Graves, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    The present literature review was conducted to determine what information has been published on the topic of undocumented pregnant migrants. Scientific databases and gray literature sources were searched for articles published between January 1967 and September 2010. Eighty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. A final sample of 23 articles was included in the review. Existing evidence suggests that pregnant undocumented migrants living in Western societies tend to be younger, unmarried, and more likely to be employed in the domestic sector than documented migrants and permanent residents. They have less access to prenatal care and consult later in pregnancy than controls. Findings concerning delivery and birth outcomes are conflicting and subject to several biases. Little has been published on programs to address the needs of undocumented pregnant women living in Western countries. More research on the particular health and social issues faced by these women is needed. PMID:22382439

  18. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  19. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS... areas, and frequent notification of availability of such treatment distributed to the network...

  20. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  1. Identifying Insomnia in Early Pregnancy: Validation of the Insomnia Symptoms Questionnaire (ISQ) in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although a substantial number of pregnant women report symptoms of insomnia, few studies have used a validated instrument to determine the prevalence in early gestation. Identification of insomnia in pregnancy is vital given the strong connection between insomnia and the incidence of depression, cardiovascular disease, or immune dysregulation. The goal of this paper is to provide additional psychometric evaluation and validation of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) and to establish prevalence rates of insomnia among a cohort of pregnant women during early gestation. Methods: The ISQ was evaluated in 143 pregnant women at 12 weeks gestation. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, actigraphy, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV), and likelihood ratio (LR) tests. Results: The ISQ identified 12.6% of the sample as meeting a case definition of insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Good reliability was established with Cronbach ? = 0.86. The ISQ had high specificity (most > 85%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used as the validating criterion. Conclusions: Insomnia is a health problem for many pregnant women at all stages in pregnancy. These data support the validity and reliability of the ISQ to identify insomnia in pregnant women. The ISQ is a short and cost-effective tool that can be quickly employed in large observational studies or in clinical practice where perinatal women are seen. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. Citation: Okun ML, Buysse DJ, Hall MH. Identifying insomnia in early pregnancy: validation of the insomnia symptoms questionnaire (ISQ) in pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):645–654. PMID:25766716

  2. Predictors of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners among HIV-positive pregnant women in Morogoro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been scaled, to more than 90% of health facilities in Tanzania. Disclosure of HIV results to partners and their participation is encouraged in the program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and predictors of HIV sero-status disclosure to partners among HIV positive pregnant women in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in March to May 2010 among HIV-positive pregnant women who were attending for routine antenatal care in primary health care facilities of the municipality and had been tested for HIV at least one month prior to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on possible predictors of HIV disclosure to partners. Results A total of 250 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled. Forty one percent (102) had disclosed their HIV sero-status to their partners. HIV-disclosure to partners was more likely among pregnant women who were?women reported to have been counseled on importance of disclosure and partner participation. Conclusions Six in ten HIV positive pregnant women in this setting had not disclosed their results of the HIV test to their partners. Empowering pregnant women to have an individualized HIV-disclosure plan, strengthening of the HIV provider initiated counseling and testing and addressing economic development, may be some of the strategies in improving HIV disclosure and partner involvement in this setting. PMID:23641927

  3. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  4. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  5. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  6. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  7. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  8. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  9. Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women Jaroslav-positive pregnant women might in fact indicate an unrecognized serious public health problem. One of the most common countries varies from 20% to 80% ­ about 20% of pregnant women in Finland (Lappalainen et al. 1992), 27

  10. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to Enhance the Dietary and Iron-Folate Intake during Pregnancy- A Quasi Experimental Study among Rural Pregnant Women of Varanasi, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Srivastava, Ratan Kumar; Singh, Gyan Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavior Change Communications (BCC) play a decisive role in modifying socio-cultural norms affecting the perception and nutritional practices during pregnancy. Objective To examine the effectiveness of ‘Trials of Improved Practices’ (TIPs) on dietary and iron-folate intake during pregnancy. Design Community based quasi experimental study with a control group Setting Four villages of Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi, India from May 2010 and recruited from August 2010. End line assessment, after 12 weeks of intervention, was completed in April 2011. Participants Pregnant women in 13–28 weeks of gestation Intervention TIPs was implemented in addition to ongoing essential obstetric care services in two villages through 3 home (assessment, negotiation and evaluation) visits and only assessment and evaluation visits in the other two control villages. Interpersonal communication, endorsing the active participation of family members and home based reminder materials were the TIPs based strategies. The effect of TIPs was assessed by comparing key outcome variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Outcome Measures Hemoglobin%, anemia prevalence, weight gain, compliance for iron-folate supplementation and dietary intake of calorie, protein, calcium and iron. Results A total of 86 participants completed the study. At the end, mean hemoglobin levels were 11.5±1.24 g/dl and 10.37±1.38 g/dl in the TIPs and control groups, respectively. The prevalence of anemia reduced by half in TIPs group and increased by 2.4% in the control group. Weight gain (grams/week) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in TIPs group (326.9±91.8 vs. 244.6±97.4). More than 85% of the PW in TIPs group were compliant for Iron-folate and only 38% were compliant among controls. The mean intake of protein increased by 1.78gm in intervention group and decreased by 1.81 gm in controls (p<0.05). More than two thirds of PW in TIPs group were taking one extra meal and only one third of controls were doing the same. Conclusion TIPs found to be an effective approach to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women in the study area. TIPs strategy could be further explored on larger sample representing different socio-cultural and geographical areas. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI/2015/02/005517 PMID:26367775

  11. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Faz?l; K?l?nç, Metin; K?ran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in eclamptic (P<0.001) and preeclamptic patients (P<0.001) compared to the healthy pregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were lower in both preeclamptic and eclamptic patients compared to healthy normotensive pregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26629145

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 10 g/dL) during pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia. PMID:19523075

  13. Validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relative validity of foods and nutrients calculated by a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Reference measures were a 4-day weighed food diary (FD), a motion sensor for measuring total energy expenditure, one 24-h urine collection for analysis of nitrogen and iodine excretion, and a venous blood specimen for analysis of plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and serum folate. A total of 119 women participated in the validation study, and 112 completed the motion sensor registration. Overall, the level of agreement between the FFQ and the FD was satisfactory, and significant correlations were found for all major food groups and for all nutrients except vitamin E. The average correlation coefficient between the FFQ and the FD for daily intake was 0.48 for foods and 0.36 for nutrients, and on average, 68% of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quintiles by the two methods. Estimated total energy expenditure indicated that under-reporting of energy intake was more extensive with the FD than with the FFQ. The biological markers confirmed that the FFQ was able to distinguish between high and low intakes of nutrients, as measured by vitamin D, folate, protein and iodine. This validation study indicates that the MoBa FFQ produces reasonable valid intake estimates and is a valid tool to rank pregnant women according to low and high intakes of energy, nutrients and foods. PMID:18171405

  14. Effects of lifestyle factors on urinary oxidative stress and serum antioxidant markers in pregnant Japanese women: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Masayo; Haruna, Megumi; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Tokio; Shioji, Izuru; Sasaki, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major pathological role in pregnancy-related complications. Although oxidative stress is induced by exogenous toxins in association with a poor lifestyle in normal subjects, there is little information on the factors altering oxidative stress and antioxidant levels during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between lifestyle factors and oxidative stress/antioxidant levels during each trimester and 1-month postpartum. This prospective cohort study followed 54 healthy women through pregnancy; first, second, and third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Participants were administered a questionnaire on characteristics and lifestyle factors. Morning blood and urine samples were obtained to measure urinary biopyrrins and serum coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels. The levels of urinary biopyrrins and serum CoQ10 increased significantly throughout pregnancy, with peak values registered during the third trimester. Higher biopyrrin levels were significantly associated with non-consumption of morning meal during the first trimester, smoking during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum, alcohol consumption during the third trimester, high food-based polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during the third trimester, and poor mental health scores during the first and third trimesters. Higher CoQ10 levels were significantly associated with no smoking during pregnancy and at 1-month postpartum, and with a high frequency of exercise during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Thus, pregnancy represents a state of oxidative stress, which can be counterbalanced by increased levels of antioxidants, such as CoQ10. We speculate that certain lifestyle choices such as avoiding smoking can reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant levels during pregnancy. PMID:25030853

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Pregnant Women in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Hasan; Momen Heravi, Mansooreh; Moravveji, Seyyed Alireza; Poorrahnama, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and prenatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important, because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. There has been so much debate about hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening in pregnant women. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg+ among pregnant women referred to Beheshti hospital in Kashan in 2012. Patients and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 768 pregnant women, hospitalized in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan in 2012. After obtaining consent forms, the questionnaires including demographic and HBV infection-associated risk factors were filled through interview and then 5 mL blood was taken from each patient and HBsAg was examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These data were analyzed by statistical package for the social science (SPSS) software. Results: A total of 12 (1.56%) out of 768 pregnant women were HBsAg+. The mean age of HBsAg+ cases was 24.5 ± 4 years. Most of the HBsAg+ cases (66.6%) were uneducated; 17.7% of the pregnant women were not Iranian, of which 7.4% were HBsAg+. There was no high-risk job, recent dentistry interruption or skin tattoo among the HBsAg+ cases. Conclusions: In this study, 1.56% of pregnant women were HBsAg+, which was higher than the previous studies. This increasing prevalence may be due to the increase of non-Iranians’ migrations to Iran. Control of migration and screening and vaccination of these groups should be considered by health policy makers. PMID:26421168

  16. Substance Use among Pregnant Women: The Report of the Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use among Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayye, Paul T.; Relos, Ruth

    This document contains a report from the North Carolina Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use Among Pregnant Women, a task force established to develop a long-range plan to decrease infant death and disability due to exposure to toxic substances in utero. The executive summary identifies four major problem areas which negatively affect…

  17. Lost to follow-up among pregnant women in a multi-site community based maternal and newborn health registry: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important when conducting epidemiologic studies to closely monitor lost to follow up (LTFU) rates. A high LTFU rate may lead to incomplete study results which in turn can introduce bias to the trial or study, threatening the validity of the findings. There is scarce information on LTFU in prospective community-based perinatal epidemiological studies. This paper reports the rates of LTFU, describes socio-demographic characteristics, and pregnancy/delivery outcomes of mothers LTFU in a large community-based pregnancy registry study. Methods Data were from a prospective, population-based observational study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). This is a multi-centre, international study in which pregnant women were enrolled in mid-pregnancy, followed through parturition and 42 days post-delivery. Risk for LTFU was calculated within a 95%CI. Results A total of 282,626 subjects were enrolled in this study, of which 4,893 were lost to follow-up. Overall, there was a 1.7% LTFU to follow up rate. Factors associated with a higher LTFU included mothers who did not know their last menstrual period (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4), maternal age of < 20 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), women with no formal education (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and attending a government clinic for antenatal care (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.8). Post-natal factors associated with a higher LTFU rate included a newborn with feeding problems (RR 1.6, 94% CI 1.2, 2.2). Conclusions The LTFU rate in this community-based registry was low (1.7%). Maternal age, maternal level of education, pregnancy status at enrollment and using a government facility for ANC are factors associated with being LTFU. Strategies to ensure representation and high retention in community studies are important to informing progress toward public health goals. Trial registration Registration at the Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475). PMID:26062899

  18. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  19. Hot yoga establishments in local communities serving pregnant women: a pilot study on the health implications of its practice and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D

    2014-10-01

    Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice. PMID:25603649

  20. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  1. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kell antigen is highly immunogenic and is the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and maternal alloimmunization, which causes severe anaemia in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and ethnic variation of the Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods Kell antigen status of 150 pregnant women aged 18-45 years and mean age 27.19 ±4.69 years attending antenatal clinic in UDUTH Sokoto Nigeria was determined using the conventional tube method and anti-Kell reagents (Lorne Laboratories, UK). Results Among the 150 subjects studied, 3 (2.0%) of subjects were positive and 147 (98.0) were negative for K antigen. Of the 150 pregnant subjects; 32 (21.3%) were primigravidae while 118 (78.7%) were multigravidae. Kell phenotype was more prevalent among primigravidae (3.1%) compared to multigravidae (1.7%) women. The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p = 0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ? 96.8% among all the ethnic groups. Conclusion Our observed prevalence of Kell phenotype is consistent with previous studies among Blacks and Asians but significantly lower than values observed in previous studies among Caucasians. We recommend that all pregnant women should be screened for the presence clinically significant red cell antigens including Kell antigen on their first antenatal visit. Kell negative red cell should be routinely provided for all pregnant women and women with child bearing potential to reduce the risk of Kell-associated HDFN. There is need to introduce routine screening of pregnant women for clinically significant red cell antibodies to facilitate the effective management of HDFN as well as prevent HTR. There is also need for sustained health education of pregnant women in the area to encourage early booking for antenatal care. PMID:26587150

  2. Efficacy and safety of telbivudine treatment: an open-label, prospective study in pregnant women for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Han, G-R; Jiang, H-X; Yue, X; Ding, Y; Wang, C-M; Wang, G-J; Yang, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine (LdT, 600 mg/day) vs control patients (no treatment) in decreasing vertical transmission of HBV, in HBeAg-positive mothers (HBVDNA >6log(10) copies/mL). HBeAg-positive pregnant women either in the second or third trimester were recruited in a prospective, case-control, open-label study, at the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University, China (February 2008-December 2010). Efficacy (month 7: HBVDNA (+), HBsAg (+) infants) in either the overall group or the treated group and control group was analysed using student's t-test. Infants were followed for at least 1 year. 362 women received LdT (second trimester n = 257; third trimester n = 105) and 92 were untreated. Before delivery, the mean maternal HBVDNA was 2.73, 2.47, 3.34 and 7.94 log10 copies/mL in the overall, second and third trimester treated and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). At birth, 11.8% of babies overall (43/365), 13.5% (35/259) of those treated in the second trimester, 7.5% of those treated in the third trimester (8/106) and 20.7% (19/92) of untreated infants were HBsAg positive. At month 7, none of the LdT-treated infant had detectable HBVDNA, while eight infants from control mothers were HBsAg positive. Vertical transmission was 0% in LdT treated and 9.3% (8/86) in the control groups (P < 0.001). No difference in the vertical transmission rate was found in mothers treated in the second or third trimester. LdT treatment was safe for mothers and infants, and no congenital deformities were reported. PMID:25641421

  3. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  4. Preventing excessive weight gain among publicly insured pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Laura; Buchert, Elizabeth; Vasiloff, Rosanne; Feinglass, Joseph; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an intervention to help women meet weight gain goals during pregnancy. From 2007 to 2008, pregnant women were recruited at a clinic in Chicago. Intervention participants received an educational pamphlet at their first prenatal visit. At follow up visits, provider counseling was encouraged via a weight gain trend graph and targeted feedback checklist. The primary outcome was the total weight gained over the course of prenatal care. We analyzed 57 intervention group participants and 109 controls. Demographic composition was similar between the groups except for parity. Patients in the intervention group and routine care group gained similar weight (24.5 + 13.5 lb vs. 25.3 + 14.0 lb, P = 0.71). After controlling for baseline weight, the intervention was associated with 4.6 pounds lower follow-up weight (P = 0.029). After controlling for baseline BMI and other covariates, participants who received the intervention were only 34% as likely to gain weight exceeding IOM guidelines (P = 0.009). This pilot prenatal care obesity prevention project was associated with lower weight gain in pregnancy. The feedback checklist, weight gain graph, and educational pamphlet on weight gain proved to be favorable components of this project and merit further examination in a larger intervention trial. PMID:22227775

  5. Origins and consequences of altered metabolic processes in obese pregnant women 

    E-print Network

    Barr, Sarah Marie

    2013-11-29

    -control study of apparently healthy obese (BMI > 40kg/m2) pregnant women. Systemic adipokine and pro- inflammatory cytokine profiles were measuring using ELISA. Indices of insulin sensitivity were assessed at three time points in pregnancy. In a cohort study...

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

  7. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  8. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  9. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions. PMID:25796023

  10. Integrated care for pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon; Graves, Lisa; Abrahams, Ronald; Boyajian, Talar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of a national cohort of pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and to provide treatment outcome data for integrated care programs. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Three different integrated care programs in geographically distinct cities: the Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy in Toronto, Ont; the Herzl Family Practice Centre in Montreal, Que; and the Sheway clinic in Vancouver, BC. Participants Pregnant women meeting criteria for opioid dependence and attending an integrated care program between 1997 and 2009. Women were excluded if they were on MMT only for chronic pain. Main outcome measures Patient demographic characteristics, concurrent medical and psychiatric disorders, and substance use outcome data. Results A total of 102 opioid-dependent pregnancies were included. The mean age was 29.7 years and 64% of women were white. Women in Montreal were more likely to have partners and had fewer children. Differences in living and housing situations among the sites tended to resolve by the time of delivery. Almost half of this cohort tested positive for hepatitis C. Women had a high prevalence of depression and anxiety across all sites. Half of this cohort was on MMT before conception and for the other half, MMT was initiated at a mean gestational age of 20.7 weeks, resulting in a mean dose of 82.4 mg at delivery. At the first visit, polysubstance use was common. Prescription opioid use was more frequent in Toronto and heroin use was more prevalent in Vancouver and Montreal. For the entire population, significant reductions were found by the time of delivery for illicit (P < .001) and prescription opioids (P = .001), cocaine (P < .001), marijuana (P = .009), and alcohol use (P < .001). Conclusion Despite geographic differences, all 3 integrated care programs have been associated with significant decreases in substance use in pregnant opioid-dependent women. PMID:24130301

  11. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

  12. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

  13. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  14. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

  15. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  17. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

  18. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  19. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, ?-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral density between women in our study are caused by genetic polymorphism, which leads to differences in the actual demand for nutrients, sufficient for prevention of bone decrease, in individuals. PMID:25929023

  20. High Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pregnant Women in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Twite, Kabange E.; Daumerie, Chantal; Wallemacq, Pierre; Donnen, Philippe; Kalenga, Muenze K.; Robert, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite notable progress in the fight against iodine deficiency disorders in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a recent study has shown that pregnant women in Lubumbashi were still iodine deficient. Our objective was to assess thyroid function in this population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in maternity units from three different socioeconomic areas in Lubumbashi, serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured in 225 pregnant women attending antenatal visits, in 75 women who recently delivered, and in 75 nonpregnant controls. The outcome was the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Results: Median values in pregnant women, women who recently delivered, and nonpregnant women were 1.80, 2.80, and 1.54?mIU/L for thyrotropin (p<0.001); 0.85, 1.11, and 1.16?ng/dL for free thyroxine (p<0.001); and 13.3, 9.5, and 10.4?ng/mL for thyroglobulin (p=0.01), respectively. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women, in women who recently delivered, and in nonpregnant women was 31%, 8%, and 20% for isolated hypothyroxinemia (p<0.001); 12%, 24%, and 5% for subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.002); 8%, 3%, and 3%, for overt hypothyroidism (p=0.09); and 5%, 13%, and 4%, for positive thyroperoxidase antibodies (p=0.03), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, women who were pregnant or who recently delivered, who lived in a poor socioeconomic area, and who had low urinary iodine concentration were more likely to have an increased serum thyrotropin: odds ratio (OR)=3.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–9.53) for pregnancy, OR=4.49 [CI 1.66–15.01] for postpartum period, OR=3.68 [CI 1.85–7.35] for semiurban area, and OR=0.44 [CI 0.19–0.96] for urinary iodine concentration ?250??g/L. Conclusions: Our results show that there is a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women of Lubumbashi, and this high prevalence is associated with iodine deficiency. To prevent obstetrical adverse outcomes and neurological damage in children, iodine supplementation is needed before conception or in early pregnancy in Lubumbashi. PMID:23957235

  1. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shoghli, Alireza; Nabavi, Seyed Mahmood; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Namazi, Roshanak; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Mohajeri, Mansor; Mousavinasab, Nouraldin; Zanjani, Rahim Sorouri; Saeini, Mohammad Reza; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their neonates is one of the most important routes of infection. The exact prevalence rate of HBV in Iranian pregnant mothers is not well known but based on different studies it is estimated between 0.35% and 6.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women of selected provinces in Iran. Methods: At this cross-sectional study, seven provinces supposed to be of high and low prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population selected. Multistage sampling was used to enroll 5261 parturient women who attended the target provinces birth facilities, during January to March of 2011, were recruited to study. To determine the statistically significant mean and proportion differences, t-test and ?2 test were used, respectively. Results: Overall 1.2% was positive HBsAg of which 11% of them were hepatitis B e-antigen positive as well. The eastern and north eastern provinces were considerably higher in HBsAg seropositivity than the west and northwest of the country. Conclusions: In view of the considerable prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women, screening all pregnant women prioritizing the eastern and north-eastern provinces is strongly recommended. PMID:26622992

  2. Assessing Long-Term Outcomes of an Intervention Designed for Pregnant Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…

  3. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  4. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women and hospitalized children in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections. The maternal immune status plays a major role in the likelihood of congenital infection. The aim of this study is to shed light on the seroprevalence of HCMV in pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns including cases of congenital infections in Palestine. Methods We analyzed HCMV IgG and IgM test results that had been ordered for pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns in the years 2006–2012 at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital (MICH) in East Jerusalem. Furthermore, we reviewed the medical charts of newborns and HCMV IgM-positive children. Results HCMV IgG was positive in 96.6% of pregnant women, in 88% of hospitalized children and in 98.4% of hospitalized newborns. HCMV IgM was positive in 11.5% of pregnant women, in 11.7% of hospitalized children and in 2% of hospitalized newborns respectively. The HCMV avidity assay revealed that 95% of IgM-positive pregnant women had high avidity (>60%) indicating that most Palestinian women were undergoing a recurrent HCMV infection. Real time PCR on limited number of cases indicated that 62.5% of infants, mostly born to IgM-positive mothers and 83.3% of HCMV IgM-positive children had detectable HCMV DNA in their urine. Out of the 249 newborns tested during this study period, four (1.6%) were subjected to Gancyclovir treatment because of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection. Conclusions This is the first report to provide an insight into HCMV seroprevalence in Palestine. Despite the high rate of seropositivity, the importance of HCMV testing during pregnancy should not be underestimated. A comprehensive study with a long term follow-up examination of offspring born to HCMV IgM-positive mothers would be required to provide estimates of an accurate percentage of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection in Palestine. PMID:24206533

  5. Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susannah E; Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Hubbard, Isabelle; Williams, Kate V; Tindall, Elizabeth; Holmes, Emily A; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential underlying biological mechanism linking prenatal depression with adverse offspring outcomes. However, it is unknown whether the reactivity of this system to stress is altered in pregnant women experiencing depression. The objective of this study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol response to a distressed infant film is enhanced in pregnant women with symptoms of depression compared with non-depressed controls. Salivary cortisol and subjective mood responses to the film were measured in 53 primiparous women, between 11 and 18 weeks gestation. Both groups showed similar increases in state anxiety in response to the film, but there was a significantly increased cortisol response in women experiencing symptoms of depression. Depression during pregnancy is associated with increased reactivity of the HPA axis. This is consistent with altered HPA axis functioning being a key mechanism by which prenatal mood disturbance can impact upon fetal development. PMID:25352317

  6. Exploring a self-help coping intervention for pregnant women with a miscarriage history.

    PubMed

    Ockhuijsen, Henrietta D L; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Boivin, Jacky; Macklon, Nicholas S; de Boer, Fijgje

    2015-11-01

    Pregnant women with a history of miscarriages experience symptoms of anxiety and depression in a subsequent pregnancy and are in need of support in the period after miscarriage, when trying to get pregnant again and during the first phase of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) and Daily Record Keeping (DRK) chart, developed for use in assisted conception treatment, are also appropriate for use in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage(s). In this convergent parallel mixed method study, thirteen women visiting an Early Pregnancy Unit and/or Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic in a university medical center in the Netherlands were selected on the basis of the number of miscarriages and age. Exclusion criteria were not speaking the Dutch language, pregnancy after fertility treatment and having a medical cause identified for the miscarriages. Women used the PRCI and DRK for 3weeks in a subsequent pregnancy. Quantitative data were obtained from the DRK and were analyzed by reporting frequencies and means for each case. Qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The majority of the women were able to use the PRCI and DRK for 3weeks. Women adapted the way in which they used the PRCI and DRK based on their judgment about the effect, the intensity of the emotions they experienced, or whether they felt the effort to use these instruments to be worthwhile or not. PMID:26608427

  7. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  8. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  9. Endogenous and Uric Acid-Induced Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Mariana Leticia; Romão, Mariana; Weel, Ingrid Cristina; Ribeiro, Vanessa Rocha; Nunes, Priscila Rezeck; Borges, Vera Therezinha; Araújo, João Pessoa; Peraçoli, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Leandro; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a specific syndrome of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This pathology is associated with hyperuricemia and elevated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Uric acid crystals may activate an intracellular complex called inflammasome, which is important for processing and release of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the state of monocyte activation, both endogenous and stimulated with monosodium urate (MSU), by gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors as well as their association with inflammatory cytokines expression. Monocytes were obtained from peripheral blood of 23 preeclamptic pregnant women, 23 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 23 healthy non-pregnant women (NP). Inflammasome activation was evaluated by the gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? by RT-qPCR in unstimulated monocytes (endogenous expression), or after cell stimulation with MSU (stimulated expression). The concentration of cytokines was assessed by ELISA. In preeclamptic pregnant women, gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1? and TNF-? by monocytes stimulated or not with MSU was significantly higher than in NT and NP groups. Stimulation of monocytes from preeclamptic and non-pregnant women with MSU induced increased gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and TNF-? in relation to the endogenous expression in these groups, while this was not observed in the NT group. The cytokine determination showed that monocytes from women with PE produced higher endogenous levels of IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? compared to the other groups, while the stimulus with MSU led to higher production of these cytokines in preeclamptic group than in the NT group. In conclusion, the results showed increased basal gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors in monocytes from PE group. These cells stimulation with MSU demonstrates that uric acid plays a role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting the participation of this inflammatory complex in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26053021

  10. Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

    2010-07-01

    Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

  11. Lipoproteins in pregnant women before and during delivery: influence on neonatal haemorheology.

    PubMed Central

    Uberos-Fernández, J; Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Molina-Carballo, A; Puertas-Prieto, A; Valenzuela-Ruiz, A; Ruiz-Cosano, C; Molina-Font, J A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether the lipid profile of pregnant women during parturition differs from the profile at previous stages of pregnancy and to determine the effects of maternal lipid changes on fetal or neonatal haemorheology. METHODS: Sixty pregnant women were studied, divided into two groups. Group 1 contained 30 women of mean age of 27 (SD 3) years and gestational age > 38 weeks in whom delivery had not yet begun; all these pregnancies followed an uncomplicated course and there was no evidence of any fetal pathology from previous obstetric examinations. All the women reached term and birth weight was 3340 (350) g. Group 2 contained women of mean age 26 (4) years, in whom delivery was ongoing, all of whose pregnancies reached term. The following variables were determined in all cases: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), free fatty acids and phospholipids, and apoprotein A (apo-A) and apoprotein B (apo-B). Serum and plasma viscosity was measured with a capillary viscosimeter. RESULTS: The apo-B/apo-A and HDL/apo-A ratios increased during delivery, indicating that in pregnant women these atherogenic indices are raised during delivery compared with previous gestational stages. Significant correlation coefficients were obtained between maternal lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL) and plasma viscosity in the neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma atherogenic indices increase progressively until birth. These changes have implications for neonatal haemorheology because they cause an increase in plasma viscosity. PMID:8655676

  12. Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India

    PubMed Central

    Vidwan, Navjyot K.; Regi, Annie; Steinhoff, Mark; Huppert, Jill S.; Staat, Mary Allen; Dodd, Caitlin; Nongrum, Rida; Anandan, Shalini; Verghese, Valsan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (?28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population. PMID:22567090

  13. Plasma Selenium Levels in First Trimester Pregnant Women with Hyperthyroidism and the Relationship with Thyroid Hormone Status.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Tugba Atilan

    2015-10-01

    The thyroid gland has the highest selenium (Se) concentration per unit weight among all tissues. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the Se levels in the plasma of hyperthyroidic pregnant women and to investigate the association between maternal plasma Se concentrations and thyroid hormone levels. The study population consisted of 107 pregnant women, 70 healthy pregnant women (group 1) and 37 pregnant women with hyperthyroidism (group 2). The plasma free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were significantly higher, and the plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Se levels were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p?pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women supported the hypothesis that hyperthyroidism was associated with decreased antioxidant response. PMID:25796516

  14. Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were performed between January 2007 and November 2012. Imaging findings, clinical management and outcome were extracted from patient’s file and electronic records. Image quality was evaluated. Results Ten studies of 9 patients were included. MRE protocol was modified to maximize maternal and fetal safety, and intravenous gadolinium was not used. In 7 patients, CD diagnosis was previously established; six were admitted with clinical symptoms consistent with CD exacerbation, and an additional patient with a recurrent groin abscess without apparent luminal symptoms. In all seven patients, imaging features consistent with active CD were detected; new penetrating complications were detected in 4 patients. Two patients underwent MRE for suspected CD which was not comforted by study results. The clinical management was significantly impacted by MRE results in all positive cases. The image quality of the fast MRE sequences obtained without gadolinium was satisfactory and allowed meaningful interpretation. Conclusion MRE with an adapted protocol for pregnancy is a reliable imaging modality to manage in pregnant women with known or suspected CD. PMID:25129422

  15. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881

  16. Predictors of serum concentrations of polybrominated flame retardants among healthy pregnant women in an urban environment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants commonly used in a wide range of products. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment. Our objective was to characterize predictors of exposure to PBDEs among a multi-ethnic, low-income cohort of pregnant women enrolled from highly urban communities in New York City between years 2009–2010. Methods During the first half of pregnancy we collected 316 maternal serum samples and administered an extensive questionnaire including items on demographics, diet and lifestyle. We measured 12 PBDE congeners in blood samples. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we regressed the most commonly detected PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) against potential demographic, dietary and lifestyle predictor variables. Results At least one PBDE congener was detected in each serum sample. Our analyses demonstrate unique predictor patterns for PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 based on demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of women. Higher education and increased use of household electronics were associated with higher levels of all 4 congeners. Six characteristics were associated with PBDE-153 serum concentrations, more than for any other congener. These include maternal education, household income, body mass index, solid dairy consumption, processed meat consumption and frequent use of household electronics. Conclusions PBDE exposure in this widespread in this cohort, though levels are lower than previous assessments of US pregnant women. Lower levels may be in response to legislation restricting the production, sale and use of these compounds. In our cohort, we did not observe any individual predictor or a consistent pattern of several predictors representing a significant source of PBDE exposure. These data suggest that legislation and policy may be more effective at reducing exposure than personal lifestyle modifications. PMID:23497089

  17. Transumbilical placement of the vaginal probe in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J C; Guzman, E R; Vintzileos, A M; Knuppel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography in obese pregnant women is often unsatisfactory because of the poor transmission of ultrasound through a thickened abdominal wall. We report our experience with the placement of a transvaginal probe in the umbilicus to improve resolution in obese pregnant patients. The technique, which involves filling the umbilicus with ultrasound transmission gel and inserting the transvaginal probe into the umbilicus, was applied in 25 consecutive obese patients who had unsatisfactory fetal imaging by the standard transabdominal approach. The most frequent reason for incomplete fetal survey by the standard transabdominal approach was unsatisfactory imaging of the fetal heart (19 of 25 cases, 76%). The transumbilical approach resulted in improved resolution and satisfactory cardiac examination in 18 of these 19 cases (95%). In two cases, color and pulsed Doppler interrogation of intrafetal vessels become possible. A complete fetal survey was accomplished in 96% of the cases. PMID:7800310

  18. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  19. BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    BabyZone Getting Pregnant Infertility Late Fertility Fertile Future: Women May Become More Fertile generations of "late age" women to become pregnant. Published in the August 2010 issue of the American in Their 40s by Jacqueline Tourville The Scoop Women in their 40s who spontaneously conceive may be changing

  20. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  1. Dietary Assessment in Pregnant Women and Children

    Cancer.gov

    In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.

  2. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  3. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI?=?71.8–76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI?=?41.9–47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI?=?10.3–13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe. PMID:22937114

  4. Prevention of female reproductive system cancer among rural and urban Polish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Bili?ski, Przemys?aw; Boyle, Peter; Zato?ski, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojty?a, Andrzej

    2011-06-01

    Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be efficient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion campaigns aimed at limiting morbidity and mortality due to cancerous diseases. PMID:21736284

  5. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma

    2015-01-01

    Background Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. PMID:26244027

  6. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  7. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    . A multidisciplinary examination of historical conditions, cultural norms, and social institutions that define women's Studies. 3 Credits. A multidisciplinary examination of historical conditions, cultural norms, and social institutions that define women's status in Western culture. Experiences of girls and women in various racial

  8. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  9. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  10. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  11. Monitoring HIV Epidemic in Pregnant Women: Are the Current Measures Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Sarkate, Purva; Paranjpe, Supriya; Mehta, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Burden of HIV in pregnant women follows overall epidemic in India. Hence, it is imperative that prevalence calculations in this group be accurate. The present study was carried out to determine prevalence of HIV in pregnant women attending our hospital, to determine trend of HIV infection and to compare our results with reported prevalence. Methods. All pregnant women are routinely counselled for HIV testing using opt-out strategy. Year-wise positivity and trend were determined in these patients over a period of five years. The positivity in different age groups was determined. Results. 31,609 women were tested of which 279 (0.88%) were positive. Positivity showed a declining trend over study period and significant quadratic trend (biphasic, P < 0.05) was observed. The positivity in older age group ?35 years (1.64%) was significantly more than younger age groups (0.76% in 15–24-year and 0.94% in 25–34-year age group) (P = 0.0052). Conclusion. A significant decline in HIV positivity was seen over the study period. Taking into account heterogeneous nature of HIV epidemic even within the same district, analysis at local levels especially using the prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV program data is critical for HIV programming and resource allocation. PMID:26316980

  12. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  13. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  14. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-10-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  15. DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    PubMed Central

    Ifesanya, Joy U.; Ifesanya, Adeleke O.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and pregnancy statistics were also obtained and the relationships between these and oral hygiene status were determined. Results: The mean age was 25.35 ± 5.02 years. Most of the women (96.0%) had never visited a dentist or any other oral health care provider and only 12.5% of those who had been attended by dental care givers have ever had professional dental cleaning. The oral hygiene status appeared to worsen as parity increased (p=0.047) while the use of the toothbrush and paste was associated with good oral hygiene (p=0.007). Higher education was associated with use of the tooth brush and paste (p=0.046) and good oral hygiene (p= 0.001). Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. PMID:25161475

  16. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Ajibola, Sarah O; Rabiu, Kabiru A; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Dosunmu, Adedoyin O; Adediran, Adewumi; Osunkalu, Vincent O; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin I; Ismail, Kamal A

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy. Subjects and methods This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL) was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed. Results Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]): hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume at first trimester was 32.07% ± 6.80%; of second trimester, 29.76% ± 5.21%; and of third, 33.04% ± 3.88%. The mean ± SD hemoglobin concentration values were 11.59 ± 2.35 g/dL, 10.81 ± 1.72 g/dL, and 10.38 ± 1.27 g/dL for women in their first, second, and third trimester, respectively. Mean ± SD white blood cell concentration for first, second, and third trimesters were 7.31 ± 2.38 × 109, 7.88 ± 2.33 × 109, and 8.37 ± 2.15 × 109, respectively, while the mean ± SD platelet values for first, second, and third trimesters were 231.50 ± 79.10 × 109, 227.57 ± 63 × 109, and 200.82 ± 94.42 × 109, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was found to exist between packed cell volume and white blood cell count with increase in gestational age (P = 0.010 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant association between platelet count and increase in gestational age (P = 0.296). Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Nigeria. PMID:23662089

  17. Association between depression and nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Sangini S; Coleman, Jenell; Cannon, Tirza; Milio, Lorraine; Keller, Jean; Anderson, Jean; Argani, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) face unique psychosocial challenges due to the presence of a lifelong chronic illness and often unstable living situations. With advances in HIV treatment, an increasing number of those with PAH are reaching childbearing age and becoming pregnant. Depression may be an important and common factor that complicates both treatment and pregnancy outcomes in this group. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in pregnant patients with PAH to determine if history of depression is associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We reviewed charts of women with PAH receiving prenatal care at a single institution from March 1995 to December 2012. ART nonadherence was measured by patient self-report of any missed doses in the third trimester. Demographic, obstetric, and HIV infection characteristics of patients with a history of depression (dPAH) were compared to patients without a history of depression. Nine pregnancies among 6 dPAH women and 14 pregnancies among 12 PAH women without a history of depression were identified. None of the dPAH women reported 100% adherence to ART in the third trimester while 57% of women without a history of depression reported strict adherence (p = 0.04). The mean HIV RNA level at delivery was higher among dPAH women (17,399 vs. 2966 copies/Ml; p = 0.03) and fewer reached an undetectable HIV RNA level (<400 copies/mL) at delivery (p = 0.03). We concluded that a history of depression may contribute to poor medication adherence and treatment outcomes among pregnant women with PAH. Focused attention on diagnosis and treatment of depression in the preconception period may lead to more optimal medication adherence. PMID:25616659

  18. Assessment of Burden of Depression During Pregnancy Among Pregnant Women Residing in Rural Setting of Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Nivetha; Murthy, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression during perinatal period leads to adverse pregnancy outcome and of child growth. Our study aimed to examine the burden of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women living in rural settings of Chennai, a southern state of India. Materials and Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural settings of Chennai, one of the Southern States of India during August through September 2013. Hundred pregnant women who agreed to participate were enrolled in this study. Edinburg postnatal depression scale was used to assess the depression level of the study participants. Information was also gathered about socio-demographics, obstetric and disease history, social support and marital satisfaction was gathered. Descriptive analysis was performed using univariate statistics to report means and standard deviations for the continuous variables and frequency distribution for the categorical variables. Results Majority of the participants (65%) had scored 13 or higher on the Edinburg Depression Scale reflecting high likelihood of depression. Majority of the participants (66%) had been bothered due to low feeling, depressed or hopelessness during the previous month. Enriched marital satisfaction scale (p=.025) had shown significant association with Edinburg depression scale. Conclusion Pregnancy is very crucial period not only for mother but whole family. This study has shown very high frequency of depression among the participants. There is a need for a longitudinal study to design interventions that can address emerging burden of antenatal depression among pregnant women living in rural settings. PMID:26023573

  19. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  20. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Illness in Florida, 2009-2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Timothy J.; Goodin, Kate; Hamilton, Janet J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant women have been identified as a high risk group for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection (pH1N1). Obesity has also been identified as a risk factor for severe illness, though this has not been thoroughly assessed among pregnant women. The objectives of this study were to provide risk estimates for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy and to assess the role of obesity in these outcomes. Methods We established a retrospective population-based cohort of all live births occurring in Florida during the first 15 months of the pandemic. Illness with pH1N1 during pregnancy was ascertained through record linkage with the Florida state notifiable disease surveillance database. Data from the birth record, including pre-pregnancy body mass index, were analyzed to assess risk of adverse outcomes associated with pH1N1 illness. Results A total of 194 women were identified through surveillance with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy. Children born to women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for low birth weight [OR (95%CI): 1.78 (1.11-2.860)], premature birth [2.21 (1.47-3.330)], and infant death [4.46 (1.80-11.00)], after adjusting for other factors. Women with pH1N1 illness during pregnancy were at increased risk for severe outcomes including admission to an intensive care unit. Obesity was an observed risk factor, both for the more severe pH1N1 illness detected through surveillance, and for severe maternal outcomes. Conclusions Case-patients in this analysis likely represent the most severely ill subset of all women infected with pH1N1 during pregnancy, limiting the generalizability of these findings to more severely ill patients rather than influenza infection in general. Nevertheless, these results suggest that more severe pH1N1 illness during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes and that pregnant women should continue to be targeted for appropriate prophylaxis and early treatment. PMID:24205364

  1. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  2. Factors Associated With the Chronicity of Intimate Partner Violence Experiences Among Pregnant Women in Detoxification Services.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with chronicity of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant substance abusers. A total of 114 pregnant women entering an inpatient, detoxification unit voluntarily agreed to participate in a study about women's health and well-being. Face-to-face interviews were used for data collection. A multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between background characteristics, substance use, and IPV chronicity. Protective factors, which were associated with reduced chronicity of IPV, included whether most recent/current intimate partner fathered pregnancy, whether the mother was currently in a relationship with most recent/current intimate partner, whether the mother received greater social support, and increasing age. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased chronicity of IPV. Results suggest important prevention, intervention, and treatment implications for this vulnerable population. PMID:26086380

  3. Blood lead levels and risk factors in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Manuel Salas-Pacheco, José; Peña-Elósegui, Rocío; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas Rangel, Jorge-Luís; García Vargas, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study the authors determined blood lead levels (BLLs) and some risk factors for lead exposure in pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-nine pregnant women receiving medical attention by the Secretary of Health, State of Durango, Mexico, participated in this study between 2007 and 2008. BLLs were evaluated with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The authors used Student t test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression as statistical treatments. BLLs ranged from 0.36 to 23.6 ?g/dL (mean = 2.79 ?g/dL, standard deviation = 2.14). Multivariate analysis showed that the main predictors of BLLs were working in a place where lead is used, using lead glazed pottery, and eating soil. PMID:24484368

  4. Physical violence against pregnant women by an intimate partner, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Abhari, Farrideh R.; Delavar, Mouloud A.; Charati, Jamshid Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1%) (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001), secondary level education (0.003), and in low income households (0.0001) were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse. PMID:25657606

  5. Characterization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transcriptome and Biological Pathways in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Evidence for Pregnancy-Related Regional-Specific Differences in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Study Design The transcriptome of paired visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues from pregnant women at term and matched non-pregnant women (n = 11) was profiled with the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Differential expression of selected genes was validated with the use of quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Six hundred forty-four transcripts from 633 known genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.1; fold-change >1.5), while 42 exons from 36 genes showed differential usage (difference in FIRMA scores >2 and FDR<0.1) between the visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women. Fifty-six known genes were differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant subcutaneous fat and three genes in the visceral fat. Enriched biological processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant women were mostly related to inflammation. Conclusion The transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots reveals pregnancy-related gene expression and splicing differences in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, for the first time, alternative splicing in adipose tissue has been associated with regional differences and human parturition. PMID:26636677

  6. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population. PMID:25925718

  7. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46.204 Section 46.204 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research...

  8. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  10. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  11. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  12. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  13. [The significance of folate metabolism in complications of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-05-01

    Proper metabolism of folates has a crucial role for body homeostasis. Folate metabolism regulates changing of amino acids (homocysteine and methionine), purine and pyrimidine synthesis and DNA methylation. These whole biochemical processes have significant influence on hematopoietic, cardiovascular and nervous system functions. The disturbances of folate cycle could result in chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, higher risk of heart infarction, could promote cancers development, and psychic and neurodegenerative diseases. No less important is the connection with complications appearing in pregnant woman (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia, fetus hypotrophy intrauterine death, preterm placenta ablation, preterm delivery) and fetus defects (Down syndrome, spina bifida, encephalomeningocele, myelomeningocele). The complex process of folate metabolism requires adequate activity of many enzymes and presence of co-enzymes. A key enzyme in folate metabolism is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), and 677C>T polymorphism of MTHFR gene is connected with lower enzymatic activity In several researches it was indicated that 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism is an independent factor influencing homocysteine concentration in serum, and also folate concentration in serum and red blood cells. Nevertheless, it was also observed the correlation of 677C>T MTHFR polymorphism with Down syndrome, and neural tube defects appearance in fetus. In European populations frequency of mutated 677TT genotype ranges from a few to several percent. Women carriers of 677TT or 677CT MTHFR genotypes are exposed on folate metabolism disturbances and on the consequences of incorrect folate process during pregnancy Nowadays in this group of women folic acid supplementation is widely recommended. In the light of modern knowledge the attention was also focused on the importance of metafolin administration that omitted pathways of folic acid transformation after administration, and in pregnant women certainly is valuable complement of supplementation in this respect. PMID:23819405

  14. Informed choice of pregnant women in prenatal screening tests for Down's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H?H; Chao, Y?M (Yu); Yuh, Y?S

    2006-01-01

    Background Although maternal serum screening (MSS) for Down's syndrome has become routinely available in most obstetric clinics in many countries, few studies have addressed the reasons why women agree to undergo the MSS test. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the circumstances in which MSS was offered to pregnant women and their reasons for undertaking it. Methods Participant observation and in depth interviews were used in this study; specifically, the experiences of women who had a positive result for MSS and who then followed this up with amniocentesis were examined. The interviewees were twenty six mothers aged between 22 and 35 years. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed for analysis. The results were analysed by the constant comparative method. Results This study identified the reasons on which pregnant women appeared to base their decisions when undergoing MSS. The reasons were first, the recognition that the procedure was a prenatal routine procedure; second, the need to avoid the risk of giving birth to a baby with Down's syndrome, and third, a trust in modern technology and in the professional authorities. Conclusions This study offers insights into the informed choice made by women with a positive MSS result. The reasons for undergoing MSS might help health professionals and policy makers to reflect on their practice and this may, in turn, improve the quality of prenatal care during MSS. PMID:16648277

  15. Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women living in an area of stable malaria transmission such as Lagos, Nigeria, have been identified as being at an increased risk of the effects of malaria infection. In this area, most of the infections are asymptomatic which means they are overlooked and untreated much to the detriment of the mother and her foetus. The reality of scaled-up malaria interventions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets, vector control, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria pregnancy (IPTp) using sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is that it is also essential to determine the risk factors at play in these kinds of circumstances. This study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with risk of malaria infection in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods Demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women studied were captured using structured questionnaire. Microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, species identification and parasite density. Relative risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare factors associated with malaria in pregnant women. Results Malaria microscopy details, demographic information and malaria prevention practices of the pregnant women were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of malaria using peripheral blood from 1,084 pregnant women that participated in the study was 7.7%. Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) was seen in 95.2% of the cases as either mixed infection with P. malariae (3.6%) or as a mono infection (91.6%). Malaria preventive practices associated with a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the malaria infection was the use of insecticide sprays (RR = 0.36, 95 C.I. 0.24-0.54), and the combined use of insecticide spray and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (RR= 6.53, 95% C.I. 0.92-46.33). Sleeping under ITN alone (RR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 0.55-2.09) was not associated with significant reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135

  16. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Result Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit???105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). Conclusion The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications. PMID:24636218

  17. Association of Bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections with HIV among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imade, Godwin E.; Musa, Jonah; Sagay, Atiene S.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Idoko, John; Kanki, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross- sectional study of pregnant women who participated in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, between April 2002 and July 2004, at the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Blood, high vaginal and endocervical samples were obtained for diagnosis of HIV, BV and other STIs. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV, BV and other STIs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models generated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) as well as 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of BV and other STIs with HIV prevalence. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 4,046 pregnant women were studied and 97.6% (3,950/4,046) had complete laboratory records for analysis. The prevalence of HIV was 8.2% (CI: 7.4–9.1); BV 11.9% (CI: 10.9–12.9); Candida 10.7% (CI: 9.7–11.7); mixed infection of BV and Candida 2.8% (CI: 2.3–3.4); Trichomonads 0.6% (CI: 0.3–0.8) and syphilis 0.35% (0.16–0.54). BV, Candida, mixed BV and Candida; and Trichomonads were independently associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.9 (CI: 2.2–3.9); 2.0 (CI: 1.5–2.9); 3.4 (CI: 2.0–5.6), and 3.3 (CI: 1.1–9.7) respectively]. Conclusion HIV prevalence is higher among pregnant women who have BV, Candida and Trichomonads vaginal infections compared with women who have no evidence of infection. The practice of routine screening for BV and other STIs among pregnant women as a strategy for identifying women at risk for prevalent HIV infection should be sustained/ encouraged and the syndromic management of STIs should be integrated into all antenatal care management protocols in antenatal clinics in order to curb the epidemic of heterosexual HIV transmission.

  18. Pregnant Turkish women with low income: their anxiety, health-promoting lifestyles, and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Oya; Atan, Senay Unsal; Sirin, Ahsen; Sen, Emine; Guneri, Sezer Er; Dag, Hande Yagcan

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents anxiety levels, health-promoting lifestyles and related factors among pregnant Turkish women with low income. A descriptive correlation and cross-sectional study was conducted at a state maternity hospital in Western Turkey. The paper reports on the data (n?=?195) from the Spielberg State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The average HPLP score was low (mean 2.57, SD 0.42). The average STAI score was high (40.67?±?9.48; 46.40?±?8.09, respectively). A significant relation was detected between the trait anxiety, state anxiety, antenatal visit, perception of social support, living environment, family type and HPLP (P?pregnant Turkish women with low income in communities. PMID:24093742

  19. The development and evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in a regional hospital, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thassri, J; Kala, N; Chusintong, L; Phongthanasarn, J; Boonsrirat, S; Jirojwong, S

    2000-12-01

    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Thailand is higher than neighbouring developing countries including Malaysia and Singapore. The 1993 MMR of Thailand was 249 per 100 000 livebirths which was four times higher than the rates in Malaysia and Singapore (World Health Organization 1995). The major causes of these deaths were haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy and sepsis which were likely to be prevented by adequate prenatal care (Thailand Ministry of Public Health 1996). A large proportion of Thai pregnant women have poor health. Between 1994 and 1995, a national study conducted by Thailand Ministry of Health showed that 39% of pregnant women were anaemic, defined as haemoglobin concentration lower than 33% (Supamethaporn 1997). Another study conducted in the southern region also indicated that 13.8% of pregnant women were anaemic caused by iron deficiency (Phatthanapreechakul et al. 1997). Other behaviours which increased risks associated with child birth included non-antenatal care (ANC) attendance, undertaking physically demanding tasks and failure to increase nutritional intake during their pregnancy period (N. Phiriyanuphong et al. 1992, unpublished report). These factors emphasize the importance of a health education programme which could facilitate women to, for example, increase protein and iron intake during pregnancy which would reduce complications from their poor health status. This study was conducted in a regional hospital in Thailand where there was no systematic and well-planned health education programme for pregnant women. The initial aim was to design a health education programme using input from the hospital health care professionals including obstetricians, nurses, nutritionists, health educators and health promoters. An active involvement of these personnel assisted to sustain the provision of the programme provided for pregnant women after the cessation of the study project. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the programme using a pre-test-post-test method among selected pregnant women who participated in the newly designed health education programme. PMID:11136413

  20. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Its Related Factors in Pregnant Women in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pratumvinit, Busadee; Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Wataganara, Tuangsit; Hanyongyuth, Sithikan; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chatsiricharoenkul, Somruedee; Manonukul, Kotchamol; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data focusing on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. Objectives We determined the vitamin D status in pregnant women and examined the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 pregnant Thai women aged 18–45 years at Siriraj Hospital (a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand) was undertaken. Clinical data and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, albumin, phosphate and magnesium were obtained in pregnant women at delivery. Results The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L] in pregnant women at delivery was 75.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 67.7–82.2%). Of these, vitamin D insufficiency [defined as 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L] was found in 41.5% (95% CI, 33.4–49.9%) and vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was found in 34.0% (95% CI, 26.4–42.3%) of women. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 61.6±19.3 nmol/L. The correlation between 25(OH)D and iPTH was weak (r = –0.29, P<0.01). Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency by multiple logistic regression were: pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in kg/m2, odds ratio (OR), 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97, P = 0.01) and season of blood collection (winter vs. rainy, OR, 2.62, 95% CI 1.18–5.85, P = 0.02). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant Thai women. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased in women who had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI and whose blood was collected in the winter. Vitamin D supplementation may need to be implemented as routine antenatal care. PMID:26147381

  1. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PREVENTION OF RENAL PATHOLOGY IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAKU].

    PubMed

    Kadimova, Sh G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established. PMID:26411170

  2. Risk Factors for Maternal Injuries in a Population-Based Sample of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Yankowitz, Jerome; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of injuries during pregnancy is largely underestimated, as previous research has focused on more severe injuries resulting in emergency department visits and hospitalizations. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, risk factors, and causes of injuries in a population-based sample of pregnant women. Methods: This article is an analysis of postpartum interviews among the control series from a case-control study (n=1,488). Maternal, pregnancy, and environmental characteristics associated with injury during pregnancy in control subjects were examined to identify population-based risk factors for injury. We collected data on self-reported injury during pregnancy, including the month of pregnancy, whether medical attention was sought, the mechanism of injury, and the number and location of bodily injuries. Logistic regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of injury. Results: Over 5% of women reported an injury during pregnancy, with falls being the most common mechanism of injury. Women at highest adjusted risk for injury had unintended pregnancies (aOR: 2.28 [1.40–3.70]) and no partner during pregnancy (aOR: 2.45 [1.16–5.17]) relative to women without injuries. Conclusions: Pregnant women with risk factors for many pregnancy-related complications are also at increased risk of injury during pregnancy. Further studies of pregnancy-related injuries are needed to consider environmental and maternal characteristics on risk of injury. PMID:25251144

  3. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-04-15

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an apparent Mr of 220,000. PMID:2025230

  4. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an apparent Mr of 220,000. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2025230

  5. Relationship between physical activity and quality of life in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Mohamadirizi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the important factors in predicting the quality of life, which varies between different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and the quality of life in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 380 pregnant women who were admitted to Isfahan healthcare centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital, by using the two-stage sampling method (cluster convenience) in 2013. Demographic/pregnancy characteristics, physical activity (36Q) and prenatal quality of life questionnaires (26Q) were completed by the participants. The statistical analyses were performed with various statistical tests such as Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression, and SPSS statistical software version 16. Results: The findings showed that 91.6% of the subjects were 20–35 years old, 69% had a gestational age of 29–37 weeks, 60% had their first pregnancy, 98% had poor physical activities, and 43% had a good quality of life. There was also a negative correlation between physical activity and social support (P = 0.04, r = ?0.11). Conclusions: As the results show high percentage of poor physical activity and quality of life, and also the relationship between these variables, more attention should be dedicated to this problem. Furthermore, structured programs and educational approaches are also needed for pregnant women. PMID:25878709

  6. Decrease of lymphoid dendritic cells in blood from malaria-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Mamadou; Aldebert, Delphine; Moreau, Jean-Charles; Ndiaye, Malick; Jambou, Ronan

    2008-11-01

    Activation of dendritic cells (DCs) during malaria is poorly documented and has mainly been studied in rodent models. We conducted studies in Senegal to better understand the relationship between DC subset activation and susceptibility of pregnant women to malaria. For each woman, samples were collected at delivery from peripheral (WB), placental (PB) and cord blood (CB). The ex vivo phenotypes of DCs were assessed using flow cytometry on whole blood. The percentage of total DCs was the same for malaria-infected or non-infected pregnant women, except for PB where a decrease in DCs was observed during infection. Lymphoid dendritic cells (LDC) also decreased in the three blood compartments of infected pregnant women and less differentiated DCs (ldDCs) increased. During infection, Human Leucocyte Antigen DR (HLA-DR) expression decreased on LDCs, myeloid DCs (MDCs) and ldDCs. IL-10 increased in the three blood compartments. These data demonstrate a modulation of DC sub-populations during placental malaria. A decrease in LDCs during placental malaria could trigger major alterations in the immune response and a change in the Th1/Th2 balance. However, elevated IL-10 observed during infection substantiates a normal micro-environment triggering normal production of DCs. The decrease in LDCs could thus be due to their migration towards spleen or other lymphoid organs. PMID:18606411

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30. PMID:24350998

  8. [Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in central Italy].

    PubMed

    Thaller, R; Tammaro, F; Pentimalli, H

    2011-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2007 we examined 2356 pregnant women. We interviewed the patients concerning their dietary behaviour and lifestyles during pregnancy in correlation with the possibility of contracting toxoplasmosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the importance of different risk factors in a group of Italian patients and assess the level of knowledge on this matter. The survey questions were related to: 1) eating rare/raw meat; 2) eating commercial or homemade ham or other pork derivatives such as dry sausage and salami; 3) owning a garden or a plot for fruit and vegetables; 4) owning pets, especially cats; 5) living in town or in the country; 6) eating fresh uncooked vegetables. On the basis of serological tests (Toxo IgG, IgM, IgA, avidity test) we identified three groups of women: those with primary infection, seronegative women (control), and those with inactive infections. Comparison of the first two groups showed that each risk factor significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring toxoplasmosis. Higher odds ratios were observed for those living in the country and for those consuming homemade cured meat. PMID:22212163

  9. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9%) were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042), not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs) during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007), those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01) and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001) had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = ?.110, P< 0.001), Ascaris lumbricoides (r = ?.122, P < 0.001) and Trichuris trichiura (r = ?.025, P < 0.001) and decreasing hematocrit values. Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care should promote de-worming and education on personal hygiene. Therefore, there is a need to design strategies that help to diagnose pregnant women for malaria and STH infections during their antenatal care (ANC) visit instead of testing for only haemoglobin (Hgb) levels and blood group. PMID:23244514

  10. Characterization of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women by 18S rRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, N-N; Guo, X-C; Lv, W; Chen, X-X; Feng, G-F

    2013-08-01

    Pregnancy and diabetes are regarded as individual risk factors for vaginal candidiasis. The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant diabetic women can be explained by disruption of the balance of the vaginal normal flora. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women. In the present study, the diversity and richness of the vaginal fungal flora in healthy non-pregnant women (group HN), healthy pregnant women (group HP), women with gestational diabetes mellitus (group GDM), and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type I (group T1DM) were investigated using an 18S rRNA gene clone library method. Our data demonstrated that the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in the four groups could be divided into two phyla (Ascomycetes, 20/26, and Basidiomycetes, 6/26). The most predominant vaginal fungal species belonged to the Candida and Saccharomyces genera, uncultured fungi, and a large number of low-abundance taxa that were unrecorded or underrepresented in previous studies using cultivation-dependent methods. Variation in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the study cohorts was generally high in the clone libraries, as 9, 13, 17, and 20 phylotypes were identified in groups HN, HP, GDM, and T1DM, respectively. The Shannon indices of groups GDM and T1DM (with poorer glycemic control) were significantly higher compared to groups HN and HP (p?pregnant diabetic women and demonstrated that poor glycemic control might be associated with disturbances in the vaginal fungal flora. PMID:23463448

  11. Prevalence of serious psychological distress and mental health treatment in a national sample of pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Glasheen, Cristie; Colpe, Lisa; Hoffman, Valerie; Warren, Lauren Klein

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and correlates of past month serious psychological distress (SPD) and past year mental health treatment (MHT) across pregnancy and the postpartum. Data are from the 2008 to 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence estimates of SPD as well as MHT among women with SPD were generated for each trimester and across the postpartum period. Correlates of SPD and MHT were examined among pregnant and postpartum women. The prevalence of past month SPD was 6.4 % in first trimester women and 3.9 % in third trimester women. In postpartum women, SPD prevalence ranged from 4.6 % (0-2 months) to 6.9 % (3-5 months). Correlates of SPD among pregnant and postpartum women included being younger; non-Hispanic black; unmarried; making under $20,000 annually; having past month cigarette use; or having a past year alcohol or illicit drug use disorder. Only 38.5 % of pregnant and 49.5 % of postpartum women with past month SPD reported past year MHT. Those who received MHT were more likely to be white; widowed, divorced, or separated; have insurance; and have a history of depression or anxiety than their counterparts with no MHT. Pregnant women with SPD were less likely to report past year MHT than postpartum women, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Over half of pregnant and postpartum women with past month SPD are not receiving MHT. Increased contact with health care professionals during this time may be an opportunity for screening, identification, and referral to MHT. PMID:24802262

  12. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  13. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  14. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  15. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  16. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  17. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  18. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  19. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  20. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  1. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4?g/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7?g/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8?g/L, 0.6?g/g, and 0.9?g/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5?g/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 ?g/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  2. Urinary iodine level and its determinants in pregnant women of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Jin, Longmei; Yu, Xiaodan

    2015-05-14

    It is known that iodine deficiency during pregnancy can interfere with normal fetal growth and development. However, iodine levels of pregnant women in Shanghai, China, and factors that could influence its levels remain unclear. A total of 916 pregnant women were selected from the Maternal and Child Care Service Centre of Minhang District in Shanghai. Morning urinary iodine (UI) and iodine content of salt from the participants' home were measured, and UI concentration was adjusted by creatinine concentrations. Serum tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, free tri-iodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were tested in the second trimester of pregnancy by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The median levels of UI in pregnant women were 156.3, 176.9 and 175.1 ?g/g creatinine in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of UI deficiency (UI < 150 ?g/g creatinine) was 48.3, 34.2 and 36.2% in the three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Factors that significantly influenced the UI levels include the following: iodine content of household salt; age; occupation; multivitamin supplement with iodine; seaweed intakes. Furthermore, UI and iodine content of salt were moderately correlated (r 0.406, P < 0.001). In addition, there was no significant association between UI and thyroid hormone levels. The present study showed a high prevalence of UI deficiency in pregnant women in Shanghai, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. Both iodine content of household salt and multivitamin supplement with iodine are the main determinants of UI levels in Shanghai. PMID:25851149

  3. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  4. Changes in Purines Concentration in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Pregnant Women Experiencing Pain During Active Labor.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André P; Böhmer, Ana E; Hansel, Gisele; Soares, Félix A; Oses, Jean P; Giordani, Alex T; Posso, Irimar P; Auler, José Otávio C; Mendes, Florentino F; Félix, Elaine A; Portela, Luís V; Souza, Diogo O

    2015-11-01

    Labor pain has been reported as a severe pain and can be considered as a model of acute visceral pain. It is well known that extracellular purines have an important role in pain signaling in the central nervous system. This study analyzes the relationship between extracellular purines and pain perception during active labor. A prospective observational study was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the purines and their metabolites were compared between women at term pregnancy with labor pain (n = 49) and without labor pain (Caesarian section; n = 47). Control groups (healthy men and women without chronic or acute pain-n = 40 and 32, respectively) were also investigated. The CSF levels of adenosine were significantly lower in the labor pain group (P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with pain intensity measured by a visual analogue scale (r = -0.48, P = 0.0005). Interestingly, CSF levels of uric acid were significantly higher in healthy men as compared to women. Additionally, pregnant women showed increased CSF levels of ADP, GDP, adenosine and guanosine and reduced CSF levels of AMP, GTP, and uric acid as compared to non-pregnant women (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that purines, in special the nucleoside adenosine, are associated with pregnancy and labor pain. PMID:26408294

  5. Wireless Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in Inpatient Full-Term Pregnant Women: Testing Functionality and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline A.; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

  6. Health providers’ compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirlohi, Vajihesadat; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Kohan, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most important crises with mental, social, and deep emotional dimensions in women's life. Health providers’ respect to pregnant women's Bill of Rights, as an important component of providing humanistic and ethical care, is of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights in labor and delivery and some of its related factors in 2013. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on the subjects selected through census sampling (N = 257) from among the healthcare providers working in the labor rooms of four educational hospitals. The data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire whose validity and reliability were established. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The compliance with pregnant women's Bill of Rights was found to be at a very high level in 22.8% of the midwifery students, 28.6% of the residents of obstetrics and gynecology, 21.9% of the interns, 50% of the obstetrics and gynecology faculty members (professors), and 31.9% of the midwives. There was a significant difference between the five groups of service providers in terms of overall compliance with mothers’ rights (P = 0.002). The results showed that the residents in higher years of education (P = 0.001), midwifery students in higher semesters (P = 0.001), midwives with more work experience (P < 0.001), and personal experience of being hospitalized in labor room (P < 0.001) had a higher compliance with Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in compliance with Bill of Rights between labor and age (P = 0.82). Conclusions: The results showed that the health providers’ compliance with the pregnant women's Bill of Rights was not acceptable in the labor room. Therefore, necessary actions are needed to remove the barriers against pregnant women's compliance of Bill of Rights and to facilitate the compliance with it in hospitals. PMID:26457093

  7. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this technology in busy inpatient settings. PMID:25622043

  8. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

  9. The feasibility of voluntary counselling and HIV testing for pregnant women using community volunteers in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Avinash K; Mhazo, Miriam; Moyo, Sostain; von Lieven, Andrea; Mateta, Patrick; Katzenstein, David A; Maldonado, Yvonne; Hill, David; Bassett, Mary T

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) by pregnant women using community volunteers in Zimbabwe to prevent mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. From July 1999 to June 2001, a short-course zidovudine (ZDV)-based perinatal HIV prevention programme was initiated in two antenatal clinics. Community volunteers, recruited from local community organizations, underwent a two-week training course in VCT, which included HIV/AIDS facts, systematic counselling approach, and practical counselling techniques using scripts and role-play. Rapid HIV testing was performed after informed consent. Lay counsellors conducted individual pre- and post-test counselling for HIV. A total of 35 women community volunteers were trained in VCT; 34 graduated and committed to work four hours per week in the clinic. Of the 6051 pregnant women presenting for antenatal clinics (ANC), 1824 (30%) underwent pre-test counselling and 1547 (26%) were tested, and 429 (28%) were HIV infected. Overall, 1283 (83%) returned for their test results including 406 (95%) of HIV-infected women. Of the 406 HIV-infected women who collected their test results, only 203 (50%) opted for ZDV prophylaxis to prevent MTCT of HIV. Over the two-year study period, two counsellors died and three sought employment at other organizations. Adherence to duty roster was 97% and no breach of confidentiality was reported. Despite many challenges, VCT delivered by community volunteers is feasible and acceptable for pregnant women aiming to reduce their risk of transmitting HIV to their infants. This programme is being implemented at several urban and rural MTCT sites in Zimbabwe and can serve as a model for other resource-poor countries. PMID:16303072

  10. Minimal Effect of Daytime Napping Behavior on Nocturnal Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Rebecca M.; Wood, Annette; Okun, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess whether daytime naps negatively impact nocturnal sleep. Design: Longitudinal, prospective cohort design. Participants: 161 pregnant women recruited and evaluated in early gestation (10–20 weeks). Measurements and Results: Daily sleep information was collected in three 2-week periods (10–12, 14–16, and 18–20 weeks gestation) with a daily sleep diary and an actigraph. The average number of naps, as well as the average length of each nap, were calculated from sleep diaries. Women were categorized first as non nappers (0 naps/2-week period), moderate nappers (1–3 naps/2-week period), or frequent nappers (? 4 naps/2-week period). Then, based on the average nap length, they were categorized as short (< 90 min) or long (? 90 min) nappers. Nocturnal sleep parameters included SOL, WASO, SE, and TST. SAS procedure MIXED was used for modeling the main effects of nap group and time, and time by nap group interactions. Women who took naps had a decrease in diary-assessed nocturnal TST, but not actigraphy-assessed TST. This observation was group- and time-specific. There were no other group differences. Women who napped ? 90 min had poorer diary-assessed SE and lower diary-assessed TST than those who took shorter naps. Length of nap was not associated with any other sleep measures. Conclusions: The number of daytime naps have minimal impact on nocturnal sleep parameters; however, long nappers did exhibit modestly impaired sleep continuity and sleep quality. Overall, we propose that daytime naps provide a beneficial countermeasure to the sleep disruption commonly reported by pregnant women. This may be clinically beneficial given that sleep continuity and quality are important correlates of pregnancy outcomes. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. Citation: Ebert RM, Wood A, Okun ML. Minimal effect of daytime napping behavior on nocturnal sleep in pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):635–643. PMID:25766712

  11. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  13. Factors influencing intentions of pregnant women to exercise after giving birth.

    PubMed Central

    Godin, G; Vezina, L; Leclerc, O

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence a pregnant woman's decision to exercise after giving birth. A sample of 98 pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire investigation attitudes, social norms, perceived barriers to exercise, and intention regarding exercising after giving birth. Also determined were age, education level, exercise habits, number of months elapsed since onset of present pregnancy, and number of children. The regressions of intentions to exercise on all variables yielded R2 of 0.52 for nulliparous and 0.60 for pluriparous pregnant women. Important differences in variables that explained intentions were found between both groups of women, with perceived barriers to exercise being a key predictor that was, in turn, influenced by previous experience with pregnancy. It is suggested that the experience of the postnatal period modifies the interrelation between the variables explaining intentions regarding exercise after giving birth. Consequently, the programs should take into account the impact that the birth of a first child will have on the perceived barriers to exercise. PMID:2495554

  14. Body dissatisfaction among pregnant women: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Neves, Clara Mockdece; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Berbert; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-07-01

    The body image of pregnant women is an issue that should be further investigated by professionals in the area, especially in view of the fact that maternal and infant health has gained such prominence. The scope of this integrative review is to analyze the literature relating to body image and body dissatisfaction among pregnant women. Research was based on articles extracted from the Scopus, PubMed, BVS and PsycINFO databases, by cross-referencing "pregnancy" with the keywords "body image" and "body dissatisfaction." Once the inclusion and exclusion criteria had been adopted, forty studies were analyzed. These produced inconclusive data about body dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, an inadequate approach towards healthy eating and weight gain above recommended limits have been associated with a negative body image. The contradictory findings could be related to the different instruments used to measure body image. In view of the possible impact that a negative body image can have on maternal and infant health during pregnancy, it is recommended that further investigations are made, in particular related to the development of a specific tool to evaluate the body image of pregnant women. PMID:26132248

  15. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  16. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  17. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

  18. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument in Pregnant Women: Results from the BRISA Prenatal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e.; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. Methods Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA) were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. Results The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] ?=?0.060, p<0.001 for the combined model). The multidimensional WHO VAW model showed good fit (RMSEA?=?0.036, p?=?0.999 for the combined model) and standardized factor loadings higher than 0.70, except for the sexual dimension for SL (0.65). The models suggested by the modification indices with cross loadings measuring simultaneously physical and psychological violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p<0.001 for the difference between the model chi-squares). Conclusions Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW model and the modified models are suitable for measuring violence against pregnant women. PMID:25531654

  20. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezire, Onoriode; Adebayo, Samson B; Idogho, Omokhudu; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Nwokolo, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN) available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural), confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net is owned, age, and marital status were not significant. Multiple logistics regression shows that pregnant women who are confident to hang or use a net were almost ten times more likely to use a net than those who do not know, while those who know that the use of an ITN/LLIN can protect a pregnant woman from malaria were almost two times more likely to use a net than those who do not know. Conclusion In general, while owning a net facilitates its use, ownership does not necessarily translate to usage. Owning more than one ITN/LLIN per household was not significant in the use of an ITN/LLIN by pregnant women in this study, neither was the length of time the net was owned. This study shows that increasing the number of nets owned per household might not be a critical decider on whether the net will be used or not. We recommend massive education on the use of ITN. Skill building on use and increasing knowledge on the benefits of using nets may contribute to improving ITN use among pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:26170721

  1. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onoh, RC; Umeora, OUJ; Egwuatu, VE; Ezeonu, PO; Onoh, TJP

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection during pregnancy and a significant cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The causative bacteria have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics. Objectives To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI. Methodology This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software. Results A total of 542 pregnant women presented with symptoms of UTI and were recruited for the study over the study period. Of the 542 pregnant women, 252 (46.5%) had significant bacteriuria with positive urine culture and varying antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The prevalence of symptomatic UTI was 3%. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria isolated with a percentage of 50.8%. Other isolated micro organisms included Stapylococcus aereus (52 cultures, 20.6%), Proteus mirabilis (24 cultures, 9.5%), S. saprophyticus (18 cultures, 7.1%), Streptococcus spp. (14 cultures, 5.6%), Citrobacter spp. (5 cultures, 2.0%), Klebsiella spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), Enterobacter spp. (4 cultures, 1.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (3 cultures, 1.2%). Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 92.5%. Others with overall antibiotic sensitivity pattern greater than 50% included cefpodoxime (87.3%), ofloxacin (77.4%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), ceftriaxone (66.7%), and gentamicin (50.8%). Conclusion E. coli was the most common etiological agent of UTI in pregnancy with Enterococcus (Staphylococcus) gaining prominence. Cephalosporin and quinolones were shown to be very effective against the organisms causing UTI in these pregnant women. PMID:24324344

  2. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  3. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Gregory; Bekker, Linda-Gail; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma HIV viral load (VL) is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33%) were HIV positive and 1521 (85%) were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947) were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ?350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ?500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL<50 copies/mL and 13% had VL >1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26154734

  4. Monitoring Pregnant Women’s Illicit Opiate and Cocaine Use With Sweat Testing

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Bertrand R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Choo, Robin E.; Mura, Patrick; Jones, Hendrée E.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Dependence on illicit drugs during pregnancy is a major public health concern as there may be associated adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal consequences. Sweat patches (n = 389) were collected from 39 pregnant volunteers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved protocol and wore patches, replaced approximately weekly, from study entry until delivery. Patches were analyzed for opiates (heroin, 6-acetylmor-phine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine and codeine) and cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine methyl ester) by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Seventy-one percent (276) of collected sweat patches were ?5 ng per patch (limit of quantification) for one or more analytes. Cocaine was present in 254 (65.3%) patches in concentrations ranging from 5.2 to 11,835 ng per patch with 154 of these high enough to satisfy the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines for a confirmatory drug test (25 ng per patch). Interestingly, 6-acetylmorphine was the most prominent opiate analyte documented in 134 patches (34.4%) with 11.3% exceeding the proposed opiate Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off (25 ng per patch). Heroin was identified in fewer patches (77), but in a similar concentration range (5.3–345.4 ng per patch). Polydrug use was evident by the presence of both cocaine and opiate metabolites in 136 (35.0%) patches. Sweat testing is an effective method for monitoring abstinence or illicit drug use relapse in this high-risk population of pregnant opiate- and/or cocaine-dependent women. PMID:19927046

  5. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored. PMID:19403711

  6. The Effect of Peppermint Oil on Symptomatic Treatment of Pruritus in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan Amjadi, Marjan; Mojab, Faraz; Kamranpour, Seyedeh Bahareh

    2012-01-01

    Itching is one of the most common skin symptoms. Generalized pruritus occurs in 1-8% of pregnant women. It can create unpleasant feeling for these women especially at nights. Most pregnant women avoid using synthetic drugs because of their side effects. Peppermint is a plant which has been used as a traditional drug in Iran. It decreases skin’s temperature. This study was done to determine the effects of peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of pruritus in pregnant women attending to Rasoul Akram Hospital in Rasht, 2011. In this triple-blind clinical trial, 96 randomly selected subjects diagnosed with pruritus gravidarum were studied (47 cases and 49 controls). A bottle containing 60 mL of peppermint oil 0.5% in sesame oil and identical placebos were provided to be taken twice a day during 2 weeks by the case and control groups, respectively. The severity of the itch was assessed and compared before and after the study by VAS system. The results were analyzed by SPSS. Statistical methods such as descriptive analysis, independent samples’ t-test, paired samples’ t-test and Chi-square were employed. The severity of the itch in the treated group with peppermint oil in comparison with the placebo group, showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.003). In accordance with the results of this study, it seems that peppermint oil can be effective in reducing the severity of Pruritus Gravidarum. More studies with larger sample sizes are required to confidently declare the mentioned results. PMID:24250539

  7. Safety of Exposure From Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields During Prenatal Ultrasound Examinations in Clinicians and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won; Chung, Jai Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won; Cho, Hee Young

    2015-07-01

    Investigations into the safety of ultrasonography in pregnancy have focused on the potential harm of ultrasound itself. However, no data have been published regarding the electromagnetic fields that ultrasound devices might produce. This study is the first to measure extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure of clinicians and pregnant women during prenatal ultrasound examinations in the examination room from 2 different ultrasound devices and compare them with ELF-MFs during patient consultation in the consulting room.The ELF-MF intensities that clinicians and pregnant women were exposed to were measured every 10 seconds for 40 prenatal ultrasound examinations using Philips iU22 or Accuvix V20 Prestige machines and 20 patient consultations in a consulting room using portable ELF-MF measurement devices. The mean ELF-MF exposure of both clinicians and pregnant women was 0.18 ± 0.06 mG during prenatal ultrasound examination. During patient consultation, the mean ELF-MF exposures of clinicians and pregnant women were 0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01 mG, respectively. Mean ELF-MF exposures during prenatal ultrasound examination were significantly higher than those during patient consultations (P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test).Our results provide basic reference data on the ELF-MF exposure of both clinicians and pregnant women during prenatal ultrasound monitoring from 2 different ultrasound devices and patient consultation, all of which were below 2 mG, the most stringent level considered safe in many studies, thus relieving any anxiety of clinicians and pregnant women regarding potential risks of ELF-MFs. PMID:26200630

  8. Safety of Exposure From Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields During Prenatal Ultrasound Examinations in Clinicians and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won; Chung, Jai Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won; Cho, Hee Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Investigations into the safety of ultrasonography in pregnancy have focused on the potential harm of ultrasound itself. However, no data have been published regarding the electromagnetic fields that ultrasound devices might produce. This study is the first to measure extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure of clinicians and pregnant women during prenatal ultrasound examinations in the examination room from 2 different ultrasound devices and compare them with ELF-MFs during patient consultation in the consulting room. The ELF-MF intensities that clinicians and pregnant women were exposed to were measured every 10?seconds for 40 prenatal ultrasound examinations using Philips iU22 or Accuvix V20 Prestige machines and 20 patient consultations in a consulting room using portable ELF-MF measurement devices. The mean ELF-MF exposure of both clinicians and pregnant women was 0.18?±?0.06?mG during prenatal ultrasound examination. During patient consultation, the mean ELF-MF exposures of clinicians and pregnant women were 0.10?±?0.01 and 0.11?±?0.01?mG, respectively. Mean ELF-MF exposures during prenatal ultrasound examination were significantly higher than those during patient consultations (P?pregnant women during prenatal ultrasound monitoring from 2 different ultrasound devices and patient consultation, all of which were below 2?mG, the most stringent level considered safe in many studies, thus relieving any anxiety of clinicians and pregnant women regarding potential risks of ELF-MFs. PMID:26200630

  9. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Rectovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women and Risk for Maternal and Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Top, Karina A.; Buet, Amanda; Whittier, Susan; Ratner, Adam J.; Saiman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Staphylococcus aureus infections are increasing among pregnant and postpartum women and neonates, but risk factors for S. aureus colonization in pregnancy and the association between maternal colonization and infant infections are not well defined. We sought to identify risk factors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization and assess colonization as a risk factor for infections among mothers and infants. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants. Demographic and clinical data, including S. aureus infections that occurred in mothers from 3 months before to 3 months after delivery and in infants during the first 3 months of life, were extracted from electronic medical records. Predictors for maternal S. aureus rectovaginal colonization were assessed through multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. The cohort included 2702 women and 2789 infants. The prevalence of maternal rectovaginal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 13% and 0.7%. Independent predictors of colonization included multigravidity, human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, and group B Streptococcus colonization. S. aureus colonization was associated with an increased risk of infection in mothers (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–8.8) but not in their infants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, .6–5.6). The frequency of S. aureus infections was 0.8% in mothers and 0.7% in infants. Conclusions. S. aureus rectovaginal colonization was associated with an increased risk of infections in women but not in their infants. The frequency of MRSA infections was low. These data suggest that routine MRSA screening of pregnant women may not be indicated. PMID:23687569

  10. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

  11. Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish. PMID:22534145

  12. Prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Nova Scotia and to identify women at high risk of smoking during pregnancy. DESIGN: Population-based descriptive study. SETTING: All hospitals providing obstetric services in Nova Scotia. PATIENTS: All 60 754 women residing in Nova Scotia who had a baby in hospital between 1988 and 1992; smoking data were available for 57,750 (95.1%) of them. OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of women who smoked during pregnancy and the maternal smoking rates by age, marital status, parity, attendance at prenatal classes and residence. RESULTS: Overall, 32.4% of the women smoked at some point during their pregnancy. The rate was highest among the women less than 20 years of age (47.0%) and decreased with each increasing 5-year age interval. Overall, the unmarried women were 2.1 times as likely to smoke as the married women. The smoking rates were highest among the women who were para 3 or greater regardless of age (women less than 20 were excluded here, since very few had such a parity). Of the nulliparous women, those who attended prenatal classes were less likely to smoke during pregnancy than those who did not attend. There was no relation between urban or rural residence and smoking rates. The smoking rates decreased little between 1988 and 1992 and in fact increased among the women 35 and over and among those who were para 3 or greater. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking rates among pregnant women in Nova Scotia changed little between 1988 and 1992. Therefore, it seems that current strategies for smoking cessation have not been successful. Since prenatal classes are more likely to attract nonsmokers than smokers, other avenues for education and cessation are necessary. PMID:7820800

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  14. [Antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases in pregnant women and their offspring. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus].

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, A; Prager, J; Bischoff, A; Wutzler, P

    2004-01-01

    In the eastern part of Germany, the age of primigravid women has increased from the end of the 2nd decade to the second half of the 3rd decade since 1990. This might influence the vaccine-induced immunity in pregnant women as well as their newborns. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of the higher age of pregnant women on antibody protection. Maternal and cord blood samples of 290 women in the eastern part of Germany with a mean age of 28 years were analyzed for antibodies against the vaccine-preventable diseases diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Compared with the data on vaccination history, the seroprevalence rate of tetanus was significantly enhanced and the seroprevalence rate of diphtheria and pertussis was significantly reduced. Detectable levels of antibodies against tetanus toxin were found in 93% of the mothers, against diphtheria toxin in 70%, and against Bordetella pertussis in 37%. Cord blood samples had a significantly higher prevalence of antibodies against pertussis and diphtheria in comparison to maternal probes. In addition,there were significantly enhanced antibody concentrations against diphtheria toxin in the newborns. In conclusion, the prevalence of antibodies determined suggests they are insufficient for protecting the newborns efficiently against pertussis and diphtheria in spite of the evidence for an active placental antibody transfer. PMID:15205819

  15. Lean on me: effects of social support on low socioeconomic-status pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Massey, Amber R

    2013-09-01

    This study identified how close relationships are related to low-income pregnant women's ability to cope and overall health. Previous research has shown that stress during pregnancy is related to long-term negative physical and psychological health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. Lower socioeconomic status has been related to higher morbidity and mortality across the lifespan. Women typically rely on close relationships for social support to help reduce stress. However, stress levels can be elevated when women engage in co-rumination. Co-rumination is defined as excessive problem discussion with negative-affect focus. Thirty-one low-income pregnant women from central Oklahoma, USA, reported their daily stressors, social support, communication habits with friends and family, and general health in a series of questionnaires at a prenatal visit. The results revealed that daily stressors, co-rumination with friends, and the relationship with the baby's father were related to physical pain and depressive symptoms. The results suggested that specific social support dynamics, such as co-rumination, during pregnancy have implications for the health of low-income mothers and their infants. PMID:23656532

  16. Seasonal and gestation-stage associated differences in aflatoxin exposure in pregnant Gambian women

    PubMed Central

    Castelino, Jovita M.; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Routledge, Michael N.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aflatoxin is known to cross the placental barrier and exposures in utero could influence genomic programming, fetal growth and development, resulting in long term health effects. We aimed to determine aflatoxin exposure in Gambian women at two stages of pregnancy and during the rainy and dry seasons. Methods We examined aflatoxin exposure in pregnant Gambian women at early (<16 weeks) and later (16 weeks onward) stages of pregnancy and at different times of the year, during the rainy (June to October 2009) or dry (November to May 2010) season, using aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb). Results Mean AF-alb was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season, in both early and later pregnancy although the difference was strongest in later pregnancy. There was a modest increase in AF-alb in later than early pregnancy (geometric mean 41.8 vs 34.5 pg/mg, P <.0.05), but this was restricted to the dry season when exposures were generally higher. Conclusions The study confirmed that Gambian pregnant women were exposed to aflatoxin throughout the pregnancy, with higher levels in the dry season. There was some evidence in the dry season that women in later pregnancy had higher AF-alb levels than those in earlier pregnancy. Further research on the effects of exposure to this potent mutagen and carcinogen throughout pregnancy, including the epigenetic modification of fetal gene expression and impact on pre- and post-natal growth and development, are merited. PMID:24372685

  17. Depression in Teenager Pregnant Women in a Public Hospital in a Northern Mexican City: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Very little is known about prenatal depression in teenagers in Mexico. We determined the prevalence and correlates of prenatal depression in teenager women attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study to assess depression in 181 teenager pregnant women who attended a public hospital for prenatal care. We used a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg postnatal depression scale (EPDS) to screen depression. Women with EPDS scores suggestive of depression were further examined to confirm depression by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 181 teenager pregnant women studied, 61 (33.7%) had EPDS equal to or higher than 8 (range 8 - 23), and 37 of them were confirmed to have prenatal depression by the psychiatric evaluation. The general prevalence of prenatal depression in the teenager pregnant women studied was 20.4%. Of the 37 women with depression, 34 suffered from minor depression and three suffered from major depression. Thus, the prevalence of minor and major depression in the women studied was 18.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the teenager pregnant women showed that prenatal depression was associated with a previous episode of depression during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68 - 22.30; P = 0.006), and borderline associations with big fetal size (OR = 9.9; 95% CI: 0.94 - 104.24; P = 0.05) and family problems (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 0.99 - 14.84; P = 0.05). Conclusions Results demonstrate that prenatal depression is common in pregnant teenagers in Durango City, Mexico. The history of an episode of depression during pregnancy should alert physicians for further depression episodes during pregnancy in teenagers. Further research to elucidate the association of prenatal depression with size of the fetus and family problems in pregnant teenagers is needed. PMID:26015817

  18. The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Related Maternal Factors in Pregnant Women in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shu Jun; Zhou, Ling; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Zhou, Jinlian; Feng, Kai; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to influence fetal and neonatal health. Little is known about vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of pregnant women residing in Beijing in winter and evaluate the impact of maternal factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. The study was conducted on 125 healthy pregnant women. For each individual, data concerning pre-pregnancy weight, educational status, use of multivitamins and behavioral factors such as daily duration of computer use, walking and sun exposure were obtained. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 96.8% and almost half (44.8%) of women were severely vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L). The concentration of 25(OH)D was lower in women with shorter duration of sun exposure (? 0.5 h/day, 25.3 ± 8.9 nmol/L) than that in women with longer duration of sun exposure (> 0.5 h/day; 30.3± 9.5 nmol/L; P = 0.003). Thirty six women (28.8%) had sun exposure duration ? 1.5h/day. The 25(OH)D concentration in these women was 31.5 ± 9.4 nmol/L which was also much lower than the normal level. Women who reported taking a multivitamin supplement had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations (32.3 ± 9.5 nmol/L) when compared with non-users (24.9 ± 8.2 nmol/L; P < 0.001). Pregnant women in Beijing are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency in winter. Duration of Sun exposure and the use of multivitamin were the most important determinants for vitamin D status. However, neither prolonging the time of sunlight exposure nor multivitamin supplements can effectively prevent pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency. Other measures might have to be taken for pregnant women to improve their vitamin D status in winter. PMID:24386450

  19. Evidence of Subclinical mtDNA Alterations in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Compared to HIV-Negative Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Money, Deborah M.; Wagner, Emily C.; Maan, Evelyn J.; Chaworth-Musters, Tessa; Gadawski, Izabelle; van Schalkwyk, Julie E.; Forbes, John C.; Burdge, David R.; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Lohn, Zoe; Côté, Hélène C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively prevent vertical transmission of HIV but there is potential risk of adverse maternal, foetal or infant effects. Specifically, the effect of cART use during pregnancy on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV-positive (HIV+) women is unclear. We sought to characterize subclinical alterations in peripheral blood mtDNA levels in cART-treated HIV+ women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Methods This prospective longitudinal observational cohort study enrolled both HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) pregnant women. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at three time points in pregnancy (13-<23 weeks, 23-<30 weeks, 30–40 weeks), and at delivery and six weeks post-partum in HIV+ women. Peripheral blood mtDNA to nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio was measured by qPCR. Results Over a four year period, 63 HIV+ and 42 HIV- women were enrolled. HIV+ women showed significantly lower mtDNA/nDNA ratios compared to HIV- women during pregnancy (p = 0.003), after controlling for platelet count and repeated measurements using a multivariable mixed-effects model. Ethnicity, gestational age (GA) and substance use were also significantly associated with mtDNA/nDNA ratio (p?0.02). Among HIV+ women, higher CD4 nadir was associated with higher mtDNA/nDNA ratios (p<0.0001), and these ratio were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the postpartum period (p<0.0001). Conclusions In the context of this study, it was not possible to distinguish between mtDNA effects related to HIV infection versus cART therapy. Nevertheless, while mtDNA levels were relatively stable over time in both groups during pregnancy, they were significantly lower in HIV+ women compared to HIV- women. Although no immediate clinical impact was observed on maternal or infant health, lower maternal mtDNA levels may exert long-term effects on women and children and remain a concern. Improved knowledge of such subclinical alterations is another step toward optimizing the safety and efficacy of cART regimens during pregnancy. PMID:26247211

  20. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women’s human rights?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

  1. Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhixian; Dodd, Jodie M

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during pregnancy in the overweight and obese population. There is a need for a detailed description of physical activity patterns during pregnancy in women who are overweight or obese, and more randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions for women who are overweight or obese, with a focus on clinical outcomes. PMID:23861603

  2. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  3. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  4. French Experience of 2009 A/H1N1v Influenza in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dubar, Grégory; Azria, Elie; Tesnière, Antoine; Dupont, Hervé; Le Ray, Camille; Baugnon, Thomas; Matheron, Sophie; Luton, Dominique; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Launay, Odile; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Background The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. Methodology/Principal Findings A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes), 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes), and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes). The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%), notably the severe patients (70%), were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28%) were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–11.8) and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days) (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9–12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4–261.3, respectively). Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14%) were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. Conclusions This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the benefit of early oseltamivir treatment in this specific population. PMID:20957195

  5. Violence and substance use among North Carolina pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S L; English, K T; Clark, K A; Cilenti, D; Kupper, L L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Prenatal patients were studied to examine the proportion of women who had been violence victims, women's patterns of substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and illegal drugs) before and during pregnancy, and relationships between violence and substance use. METHODS. More than 2000 prenatal patients in North Carolina were screened for violence and substance use. Relationships between violence and patterns of substance use before and during pregnancy were examined, as well as women's continuation of substance use during pregnancy as a function of violence and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS. Twenty-six percent of the women had been violence victims during their lives. Before pregnancy, 62% of the women had used one or more substances; during pregnancy, 31% had used one or more substances. Both before and during pregnancy, violence victims were significantly more likely to use multiple substances than nonvictims. Continuation of substance use during pregnancy was significantly more likely among violence victims than nonvictims. CONCLUSIONS. Care providers should screen women for violence as well as for substance use and should ensure that women are provided with appropriate interventions. PMID:8669524

  6. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  7. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  8. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  9. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  10. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved...research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN...

  11. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  12. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  13. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  14. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  15. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  16. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  17. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  18. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  19. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  20. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  1. Physical performance and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a cross-sectional study of pregnant Swedish and Somali immigrant women and new mothers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe vitamin D deficiency can impair muscle strength. The study aims were to examine physical performance in the hands and upper legs, and analyze plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in women with presumably low (veiled, Somali-born) and high levels (unveiled, Swedish-born). Methods Women (n=123, 58% Swedish) enrolled at a Swedish antenatal clinic, latitude 60° N,?were recruited.?Plasma 25(OH) D was analyzed, measured as nmol/L, then categorized as <10 = undetectable, 10–24, 25–49, 50–74 or >75. Muscle strength was tested: maximal hand grip strength (in Newtons, N), and upper leg performance (categorized as able/unable to perform squatting, standing on one leg, standing from a chair, and lifting their hips).?Social and anthropometric data were collected. Non-parametric statistics tested the data for differences in their ability to perform the tests across 25(OH)D categories.?Undetectable values (<10 nmol/L) were replaced with ‘9’ in the linear correlation statistics.?A final main effect model for grip strength (in N) was calculated using stepwise linear regression for independent variables: country of birth, 25(OH)D levels, age, height, weight, physical activity, lactation status, parity, and gestational age. Results Somali participants (35%) had 25(OH)D levels of <10 nmol/L, and 90% had <25 nmol/L; 10% of Swedish participants had <25 nmol/L of 25(OH)D, and 54% had <50 nmol/L. Somali women had a relatively weak grip strength compared with Swedish women: median 202 N (inter-quartile range 167–246) vs. median 316 N (inter-quartile range 278–359), respectively. Somali women were also weak in upper leg performance: 73% were unable to squat, 29% unable to stand on one leg, and 21% could not lift their hips (not significant across 25(OH)D categories); most Swedish women could perform these tests. In the final model, grip strength (N) was significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels (B 0.94, p=0.013) together with Somali birth (B ?63.9, p<0.001), age (B 2.5, p=0.02) and height (B 2.6, p=0.01). Conclusions Many Somali women had undetectable/severely low 25(OH)D concentrations and pronounced hand and upper leg weakness; grip strength was strongly associated with 25(OH)D. Maternity health care personnel should be aware of this increased frequency and manage care accordingly. PMID:24345271

  2. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  3. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  4. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  5. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  6. Trends in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Anovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women in 2005 versus 2009?

    PubMed Central

    Top, Karina A.; Huard, Richard C.; Fox, Zachary; Wu, Fann; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Saiman, Lisa; Ratner, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women at our center (Columbia University Medical Center) was 0.5%, and MRSA-colonized women were less likely to carry group B streptococcus (GBS). In this study, our objectives were to identify changing trends in the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) anovaginal colonization in pregnant women, to assess the association between MRSA and GBS colonization, and to characterize the MRSA strains. From February to July 2009, Lim broths from GBS surveillance samples were cultured for S. aureus. MRSA strains were identified by resistance to cefoxitin and characterized by MicroScan, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin PCR. A total of 2,921 specimens from different patients were analyzed. The prevalences of MSSA, MRSA, and GBS colonization were 11.8%, 0.6% and 23.3%, respectively. GBS colonization was associated with S. aureus colonization (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 2.4). The frequencies of GBS colonization were similar in MRSA-positive (34.2%) versus MRSA-negative patients (21.8%) (P = 0.4). All MRSA isolates from 2009 and 13/14 isolates from 2005 were SCCmec type IV or V, consistent with community-associated MRSA; 12/18 (2009) and 0/14 (2005) isolates were the USA300 clone. Levofloxacin resistance increased from 14.3% (2005) to 55.6% (2009) (P = 0.028). In conclusion, the prevalence of MRSA anovaginal colonization in pregnant women in New York City, NY, remained stable from 2005 to 2009, and USA300 emerged as the predominant clone with a significant increase in levofloxacin-resistant isolates. PMID:20686089

  7. Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M; Zhang, Siyu; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Schade, Ashley C; Benedict, Samantha; Banan, Maral; Ren, Xiang; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined pregnant women’s likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed “Contagion” to understand cultural influences on message perception. Methods: Pregnant women ages 18–50 participated in a randomized message framing study from September 2011 through May 2012 that included exposure to intervention or control messages, coupled with questionnaire completion. Venue-based sampling was used to recruit racial and ethnic minority female participants at locations throughout Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate key outcomes. Results: The study population (n = 261) included many lower income (? $20?000/yearly household earnings) pregnant participants (69.2%, n = 171) inclusive of Black/African Americans (88.5%, n = 230), Hispanic/Latinas (7.3%, n = 19), and Other/Multicultural women (4.2%, n = 11). Both gain [OR = 2.13, 90% CI: (1.120, 4.048)] and loss-frame messages [OR = 2.02, 90% CI: (1.083, 3.787)] were significantly associated with infant influenza vaccination intention compared with the control condition. Intention to immunize against influenza during pregnancy had a strong effect on intent to immunize infants [OR = 10.83, 90%CI: (4.923, 23.825)]. Those who had seen the feature film “Contagion” (n = 54, 20.69%) viewed gain- and loss-framed messages as appealing (x2 = 6.03, p = 0.05), novel (x2 = 6.24, p = 0.03), and easy to remember (x2 = 16.33, P = 0.0003). Conclusions: In this population, both gain- and loss-framed messages were positively associated with increased maternal intent to immunize infants against influenza. Message resonance was enhanced among those who saw the film “Contagion.” Additionally, history of immunization was strongly associated with infant immunization intention. PMID:24172064

  8. Assessment of Congenital Anomalies in Infants Born to Pregnant Women Enrolled in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Sahin, Leyla; Petrie, Carey R.; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Frey, Sharon E.; Mason, Robin M.; Nesin, Mirjana; Carey, John C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, held a series of meetings to provide guidance to investigators regarding study design of clinical trials of vaccines and antimicrobial medications that enroll pregnant women. Assessment of congenital anomalies among infants born to women enrolled in these trials was recognized as a challenging issue, and a workgroup with expertise in epidemiology, pediatrics, genetics, dysmorphology, clinical trials, and infectious diseases was formed to address this issue. The workgroup considered 3 approaches for congenital anomalies assessment that have been developed for use in other studies: (1) maternal report combined with medical records review, (2) standardized photographic assessment and physical examination by a health professional who has received specific training in congenital anomalies, and (3) standardized physical examination by a trained dysmorphologist (combined with maternal interview and medical records review). The strengths and limitations of these approaches were discussed with regard to their use in clinical trials. None of the approaches was deemed appropriate for use in all clinical trials. Instead, the workgroup acknowledged that decisions regarding the optimal method of assessment of congenital anomalies will likely vary depending on the clinical trial, its setting, and the agent under study; in some cases, a combination of approaches may be appropriate. The workgroup recognized the need for more research on approaches to the assessment of congenital anomalies to better guide investigators in optimal design of clinical trials that enroll pregnant women. PMID:25425721

  9. Evaluation of Single Parent, Displaced Homemaker, and Single Pregnant Women Programs in Texas Public Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Jessie; And Others

    A study evaluated previously funded vocational/applied technology programs to provide marketable skills to single parents, displaced homemakers, and single pregnant women throughout Texas. Program assessment questionnaires were sent to the program directors, administrators, high school principals, counselors, and program advisory committee members…

  10. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  11. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 ?g/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ? 45 ?g/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning. PMID:22302239

  12. Characterization of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection and its risk factors in pregnant women from the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Francine, Ntoumi; Damien, Bakoua; Anna, Fesser; Michael, Kombo; Christevy, Vouvoungui J; Felix, Koukouikila-Koussounda

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy remains a serious public health problem in the Republic of Congo despite the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in 2006. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize Plasmodium falciparum infections and determine possible risk factors in pregnant Congolese women attending an antenatal clinic in a periurban area of southern Brazzaville. This study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2013 in a site where several years ago, high malaria resistance to SP was reported. Pregnant women were enrolled during antenatal visits and the number of received IPTp-SP doses was recorded as well as individual sociodemographic data. Peripheral blood was collected and P. falciparum infection was checked by microscopy and by PCR targeting P. falciparum merozoite surface protein gene (msp2). Haemoglobin concentration was measured and P. falciparum positive samples were typed for msp2 allelic diversity. A total of 363 pregnant women were recruited. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection was 7% and 19% by microscopy and by PCR, respectively. More than one half (51.5%) of the pregnant women were anaemic. Multivariate analysis indicated that P. falciparum infection was associated with anaemia. It was also observed that women who have received IPTp-SP have significantly lower prevalence of infection. The administration of IPTp-SP did not influence the multiplicity of infection (MOI). This first study investigating asymptomatic malaria infection on pregnant women of the Republic of Congo shows that P. falciparum infections were clearly associated with maternal anaemia, and use of IPTp-SP reduced the risk of carrying asymptomatic infections. PMID:26477849

  13. Assessment of urinary infection management during prenatal care in pregnant women attending public health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children. PMID:24142006

  14. Pertussis and Influenza Vaccination Among Insured Pregnant Women — Wisconsin, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Ruth; Kahn, Danielle; Petit, Ashley B; Schauer, Stephanie L; Hopfensperger, Daniel J; Conway, James H; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2015-07-17

    On February 22, 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) revised recommendations for vaccination of pregnant women to recommend tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during every pregnancy, optimally at 27-36 weeks of gestation, to prevent pertussis among their newborns. Since 2004, influenza vaccination has been recommended for pregnant women in any trimester to prevent influenza and associated complications for mother and newborn. To evaluate vaccination of pregnant women in Wisconsin after the 2013 Tdap recommendation, health insurance claims data for approximately 49% of Wisconsin births were analyzed. The percentage of women who received Tdap during pregnancy increased from 13.8% of women delivering during January 2013 (63.1% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery) to 51.0% of women delivering during March 2014 (90.9% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery). Among women delivering during November 2013-March 2014, 49.4% had received influenza vaccine during pregnancy. After the 2013 recommendation, Tdap vaccination among pregnant women increased but plateaued at rates similar to influenza vaccination rates. Prenatal care providers should implement, evaluate, and improve Tdap and influenza vaccination programs, and strongly recommend that pregnant patients receive these vaccines to prevent severe illness and complications among mothers and infants. PMID:26182193

  15. Systematic analysis of the relationship between standardized biological levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and thyroid function in pregnant women and newborns.

    PubMed

    El Majidi, Naïma; Bouchard, Michèle; Carrier, Gaétan

    2014-03-01

    The impact polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on thyroid status in pregnant women and newborns was investigated in various epidemiological studies, but findings show inconsistencies, and differences in biological indicators of exposure between studies limits comparison of results. The aim of this research was to use a procedure previously developed to standardize PCB biological concentration data between published studies to perform a systematic analysis of associations between PCB exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) (total and free T3 and T4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in pregnant women and newborns. Biological concentrations from nineteen studies were expressed in total PCB equivalent per kg of lipids in maternal plasma (?g PCBMPEQ kg(-1) lipids). Systematic analysis of the "standardized biological concentration-thyroid parameters" relationship was conducted through the application of methodological criteria in both pregnant women and newborns. Standardization of PCB levels and application of methodological criteria led to assign higher confidence to ten of the reviewed studies. Among the retained studies in pregnant women, only one reported a significant association between PCBs and total T3 levels, but no association were observed when circulating TSH and free T4 levels were used to assess thyroid function. Regarding the association between prenatal PCB exposure and thyroid status in newborns, a lack of significant association was consistently obtained in the retained studies assigned an overall high confidence. The weight of evidence of a significant impact of PCB exposure on TSH and TH levels at the described biological levels in pregnant women and newborns (mean<1000 ?g PCBMPEQ kg(-1) lipids) appears low according to this systematical analysis. PMID:24200047

  16. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

  17. Characteristics and quality of life of opioid-dependent pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Metz, Verena E; Comer, Sandra D; Wuerzl, Johanna; Pribasnig, Anna; Fischer, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated pregnant opioid-dependent women undergoing maintenance therapy, applying a multidisciplinary, case-management approach at the Addiction Clinic of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. It aimed at characterizing the patients' basic demographic and clinical parameters and evaluating their overall quality of life (QoL) prepartum and postpartum. Three hundred ninety women were treated between 1994 and 2009 with buprenorphine (n = 77), methadone (n = 184), or slow-release oral morphine (SROM) (n = 129) on an outpatient basis throughout their pregnancy and postpartum period. All patients were subject to standardized prepartum and postpartum medical and psychiatric assessments, including QoL assessments using a German adaptation of the Lancashire QoL Profile (Berliner Lebensqualitaetsprofil), and regular supervised urine toxicologies. No medication group differences were revealed regarding basic demographic or clinical data. Mean maintenance doses (SD) at time of delivery were as follows: 64 mg (36 mg) methadone, 10 mg (6 mg) buprenorphine, 455 mg (207 mg) SROM. However, buprenorphine-medicated women showed significantly less concomitant benzodiazepine consumption than methadone- or SROM-maintained women (p = 0.005), and significantly less concomitant opioid consumption than methadone-maintained women (p = 0.033) during the last trimester. Overall QoL was good prepartum and postpartum in all measured domains except "finances" and "prospect of staying in the same housing situation," and no differences were observed in QoL among the three medication groups (p = 0.177). QoL improved significantly after delivery in most of the domains (p < 0.001). Although opioid-dependent pregnant women face high-risk pregnancies and show variability in addiction severity, they report good QoL independent of the medication administered. These results show that individually tailored treatment interventions are effective for this patient population and suggest a QoL improvement after delivery. PMID:25023716

  18. [Incidence and current treatment of cytotoxic cyclopeptide (phalloidine) poisoning in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Jaros, F; Kascák, M

    1996-06-01

    The authors treated successfully a patient who ingested along with three members of the family the mushroom Amanita phalloides and was in the 24th week of gestation. She gave birth to a healthy infant. The authors discuss the incidence and contemporary treatment of cytotoxic, cyclopeptide (phalloid, hepatotoxic) intoxications, incl. those with Amanita phalloides during pregnancy. They present case-histories and an account on amatoxin intoxications in pregnant women published so far in the literature, and experience with the treatment of a 18-year-old pregnant woman. They reflect whether termination of pregnancy is indicated in pregnant women intoxicated with Amanita phalloides. PMID:8928413

  19. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Okikiola M; Aminu, Maryam; Randawa, Abdullahi J; Adejo, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Background Rubella is a contagious viral infection that in pregnant women leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Objective Pregnant women are not routinely screened for rubella in Nigeria. Epidemiological data on rubella is therefore necessary to create awareness and sensitize health care administrators and providers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital between June and August 2012 to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to rubella virus in pregnant women using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Seroprevalence was compared among 160 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and 20 nonpregnant women of childbearing age studying at Ahmadu Bello University. Prior to sample collection, questionnaires were administered to the women to obtain data on sociodemographics, awareness and knowledge of rubella, possible risk factors, and clinical symptoms associated with the viral infection. Results Of the 160 pregnant women, 149 (93.1%) and 62 (38.8%) were positive for anti-rubella IgM and IgG antibodies, respectively. Similarly, of the 20 nonpregnant women, 18 (90%) and eight (40%) were positive for rubella IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. None of the possible risk factors studied were significantly associated with infection. Age and other sociodemographic factors were of little significance, and awareness of rubella was low. Conclusion The prevalence of rubella was high in both pregnant (93.1%) and nonpregnant women (90%), suggesting sustained transmission, which further suggests endemicity. The presence of rubella IgM and IgG antibodies in pregnant women predisposes babies to congenital rubella syndrome and emphasizes the need for the initiation of a national rubella vaccination program in Nigeria. PMID:25610003

  20. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovi?, D; Bobi?, B; Jankovska, G; Klun, I; Panovski, N; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia. Retrospective analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 235 pregnant women from Macedonia, tested for Toxoplasma infection between January 2004 and December 2005, showed an overall prevalence of infection of 20.4%. Exposure to transmission factors significantly increased the risk of infection (RR = 1.989, 95 % CI = 1.041-3.800, p = 0.037). The single infection transmission factor that was a predictor of infection in the whole series was exposure to soil (RR = 1.946, 95% CI = 1.026-3.692, p = 0.041). Based on prevalence and the established risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Macedonia, the health education programme as a sustainable measure for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis should focus on educating women of generative age to avoid contact with soil (farming, gardening), and/to adhere to strict hygienic practices afterwards. PMID:21073139

  1. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwosa; Oladeinde, Oladapo Babatunde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence. Methods Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL. Results The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016) higher among primigravidae (92.1%). Pregnant women (38.5%) with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002). Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05). Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants. Conclusion The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes. PMID:22811774

  2. Fluctuation in the Levels of Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies for Cardiolipin and ?2-Glycoprotein among Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Balushi, Mohammed S.; Hasson, Sidgi S.; Said, Elias A.; Al-Busaidi, Juma Z.; Al-Daihani, Muna S.; Othman, Mohammed S.; Sallam, Talal A.; Idris, Mohammed A.; Al-Kalbani, Moza; Woodhouse, Nicholas; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Antiphospholipid antibodies fluctuate during a healthy normal pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the levels of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for cardiolipin and ?2-glycoprotein (?2GP) among healthy pregnant women. Methods: This study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2012. A total of 75 healthy Omani pregnant women with no history of autoimmune disease were investigated during their pregnancy and 90 days after delivery at the Armed Forces Hospital in Muscat, Oman. A control group of 75 healthy Omani non-pregnant women were also investigated as a comparison. Levels of IgM and IgG antibodies for both anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) and ?2GP were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ACA IgM levels were significantly higher in the control group compared to the pregnant women (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed in the ACA IgM levels between the control group and the pregnant women after delivery. In contrast, ACA IgG levels were significantly higher during pregnancy and after delivery compared with those of the healthy control group (P = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). The levels of ?2GP IgG were significantly higher during pregnancy than after delivery and in the control group (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In this study, ACA IgG levels increased during healthy pregnancies and after normal deliveries whereas ?2GP IgG levels increased transiently during the pregnancies. Both phenomena were found to be significantly associated with a transient decline in the levels of IgM specific for these antigens. Therefore, the levels of these antibodies may be regulated during a healthy pregnancy. PMID:25364550

  3. Risk Factors for Stress During Antenatal Period Among Pregnant Women in Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Manisha Madhai; Abraham, Anuja; Kurian, Suja; Regi, Annie; Rebekah, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background The well-being of an infant may be affected when the mother is subjected to psychosocial stress during her pregnancy. Mothers exposed to stressful conditions were more prone for preterm birth than those without any stress. In this study perceived stress has been used as an indicator of levels of stress. There are very few studies published from developing countries on the levels of perceived stress and its causes in pregnant women. Materials and Methods This study employed a cross-sectional assessment of pregnant women attending the outpatient services of a tertiary care hospital for regular antenatal check-up. Women not known to have any risk factors at 28 weeks to 34 weeks of pregnancy who agreed to participate in the study were interviewed to assess the perceived stress score. Results Among the total patients 57.7% were primigravida and the mean score on perceived stress scale was 13.5±5.02. The majority of the group (102; 65.4%) scored higher than the mean value of total score on the perceived stress scale. Unplanned pregnancy and husband’s employment status were associated with high levels of perceived stress in multivariate analysis in this set of women. Conclusion Individual as well as pregnancy related factors can contribute to perceived stress in pregnant women. With the established relationship between maternal mental health, pregnancy outcome and infant growth, the assessment and management of stress early in the pregnancy is crucial. PMID:26557568

  4. Prohypertensive effect of gestational personal exposure to fine particulate matter. Prospective cohort study in non-smoking and non-obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Majewska, Renata; Kaim, Irena; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM(2.5) has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM(2.5) on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM(2.5) and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6-11.6) with log unit of PM(2.5) concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7-8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = -4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.8 to -1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM(2.5) also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, -0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3-4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = -2.7; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure. PMID:22328329

  5. Characterization of Phthalate Exposure among Pregnant Women Assessed by Repeat Air and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Jennifer J.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Camann, David; Herrick, Robert; Nelson, Heather; Bhat, Hari K.; Perera, Frederica P.; Silva, Manori J.; Hauser, Russ

    2008-01-01

    Background Although urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are frequently used as biomarkers in epidemiologic studies, variability during pregnancy has not been characterized. Methods We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples collected from 246 pregnant Dominican and African-American women. Twenty-eight women had repeat urine samples collected over a 6-week period. We also analyzed 48-hr personal air samples (n = 96 women) and repeated indoor air samples (n = 32 homes) for five phthalate diesters. Mixed-effects models were fit to evaluate reproducibility via intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of using a single specimen versus repeat samples to classify a woman’s exposure in the low or high category. Results Phthalates were detected in 85–100% of air and urine samples. ICCs for the unadjusted urinary metabolite concentrations ranged from 0.30 for mono-ethyl phthalate to 0.66 for monobenzyl phthalate. For indoor air, ICCs ranged from 0.48 [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)] to 0.83 [butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP)]. Air levels of phthalate diesters correlated with their respective urinary metabolite concentrations for BBzP (r = 0.71), di-isobutyl phthalate (r = 0.44), and diethyl phthalate (DEP; r = 0.39). In women sampled late in pregnancy, specific gravity appeared to be more effective than creatinine in adjusting for urine dilution. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of DEP and DEHP metabolites in pregnant women showed lower reproducibility than metabolites for di-n-butyl phthalate and BBzP. A single indoor air sample may be sufficient to characterize phthalate exposure in the home, whereas urinary phthalate biomarkers should be sampled longitudinally during pregnancy to minimize exposure misclassification. PMID:18414628

  6. Measurement of Perceived Stress Among Pregnant Women: A Comparison of Two Different Instruments.

    PubMed

    Solivan, Amber E; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Assess the amount of agreement between the classification of stress from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Assessment of Stress portion of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) among pregnant women. A secondary data analysis on a cross-sectional study of 301 pregnant women from the New Orleans and Baton Rouge areas who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina was conducted. Women with complete data (219) were analyzed. Women scoring in the third tertile of each instrument were compared. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between instruments. Additional comparisons were made with three instruments that measure other important psychosocial constructs that could be related to stress: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Assessments of Support (partner and other support) and Self-Esteem from the PPP. No significant difference was found between the two tests. The PSS and the PPP were both statistically significantly correlated to each other (? = 0.71, p < 0.01). Thirty-five women were classified discordantly resulting in a Kappa Coefficient of 0.61 (95% CI 0.50-0.72, p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between these two instruments in correlation with the EDS (PPP, r = 0.76; PSS, r = 0.72; p < 0.01 for each), partner support (PPP, r = -0.47; PSS r = -0.46; p < 0.01 for each), other support (PPP, r = -0.31; PSS r = -0.32; p < 0.01 for each) and self-esteem (PPP, r = -0.41; PSS, r = -0.52; p < 0.01 for each), respectively. Given the similarities between the PSS and PPP, researchers are encouraged to choose and administer one instrument to participants, or to use the instruments in combination as an external reliability check. PMID:25652063

  7. Antigenic distribution of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from pregnant women at Garankuwa hospital – South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chukwu, Martina O; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen Tinago; Monyama, Charles M; Bolukaoto, John Y; Lebelo, Sogolo L; Maloba, Motlatji RB; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Moyo, Sylvester Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is globally recognised as one of the leading causes of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. It also causes adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirth and miscarriages. Incidence of invasive disease is increasing in non-pregnant adults with underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus). Epidemiological studies of GBS infections are based on capsular serotyping. Genotyping of the surface anchored protein genes is also becoming an important tool for GBS studies. Currently ten different GBS serotypes have been identified. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of GBS capsular types (CTs) and surface anchored protein genes in isolates from colonized pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Garankuwa, Pretoria, South Africa. Methods The samples were collected over 11 months and cultured on selective media. GBS was identified using different morphological and biochemical tests. Capsular typing was done using latex agglutination test and conventional PCR. Multiplex PCR with specific primers was used to detect the surface anchored protein genes. Results Of the 413 pregnant women recruited, 128 (30.9%) were colonized with GBS. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) typing test showed that CPS type III (29.7%) was the most prevalent capsular type followed by CPS type Ia (25.8%), II (15.6%), IV (8.6%), V (10.9%) and Ib (8.6%); 0.7% of the isolates were nontypeable. Multiplex PCR revealed that the surface proteins genes were possessed by all the capsular types: rib (44.5%), bca (24.7%), alp2/3 (17.9%), epsilon (8.6%) and alp4 (4.7%). Conclusion The common capsular types found in this study are Ia, III, and II. The most common protein genes identified were rib and bca, and the distribution of the surface protein genes among the isolates of different capsular types showed similar trends to the distribution reported from previous studies. PMID:26716101

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Emtricitabine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Neonates?

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saik; Rey, Elisabeth; Arrivé, Elise; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Coffié, Patrick; Leang, Sim Kruy; Lalsab, Sarita; Avit, Divine; Nerrienet, Eric; McIntyre, James; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and their neonates and to determine the optimal prophylactic dose for neonates after birth to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 38 HIV-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (300 mg)-FTC (200 mg) tablets—two tablets at the initiation of labor and one daily for 7 days postpartum. By pair, 11 maternal, one cord blood, and two neonatal FTC concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validated method and analyzed by a population approach. Model and mean estimates (interpatient variability) were a two-compartment model for mothers, with an absorption rate constant of 0.54 h?1 (61%), apparent elimination and intercompartmental clearances of 23.2 (17%) and 6.04 liters·h?1, and apparent central and peripheral volumes of 127 and 237 liters, respectively; an effect compartment linked to maternal circulation for cord blood and a neonatal compartment disconnected, after delivery, with a 10.6-h half-life (30%). After the 400-mg FTC administration, the median population area under the concentration-time curve and the minimal and maximal plasma FTC concentrations in pregnant women were 14.3 mg·liter?1·h and 1.68 and 0.076 mg/liter, respectively. At delivery, median (range) predicted maternal and cord blood FTC concentrations were, respectively, 1.16 (0.14 to 1.99) and 0.72 (0.05 to 1.19) mg·liter?1. We concluded that the 400-mg FTC administration in pregnant women produces higher exposition than does the 200-mg administration in other adults, at steady state. FTC was shown to have good placental transfer (80%). Administering 1 mg FTC/kg as soon as possible after birth or 2 mg/kg 12 h after birth should produce neonatal concentrations comparable to the concentrations observed in adults. PMID:19104016

  9. Tap water use amongst pregnant women in a multi-ethnic cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of disinfection by-products in drinking water and measures of adverse fetal growth have often been limited by exposure assessment lacking data on individual water use, and therefore failing to reflect individual variation in DBP exposure. Methods Pregnant women recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study completed a questionnaire which covers water exposure. Information was collected on water consumption, showering, bathing and swimming. Water exposure data from a subset of 39 women of the cohort are described here. Results Mean total tap water intake was 1.8 l/day, and women on average spent 146 minutes per week showering and bathing. Most tap water intake occurred at home (100% for unemployed, 71.8% for employed). Differences between age groups were observed for total tap water intake overall (p = 0.02) and at home (p = 0.01), and for bottled water intake (p = 0.05). There were differences between ethnic groups for tap water intake at home (p = 0.02) and total tap water intake at work (p = 0.02). Total tap water intake at work differed by income category (p = 0.001). Duration per shower was inversely correlated with age (Spearman's correlation -0.39, p = 0.02), and differed according to employment status (p = 0.04), ethnicity (p = 0.02) and income (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study provides estimates of water exposure in pregnant women in a multi-ethnic population in the north of England and suggests differences related to age, employment, income and ethnicity. The findings are valuable to inform exposure assessment in studies assessing the relationship between DBPs and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20102592

  10. Disparity in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among African American pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Kohn-Wood, Laura P.; McPherson, Melnee D.; Sperlich, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether African American women expecting their first infant carry a disproportionate burden of posttraumatic stress disorder morbidity, we conducted a comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from the initial psychiatric interview in a prospective cohort study of posttraumatic stress disorder effects on childbearing outcomes. Participants were recruited from maternity clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern USA. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years or older, able to speak English, expecting a first infant, and less than 28 weeks gestation. Telephone interview data was collected from 1,581 women prior to 28 weeks gestation; four declined to answer racial identity items (n =1,577), 709 women self-identified as African American, 868 women did not. Measures included the Life Stressor Checklist, the National Women’s Study Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Module, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and the Centers for Disease Control’s Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. The 709 African American pregnant women had more trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, comorbidity and pregnancy substance use, and had less mental health treatment than 868 non-African Americans. Lifetime prevalence was 24.0% versus 17.1%, respectively (OR=1.5, p=0.001). Current prevalence was 13.4% versus 3.5% (OR=4.3, p< 0.001). Current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was four times higher among African American women. Their risk for PTSD did not differ by sociodemographic status, but was explained by greater trauma exposure. Traumatic stress may be an additional, addressable stress factor in birth outcome disparities. PMID:21573930

  11. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  12. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  13. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  15. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  16. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  17. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  18. [Self-medication behavior among pregnant women user of the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Peru 2011].

    PubMed

    Miní, Elsy; Varas, Rocio; Vicuña, Yuliana; Lévano, María; Rojas, Luis; Medina, Julio; Butron, Joece; Aranda, Renzo; Gutierrez, Ericson L

    2012-06-01

    We aim to determine the prevalence of self prescribing behaviour during pregnancy and its characteristics. For this purpose, we designed a cross sectional study and interviewed 400 pregnant women who had their prenatal care at Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima. We found that 10.5% of the patients (42 patients) had a self prescribing behavior during pregnancy, 64.5% think that self prescribing behavior can produce congenital malformations. The medications used were classified as type A and B according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Paracetamol was used more frequently (47.6%) followed by amoxicillin (16.7%). All the women who self-prescribed have had this behavior before pregnancy. According to these results, we conclude there is a low prevalence of self-prescribing behavior during pregnancy compared to the international literature. PMID:22858767

  19. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ? 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  20. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  1. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  2. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Gabrielson, Marcena

    2005-01-01

    The purpose1 of this study is to test a model describing the relations of various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on the health outcomes of nutritional adequacy and infant birth weight in low-income pregnant women. Descriptive, cohort design assessed low-income women (N=55) in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Eighty percent of the women did not meet the recommended number of food servings outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid. Prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy-related dietary changes explained 19% of the variance in nutritional adequacy. Maternal age, prepregnant BMI, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birth weight. Nutritional adequacy in the 1st trimester and infant birth weight were not significantly related. Most low-income women are not meeting the nutritional requirements of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of dietary quality may help target women in need of additional nutritional education. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy may lead to improved dietary patterns that may reduce low birth weight. PMID:15877540

  3. [Plasma prostaglandin E2 in pregnant women undergoing labor induction with endocervical gel application].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, M; Neves, J; Arteaga, M; Bicho, M; Silva Cruz, A

    1999-08-01

    The authors describe an assay that quantify with precision the plasmatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gel formulation PGE2 endocervical in the induction of labour. We have studied 26 pregnant women without disease at the term of the pregnancy. The blood sample was collected before and 30 minutes after the labor induction in tubes with 10 mg EDTA Na2 and 5 microg of aspirin. The PGE2 was isolated by extraction and chromatography with 70-100% recovery. The concentration was evaluated by a completion assay with RIA. The PGE2 in plasma was found before and after the induction of labor with the following results: 347 +/- 51.6 and 719 +/- 128 pg/ml. The data was compared by the Student's t test for paired values (df = 50, t = 13. 22 and p < 0.0001). We can conclude that in pregnant women the concentration of PGE2 in plasma was double after the labor induction with the sensitivity in 1.25 pg/tube and the reproducibility 4.6% intraassay and 7% interassay showing that the method is sensitive, reproducible and efficient for the PGE2. PMID:10481108

  4. Relationship between Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Jamile; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nahangi, Rogaiyyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lifestyle during pregnancy has long-term effects on health of mother and child. Having previous illness or unexpected maternal or fetal conditions such as preeclampsia can complicate pregnancy and interfere with health-promoting behaviors and cause stress might interfere with health-promoting behaviors. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and perceived stress in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation design that was conducted on 182 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending in the high risk clinics of Al-Zahra and Talegani hospitals in Tabriz 2014. Data gathering tools were three: demographics, health-promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II), and perceived stress questionnaires. SPSS Ver. 13 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of health promoting lifestyle among pregnant women with preeclampsia was 2.4 (0.4). Among the dimensions of health promoting life style, the highest mean score was for sub domain of nutrition, i.e. 2.8 (0.5), and the lowest score was achieved by the sub-domains of physical activity, i.e. 1.5 (0.5).The mean (SD) score of perceived stress was 27.3 (7.1). There was reverse relationship between perceived stress and health -promoting behaviors. Conclusion: Based upon the results, health promoting behaviors were decreased by increment of perceived stress. Therefore, midwives can help women with preeclampsia by promoting health behaviors to reduce their stress and increase health-promoting behaviors. PMID:26161369

  5. Deoxynivalenol exposure assessment in a cohort of pregnant women from Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, S J; Hardie, L J; Fraser, L K; Burley, V J; Mijal, R S; Wild, C P; Azad, R; McKinney, P A; Turner, P C

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a ubiquitous contaminant of cereal crops in temperate regions of the world. It causes growth faltering and immune suppression in animals. Limited information is available on DON exposure in UK subpopulations. The objective of this study was to provide DON exposure assessment in a subset of pregnant women scheduled for an elective caesarean in a large multi-ethnic mother/infant birth cohort from Bradford, UK. Women aged 16-44 years (n = 85) provided a urine sample for DON analysis in the last trimester of pregnancy, and concurrently completed a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The urinary DON biomarker was detected in all measured samples (geometric mean (GM)?= 10.3 ng DON mg(-1) creatinine, range = 0.5-116.7 ng mg(-1)). Levels were higher in women classified as South Asian in origin (GM: 15.2 ng mg(-1); 95% CI = 10.7-21.5 ng mg(-1)) compared with non-South Asians (GM = 8.6 ng mg(-1); 95% CI = 6.6-11.8 ng mg(-1)), p = 0.02). Estimated DON intake from FFQ data and typical levels of DON contamination of food suggest that this was mainly due to higher levels of exposure from bread, particularly daily intake of DON from chapattis in South Asians (estimated mean = 2.4 µg day(-1); 95% CI = 1.2, 3.7 µg day(-1)) compared with non-South Asians (estimated mean = 0.2 µg day(-1); 95% CI = 0-0.4 µg day(-1)), p < 0.001. This is the first biomarker demonstration of DON exposure in pregnant women, and several urinary DON levels were the highest ever recorded in any study. A larger survey within this birth cohort is warranted to investigate any potential risk to mothers and their babies, from DON exposure during pregnancy. PMID:21462017

  6. Association of Low-Protein Supplemented Diets with Fetal Growth in Pregnant Women with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; Clari, Roberta; Ghiotto, Sara; Biolcati, Marilisa; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Women affected by CKD increasingly choose to get pregnant. Experience with low-protein diets is limited. The aim of this study was to review results obtained from pregnant women with CKD on supplemented vegan–vegetarian low-protein diets. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a single-arm, open intervention study between 2000–2012 of a low-protein diet in pregnant patients with stages 3–5 CKD or severe proteinuria (>1 g/d in the first trimester or nephrotic at any time). Stages 3–5 CKD patients who were not on low-protein diets for clinical, psychologic, or logistic reasons served as controls. The setting was the Obstetrics-Nephrology Unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy. The treated group included 24 pregnancies—21 singleton deliveries, 1 twin pregnancy, 1 abortion, and 1 miscarriage. Additionally, there were 21 controls (16 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet was a vegan–vegetarian low-protein diet (0.6–0.8 g/kg per day) with keto-acid supplementation and 1–3 protein-unrestricted meals allowed per week. Results Treated patients and controls were comparable at baseline for median age (35 versus 34 years), referral week (7 versus 8), eGFR (59 versus 54 ml/min), and hypertension (43.5% versus 33.3%); median proteinuria was higher in patients on the low-protein diet (1.96 [0.1–6.3] versus 0.3 [0.1–2.0] g/d; P<0.001). No significant differences were observed in singletons with regard to gestational week (34 versus 36) or Caesarean sections (76.2% versus 50%). Kidney function at delivery was not different, but proteinuria was higher in the diet group. Incidence of small for gestational age babies was significantly lower in the diet group (3/21) versus controls (7/16; chi-squared test; P=0.05). Throughout follow-up (6 months to 10 years), hospitalization rates and prevalence of children below the third percentile were similar in both groups. Conclusion Vegan–vegetarian supplemented low-protein diets in pregnant women with stages 3–5 CKD may reduce the likelihood of small for gestational age babies without detrimental effects on kidney function or proteinuria in the mother. PMID:24578333

  7. Folic acid intake by pregnant women from Vale do Jequitinhonha, Brazil, and the contribution of fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    The folate deficiency can result in irreversible health damage, such as the neural tube defects. The aim of this article is to determine the folate intake of pregnant women in Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the poorest regions in the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in 2013 with 492 pregnant women attending the basic health units run by the public health service (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) in 15 municipalities. A standard questionnaire was used to gather the data, which included socioeconomic indicators and a food frequency questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared statistically based on prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake was associated with some socioeconomic factors: it was higher amongst the low income and less educated women, in younger women and those who had fewer meals per day. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake in the diet was 94.7% when the contribution of food fortification was not considered, 49.2% taking into account fortified foods, and 17.1% considering food folate, fortified foods, and supplementation with folic acid. We conclude that fortifying foods with folic acid at the current levels reduces the inadequacy of folate intake in the diet, but not enough to assure safe levels and to meet the nutritional requirements of pregnant women in Brazil. PMID:26320303

  8. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. PMID:26240701

  9. [Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified].

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. PMID:22981085

  10. Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. PMID:23099114

  11. Diagnostic Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Fann, Jesse R.; Rondon, Marta B.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during pregnancy is associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. A reliable and valid screening tool for GAD should lead to earlier detection and treatment. Among pregnant Peruvian women, a brief screening tool, the GAD-7, has not been validated. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GAD-7. Methods Of 2,978 women who attended their first perinatal care visit and had the GAD-7 screening, 946 had a Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to examine the reliability. We assessed the criterion validity by calculating operating characteristics. The construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis and association with health status on the CIDI. The cross-cultural validity was explored using the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM). Results The reliability of the GAD-7 was good (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). A cutoff score of 7 or higher, maximizing the Youden Index, yielded a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 67.3%. One-factor structure of the GAD-7 was confirmed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Concurrent validity was supported by the evidence that higher GAD-7 scores were associated with poor self-rated physical and mental health. The Rasch RSM further confirmed the cross-cultural validity of the GAD-7. Conclusion The results suggest that the Spanish-language version of the GAD-7 may be used as a screening tool for pregnant Peruvian women. The GAD-7 has good reliability, factorial validity, and concurrent validity. The optimal cutoff score obtained by maximizing the Youden Index should be considered cautiously; women who screened positive may require further investigation to confirm GAD diagnosis. PMID:25915929

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  13. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Methods The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. Results Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27–3.80], p?=?0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08–2.12], p?=?0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02–2.43], p?=?0.042. Conclusions The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy. PMID:23049986

  14. Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir plus low-dose ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Edward P; Bardeguez, Arlene; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Van Dyke, Russell; Hughes, Michael D; Huang, Sharon; Pompeo, Lisa; Stek, Alice M; Pitt, Jane; Watts, D Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Jiménez, Eleanor; Mofenson, Lynne

    2004-02-01

    The physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy make it difficult to predict antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PKs), but few data exist on the PKs of protease inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. The objective of the present study was to determine the PKs of ritonavir (RTV)-enhanced saquinavir (SQV) in HIV-infected pregnant women by an area under the curve (AUC)-targeted approach. A phase I, formal PK evaluation was conducted with HIV-infected pregnant woman during gestation, during labor and delivery, and at 6 weeks postpartum. The SQV-RTV regimen was 800/100 mg twice a day (b.i.d.), and nucleoside analogs were administered concomitantly. The SQV exposure targeted was an AUC at 24 h of 10,000 ng. h/ml. Participants were evaluated for 12-h steady-state PKs at each time period. Thirteen subjects completed the PK evaluations during gestation, 7 completed the PK evaluations at labor and delivery, and 12 completed the PK evaluations postpartum. The mean baseline weight was 67.4 kg, and the median length of gestation was 23.3 weeks. All subjects achieved SQV exposures in excess of the target AUC. The SQV AUCs at 12 h (AUC(12)s) during gestation (29,373 +/- 17,524 ng. h/ml [mean +/- standard deviation]), during labor and delivery (26,189 +/- 22,138 ng. h/ml), and during the postpartum period (35,376 +/- 26,379 ng. h/ml) were not significantly different. The mean values of the PK parameters for RTV were lower during gestation than during the postpartum period: for AUC(12), 7,811 and 13,127 ng. h/ml, respectively; for trough concentrations, 376 and 632 ng/ml, respectively; and for maximum concentrations, 1,256 and 2,252 ng/ml, respectively (P pregnant women. The level of SQV exposure was sufficient at each time of evaluation. These data demonstrate large variability in SQV and RTV concentrations and suggest that RTV concentrations are altered by pregnancy. These PK results suggest that SQV-RTV at 800/100 mg b.i.d. appears to be a reasonable treatment option for this population. PMID:14742191

  15. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women with Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Ananthanarayanan, P. H.; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Objective The quality and duration of sleep is impaired during pregnancy. Our study aimed to determine whether maternal sleep deprivation occurring during the second and third trimester of pregnancy could alter fetal well-being with respect to birth weight and APGAR score by altering the inflammatory status and oxidative stress in the mothers.? Methods Sleep adequacy was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We investigated the inflammatory status and oxidative stress at term in the blood of pregnant subjects with and without sleep deprivation by measuring the levels of protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). Homocysteine (Hcy) and its vitamin determinants were also measured. Fetal outcome with respect to birth weight and APGAR score were compared between study subjects.? Results A significant increase was observed in the levels of hsCRP, PBSA, Hcy, MDA, and PCO, in the sleep-deprived group when compared to the control group. Fetal outcome at birth showed a significant difference between the cases with high sleep deprivation and those with low sleep deprivation.? Conclusion Sleep deprivation in pregnancy leads to an increase in the inflammatory parameters, oxidative stress, and Hcy levels. Fetal outcome at birth was affected more in mothers with high sleep deprivation than those with low sleep deprivation. Follow-up in these babies are needed to reveal any differences in their growth and development. PMID:26366260

  16. A Changing Landscape: Implications of Pregnant Women's Internet Use for Childbirth Educators

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519

  17. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women: A Repeated Measures Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Chen, Yin-Hsiu; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Background Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated with an array of health end points, including adverse birth outcomes. Some of these may be mediated by oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism for phthalate action. Objectives In the present study, we explored the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress measured in urine samples from multiple time points during pregnancy. Methods Women were participants in a nested case–control study of preterm birth (n = 130 cases, n = 352 controls). Each was recruited early in pregnancy and followed until delivery, providing urine samples at up to four visits. Nine phthalate metabolites were measured to assess exposure, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane were also measured in urine as markers of oxidative stress. Associations were assessed using linear mixed models to account for intraindividual correlation, with inverse selection probability weightings based on case status to allow for greater generalizability. Results Interquartile range increases in phthalate metabolites were associated with significantly higher concentrations of both biomarkers. Estimated differences were greater in association with monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), compared with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Conclusions Urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with increased oxidative stress biomarkers in our study population of pregnant women. These relationships may be particularly relevant to the study of birth outcomes linked to phthalate exposure. Although replication is necessary in other populations, these results may also be of great importance for a range of other health outcomes associated with phthalates. Citation Ferguson KK, McElrath TF, Chen YH, Mukherjee B, Meeker JD. 2015. Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women: a repeated measures analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123:210–216;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307996 PMID:25402001

  18. Association between Anemia and Aflatoxin B1 Biomarker Levels among Pregnant Women in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Ehiri, John E.; Jiang, Yi; Ellis, William O.; Stiles, Jonathan K.; Yatich, Nelly J.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Person, Sharina D.; Wilson, Craig; Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate staple food crops in many developing countries. Up to 40% of women attending a prenatal clinic in Africa may be anemic. In a cross-sectional study of 755 pregnant women, Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts (AF-ALB) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants were divided into quartiles “low,” “moderate,” “high,” and “very high.” Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dL. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of anemia with AF-ALB. The mean AF-ALB level was 10.9 pg/mg (range = 0.44–268.73 pg/mg); 30.3% of participants were anemic. The odds of being anemic increased 21% (odds ratio [OR], 1.21, P = 0.01) with each quartile of AF-ALB reaching an 85% increased odds in the “very high” compared with the “low” category (OR, 1.85; confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.95). This association was stronger among women with malaria and findings were robust when women with evidence of iron deficiency anemia were excluded. This study found a strong, consistent association between anemia in pregnancy and aflatoxins. PMID:21036841

  19. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major earthquake, which is a stressor, may reduce their chances of developing prenatal depression. PMID:26270035

  20. Impact of Computer-Based Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Diabetes Decision Aids on Empowering Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Azam; Tara, Fatemeh; Ghalighi, Lila; Pournik, Omid; Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We designed a computer-based decision aid (CDA) for use by pregnant women at home to investigate and participate in solving their pregnancy problems related to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and gestational diabetes (GD). The system cannot and is not intended to replace visits to physicians; rather it can help women focus on the most important symptoms and provides guidance on when to see a doctor. Methods The study is a randomized controlled trial, which is performed among Iranian pregnant women. For subjects, 420 healthy pregnant women have been recruited from two private and two public prenatal centers. The intervention group will receive the CDA for use at home, and the control group will receive care as usual. The CDA relies on knowledge extracted from the national guidelines on PIH and GD. Results The two primary outcomes for the study are self-efficacy and knowledge. Self-efficacy will be measured by the Stanford self-efficacy scale and knowledge will be evaluated by 15 binary (true/false) questions provided by the researchers. Secondary outcomes include type and frequency of doctor and/or medical center visits; blood pressure and blood sugar changes based on the national guidelines and according to pregnancy records, and anxiety will be assessed by the state component of the short Spielberger anxiety scale. Conclusions This paper describes the design of a CDA and a protocol for a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of the CDA on self-efficacy and knowledge of pregnant women pertaining to PIH and GD. Differences in the primary outcomes will be analyzed using 'intention-to-treat' principles. PMID:25405062

  1. Does access to fast food lead to super-sized pregnant women and whopper babies? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Rise in the availability of fast-food restaurants has been blamed, at least partly, for the increasing obesity in the U.S. The existing studies of obesity have focused primarily on children, adolescents, and adults, and this paper extends the literature by raising a little-studied question and using nationally representative data to answer it. It examines the relationship between the supply of fast-food restaurants and weight gain of pregnant women and their newborns.

  2. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria W.; Graff, Ingvild E.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Seldal, Camilla F.; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne C.; Stormark, Kjell M.; Malde, Marian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seafood (fish and shellfish) is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D). Design We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54) with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women. PMID:23467715

  3. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  4. Pregnant women's interest in a website or mobile application for healthy gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Xiao, Rui S; Lombardini, Lisa M; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-12-01

    We examined pregnant women's interest in using a website or mobile application to help them gain a healthy amount of weight during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N?=?64) completed a short questionnaire during routine prenatal care at hospital-based obstetric clinics in central Massachusetts during April-August 2012. Eighty-six percent reported interest in using a website or mobile application to help them gain a healthy amount of weight; interest ranged from 67% to 100% across demographics, clinical characteristics, and technology use. The Internet is a promising modality for delivering interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and associated maternal and child health consequences. PMID:25433828

  5. Implications of chemical biological terrorist events for children and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Teran-Maciver, Maria; Larson, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    During the past decade, the world has become more aware that chemical and biological weapons could be used on civilians as terrorism and that casualties could include children. It is essential that nurses who care for children and pregnant women know how to recognize the effects of this type of weapon on the population and how to alleviate or mitigate their impact. This article reviews key aspects of chemical-biological agents, the consequences of their use, the potential impact of a chemical-biological attack on children and pregnant women, and issues to consider in the event of such a catastrophe. PMID:18664903

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in rural districts of Menoufia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rezk, M; Marawan, H; Dawood, R; Masood, A; Abo-Elnasr, M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Egyptian pregnant women in rural districts during January to December 2013. A total of 2470 pregnant women were enrolled for laboratory tests for iron- deficiency anaemia (IDA). The prevalence of IDA was 51.3% (1267 of 2470); IDA affects about one in every two pregnant women in rural districts in Egypt. Women who are older than 30 years (Odds ratio [OR], 0.73) had more than three children (OR, 0.73), with body mass index less than 20 (OR, 1.57), shorter birth spacing less than 2 years (OR, 0.68), lack of antenatal care visits (OR, 1.25), low intake of foods of animal origin (OR, 1.57), vegetables and fruits (OR, 1.29) and having intestinal parasites (OR, 0.74) were positively associated with anaemia [at confidence interval 95%]. In addition to nutritional deficiency, multiparity and increasing maternal age are the main causes of IDA. PMID:25643259

  7. The prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women in Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Kamarudin, Ellizza Bt; Sarpin, Mohammad Alavi B; Zakaria, Nordin B; Abdul Rahman, Raihan Bt; Samsuddin, Rinni Damayanti Bt

    2007-07-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is a key issue in maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. This cross-sectional study aimed at obtaining the prevalence of domestic violence amongst pregnant women who attended Ipoh General Hospital in Perak, Malaysia and to determine the risk factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence was low (4.5%). Comparison between the two groups of subjects with or without domestic violence did not show any significant difference in terms of risk factors. The effect of domestic violence on pregnancy should be investigated comprehensively in a multicentral or community-based study using a culturally sensitive questionnaire. With the estimated low prevalence of domestic violence in this study, the need for screening it in health-care services in Malaysia is yet to be determined. PMID:17604477

  8. Prescription patterns and drug use among pregnant women with febrile Illnesses in Uganda: a survey in out-patient clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is a public health problem in Uganda; affecting mainly women and children. Effective treatment has been hampered by over-diagnosis and over-treatment with anti-malarial drugs among patients presenting with fever. In order to understand the effect of drug pressure on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in pregnancy, a sample of pregnant women presenting with fever in out–patient clinics was studied. The main objective was to assess prescription patterns and drug use in pregnancy especially SP; and draw implications on the efficacy of SP for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). Methods A total of 998 pregnant women with a history of fever were interviewed and blood samples taken for diagnosis of malaria and HIV infections. Data were captured on the drugs prescribed for the current febrile episode and previous use of drugs especially SP, anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) and cotrimoxazole. Results Few pregnant women, 128 (12.8%) were parasitaemic for P.falciparum; and of these, 72 (56.3%) received first-line treatment with Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) 14 (10.9%) SP and 33 (25.8%) quinine. Of the parasite negative patients (non-malarial fevers), 186 (21.4%) received Coartem, 423 (48.6%) SP and 19 (2.1%) cotrimoxazole. Overall, malaria was appropriately treated in 35.5% of cases. Almost all febrile pregnant women, 91.1%, were sleeping under a mosquito net. The majority of them, 911 (91.3%), accepted to have an HIV test done and 92 (9.2%) were HIV positive. Of the HIV positive women, 23 (25.0%) were on ARVs, 10 (10.9%) on cotrimoxazole and 30 (32.6%) on SP. A significant proportion of women, 40 (43.5%), were on both SP and cotrimoxazole. Age and occupation were associated with diagnosis and treatment of malaria and HIV infections. Conclusion There is inappropriate treatment of malaria and non-malarial fevers among pregnant women in these facilities. This is due to non-adherence to the guidelines. Over-prescription and use of anti-malarial drugs, especially SP may have implications on resistance against SP for malaria prevention in pregnancy. The policy implications of these findings are to evaluate SP efficacy as IPTp; and the need to enforce adherence to the current clinical treatment guidelines. PMID:23702003

  9. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 ?g/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 ?g/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 ?g/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  10. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  11. <