Sample records for study pregnant women

  1. Generation of thrombin in blood plasma of non-pregnant and pregnant women studied through concentration of thrombin–antithrombin III complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieczys?aw Uszy?ski

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The main question in this study is how much more thrombin is generated in blood plasma of pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Study design: Thrombin–antithrombin III complexes (TAT) were used as markers of thrombin generation in vivo. They were measured by the ELISA method in blood plasma of 15 non-pregnant and 43 pregnant, as well as 30 parturient

  2. Pelvic organ support in nulliparous pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. O'Boyle; Patrick J. Woodman; John D. O'Boyle; Gary D. Davis; Steven E. Swift

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare pelvic organ support in nulliparous pregnant and nonpregnant women at a single institution. Study Design: This was a case-control study. Pregnant patients and nonpregnant control subjects were matched according to age and race. Subjects underwent pelvic organ support evaluation by use of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) examination as part of routine prenatal

  3. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, ?stanbul

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Y?ld?z, ?ükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  4. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

  5. Toxoplasma prevalence among pregnant women in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Findal, Gry; Barlinn, Regine; Sandven, Irene; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Nordbø, Svein A; Samdal, Helvi H; Vainio, Kirsti; Dudman, Susanne G; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-04-01

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii may lead to complications in the foetus if the mother suffers from primary infection during pregnancy. Previously infected women have produced toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. The most recent study on prevalence of toxoplasma IgG in the Norwegian pregnant population was conducted 20 years ago. The present study is part of a research programme initiated by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We aimed to update the knowledge regarding the prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway. In this cross-sectional study, sera from 1922 pregnant women in Buskerud (992) and Sør-Trøndelag counties (930) in Norway were collected consecutively. The presence of toxoplasma IgG was identified by values ?8 IU/mL using an ELISA test. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was 9.3% (95% CI 8.1-10.7); Sør-Trøndelag 10.4% (95% CI 8.6-12.6) and Buskerud 8.3% (95% CI 6.7-10.2). There was no difference between the counties (p = 0.13), and the result did not differ from prevalences found in 1974 (12.1%) and 1994 (10.7%). We found a higher prevalence among women ?40 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.30-5.42). The prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway is low and has been stable during the last decades. PMID:25628065

  6. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  7. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child (or fetus) or to newborns of vaccinated women. In fact, studies have shown that vaccinating a pregnant woman can ... the safety of the flu shot for pregnant women. CDC also is conducting studies of flu vaccine safety and pregnancy through the ...

  8. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  9. Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  10. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous M?ori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant M?ori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as M?ori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest that incentives, in particular a choice of products, may be an effective addition to usual care to increase smoking cessation among pregnant M?ori women, which has the potential to improve health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:25427877

  11. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content. PMID:23986734

  12. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy-related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in dream content. PMID:23986734

  13. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

  14. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural community: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Oni, Olurinde A; Tukur, Jamilu

    2012-09-01

    Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and birth outcomes. In many local communities, pregnant women have food taboos with consequent depletion of vital nutrients. To facilitate early identification and prompt counseling, this study aimed at describing pregnant women who are likely to keep food taboos. Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at health facilities in Saki East Local Government of Oyo state, Nigeria. Sociodemographic characteristics of the women were described using means and proportions. Using logistic regression analysis, maternal characteristics significantly associated with adherence to food taboos were identified. The data was analysed using SAS 9.2. Factors associated with food taboos were teen age, primigravidity, low body mass index, lack of formal education, and low monthly family income. Health workers should have a high index of suspicion for food taboos among pregnant women with the identified risk factors. PMID:23437501

  15. Typical Sleep Positions in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Warland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Maternal supine posture in late pregnancy and labor is known to compromise maternal hemodynamics and subsequently affect the fetus. Recently, maternal supine sleep position during late pregnancy has been postulated to play a role in stillbirth. However, no objective data exist regarding how often pregnant women sleep supine. This study was therefore conducted to determine the proportion of pregnant women who spend time asleep in the supine position. Methods A secondary analysis of data from pregnant women who underwent home sleep studies. Results Of 51 pregnant women, mean gestational age 28.3±6.9 weeks, the vast majority of women (82.4%) spent some time sleeping in the supine position. The median proportion of overall time spent in the supine sleep position was 26.5% (90%CI 0.0–82.9%). Conclusion Our data suggest that if supine position plays a role in stillbirth, most women may benefit from education regarding sleep position. Practice Implications Most pregnant women spend time asleep on their back. Given the known data on supine posture and maternal cardiovascular compromise together with emerging data on supine sleep position and stillbirth, it may be pertinent for healthcare providers to provide pregnant women with information about sleep position particularly during late pregnancy. PMID:24661447

  16. Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

  17. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n?=?4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ?5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  18. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance. PMID:24894731

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Thyroid Related Hormones among Pregnant Women Residing in an Iodine Deficient Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Shan; Hussain, Zaib

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement. Thyroid gland in women undergoes functional changes during pregnancy. A few studies have described such changes in pregnant women residing in iodine deficient areas. Objective. To document these changes in pregnant women residing in Lahore, a low iodine intake urban area of Pakistan. Patients and Methods. In 254 pregnant women, data of FT4, FT3, and TSH during the first and subsequent trimesters were obtained and compared with those of 110 nonpregnant women. These hormones were determined in serum by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques using commercial kits. Results. Compared to nonpregnant women mean FT4 level was decreased, and FT3 and TSH increased significantly (P < 0.05) in pregnant women. A negative correlation of FT4 with TSH was observed in all three trimesters. Serum FT3 was positively correlated with TSH only during the third trimester. As a function of gestation time, FT4 levels progressively decreased, and FT3 and TSH levels increased significantly (one-way ANOVA F = 108.2, 17.3, and 44.8, resp.; all P < 0.05) exhibiting thyroid gland adaptations. Conclusion. Pregnancy is associated with significant alterations in thyroid function due to low iodine intake in women residing in study area. The compensated thyroid function poses a risk of thyroid failure in a number of pregnant women. PMID:24236234

  20. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1?month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will make a significant contribution to discussions about the wider introduction of population carrier screening for FXS. PMID:24022395

  1. Designing drug trials: considerations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Jeanne S; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L; Savic, Rada M; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-12-15

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  2. National Children's Study Workshop: Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring

    Cancer.gov

    Page 1 of 42 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment September 21–22, 2004 Draft 3 11-16-04 National Children’s Study Workshop Dietary Assessment in a Prospective Epidemiologic Study of Pregnant Women and Their Offspring September

  3. Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy M Nilsen; Stein E Vollset; Håkon K Gjessing; Per Magnus; Helle M Meltzer; Margaretha Haugen; Per M Ueland

    Background: Patterns and predictors of maternal folic acid supple- ment use have not been examined in large prospective studies of pregnant women. Objective: We examined the patterns and predictors of maternal folic acid supplement use from 2 mo before pregnancy through the eighth month of pregnancy. Design: Data from 22 500 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

  4. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: study about the repercussions on the obstetric and neonatal results].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Driéli Pacheco; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Stefanelo, Juliana; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    This observational, descriptive and analytic study aimed to identify the prevalence of IPV cases among pregnant women and classify them according to the type and frequency; identify the obstetric and neonatal results and their associations with the intimate partner violence (IPV) occurrence in the current pregnancy. It was developed with 232 pregnant women who had prenatal care at a public maternity hospital. Data were collected via structured interview and in the patients' charts and analyzed through the statistic software SAS® 9.0. Among the participants, 15.5% suffered IPV during pregnancy, among that 14.7% suffered psychological violence, 5.2% physical violence and 0.4% sexual violence. Women who did not desire the pregnancy had more chances of suffering IPV (p<0.00; OR=4.32 and 95% CI [1.77 - 10.54]). With regards to the obstetric and neonatal repercussions, there was no statistical association between the variables investigated. Thus, for the study participants there were no negative obstetric and neonatal repercussions related to IPV during pregnancy. PMID:24918877

  5. Prescription of drugs to pregnant women in France: the HIMAGE study.

    PubMed

    Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Guy, Claire; Ratrema, Martine; Ollagnier, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The HIMAGE study, conducted in partnership with the principal Public Health Insurance Funds of the Loire region, analysed medicinal prescriptions during pregnancy on the basis of a representative sample of 911 pregnant women resident in this region of France. Altogether 93.5% received at least one prescription, with a mean of 10.9 different drugs per woman. The prescriptions were predominantly for drugs of the following Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classes: "alimentary tract and metabolism" (78%); "genito-urinary system and sex hormones" (62%); "nervous system" (62%); and "blood and blood-forming organs" (57%). Iron supplements, paracetamol, folic acid, magnesium, progesterone, oxaceprol, phloroglucinol, amoxicillin, domperidone and diosmine were the most frequently prescribed drugs. In total, 4.6% of the women were exposed to drugs involving a risk during pregnancy: principally nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed from the sixth month onwards. This study revealed a high frequency of prescription of drugs to pregnant women, largely motivated by non-rational and to some extent culture-specific considerations, and it also highlighted the prescription of drugs known to involve risk during pregnancy. These results provide a basis for advising clinicians on the rational and safe use of drugs during pregnancy. PMID:15058494

  6. The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

  7. Predictors of environmental lead exposure among pregnant women - a prospective cohort study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pola?ska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Ma?gorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Struga?a-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLL) in women of child-bearing age have been decreasing in recent decades, but still remains a concern for long-term effects of child psychomotor development. The aim of the study was to characterize lead exposure among Polish pregnant women and assess the relationship between BLL and selected socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 594 pregnant women who had been the subjects of the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL). The women were interviewed three times during pregnancy (once in each trimester. Lead concentration in the blood collected during the second trimester of pregnancy was analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Active and passive smoking was analyzed by the cotinine level in saliva using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The lead level in the blood ranged from 0.3 - 5.7 ?g/dL, with a geometric mean (GM) of 1.1 ?g/dL (GSD ±0.2 ?g/dL). Statistically significant associations were found between BLL and factors such as maternal age (?=0.01; p=0.02), education (?=0.08; p=0.04) and prepregnancy BMI (?=0.1; p=0.001). Additionally, BLL increased with increasing cotinine level in saliva (?=0.02; p=0.06) and decreased with the increasing distance from the copper smelter (?=-0.1; p=0.009). Public health interventions, especially in regions with a higher level of exposure to lead, among women with lower SES and among smokers, are still reasonable. PMID:24738496

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Doxorubicin in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Eyal, Sara; Kaplan, Henry G.; Akbarzadeh, Arezoo; Hays, Karen; Puhl, Kristin; Easterling, Thomas R.; Berg, Stacey L.; Scorsone, Kathleen A.; Feldman, Eric M.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Hebert, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of doxorubicin during pregnancy compared to previously published data from non-pregnant subjects. Methods During mid- to late-pregnancy, serial blood and urine samples were collected over 72 hours from 7 women treated with doxorubicin for malignancies. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental techniques. Pregnancy parameters were compared to those previously reported non-pregnant subjects. Results During pregnancy, mean (± SD) doxorubicin PK parameters utilizing 72 hour sampling were: clearance (CL), 412 ± 80 mL/min/m2; steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), 1132 ± 476 L/m2; and terminal half-life (T1/2), 40.3 ± 8.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and T1/2 was not different compared to non-pregnant women. Truncating our data to 48 hours, PK parameters were: CL, 499 ± 116 ml/min/m2; Vss, 843 ± 391 L/m2; and T1/2, 24.8 ± 5.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL in pregnancy compared to non-pregnant data was significantly decreased in 2 of 3 non-pregnant studies (p < 0.05, < 0.05, NS). Vss and T1/2 were not significantly different. Conclusions In pregnant subjects, we observed significantly lower doxorubicin CL in our 72 hour and most of our 48 hour sampling comparisons with previously reported non-pregnant subjects. However, the parameters were within the range previously reported in smaller studies. At this time, we cannot recommend alternate dosage strategies for pregnant women. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and optimize care for pregnant women. PMID:24531558

  9. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; Todorova, Ralitsa; Kao, Jennifer Chien-Wen; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, and transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  10. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  11. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n?=?20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n?=?20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n?=?16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV disclosure among pregnant women and partners, especially in the home-setting. PMID:24294994

  12. Characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Ho; Linda Karimi-Tabesh; Gideon Koren

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998

  13. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  14. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  15. An interpersonally based intervention for low-income pregnant women with intimate partner violence: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caron Zlotnick; Nicole M. Capezza; Donna Parker

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing depression and\\u000a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of low-income pregnant women with recent intimate partner violence (IPV).\\u000a Fifty-four women were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of four sessions\\u000a during pregnancy and one “booster” session within 2 weeks of

  16. A treatment for substance abusing pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Ann Yonkers; Heather B. Howell; Amy E. Allen; Samuel A. Ball; Michael V. Pantalon; Bruce J. Rounsaville

    2009-01-01

    We describe the adaptation of a manualized behavioral treatment for substance using pregnant women that includes components\\u000a of motivational interviewing and cognitive therapy. In a pilot study conducted in 2006–2007, five non-behavioral health clinicians\\u000a were trained to provide the treatment to 14 women. Therapy was administered concurrent with routine prenatal care at inner-city\\u000a maternal health clinics in New Haven and

  17. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torbjørn Øien; Ola Storrø; Jon A Jenssen; Roar Johnsen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim

  18. Preliminary study of blood methylmercury effects on reproductive hormones and relevant factors among infertile and pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Chen, Po-Hsi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most poisonous mercury species and an endocrine-disrupting chemical that could cause reproductive and developmental harm effects in animals. In this study, we recruited 310 infertile women and 57 pregnant women and investigated their blood MeHg levels. The distribution of blood reproductive hormone, selenium and zinc levels, and the difference of relevant factors by the reference level of blood MeHg (5.8?g/L) of infertile women were further examined. Results showed that greater percentages of sashimi consumption, frequencies of Chinese herbal medicine use, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity were observed in infertile women than those for pregnant women. Blood MeHg concentration was significantly greater in infertile than that in pregnant women. Significant concentration differences for FSH and LH by the dichotomized reference level of blood MeHg (5.8?g/L) in infertile women were not observed, which may stem from that these reproductive hormones in participated infertile women were mostly in the normal reference range. Consumption of fish and sashimi represented the major source of MeHg exposure in infertile women. MeHg levels were elevated in infertile women, and consistent with fish consumption frequency. Compared to the referent level of blood MeHg levels <5.8?g/L, the elevated blood MeHg levels (?5.8?g/L) in infertile women were 3.35 and 4.42 folds risk in categorized frequencies of fish consumption 1-2 meals per week and more than 3 meals per week, respectively. The obtained results provide evidences and help updating the advisory of fish consumption and improving women's reproductive health. PMID:26002048

  19. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women for a Behavioral Intervention: Lessons from the Maternal Adiposity, Metabolism, and Stress (MAMAS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Adler, Nancy; Vieten, Cassandra; Thomas, Melanie; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging. Many studies fall short of their target or must prolong recruitment to reach it. We examined recruitment and retention strategies and report lessons learned in a behavioral intervention developmental trial to encourage healthy pregnancy weight gain and stress reduction in low-income overweight pregnant women. Methods In the San Francisco Bay area from February 2010 through March 2011, we used direct and indirect strategies to recruit English-speaking overweight and obese pregnant women who were aged 18 to 45, were in the early stages of pregnancy, and who had an annual household income less than 500% of the federal poverty guidelines. Eligible women who consented participated in focus groups or an 8-week behavioral intervention. We identified successful recruiting strategies and sites and calculated the percentage of women who were enrolled and retained. Results Of 127 women screened for focus group participation, 69 were eligible and enrolled. A total of 57 women participated in 9 focus groups and 3 women completed individual interviews for a completion rate of 87%. During recruitment for the intervention, we made contact with 204 women; 135 were screened, 33% were eligible, and 69.1% of eligible women enrolled. At 1 month postpartum, 82.6% of eligible women completed an assessment. Recruiting at hospital-based prenatal clinics was the highest-yielding strategy. Conclusion The narrow window of eligibility for enrolling early stage pregnant women in a group intervention presents obstacles. In-person recruitment was the most successful strategy; establishing close relationships with providers, clinic staff, social service providers, and study participants was essential to successful recruitment and retention. PMID:23469765

  20. Experiences of community pharmacists advising pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Grincevi?ien?, Švitrigail?; Kubilien?, Loreta; Ivanauskas, Kostas; Dr?sutien?, Gražina S; Ramašauskait?, Diana; Grincevi?ius, Jonas; Bernatonien?, Jurga; Savickas, Ar?nas

    2015-08-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that pharmacists provide healthcare advice to pregnant women, and that they can play an important role in maternal care. However, pharmacists have faced challenges in advising mothers and coordinating with physicians. Objective To explore the experiences of community pharmacists in advising pregnant women at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in Lithuania. Methods Community pharmacists (n = 27) were recruited for semistructured face-to-face interviews from June 2012 to March 2013. A qualitative and descriptive study based on the content analysis approach was used for data collection and analysis. Main outcome measure Thematic coding of Lithuanian community pharmacist interview content. Results Three main areas emerged: topics of advice-giving, provision of information, and barriers to advice-giving. The question of whether to interact with the physician connected to all of these areas. Pharmacists described different practices about the advice they gave and how they gave it. Lack of knowledge and skills, both about pregnancy and about patient-physician-pharmacist interaction, were a clear barrier to care for pregnant women in community pharmacies. Conclusion Respondents were comfortable giving advice in clear situations, and found it challenging to do so otherwise. Improving the physician-pharmacist-patient communication environment and providing education and training programmes for pharmacists is necessary to reduce stress and to overcome barriers in advising pregnant women. PMID:25860854

  1. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of < 0.05 was considered. Results: The age range was between 30 to 45 years with mean age of 30±4.1 years in both groups. Overweight pregnant women had significantly high frequency of pre-eclampsia (27% versus 9% in controls), PIH (24% versus 8% in controls), gestational diabetes mellitus (22% versus 5% in controls), prolonged labour (4% versus 6% in controls), Caesarean section (44% versus 16% in controls), Wound infection (3% versus 2% in controls) and Postpartum Hemorrhage (5% versus 2% in controls). P-value < 0.001 was considered significance. Fetal complications in overweight pregnant women compared to controls i.e. Still birth (13% versus 2%), Early neonatal death (11% versus 1%), shoulder dystocia (5% versus 1%) and NICU admission (47% versus 10%). Results were statistically significant except shoulder dystocia. Conclusion: We conclude that the result of present study indicates obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome.

  2. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Ntaganira; Adamson S Muula; Florence Masaisa; Fidens Dusabeyezu; Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. METHODS:

  3. Enhancing provider effectiveness in treating pregnant women with addictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Kathleen McHugh; Susan Merle Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Prenatal care providers can play an important role in identifying, intervening in, and making referrals for substance abuse problems among pregnant women. Although studies suggest that most addicted persons who need treatment do not receive it, innovative methods such as the one described here can help increase the number of pregnant women who engage in treatment, with likely benefits to

  4. Recruitment of Healthy First-Trimester Pregnant Women: Lessons From the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy Study (CHirP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenys M. Webster; Kay Teschke; Patricia A. Janssen

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into\\u000a a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising,\\u000a recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting\\u000a a study booth at baby “trade shows” were used to

  5. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  6. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. RESULTS The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. CONCLUSIONS Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  7. Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sumaria de los Consumidores Aug. 25, 2010 Gestational Diabetes Related Products Future Research Needs: Prioritizing Research Needs ... Women" /> Consumer Summary – Aug. 5, 2009 Gestational Diabetes: A Guide for Pregnant Women Formats Consumer Guide ( ...

  8. Predictors of HIV positivity among pregnant women presenting for obstetric care in South India - a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eileen; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Philip, Philimol; Alexander, Glory

    2011-10-01

    Feminization of the HIV epidemic in India has increasingly burdened the public health infrastructure to provide prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. A mere 20% of pregnant women in the country receive HIV counseling and testing. One of the strategies, for expansion of PMTCT services is to ascertain an accurate identification of HIV-positive pregnant women. Thus, we sought to characterize a demographic profile of pregnant women at high-risk for HIV infection. We performed a retrospective case-control study. We included as cases, all HIV-positive women identified in a PMTCT program implemented in 23 charitable faith-based hospitals in four states in South India over a period of 75 months, starting in January 2003. Thus a total of 320 HIV-positive cases were frequency matched using stratified random sampling to 365 HIV-negative pregnant women presenting for antenatal care during the same time period. Cases and controls were compared using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student's t-test for continuous variables. Multivariate step-wise logistic regression analysis was performed. On multivariate analysis, following factors were independently predictive of HIV positivity: age ?25 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.50; confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.76; p = 0.001); illiteracy (OR 4.89; CI 2.79-8.57; p <0.0001); woman holding a service and/or professional job (OR 0.27; CI 0.14-0.53; p <0.0001); spouses holding a service or higher job (OR 3.13; CI 2.13-4.59; p <0.0001); being married ?5 years (OR 2.89; CI 1.68-4.95; p <0.0001); late gestational age at presentation (OR 3.06; CI 2.04-4.59; p <0.0001); history of fetal and/or live born loss (OR 2.36; CI 1.51-3.67; p <0.0001). To our knowledge this is the first large study to evaluate factors predictive of HIV positivity among women presenting for antenatal care in the Indian setting. This type of profiling of HIV-positive pregnant women may help expand PMTCT services in a focused and cost-effective manner in India. PMID:21732895

  9. Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the behaviour and practice of both users and providers are necessary. PMID:21605446

  10. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Bidad, Katayoon; Heidarnazhad, Hassan; Pourpak, Zahra; Shayestefar, Giti; Moayeri, Heshmat; Zendehdel, Nasrin

    2014-04-01

    Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship. PMID:24338255

  11. Longitudinal Studies of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women Living in a Rural Cameroonian Village with High Perennial Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leke, Rose F. G.; Bioga, Jude D.; Zhou, James; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Leke, Robert J. I.; Tchinda, Viviane; Megnekou, Rosette; Fogako, Josephine; Sama, Grace; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Bomback, Germaine; Nama, Charles; Diouf, Ababacar; Bobbili, Naveen; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2010-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women was conducted in the rural village of Ngali II, where malaria is hyperendemic and individuals receive ~0.7 infectious mosquito bites/person/day throughout the year. Pregnant women (N = 60; 19 primigravidae, 41 multigravidae) were enrolled early in pregnancy (median 14 wk) and were followed monthly, with 38 women followed through term (5.7 ± 1.1 prenatal visits and delivery). The total number of times primigravidae were slide-positive during pregnancy was higher than multigravidae (3.3 ± 1.1 versus 1.3 ± 1.3 times; P < 0.001), but no difference in the number of polymerase chain reaction-positive cases (4.6 ± 1.7 and 3.4 ± 1.7 times, P = 0.106) or total genotypes they harbored (8.9 ± 3.2 and 7.0 ± 2.9) was found. Only 7.9% women developed symptomatic infections. All primigravidae and 38% multigravidae were placental malaria-positive at delivery (P = 0.009). Genotyping showed that 77% of placental parasites were acquired ? 30 wks in pregnancy. These results help identify the extent of malaria-associated changes women experience during pregnancy. PMID:21036826

  12. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768 PMID:21385426

  13. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth). Results Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506) and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467) showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%), comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%), stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%); preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses); and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%). Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment) was similar in both groups. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester. PMID:20809964

  14. Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Shang, Xiaoping; Guo, Yu; Liu, Gangqiong; Yang, Jinjian; Xue, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy, and studies show that pregnant women are more likely to suffer from restless legs syndrome (RLS). Pregnant women with hypertension and RLS often experience disrupted sleep patterns because of activation of the nervous system. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between hypertension and RLS in pregnant women, and their impact on sleep. We enrolled 3,781 pregnant women who were admitted at our hospital for delivery between May 2011 and May 2014. The face-to-face questionnaire used to gather data included the International RLS Study Group criteria for diagnosis, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and hypertension diagnosis. Depending on the time of occurrence of hypertension, it was divided into two different types: pregnancy-induced hypertension and chronic hypertension in pregnancy. Out of 3,781 patients, 453 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for RLS and 486 met the diagnostic criteria for hypertension. Among patients with RLS, prophylactic iron supplementation was less frequently taken during pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension, rather than chronic hypertension in pregnancy, was found to be more frequent in patients with RLS; pregnant women with RLS had higher PSQI and ESS scores than pregnant controls. In our study, RLS was frequent in pregnant women, especially in those without prophylactic iron supplementation. Patients with RLS described more serious sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In addition, pregnancy-induced hypertension was more common in patients with RLS. PMID:25647293

  15. Predictors of HIV positivity among pregnant women presenting for obstetric care in South India – a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Solomon; Fehmida Visnegarwala; Philimol Philip; Glory Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Feminization of the HIV epidemic in India has increasingly burdened the public health infrastructure to provide prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. A mere 20% of pregnant women in the country receive HIV counseling and testing. One of the strategies, for expansion of PMTCT services is to ascertain an accurate identification of HIV-positive pregnant women. Thus, we sought to characterize

  16. Recruitment of pregnant women in research.

    PubMed

    van Delft, K; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2013-07-01

    The aim was to identify factors that could influence recruitment in a prospective longitudinal study involving pregnant women. A total of 269 nulliparous women were enrolled for a prospective longitudinal study, to establish the prevalence of levator ani muscle defects during childbirth. The project was explained verbally and potential participants were given an information leaflet. When eligible and interested, they provided their contact details to enquire if they were willing to participate. Out of the 1,473 women approached, 269 (18.3%) agreed to participate and 1,043 (70.8%) declined; 420 women (40.3%) did not provide a reason for non-participation (see text for further details). Most often mentioned reasons were 'being too busy', 'other pregnancy problems', 'no additional (internal) examination', 'moving (abroad)' and 'husband'. Women from different ethnicities and age groups gave a wide variety of reasons for non-participation. This information can now be used by researchers recruiting women for comparable studies, to enhance recruitment and participation of eligible patients. PMID:23815192

  17. [Some nutritional habits of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate diets of pregnant women. The research, whose tool was a voluntary questionnaire, was undertaken in 2005, among a group of a hundred randomly chosen pregnant women ranging in age from 23 to 32. A great degree of inappropriateness of their diets was revealed: too low intake of vegetables, fruit, dairy produce, proteins. Of all the women surveyed, a low percentage introduced folic acid (27%) and products rich in iron (17%) into their diets. The women stated that they both had limited coffee intake and started drinking milk. PMID:17713202

  18. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: The BAN study?

    PubMed Central

    Chasela, Charles S.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rodney J.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Study design Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio ? 1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio < 1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Results Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n = 110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1–2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0–0.4%). Conclusions HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. PMID:22658797

  20. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care. PMID:25830730

  1. Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

  2. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Arun G.; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure. PMID:25642349

  3. Critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant and postpartum women: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in critically ill pregnant women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting All intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Participants All women with 2009 H1N1 influenza who were pregnant or recently post partum and admitted to an intensive care unit in Australia or New Zealand between 1 June and 31 August 2009. Main outcome measures Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Results 64 pregnant or postpartum women admitted to an intensive care unit had confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza. Compared with non-pregnant women of childbearing age, pregnant or postpartum women with 2009 H1N1 influenza were at increased risk of admission to an intensive care unit (relative risk 7.4, 95% confidence interval 5.5 to 10.0). This risk was 13-fold greater (13.2, 9.6 to 18.3) for women at 20 or more weeks’ gestation. At the time of admission to an intensive care unit, 22 women (34%) were post partum and two had miscarried. 14 women (22%) gave birth during their stay in intensive care and 26 (41%) were discharged from an intensive care unit with ongoing pregnancy. All subsequently delivered. 44 women (69%) were mechanically ventilated. Of these, nine (14%) were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Seven women (11%) died. Of 60 births after 20 weeks’ gestation, four were stillbirths and three were infant deaths. 22 (39%) of the liveborn babies were preterm and 32 (57%) were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Of 20 babies tested, two were positive for the 2009 H1N1 virus. Conclusions Pregnancy is a risk factor for critical illness related to 2009 H1N1 influenza, which causes maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:20299694

  4. Evaluation of sexual function in Brazilian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, Luciane M V; Pazmiño, Maria A V; Pezzan, Patrícia A O; Pereira, Simone B; Duarte, Geraldo; Ferreira, Cristine H J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sexual function of pregnant women and to identify the potential variables associated with it. The study was conducted on 137 low-risk, sexually active pregnant women who filled out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Although 61% of the women assessed presented an FSFI score ?26.5, they declared that they were satisfied with the emotional proximity to their partner, with their relationship, and with their sex life. A positive association was detected between sexual dysfunction and gestational age and a report of urinary incontinence and excessive weight gain in the current pregnancy. PMID:21400336

  5. Adequacy of usual dietary intake and nutritional status among pregnant women in the context of nutrition transition: the DEPOSIT Study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S

    2012-11-28

    Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity. PMID:22264559

  6. Pregnant women's working conditions and their changes during pregnancy: a national study in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Saurel-Cubizolles; M Kaminski

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 2387 employed women who had worked for more than three months of their pregnancy the data were extracted from a survey carried out on a national sample of births in France in 1981. Manual, service and shop workers had a higher preterm delivery rate than professional, administrative, or clerical workers. Assembly line work was associated with

  7. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11?g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women.

  8. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43?years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20?years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20?years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

  9. Utilisation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners within maternity care provision: results from a nationally representative cohort study of 1,835 pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little known about women’s concurrent use of conventional and complementary health care during pregnancy, particularly consultation patterns with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines health service utilisation among pregnant women including consultations with obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners (GPs) and CAM practitioners. Methods A sub-study of pregnant women (n=2445) was undertaken from the nationally-representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Women’s consultations with conventional practitioners (obstetricians, GPs and midwives) and CAM practitioners for pregnancy-related health conditions were analysed. The analysis included Pearson chi-square tests to compare categorical variables. Results The survey was completed by 1835 women (response rate = 79.2%). A substantial number (49.4%) of respondents consulted with a CAM practitioner for pregnancy-related health conditions. Many participants consulted only with a CAM practitioner for assistance with certain conditions such as neck pain (74.6%) and sciatica (40.4%). Meanwhile, women consulted both CAM practitioners and conventional maternity health professionals (obstetricians, midwives and GPs) for back pain (61.8%) and gestational diabetes (22.2%). Women visiting a general practitioner (GP) 3–4 times for pregnancy care were more likely to consult with acupuncturists compared with those consulting a GP less often (p=<0.001, x2=20.5). Women who had more frequent visits to a midwife were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist (p=<0.001, x2=18.9) or a doula (p=<0.001, x2=23.2) than those visiting midwives less frequently for their pregnancy care. Conclusions The results emphasise the necessity for a considered and collaborative approach to interactions between pregnant women, conventional maternity health providers and CAM practitioners to accommodate appropriate information transferral and co-ordinated maternity care. The absence of sufficient clinical evidence regarding many commonly used CAM practices during pregnancy also requires urgent attention. PMID:23231765

  10. Magnitude of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melku, Mulugeta; Kebede, Asmarie; Addis, Zelalem

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, causing numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of study was to assess the magnitude of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. Method The study was conducted between March and May, 2012. Sociodemographic data were collected through face-to-face interview. HIV1/2 was tested following current national HIV1/2 testing algorithm. Syphilis infection was also tested using the rapid plasm reagin test for screening and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination as a confirmatory test. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with HIV and syphilis seroprevalence from selected sociodemographic variables. Results Of 300 women, 31 (10.33%), eleven (3.7%), and three (1%) were seroreactive for HIV, syphilis, and HIV–syphilis coinfection, respectively. High seroprevalence of HIV was found in women ages 25–30 years (13.4%), and women whose husbands attended primary school (19.7%). Syphilis was high in women occupationally housewives (15.2%) and whose husbands were illiterate (11.5%). HIV was associated with husband illiteracy (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] of 4.13, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 16.95]) and primary educational level of husbands (AOR [95% CI] =3.83 [1.50, 9.90]), whereas syphilis was associated with illiteracy of husband (AOR [95% CI] =7.25 [1.74, 30.30]). Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis was high. Low husband educational status was a risk factor for HIV and syphilis. Therefore, substantial efforts have to be made to reinforce prevention strategies and to screen as early as possible to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmission.

  11. Analysis of Intervention on Stressed Pregnant Women's

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    on interests, and thus occupational-based, could reduce stress perception and enhance social relationshipAnalysis Analysis of Intervention on Stressed Pregnant Women's Social Networks Robert C Drugan, Ph of New Hampshire, Durham NH Department of Occupational Therapy Amy Ma, OTS Barbara Prudhomme White, Ph

  12. Fetal macrosomia in pregnant women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Segregur, Jadranko; Bukovi?, Damir; Milinovi?, Darko; Oreskovi?, Slavko; Paveli?, Jasminka; Zupi?, Tomislav; Persec, Jasminka; Pavi?, Mato

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of fetal macrosomia in newborns from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy mothers, as well as determining the influence of fetal growth on pregnancy termination, on complications in pregnancy, during delivery and puerperium and on neonatal complications. In the study were included 351 pregnant women with GDM, as well as control group of 1502 healthy pregnant women. Newborns of mothers with GDM had significantly higher birth weight and length, ponderal index > 2.85 was more frequent, they were macrosomic and hypertrophic (disproportional and proportional), had smaller Apgar score and more frequent neonatal complications (p < 0.05). Fetal macrosomia and fetal hypertrophy alone or, particularly, connected with disproportional fetal growth, but disproportional hypotrophy as well, had significantly influence on greater frequency of delivery and puerperal complications, delivery completion with Cesarean section and neonatal complications in pregnant women with GDM. PMID:20102057

  13. Outcome of the vaginal infections and prematurity study: Results of a clinical trial of erythromycin among pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Klebanoff; Joan A. Regan; A. Vijaya Rao; Robert P. Nugent; William C. Blackwelder; David A. Eschenbach; Joseph G. Pastorek; Sterling Williams; Ronald S. Gibbs; J. Chris Carey

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether erythromycin treatment of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci would reduce the occurrence of low birth weight (<2500 gm) and preterm (<37 completed weeks) birth.STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blind clinical trial, 938 carriers of group B streptococci were randomized to receive erythromycin base (333 mg three times a day) or matching placebo

  14. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  15. Varicose veins of lower extremities in pregnant women and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the association of pregnant women with varicose veins of lower extremities (VVLE) and the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes and among them different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded VVLE were evaluated in 332 pregnant women who delivered infants with CA (case group) and 566 pregnant women with VVLE who delivered infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases were compared in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. About one-quarter of pregnant women had chronic VVLE while new onset VVLE occurred in the rest of pregnant women. There was no higher risk for adverse birth outcomes of pregnant women with VVLE, in fact the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight was somewhat lower than in the newborns of pregnant women without VVLE. The comparison of VVLE occurrence in pregnant women who had offspring with 21 different CA groups and in pregnant women who later delivered babies without CA showed a higher risk only for pectus excavatum, a mild CA. In conclusion, VVLE in pregnant women does not associate with obvious hazard for their fetuses. PMID:21033612

  16. An interpersonally based intervention for low-income pregnant women with intimate partner violence: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Capezza, Nicole M.; Parker, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of low-income pregnant women with recent intimate partner violence (IPV). Fifty-four women were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of four sessions during pregnancy and one “booster” session within 2 weeks of delivery. Based on principles of Interpersonal Psychotherapy, the intervention was designed to help participants improve their interpersonal relationships, including their social support networks, and master their role transition to motherhood. Assessments were administered at four time points (intake, 5–6 weeks post-intake, 2 weeks postpartum, 3 months postpartum) to assess for depression, PTSD, and IPV. The intervention did not significantly reduce the likelihood of a major depressive episode, PTSD, or IPV during pregnancy or up to 3-month postpartum. However, we found moderate effects for the intervention in reducing symptoms of PTSD and depression during pregnancy and a large effect for PTSD symptoms from pregnancy up to 3 months postpartum. This study suggests some initial support for our intervention. Larger randomized trials are needed to further examine the intervention both during and after pregnancy. PMID:21153559

  17. Population-based case-control study of mebendazole in pregnant women for birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of the study was to check the embryotoxic-teratogenic and fetotoxic effect of mebendazole (Vermox; Richter, Budapest, Hungary) treatment during pregnancy. Mebendazole use during pregnancy was evaluated in mothers of babies born with congenital abnormalities and in matched control mothers of babies born without congenital abnormalities in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 22,843 women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 14 were found to have been treated with mebendazole for intestinal nematoda infections/diseases during pregnancy (crude POR: 1.8 with 95% CI: 0.7-4.2). Of 38,151 women who had newborns without any defects (controls), the same number (14) were found to have been treated with mebendazole during pregnancy. Six different congenital abnormality groups were evaluated and a higher prevalence of mebendazole use in these mothers throughout pregnancy was not found. Gestational age and birth weight were analyzed in control infants born to mothers with or without mebendazole treatment. The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and mean birth weight was larger in newborn infants born to mothers with mebendazole treatment. Thus, treatment with mebendazole during pregnancy did not indicate a teratogenic and fetotoxic risk to the embryo or fetus, though the numbers of treated cases and controls in this study were limited. PMID:16131365

  18. An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n?=?13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have recurred in this study – particularly, the difficulties of getting timely reimbursement to facilities, of controlling charging of patients, and of reaching the poorest. This suggests that providing free care through a national health insurance system has not solved systemic weaknesses. The wider concerns about raising the quality of care, and ensuring that all supply-side and demand-side elements are in place to make the policy effective will also take a longer term and bigger commitment. PMID:23446355

  19. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p < .05). The most common sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions. PMID:20924936

  20. Birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. The ALSPAC Study Team

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, A.; Shea, K. M.; Little, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between birthweight of term infants and maternal occupation. METHODS: Information on job titles since the age of 16, and sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors were obtained by means of questionnaires as part of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood (ALSPAC), from a cohort of 14,000 pregnant women. The British 1990 standard occupational classification was used to code jobs within nine major job groups. RESULTS: For 9282 women who delivered term infants and reported a job for the relevant period, there was a significant difference in mean birthweight among the nine major job groups. A 148 g difference was found between the mean birthweight of infants born to women with professional occupations and those with plant and machine operative jobs. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex of infant, parity, maternal height, smoking, caffeine consumption, and race. After adjustment the maternal job was no longer significantly associated with birthweight. CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of a significant association between birthweight and job after adjustment, there were several findings which agreed with publications on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome. The major job groups with the lowest birthweights included the following jobs; metal forming or welding, electric or electronic work, jobs in the textile trade, and assembling and working with equipment (mobile and stationary). The lack of an association may indicate that the study was of insufficient power to detect a small difference; it may indicate the presence of confounding variables that were not adjusted for or it may indicate that no association exists.   PMID:9536158

  1. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  2. Iodine status in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    2015-05-01

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences and a mandatory iodine fortification of salt was introduced in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigated intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding women after introduction of iodine fortification in a region of Denmark with previously moderate iodine deficiency. Additionally, thesis addressed mechanisms of iodiden transport to the fetus across the placenta and methodological challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in prengnant and breastfeeding women. PMID:26050837

  3. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ?3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  4. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, S; Varsier, N; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J; Angelini, E D; Wiart, J; Bloch, I

    2014-08-21

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer. PMID:25079007

  5. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)] [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)] [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh)] [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  6. Hostile and Benevolent Reactions Toward Pregnant Women: Complementary Interpersonal Punishments and Rewards That Maintain Traditional Roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle R. Hebl; Eden B. King; Peter Glick; Sarah L. Singletary; Stephanie Kazama

    2007-01-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs.

  7. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Zakieh; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Khalkhali, Hamid-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background While hepatitis E virus (HEV) mostly causes self-limited disease in general population, it is more severe in pregnant women. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran . Patients and Methods One hundred thirty six pregnant women referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA; Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes). Results Only five (3.6%) of 136 cases had positive results for anti-HEV IgG. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), and income level (P = 0.19) of the two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusions The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in , similar to the rates reported from developed countries. Effective health services and provision of safe water supplies in Urmia may take role in this low prevalence rate. PMID:24348644

  8. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  9. Does Smoke from Biomass Fuel Contribute to Anemia in Pregnant Women in Nagpur, India? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Charlotte M.; Patel, Archana; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia affects upwards of 50% of pregnant women in developing countries and is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child. We hypothesized that exposure to smoke from biomass fuel – which is widely used for household energy needs in resource-limited settings – could exacerbate anemia in pregnancy, possibly as a result of systemic inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether exposure to smoke from biomass fuel (wood, straw, crop residues, or dung) as opposed to clean fuel (electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, or biogas) is an independent risk factor for anemia in pregnancy, classified by severity. Methods A secondary analysis was performed using data collected from a rural pregnancy cohort (N = 12,782) in Nagpur, India in 2011-2013 as part of the NIH-funded Maternal and Newborn Health Registry Study. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of biomass fuel vs. clean fuel use on anemia in pregnancy, controlling for maternal age, body mass index, education level, exposure to household tobacco smoke, parity, trimester when hemoglobin was measured, and receipt of prenatal iron and folate supplements. Results The prevalence of any anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dl) was 93% in biomass fuel users and 88% in clean fuel users. Moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) occurred in 53% and 40% of the women, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression showed higher relative risks of mild anemia in pregnancy (hemoglobin 10-11 g/dl; RRR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.19-1.61) and of moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy (RRR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53-2.09) in biomass fuel vs. clean fuel users, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion In our study population, exposure to biomass smoke was associated with higher risks of mild and moderate-to-severe anemia in pregnancy, independent of covariates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01073475 PMID:26024473

  10. Relationships between lead biomarkers and diurnal salivary cortisol indices in pregnant women from Mexico City: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead (Pb) exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse maternal, infant, or childhood health outcomes by interfering with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function. We examined relationships between maternal blood or bone Pb concentrations and features of diurnal cortisol profiles in 936 pregnant women from Mexico City. Methods From 2007–11 we recruited women from hospitals/clinics affiliated with the Mexican Social Security System. Pb was measured in blood (BPb) during the second trimester and in mothers’ tibia and patella 1-month postpartum. We characterized maternal HPA-axis function using 10 timed salivary cortisol measurements collected over 2-days (mean: 19.7, range: 14–35 weeks gestation). We used linear mixed models to examine the relationship between Pb biomarkers and cortisol area under the curve (AUC), awakening response (CAR), and diurnal slope. Results After adjustment for confounders, women in the highest quintile of BPb concentrations had a reduced CAR (Ratio: ?13%; Confidence Interval [CI]: ?24, 1, p-value for trend?women in the lowest quintile. Tibia/patella Pb concentrations were not associated with CAR, but diurnal cortisol slopes were suggestively flatter among women in the highest patella Pb quantile compared to women in the lowest quantile (Ratio: 14%; CI: ?2, 33). BPb and bone Pb concentrations were not associated with cortisol AUC. Conclusions Concurrent blood Pb levels were associated with cortisol awakening response in these pregnant women and this might explain adverse health outcomes associated with Pb. Further research is needed to confirm these results and determine if other environmental chemicals disrupt hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function during pregnancy. PMID:24916609

  11. Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

  12. Plasma and urinary aluminum concentrations in severely anemic geophagous pregnant women in the Bas Maroni region of French Guiana: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronique; Boukhari, Rachida; Nacher, Mathieu; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Roudier, Estelle; Elguindi, Wael; Laquerrière, Annie; Carles, Gabriel

    2010-11-01

    The clays consumed by geophagous individuals contain large quantities of aluminum, a known neurological and hematological toxin. This is the first study to evaluate the risk of aluminum poisoning in geophagous individuals. Blind determinations of plasma and urinary aluminum concentrations were carried out in 98 anemic geophagous pregnant women and 85 non-anemic non-geophagous pregnant women. Aluminum concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the geophagous anemic women than in the controls, with odds ratios of 6.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.72-19.31) for plasma concentrations (13.92 ± 14.09 ?g/L versus 4.95 ± 7.11 ?g/L) and 5.44 (95% CI = 2.17-14.8) for urinary concentrations (92.83 ± 251.21 ?g/L versus 12.11 ± 23 ?g/L). The ingested clay is the most likely source of this overexposure to aluminum. If confirmed, the clinical consequences of this absorption for pregnant women and their offspring should be explored. PMID:21036845

  13. Plasma and Urinary Aluminum Concentrations in Severely Anemic Geophagous Pregnant Women in the Bas Maroni Region of French Guiana: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Veronique; Boukhari, Rachida; Nacher, Mathieu; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Roudier, Estelle; Elguindi, Wael; Laquerrière, Annie; Carles, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The clays consumed by geophagous individuals contain large quantities of aluminum, a known neurological and hematological toxin. This is the first study to evaluate the risk of aluminum poisoning in geophagous individuals. Blind determinations of plasma and urinary aluminum concentrations were carried out in 98 anemic geophagous pregnant women and 85 non-anemic non-geophagous pregnant women. Aluminum concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the geophagous anemic women than in the controls, with odds ratios of 6.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.72–19.31) for plasma concentrations (13.92 ± 14.09 ?g/L versus 4.95 ± 7.11 ?g/L) and 5.44 (95% CI = 2.17–14.8) for urinary concentrations (92.83 ± 251.21 ?g/L versus 12.11 ± 23 ?g/L). The ingested clay is the most likely source of this overexposure to aluminum. If confirmed, the clinical consequences of this absorption for pregnant women and their offspring should be explored. PMID:21036845

  14. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

  15. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  16. Fulminant hepatic failure in pregnant women: acute fatty liver or acute viral hepatitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed S. Hamid; S. M. Wasim Jafri; Haleem Khan; Hasnain Shah; Zaigham Abbas; Howard Fields

    1996-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E virus, which is endemic in our region, can cause severe liver dysfunction in pregnant women and this can be clinically confused with acute fatty liver of pregnancy.Methods: We studied the clinical and laboratory data as well as the maternal and fetal outcomes of 12 pregnant women presenting with fulminant hepatic failure in order to determine the etiology

  17. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdan Z Hamdan; Abdel Haliem M Ziad; Salah K Ali; Ishag Adam

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. METHODS: A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women.

  18. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  19. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID:18847476

  20. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  1. Environmental Chemicals in Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Zota, Ami R.; Schwartz, Jackie M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to chemicals during fetal development can increase the risk of adverse health effects, and while biomonitoring studies suggest pregnant women are exposed to chemicals, little is known about the extent of multiple chemicals exposures among pregnant women in the United States. Objective We analyzed biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to characterize both individual and multiple chemical exposures in U.S. pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data for 163 chemical analytes in 12 chemical classes for subsamples of 268 pregnant women from NHANES 2003–2004, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. For each chemical analyte, we calculated descriptive statistics. We calculated the number of chemicals detected within the following chemical classes: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and phthalates and across multiple chemical classes. We compared chemical analyte concentrations for pregnant and nonpregnant women using least-squares geometric means, adjusting for demographic and physiological covariates. Results The percentage of pregnant women with detectable levels of an individual chemical ranged from 0 to 100%. Certain polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, PFCs, phenols, PBDEs, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and perchlorate were detected in 99–100% of pregnant women. The median number of detected chemicals by chemical class ranged from 4 of 12 PFCs to 9 of 13 phthalates. Across chemical classes, median number ranged from 8 of 17 chemical analytes to 50 of 71 chemical analytes. We found, generally, that levels in pregnant women were similar to or lower than levels in nonpregnant women; adjustment for covariates tended to increase levels in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Conclusions Pregnant women in the U.S. are exposed to multiple chemicals. Further efforts are warranted to understand sources of exposure and implications for policy making. PMID:21233055

  2. Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6?l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92?min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777?ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30?min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26?min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks. PMID:25073435

  3. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  4. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n?=?32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n?=?22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the predominant members of the microbial community in normal pregnancy. These results can serve as the basis to study the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24484853

  5. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  6. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Background:Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.Methods:Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a national survey of 403 womenmore »from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents.Results:In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey (p= 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products.Conclusions:Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  7. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  8. First-time pregnant women's experience of the decision-making process related to completing or terminating pregnancy--a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Kjelsvik, Marianne; Gjengedal, Eva

    2011-03-01

    Every year about 30,000 women in Norway become unexpectedly pregnant and have to decide whether to complete or terminate the pregnancy. Few studies have been performed of these women's experiences. The aim of this qualitative study was to get new and more extensive information regarding women's experiences relating to their considerations of whether to terminate a pregnancy in the first trimester. In-depth interviews with four participants between 25 and 32 years were conducted. None of them had previously given birth or had had an abortion. Each woman was interviewed twice during a period of 2 weeks. The first interview took place between 7 and 11 weeks into the pregnancy. None of the women had reached a decision on whether to complete or terminate the pregnancy. All the women described an increased awareness of their body and a struggle to make 'the right decision'. They described a desire for autonomy as well as a need for understanding and acknowledgement from significant others and health care providers. They experienced a tension between their pregnant body and the surrounding world, between their own body and the foetus and between their own choice and the opinions of others. One consequence of a woman's right to choose can be an unwanted loneliness or giving in to other people's choices. There is consequently a need for professionals who are able to exercise skilled judgement and who are aware of their own power in the relationship so as to assure that the pregnant woman does in fact makes her own decision. PMID:20626699

  9. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus genotypes in pregnant Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Yamasaki; Kiyonori Miura; Takako Shimada; Shoko Miura; Shuhei Abe; Makoto Murakami; Tetsuro Sameshima; Akira Fujishita; Kouhei Kotera; Akira Kinoshita; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Hideaki Masuzaki

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the pre-vaccination epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and genotypes in pregnant Japanese women, we performed Pap smear tests and HPV genotype testing in patients attending Nagasaki University Hospital and collaborating hospitals from August 2007 to July 2010. Serial uterine cervical specimens were obtained from 151 pregnant women. The HPV test was positive on the first visit

  10. Conceptualising Information Literacy as Social Practice: A Study of Pregnant Women's Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papen, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study presents a view of information literacy not primarily as skill but as different practices, situated within specific social and institutional contexts. It suggests that questions of authority of knowledge are central to understanding people's information practices. Method: First, the concept of information…

  11. Breastfeeding Intention Among Pregnant Hong Kong Chinese Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Lau

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of\\u000a Hong Kong’s regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates.\\u000a The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire\\u000a was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and

  12. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...preclinical studies, including studies on pregnant animals, and clinical studies, including studies on nonpregnant women, have been conducted and provide...this part, except that the father's consent need not be obtained if...

  13. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...preclinical studies, including studies on pregnant animals, and clinical studies, including studies on nonpregnant women, have been conducted and provide...this part, except that the father's consent need not be obtained if...

  14. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...preclinical studies, including studies on pregnant animals, and clinical studies, including studies on nonpregnant women, have been conducted and provide...this part, except that the father's consent need not be obtained if...

  15. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff.

  16. “Struggling with daily life and enduring pain”: a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant women living with pelvic girdle pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the experiences of living with pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and its impact on pregnant women’s lives. To address this gap in knowledge, this study investigates the experiences of women living with PGP during pregnancy. Methods A purposive sample, of nine pregnant women with diagnosed PGP, were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were recorded, transcribed to text and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results The core category that evolved from the analysis of experiences of living with PGP in pregnancy was “struggling with daily life and enduring pain”. Three properties addressing the actions caused by PGP were identified: i) grasping the incomprehensible; ii) balancing support and dependence and iii) managing the losses. These experiences expressed by the informants constitute a basis for the consequences of PGP: iv) enduring pain; v) being a burden; vi) calculating the risks and the experiences of the informants as vii) abdicating as a mother. Finally, the informants’ experiences of the consequences regarding the current pregnancy and any potential future pregnancies is presented in viii) paying the price and reconsidering the future. A conceptual model of the actions and consequences experienced by the pregnant informants living with PGP is presented. Conclusions PGP during pregnancy greatly affects the informant’s experiences of her pregnancy, her roles in relationships, and her social context. For informants with young children, PGP negatively affects the role of being a mother, a situation that further strains the experience. As the constant pain disturbs most aspects of the lives of the informants, improvements in the treatment of PGP is of importance as to increase the quality of life. This pregnancy-related condition is prevalent and must be considered a major public health concern during pregnancy. PMID:23668823

  17. SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT NEEDS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN LOUISIANA: FINDINGS FROM A STUDY OF WOMEN GIVING BIRTH IN TWO HOSPITALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori J. Ducharme; Rebecca L. Green; Jody M. Greene; J. Valley Rachal

    1998-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and Louisiana State University Medical Center (LSUMC), with assistance from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. This is one of seven studies that together constitute Louisiana's State Demand,and Needs Assessment Studies: Alcohol and Other Drugs. This work was supported by the Center for

  18. Blood and Hair Manganese Concentrations in Pregnant Women from the Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9–56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05–53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = ?3.1; 95% CI: ?5.8 to ?0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: ?1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  19. Blood and hair manganese concentrations in pregnant women from the infants' environmental health study (ISA) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana M; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mergler, Donna; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Smith, Donald R; Menezes-Filho, José A; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-03-18

    Manganese (Mn), an essential nutrient, is a neurotoxicant at high concentrations. We measured Mn concentrations in repeated blood and hair samples collected from 449 pregnant women living near banana plantations with extensive aerial spraying of Mn-containing fungicide mancozeb in Costa Rica, and examined environmental and lifestyle factors associated with these biomarkers. Mean blood Mn and geometric mean hair Mn concentrations were 24.4 ?g/L (8.9-56.3) and 1.8 ?g/g (0.05-53.3), respectively. Blood Mn concentrations were positively associated with gestational age at sampling (? = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.2), number of household members (? = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6), and living in a house made of permeable and difficult-to-clean materials (? = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0); and inversely related to smoking (? = -3.1; 95% CI: -5.8 to -0.3). Hair Mn concentrations were inversely associated with gestational age at sampling (% change = 0.8; 95% CI: -1.6 to 0.0); and positively associated with living within 50 m of a plantation (% change = 42.1; 95% CI: 14.2 to 76.9) and Mn concentrations in drinking water (% change = 17.5; 95% CI: 12.2 to 22.8). Our findings suggest that pregnant women living near banana plantations aerially sprayed with mancozeb may be environmentally exposed to Mn. PMID:24601641

  20. Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children

    PubMed Central

    VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ?94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 ?g/ml and troughs of >1.75 ?g/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  1. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  2. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ?12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 ?g/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 ?g/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 ?g/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over the course of gestation may not be generalizable to populations with different iodine status from ours and merits further investigation. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN37927591. PMID:25948667

  3. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  4. The prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka urban clinics in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Mwiinga Mtonga

    2010-01-01

    SummaryDomestic violence among pregnant women has many faces in Lusaka, Zambia.Domestic violence among respondents was associated contraction of sexually transmitted infections, loss of pregnancy, bleeding in pregnancy, psychological trauma, divorce and social disharmony.In this study 385 pregnant women were randomly selected and entered into he study.MethodA Cross-sectional Descriptive Study of 385 pregnant women attending six randomly selected Antenatal Clinics in

  5. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (?20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  6. Use of dietary supplements in pregnant women in relation to sociodemographic factors – a report from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study

    PubMed Central

    Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Hay, Kristen; Joslowski, Gesa; Riikonen, Anne; Ballard, Lori; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of dietary supplement use, particularly supplements containing vitamin D and fatty acids, in pregnant women enrolled in a multi-national study. Design The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Maternal dietary supplement use was self-reported through questionnaires at month 3 to 4 postpartum. Setting Six clinical research centres; three in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland and Germany). Subjects Mothers (n 7326) to infants screened for high-risk HLA-DQ genotypes of type 1 diabetes. Results Ninety-two per cent of the 7326 women used one or more types of supplement during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplements were taken by 65 % of the women, with the highest proportion of users in the USA (80·5 %). Overall, 16 % of the women reported taking fatty acid supplements and a growing trend was seen in all countries between 2004 and 2010 (P < 0·0001). The use was more common in Germany (32 %) and the USA (24 %) compared with Finland (8·5 %) and Sweden (7·0 %). Being pregnant with the first child was a strong predictor for any supplement use in all countries. Low maternal age (<25 years), higher education, BMI ? 25·0 kg/m2 and smoking during pregnancy were factors associated with supplement use in some but not all countries. Conclusions The majority of the women used dietary supplements during pregnancy. The use was associated with sociodemographic and behavioural factors, such as parity, maternal age, education, BMI and maternal smoking. PMID:23452986

  7. [Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women - safety and effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Wo?niak Kosek, Agnieszka; Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics, pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications from influenza. The factors believed to increase the susceptibility of complicated influenza infection during pregnancy are linked to the physiologic changes, including immunologic changes (attenuation of the cell-mediated immune responses, selective suppression of T-helper 1 cell mediated immunity while the adaptive humoral immunity remains unimpaired), increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption and tidal volume. Pregnant women have similar incidence of seasonal influenza as the general population, however because of the physiological changes, they are at an increased risk of complications (including secondary pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency increased risk of stillbirth, premature deliveries) and death. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries. Vaccination against influenza with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been proven to be safe and effective. Lack of harmful effect of TIV on pregnant women and newborns has been demonstrated in several studies: no increased risk of spontaneous abortions, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations, cesarean section have been reported. Vaccination against influenza has been proven to be effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Several studies revealed a decreased risk of influenza-like illnesses among mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy but also a decreased risk of laboratory confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza and its complications among newborns and infants born to vaccinated mothers. Currently available inactivated influenza vaccines are not licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months. Protection of young infants against the infection in early life thus requires a cocooning strategy to reduce the number of vulnerable individuals among care givers and contacts. Neonates and infants may be also protected against influenza directly by antibodies of maternal origin that cross the placenta or are transferred via breast milk. The duration of passively acquired antibodies depends on the initial blood concentration and is probably less than 6 months. Vaccine coverage among pregnant women rdmains low Possible explanations include lack of education by health care workers, the feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious problem, and the failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. Overall, the most important factor for a woman to decide to be immunized during pregnancy was to have a clear recommendation from the health care provider Reasons evoked by obstetricians for not providing influenza vaccines included lack sufficient data on safety and efficacy concerns about the medical legal risks of vaccination during pregnancy and the perdeption that pregnant women would not want to be vaccinated. Educational intervention targeting health care workers in charge of pregnant women should be primary implemented to provide higher influenza vaccine coverage and to protect pregnant women and young infants from influenza related morbidity PMID:23488311

  8. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  9. Examining Pregnant Women’s Hostile Attributions About Infants as a Predictor of Offspring Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects infants and toddlers. In the interest of informing prevention and intervention efforts, this study examined pregnant women’s attributions about infants as a risk factor for child maltreatment and harsh parenting during their children’s first and second years. We also provide specific methods for practitioners to assess hostile attributions. Objective To evaluate pregnant women’s hostile attributions about infants as a risk factor for early child maltreatment and harsh parenting. Design Prospective longitudinal study. Setting A small Southeastern city and its surrounding county. Participants A diverse, community-based sample of 499 pregnant women. Main Outcomes and Measures Official records of child maltreatment and mother-reported harsh parenting behaviors. Hostile attributions were examined in terms of women’s beliefs about infants’ negative intentions (eg, the extent to which infants purposefully dirty their diapers). Results Mothers’ hostile attributions increased the likelihood that their child would be maltreated by the age of 26 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26 [90% CI, 1.02–1.56]). Mothers who made more hostile attributions during pregnancy reported engaging in more harsh parenting behaviors when their children were toddlers (?=0.14, P<.05). Both associations were robust to the inclusion of 7 psychosocial covariates. Conclusions and Relevance A pregnant woman’s hostile attributions about infant’s intentions signal risk for maltreatment and harsh parenting of her child during the first years of life. Practitioners’ attention to women’s hostile attributions may help identify those in need of immediate practitioner input and/or referral to parenting services. PMID:23588683

  10. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Food Intolerances Food Safety For More Information Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or ... Healthy Weight Gain Tips for Pregnant Moms For Breastfeeding Moms: Nutritional Needs Healthy Weight Loss Tips for ...

  11. Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; Mwanga, Joseph R; Changalucha, John; Burton, Jeremy P; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is a 21st century global health problem that is often the result of dietary intake. Although efforts are made to reduce dietary toxin levels, they are often unsuccessful, warranting research into novel methods to reduce host exposure. Food-grade microbes that can be delivered to the gastrointestinal tract and that are capable of sequestering toxins present a safe and cost-effective intervention. We sought to investigate the potential for probiotic-supplemented yogurt to lower heavy metal levels in at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania, and to examine the microbiome in relation to toxin levels. Two populations suspected to have high toxic metal exposures were studied. A group of 44 school-aged children was followed over 25 days, and 60 pregnant women were followed over their last two trimesters until birth. A yogurt containing 10(10) CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 per 250 g was administered, while control groups received either whole milk or no intervention. Changes in blood metal levels were assessed, and the gut microbiomes of the children were profiled by analyzing 16S rRNA sequencing via the Ion Torrent platform. The children and pregnant women in the study were found to have elevated blood levels of lead and mercury compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. Consumption of probiotic yogurt had a protective effect against further increases in mercury (3.2 nmol/liter; P = 0.035) and arsenic (2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.011) blood levels in the pregnant women, but this trend was not statistically significant in the children. Elevated blood lead was associated with increases in Succinivibrionaceae and Gammaproteobacteria relative abundance levels in stool. Importance: Probiotic food produced locally represents a nutritious and affordable means for people in some developing countries to counter exposures to toxic metals. Further research and field trials are warranted to explore this approach in countries where communities are located near mining sites and agricultural areas, two types of areas where toxins are likely to be elevated. PMID:25293764

  12. [Effects of omega 3 supplementation in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Marszalek, A; Servely, J-L; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2009-04-01

    Maternal nutrition is a major environmental factor, which can be modified and can affect fetal growth and development with potential long-term consequences. There is currently a strong mediatic pressure for supplementing diets with omega 3 fatty acids. Nevertheless, if beneficial effects seem to be confirmed in adults and in animal models, the evidence for favourable effects of omega 3 supplementation in pregnant women are less obvious. Indeed, there is a trend showing a positive effect on cerebral development, but long term effects have not been demonstrated and both the quantity of omega 3 and the omega 3:omega 6 ratios are not precisely determined. Numerous studies are needed, both in pregnant animal models and in patients, to unravel these effects. PMID:18947942

  13. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20-80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  14. Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Food Safety Risks for Pregnant Women and Newborns Published ... thaw. Keep Raw Meats and Ready-to-Eat Foods Separate Prevent cross-contamination by keeping raw foods ...

  15. Factors Associated with Health Information-Seeking in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Shieh; Marion E. Broome; Timothy E. Stump

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic

  16. Reduction of primary and secondary smoke exposure for low-income black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, Pamela K

    2002-06-01

    Cigarette smoking by women during pregnancy continues to be a substantial contributor to poor perinatal outcomes in the United States. Decreasing tobacco smoke exposure for women and children is a lifestyle change that will improve perinatal health. A study was conducted with a sample of 74 low-income black women to evaluate the effectiveness of the Smoke Free Families intervention in moving pregnant women forward in the stages of change toward becoming a non-smoker and reducing exposure to second-hand smoke. Transtheoretical model variables were measured at intake, postintervention, and during the last month of pregnancy. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment and control group in movement forward in the stages of change. The findings raise questions about the conceptual fit of the transtheoretical model with pregnant women. We discuss additional interventions and suggest types of studies that would provide new insight into tobacco exposure issues for pregnant women. PMID:12389272

  17. Demographic and Substance Abuse Trends Among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Eleven Years of Treatment Admission Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E. McCabe; Stephan Arndt

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment\\u000a over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health\\u000a Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment\\u000a for the first time, 81,818 of whom were

  18. Low Socioeconomic Status Negatively Affects Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (? = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (?= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761

  19. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p?pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

  20. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13?627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30?years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  1. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta–Indonesia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary objective of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the Four Pillars Approach. The barriers, the facilitators, and the patients’ as well as the midwives’ satisfaction with the Four Pillars Approach will also be measured. Methods/Design This study will use a cluster randomised controlled trial. This intervention study will be conducted in the Public Health Centres with basic emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province and in Central Java Province. We will involve all the Public Health Centres (24) with emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province. Another 24 Public Health Centres with emergency obstetric care in Central Java Province which have similarities in their demographic, population characteristics, and facilities will also be involved. Each Public Health Centre will be asked to choose two or three nurse-midwives to participate in this study. For the intervention group, the Public Health Centres in Yogyakarta Special Province, training on the Four Pillars Approach will be held prior to the model’s implementation. Consecutively, we will recruit 360 pregnant women with anaemia to take part in part in the study to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. The outcome measurements are the differences in haemoglobin levels between the intervention and control groups in the third trimester of pregnancy, the frequency of antenatal care attendance, and the presence of a nurse-midwife during labour. Qualitative data will be used to investigate the barriers and facilitating factors, as to nurse-midwives’ satisfaction with the implementation of the Four Pillars Approach. Discussion If the Four Pillars Approach is effective in improving the outcome for pregnant women with anaemia, this approach could be implemented nationwide and be taken into consideration to improve the outcome for other conditions in pregnancy, after further research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN35822126. PMID:24884497

  2. High Rates of HIV Seroconversion in Pregnant Women and Low Reported Levels of HIV Testing among Male Partners in Southern Mozambique: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    De Schacht, Caroline; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mabunda, Nédio; Lucas, Carlota; Alons, Catharina L.; Madonela, Ana; Vubil, Adolfo; Ferreira, Orlando C.; Calú, Nurbai; Santos, Iolanda S.; Jani, Ilesh V.; Guay, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. Methods Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2–3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n?=?94) with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. Results HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33–7.16). Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04–13.78, p?=?0.04) and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97–19.45, p?=?0.05). Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner), 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. Conclusions HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach elimination of pediatric HIV/AIDS. PMID:25542035

  3. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women. PMID:22436344

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ?70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  5. Effective System for Pregnant Women using Mobile GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayad Ghany Ismaeel; Emad Khadhm Jabar

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organization showed at one year about 287 000 women died most of them during and following pregnancy and childbirth in Africa and south Asia. This paper suggests mHealth system for serving pregnant women, that proposed system is first an effective mHealth system works base on mobile GIS to select adjacent care centre or hospital maternity on Google map

  6. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  7. Pregnant women’s knowledge, practices, and needs related to food safety and listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; Kelly, Meghan; Noël, Mélissandre; Brisdon, Shendra; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Gustafson, Larry; Galanis, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and needs of pregnant women regarding food safety, including the risk of listeriosis, in order to develop targeted messages and educational resources in British Columbia (BC). Design Qualitative study using focus groups and quantitative study using a standardized questionnaire. Setting Seven family practice clinics in BC. Focus groups were conducted in 3 program groups for new mothers. Participants Pregnant women and women who had recently delivered babies. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with women who had recently delivered. Qualitative analysis to identify common themes was conducted. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women at their health care providers’ (HCPs’) offices. Statistical analysis was done to assess associations between demographic features, knowledge, and practices. Results from both study methods were compared and common findings were presented. Main findings Participants reported that food safety and the risk of listeriosis were important to them during pregnancy; however, their knowledge of high-risk foods and safe food practices was limited. Although they identified their HCPs as a valuable source of information, they explained there were barriers to getting information from them. Participants reported doing their own research using books, websites, and social networks. They made recommendations to improve food safety messages, as well as the availability and format of resources. Conclusion Women in BC identified a gap between the information on food safety and listeriosis that they needed during pregnancy and the resources that were available. Using the information collected from this study, resources that are targeted at women of childbearing years, as well as their HCPs, are under development in BC. PMID:23064922

  8. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  9. Emotional state and dreams in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Fanara, Giusi; Settineri, Salvatore; Giacobbe, Annamaria; Pizzo, Alfonsa

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of recall and the content of dreams during pregnancy, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic, obstetric and physician-patients relationship variables, emotional state and duration of labour. A questionnaire, designed to analyse background characteristics, was given to 290 women in the third trimester of gestation. The psychiatric analysis of anxiety and depression was performed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, while dreams were divided into masochistic and pleasant according to Beck's criteria. Oneiric activity was found to be associated with age >or= 35 years, higher family income, higher educational level, and a "satisfactory" physician-patient relationship. Masochistic content was associated with age<35 years, quality of information and frequent thoughts of delivery. Concerning the emotional state, depression levels were higher in women reporting masochistic dreams, while no difference in anxiety levels was found. Labour duration was shorter in the dreamer group and in patients with masochistic dream content. These findings may indicate that, also in pregnancy, the number and the content of dreams are influenced by women's mood and that the evaluation of the oneiric activity might represent a useful tool for clinicians either to investigate the women's emotional state or to predict its repercussions on the course of labour. PMID:18708267

  10. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yogurt on Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zatollah Asemi; Shima Jazayeri; Mohammad Najafi; Mansoreh Samimi; Vahid Mofid; Farzad Shidfar; Hossein Shakeri; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the enhanced oxygen requirement of the mitochondria-rich placenta primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt on oxidative stress among Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was performed among 70 pregnant women, singleton

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chaaya; S. Jabbour; Z. El-Roueiheb; H. Chemaitelly

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, little is known about argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in the Arab world, despite emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of argileh smoking and well-established knowledge about the health risks of cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Objectives: The present study assesses pregnant Arab women's knowledge of chemical contents and related harmful effects

  12. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus genotypes in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Shimada, Takako; Miura, Shoko; Abe, Shuhei; Murakami, Makoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Fujishita, Akira; Kotera, Kouhei; Kinoshita, Akira; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the pre-vaccination epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and genotypes in pregnant Japanese women, we performed Pap smear tests and HPV genotype testing in patients attending Nagasaki University Hospital and collaborating hospitals from August 2007 to July 2010. Serial uterine cervical specimens were obtained from 151 pregnant women. The HPV test was positive on the first visit in 54 women (35.8%; 54/151, average age 30). A total of 49 women (32.5%; 49/151) were infected by at least one high-risk HPV and 5 women were infected by only low-risk HPV. The three most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 52 (31.5%; 17/54), HPV 16 (29.6%; 16/51) and HPV 31 (13.0%; 7/51). The HPV infection pattern (negative, single infection and multiple infection) differed significantly according to the pregnancy trimester (?(2)-test; P<0.01(Pearson)). Among HPV-infected pregnant Japanese women, HPV52 was the most common genotype. The second most common genotype was HPV16, and these two genotypes accounted for ?60% of HPV-positive pregnant women. Infection with multiple HPV genotypes was observed more frequently in the first trimester of pregnancy and the pattern of infection changed significantly depending on pregnancy stage. PMID:21307859

  13. I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV, women may be offered HIV testing. Women who accept testing will need to sign an HIV testing consent form. In areas with opt-out testing, HIV testing is automatically included as part of rou- tine prenatal care

  14. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  15. Extrinsic Barriers to Substance Abuse Treatment among Pregnant Drug Dependent Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha A. Jessup; Janice C. Humphreys; Claire D. Brindis; Kathryn A. Lee

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to examine extrinsic barriers to substance abuse treatment among pregnant and parenting women enrolled in residential perinatal substance abuse treatment programs in Northern California. Life history interviews were conducted with 36 women to examine help-seeking behaviors before treatment enrollment. Data analysis used the analytic framework of Mandelbaum (1973) to describe dimensions, turnings, and

  16. Colonization Rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Pregnant Women Using GBS Agar Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farnaz Fatemi; Leili Chamani-Tabriz; Parviz Pakzad; Hodjat Zeraati; Hodjatollah Rabbani; Soheila Asgari

    Group B streptococci (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae are members of the normal flora of the female genital tract. GBS normally colonizes the vagina in many women asymptomatically. During labor this organism may infect the newborn, leading to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women by a rapid and easy

  17. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  18. Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian non-pregnant women 20 to 49 years old. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rakic, L; Djokic, D; Drakulovic, MB; Pejic, A; Radojicic, Z; Marinkovic, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Representative national data of prevalence of anemia and casual factors are missing for population group of reproductive aged non-pregnant females in Serbia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence and grades of anemia and its association with risk factors among non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Serbia. Methods: Data were collected as part of the first “National Health Survey”, a cross-sectional, multistage cluster survey, conducted on 677 households in Serbia. A total of 708 females 20-49-year-old were recruited. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and reproductive data have been collected and hemoglobin levels were determined. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.7% (196/708) [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 24.5-31.1%], and more precisely mild (21.9%), moderate (5.1%) and severe (0.7%) anemia. Belgrade residential area [odds ratio 2.11 (95% CI 1.27-3.50), p=0.004], shortage of living space per person (<16m2) [2.18 (1.17-4.03), p=0.014], body mass index (<25) [1.55 (1.04-2.29), p=0.029], alcohol intake [0.52 (0.33-0.81), p=0.004], lack [2.48 (1.31-4.70), p=0.005] or fruit juice consumption 1-2 [2.76 (1.46-5.23), p=0.002] times a week and previously diagnosed, but treated [2.62 (1.29-5.35), p=0.008] or not treated [3.57 (1.71-7.45), p<0.001] anemia were independent predictors of low hemoglobin levels. Deficit of electricity supply and insufficient living space in households, increased risk of moderate anemia, while likelihood of being mild and moderately anemic, augmented with previously diagnosed but, treated or not treated anemia and lack or juice consumption 1-2 times a week. Conclusions: High prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women and its association to casual factors needs continuous monitoring and control efforts for anemia in Serbia. PMID:23935344

  19. Lactoferrin efficacy versus ferrous sulfate in curing iron disorders in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paesano, R; Berlutti, F; Pietropaoli, M; Goolsbee, W; Pacifici, E; Valenti, P

    2010-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in pregnancy compensates for increased iron requirements and in women of child-bearing age for iron loss in menses. Oral administration of ferrous sulfate, prescribed to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA), often fails to increase hematological parameters and causes adverse effects. Recently, we demonstrated safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in pregnant women suffering from ID/IDA. Two clinical trials were conducted on pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age suffering from ID/IDA. In both trials, women received oral administration of bLf 100 mg/twice/day (Arm A), or ferrous sulfate 520 mg/day (Arm B). Hematological parameters, serum IL-6 and prohepcidin were assayed before and after therapy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf increased hematological parameters (P less than 0.0001). In pregnant women, bLf decreased serum IL-6 (P less than 0.0001), and increased prohepcidin (P=0.0007). In non-pregnant women bLf did not change the low IL-6 levels while it increased prohepcidin (P less than 0.0001). Ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 (P less than 0.0001) and decreased prohepcidin (P=0.093). bLf established iron homeostasis by modulating serum IL-6 and prohepcidin synthesis, whereas ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 and failed to increase hematological parameters and prohepcidin. bLf is a more effective and safer alternative than ferrous sulfate for treating ID and IDA. PMID:20646353

  20. The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

    2014-10-01

    Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data. PMID:24914688

  1. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR?=?17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR?=?9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  2. Families at Risk: Home and Car Smoking Among Pregnant Women Attending a Low-Income, Urban Prenatal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Maria S.; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has been identified as a distinct risk factor for adverse obstetric and gynecological outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of SHSe reduction practices (i.e., home and car smoking bans) among pregnant women in a large U.S. prenatal clinic serving low-income women. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 820) attending a university-based, urban prenatal clinic in Houston, Texas, completed a prenatal questionnaire assessing bans on household and car smoking and a qualitative urine cotinine test as part of usual care. Data were collected from April 2011 to August 2012. Results: Nearly one-third (n = 257) of the sample reported at least 1 smoker living in the home. About a quarter of the women in the full sample did not have a total smoking ban in their home and car. Within smoking households, 44% of the pregnant women reported smoking, 56% reported smoking by another household member, and in 26% of smoking households both the pregnant woman and at least one other person were smoking. Only 43% of women with a household smoker reported a total ban on smoking, with higher rates among Hispanic women. Smoking bans were less common when the pregnant women smoked, when more than 1 smoker resided in the home, and when pregnant with her first child. Conclusions: SHSe among low-income pregnant women is high, and interventions to raise awareness and increase the establishment of smoking bans in homes and cars are warranted. PMID:24692668

  3. Giving cell phones to pregnant women and improving services may increase primary health facility utilization: a case–control study of a Nigerian project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, about 287 000 women die each year from mostly preventable complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The Abiye (‘Safe Motherhood’) project in the Ifedore Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo-State of Nigeria aimed at improving facility utilization and maternal health through the use of cell phones and generally improved health care services for pregnant women, including Health Rangers, renovated Health Centres, and improved means of transportation. Methods A one-year sample of retrospective data was collected from hospital records and patients’ case files from Ifedore (the project area) and Idanre (control area) and was analyzed to determine healthcare facility utilization rates in each location. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to generate supplemental data. Results The total facility utilization rate of pregnant women was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The facility utilization rate of the primary health care centres was significantly higher in Ifedore than in Idanre. The number of recorded cases of the five major causes of maternal death in the two LGAs was not significantly different, possibly because the project was new. Conclusions Giving cell phones to pregnant women and generally improving services could increase their utilization of the primary healthcare system. PMID:24438150

  4. Screening for group B Streptococcus in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taminato, Mônica; Fram, Dayana; Torloni, Maria Regina; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Saconato, Humberto; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is considered an important public health problem. It is associated with: Neonatal sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, neonatal death, septic abortion, chorioamnionitis, endometritis and other perinatal infections. The aim of this study was to determine the best screening strategy for GBS in pregnant women. For this a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in the Nursing Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, Cochrane Center, Brazil. Sources used were, EMBASE, LILACS, Medline, list of references, personal communication and the Cochrane library. The criterion for the selection of the studies was; studies which analyze some type of screening for GBS in pregnant women. Independent of the comparator, all analyses were in favor of a universal screening program for reducing the incidence of neonatal sepsis. The evidence obtained in this study suggests that the strategy of universal screening of pregnant women associated with the use of prophylactic antibiotics is safe and effective. PMID:22249684

  5. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  6. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

  7. Therapy Insight: drugs for gastrointestinal disorders in pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrashekhar Thukral; Jacqueline L Wolf

    2006-01-01

    The management and treatment of gastrointestinal ailments in pregnant women requires special attention and expertise, since the safety of the mother, fetus and neonate remains the primary focus. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is common, as is symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease. Peptic ulcer disease occurs less frequently and with fewer complications. Gastroenterologists and obstetricians should be familiar with safe treatment

  8. [Using phlebodia in pregnant women during preterm delivery].

    PubMed

    Milchev, N; Batashki, I; Markova, D; Dimitrova, E

    2008-01-01

    Phlebodia possess complex mechanism of action; except the venotonic one, it blocks the production of mediators of inflammation-prostaglandins and leukotriens; thus stops the uterine contractions and the preterm delivery. We use the tablet at pregnant women for preterm delivery. It was given one tablet a day /600 mg/ along with the tocolytic therapy. PMID:19227769

  9. Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Brooker; Peter J. Hotez; Donald A. P. Bundy

    2008-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesHookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women.

  10. Candida isolates from pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility in a Malaysian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Siti Norbaya; Noor, Sabariah Md; Nor, Lailatul Akmar Mat; Osman, Malina; Rahman, MM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of Candida spp in high vaginal swabs of pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility. Methods: High vaginal swab samples received from Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia during 2011 initially had microscopic examination, Gram-staining and fungal culture. These were finally confirmed by growth in chromogenic medium (CHROMagarCandida; Difco BBL, USA) and commercial biochemical identification kit (API 20C AUX; bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test method. Results: Out of 1163 specimens 200 (17.2%) candida spp were confirmed from high vaginal swabs of pregnant women. Candida albicans (83.5%) is the most common species detected followed by Candida glabrata (16%) and Candida famata (0.05%). All C. albicans and C.famata isolates were susceptible to fluconazole while C.glabrata isolates were dose dependent susceptibility. First and second trimester, and diabetes were considered significant factors in patients for the vaginal candidiasis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In pregnant women, C. albicans was the frequently isolated yeast from high vaginal swabs. Routine screening and treatment are important of pregnant women regardless of symptoms.

  11. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women. PMID:25642091

  12. Substance Use among Pregnant Women: The Report of the Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use among Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayye, Paul T.; Relos, Ruth

    This document contains a report from the North Carolina Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use Among Pregnant Women, a task force established to develop a long-range plan to decrease infant death and disability due to exposure to toxic substances in utero. The executive summary identifies four major problem areas which negatively affect…

  13. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  14. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H; Hauser, Russ; Duty, Susan; Angerer, Jürgen; Park, Melissa M; Burdorf, Alex; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Concern about potential health impacts of low-level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and 14 phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high-level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 n mol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 n mol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 microg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 microg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 microg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation. PMID:18774129

  15. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified perpetrator class. PMID:17654190

  16. Blood lead levels of pregnant women from the Klang Valley.

    PubMed

    Hisham, H J; Chuah, S Y; Syarif, H L; Nik Nasri, I; Fairulnizam, M N

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the blood lead levels of 97 pregnant women warded at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital, according to their ethnicity, residence and place of work. The lead content of venous blood samples was determined with a graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Blood lead levels of Klang Valley women seem to have decreased from 17.3 micrograms/dl in 1982 to 7.71 micrograms/dl in the present study most probably attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. This level is below the 10 micrograms/dl recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the public, even though 27.8% of them still have blood lead levels that are equal to or in excess of 10 micrograms/dl. The study shows that certain segments of the population such as Indians (geometric mean = 9.35 micrograms/dl) and housewives (geometric mean = 9.55 micrograms/dl) may still experience blood lead levels that are slightly elevated than the rest of the population. PMID:10968142

  17. Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155

  18. Hurricane Katrina Experience and the Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Mattison, Donald R; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Pridjian, Gabriella; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of disaster exposure and intensity on the development of mental disorders among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to Hurricane Katrina on mental health in pregnant women. Design Prospective cohort epidemiological study. Setting Tertiary hospitals in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, USA. Participants Women who were pregnant during Hurricane Katrina or became pregnant immediately after the hurricane. Main outcome measures Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results The frequency of PTSD was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (13.8%) than women without high hurricane exposure (1.3%), with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 16.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.6-106.6; after adjustment for maternal race, age, education, smoking and alcohol use, family income, parity, and other confounders. The frequency of depression was higher in women with high hurricane exposure (32.3%) than women without high hurricane exposure (12.3%), with aOR of 3.3 (1.6-7.1). Moreover, the risk of PTSD and depression increased with an increasing number of severe experiences of the hurricane. Conclusion Pregnant women who had severe hurricane experiences were at a significantly increased risk for PTSD and depression. This information should be useful for screening pregnant women who are at higher risk of developing mental disorders after disaster. PMID:20701175

  19. Effects of lifestyle factors on urinary oxidative stress and serum antioxidant markers in pregnant Japanese women: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Masayo; Haruna, Megumi; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Tokio; Shioji, Izuru; Sasaki, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major pathological role in pregnancy-related complications. Although oxidative stress is induced by exogenous toxins in association with a poor lifestyle in normal subjects, there is little information on the factors altering oxidative stress and antioxidant levels during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between lifestyle factors and oxidative stress/antioxidant levels during each trimester and 1-month postpartum. This prospective cohort study followed 54 healthy women through pregnancy; first, second, and third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Participants were administered a questionnaire on characteristics and lifestyle factors. Morning blood and urine samples were obtained to measure urinary biopyrrins and serum coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels. The levels of urinary biopyrrins and serum CoQ10 increased significantly throughout pregnancy, with peak values registered during the third trimester. Higher biopyrrin levels were significantly associated with non-consumption of morning meal during the first trimester, smoking during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum, alcohol consumption during the third trimester, high food-based polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during the third trimester, and poor mental health scores during the first and third trimesters. Higher CoQ10 levels were significantly associated with no smoking during pregnancy and at 1-month postpartum, and with a high frequency of exercise during the third trimester and 1-month postpartum. Thus, pregnancy represents a state of oxidative stress, which can be counterbalanced by increased levels of antioxidants, such as CoQ10. We speculate that certain lifestyle choices such as avoiding smoking can reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant levels during pregnancy. PMID:25030853

  20. Lost to follow-up among pregnant women in a multi-site community based maternal and newborn health registry: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important when conducting epidemiologic studies to closely monitor lost to follow up (LTFU) rates. A high LTFU rate may lead to incomplete study results which in turn can introduce bias to the trial or study, threatening the validity of the findings. There is scarce information on LTFU in prospective community-based perinatal epidemiological studies. This paper reports the rates of LTFU, describes socio-demographic characteristics, and pregnancy/delivery outcomes of mothers LTFU in a large community-based pregnancy registry study. Methods Data were from a prospective, population-based observational study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). This is a multi-centre, international study in which pregnant women were enrolled in mid-pregnancy, followed through parturition and 42 days post-delivery. Risk for LTFU was calculated within a 95%CI. Results A total of 282,626 subjects were enrolled in this study, of which 4,893 were lost to follow-up. Overall, there was a 1.7% LTFU to follow up rate. Factors associated with a higher LTFU included mothers who did not know their last menstrual period (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4), maternal age of < 20 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), women with no formal education (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and attending a government clinic for antenatal care (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.8). Post-natal factors associated with a higher LTFU rate included a newborn with feeding problems (RR 1.6, 94% CI 1.2, 2.2). Conclusions The LTFU rate in this community-based registry was low (1.7%). Maternal age, maternal level of education, pregnancy status at enrollment and using a government facility for ANC are factors associated with being LTFU. Strategies to ensure representation and high retention in community studies are important to informing progress toward public health goals. Trial registration Registration at the Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475). PMID:26062899

  1. The comprehensive management of pregnant women with major mood disorders: a case study involving phenelzine, lithium, and quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Thinh; Kohan, Rolland; De Felice, Nick; Rampono, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Pregnancy in women with severe mental illness (SMI) often bring added dimensions of complexity; considering that this group of women are choosing to have children at increasing rates, more highly complex cases will require management. A 31-year-old primigravida with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder was treated with an antidepressant, mood stabiliser and antipsychotic. This case discusses preconception counselling, pregnancy and labour management that resulted in the delivery of a 4,200 g baby at 39 weeks by emergency caesarian section. This case highlights the collaborative approach to care that is needed in this group of women and the need for increasing awareness and knowledge in health professionals. It follows the management from preconception through to the postpartum period. PMID:24196828

  2. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate future effects of preventable, toxin-induced developmental issues. Prenatal advising should discourage the consumption of dangerous foods, beverages, and medications that women commonly report eating during pregnancy. PMID:23815874

  3. Hot yoga establishments in local communities serving pregnant women: a pilot study on the health implications of its practice and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D

    2014-10-01

    Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice. PMID:25603649

  4. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant Sudanese women with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Saad, Alfarazdeg A; Mohamed, Omar E; Ali, Abdelaziem A; Bashir, Ahmed M; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, Ishag

    2012-09-01

    A case-control study was carried out in Kassala and Medani Maternity Hospitals in Sudan to investigate acute-phase proteins [haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and albumin] in three groups of pregnant women (32 in each arm) comprising those with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria or uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. Whilst there was no significant difference in the levels of albumin and haptoglobin, ferritin and CRP levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with severe P. falciparum malaria. There were significant positive correlations between parasite count and haptoglobin, and medium positive correlations between parasite count and CRP. PMID:22818740

  5. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-09-01

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt. PMID:25343469

  6. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Anna M.; Hauff, Samantha J.; Tang, Alice L.; Thomas, Dafydd H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Walline, Heather M.; Stoerker, Jay; Maxwell, Jessica H.; Worden, Francis P.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Papagerakis, Silvana M.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Bradford, Carol R.; Hanauer, David A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate oral cancer in pregnant women, a rare but therapeutically challenging patient subset. Methods After IRB approval, an EMERSE search was used to identify all women treated at the University of Michigan from 1998–2010 with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) during pregnancy. This identified four patients with tongue cancer. Biomarkers and HPV were assessed by immunohistochemistry and multiplex PCR/Mass spectrometry, respectively. Results Two patients responded well to therapy and are alive more than 10 years after diagnosis; two died of disease. All tumors overexpressed EGFR and Bcl-xL, three of four overexpressed c-Met, both tumors that progressed overexpressed p53. All tumors were negative for HPV, p16, ER, PR, and HER-2. Conclusions Biomarkers of aggressive tumors (high EGFR, Bcl-xL, c-Met; low p53) did not correlate with outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine whether perineural invasion, delay in diagnosis, and p53 overexpression are factors related to poorer survival. PMID:22422571

  7. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ? the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23883688

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

  9. Predictors of use and consumption of public drinking water among pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulla M Forssén; Amy H Herring; David A Savitz; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen; Patricia A Murphy; Philip C Singer; J Michael Wright

    2007-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the results from previous epidemiological studies are not consistent, perhaps in part due to individual variation in water use and consumption. This study was performed to evaluate and describe demographic and behavioral characteristics as predictors of ingested water, showering, bathing, and swimming among pregnant women. Water

  10. Efficacy and safety of telbivudine treatment: an open-label, prospective study in pregnant women for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Han, G-R; Jiang, H-X; Yue, X; Ding, Y; Wang, C-M; Wang, G-J; Yang, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine (LdT, 600 mg/day) vs control patients (no treatment) in decreasing vertical transmission of HBV, in HBeAg-positive mothers (HBVDNA >6log10  copies/mL). HBeAg-positive pregnant women either in the second or third trimester were recruited in a prospective, case-control, open-label study, at the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University, China (February 2008-December 2010). Efficacy (month 7: HBVDNA (+), HBsAg (+) infants) in either the overall group or the treated group and control group was analysed using student's t-test. Infants were followed for at least 1 year. 362 women received LdT (second trimester n = 257; third trimester n = 105) and 92 were untreated. Before delivery, the mean maternal HBVDNA was 2.73, 2.47, 3.34 and 7.94 log10  copies/mL in the overall, second and third trimester treated and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). At birth, 11.8% of babies overall (43/365), 13.5% (35/259) of those treated in the second trimester, 7.5% of those treated in the third trimester (8/106) and 20.7% (19/92) of untreated infants were HBsAg positive. At month 7, none of the LdT-treated infant had detectable HBVDNA, while eight infants from control mothers were HBsAg positive. Vertical transmission was 0% in LdT treated and 9.3% (8/86) in the control groups (P < 0.001). No difference in the vertical transmission rate was found in mothers treated in the second or third trimester. LdT treatment was safe for mothers and infants, and no congenital deformities were reported. PMID:25641421

  11. Dietary patterns and maternal anthropometry in HIV-infected, pregnant Malawian women.

    PubMed

    Ramlal, Roshan T; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda; Ban Study Team

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  12. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the health of mothers and babies. Authors’ conclusions The evidence from the limited number of studies suggests that psychological and educational interventions may result in increased abstinence from alcohol, and a reduction in alcohol consumption among pregnant women. However, results were not consistent, and the paucity of studies, the number of total participants, the high risk of bias of some of the studies, and the complexity of interventions limits our ability to determine the type of intervention which would be most effective in increasing abstinence from, or reducing the consumption of, alcohol among pregnant women. PMID:19370597

  13. An Exploration of Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Pregnant Low-income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn E. Dailey; Janice C. Humphreys; Sally H. Rankin; Kathryn A. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of lifetime trauma exposure in relation to perinatal health outcomes\\u000a in low-income African American women. Methods One hundred and sixteen pregnant African American women recruited from two public prenatal clinics participated in this exploratory\\u000a study. Information was obtained about psychological symptoms, medical conditions, prenatal care utilization, and health behaviors.

  14. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ahmed, Sabeena; Ram, Malathi; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Haq, M. Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory; Norris, Douglas E.; Shields, Timothy; Sack, David A.; Sullivan, David J.; Nyunt, Myaing M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. Methods A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010–2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. Conclusion Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution of asymptomatic malaria, without temporal and spatial clustering, may have critical implications for malaria elimination strategies. PMID:24858193

  15. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-09-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use. PMID:25205417

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175?ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

  17. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  18. Kinetics of CMV seroconversion in a Swiss pregnant women population.

    PubMed

    Maine, Gregory T; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto

    2012-07-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroconversion with CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays, in a Swiss pregnant women population, has shown that the current published CMV serologic diagnostic algorithms were valid and fit for use. In 19% of the cases analyzed, CMV-specific IgM was detected before IgG. PMID:22541330

  19. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25644204

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-03-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF ? and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (?30 ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (?19 ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2 ± 0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34 ± 0.01) and sufficient (0.45 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)± SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63 ± 0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05 ± 0.04) and sufficient (1.75 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%) ± SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35 ± 0.02; 1.65 ± 0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22 ± 0.02; 0.55 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.15 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)± SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41 ± 0.02; 1.2 ± 0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32 ± 0.01; 0.6 ± 0.05) and sufficient (0.2 ± 0.01; 0.4 ± 0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF ? and IL-10 were lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 insufficient and deficient subjects. In the placenta tissue of women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency, the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid receptor (RXR) expressions were downregulated. In contrast, CD23, CD21 and VDBP expressions were upregulated in 25(OH)D3 deficient and insufficient women. Vitamin D regulating enzymes (CYP24A1, CYP2R1 and CYP27B1) expression were also altered in women with 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The current study shows that impaired maternal 25(OH)D3 during pregnancy influences the spectrum of immune cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells with IgE receptors and this in turn may be linked to allergy and asthma in neonates. PMID:25448751

  1. Clinical needs of in-treatment pregnant women with co-occurring disorders: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders. PMID:24770992

  2. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  3. Clinical algorithms for the screening of pregnant women for STDs in Libreville, Gabon: which alternatives?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bourgeois; D. Henzel; G. Malonga-Mouelet; G. Dibanga; C. Tsobou; M. Peeters; E. Delaporte

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain one of the major public health problems in the developing world. To implement a systematic screening of STDs among pregnant women in Libreville, Gabon, a preliminary cross sectional study on STD prevalence and risk factors was performed in antenatal clinics. A score, integrating risk factors and elementary clinical signs for the screening of STDs,

  4. A Meta-Evaluation of Nutrition Education Intervention Research among Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Neal Richard, Jr.; Windsor, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    Meta-analysis of five studies advocating nutrition education for pregnant women led to recommendations for research: (1) define nutrition education to aid replication; (2) describe the intervention thoroughly; (3) use experimental designs; (4) collect follow-up data; and (5) describe baseline demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of…

  5. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Davis; D. S. Hawkins; L. P. Rubin; J. T. Posillico; E. M. Brown; I. Schiff

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH

  6. Changes in leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte counts following antenatal betamethasone administration to pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kadanali; M. Ingeç; T. Küçüközkan; B. Börekçi; Y. Kumtepe

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes are associated with a mild leukocytosis. However, we have observed a higher maternal leukocyte count after antenatal betamethasone therapy. We planned this study to evaluate the effects of antenatal betamethasone treatment on maternal leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte count. Methods: Forty-six pregnant women with the diagnosis of preterm labor between 28 and 33

  7. Buprenorphine treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women: maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolley E Johnson; Hendrée E Jones; Donald R Jasinski; Dace S Svikis; Nancy A Haug; Lauren M Jansson; Wendy B Kissin; Gad Alpan; Michael E Lantz; Edward J Cone; Diana G Wilkins; Archie S Golden; George R Huggins; Barry M Lester

    2001-01-01

    This open-label prospective study examined maternal and neonatal safety and efficacy outcome measures during and following prenatal buprenorphine exposure. Three opioid-dependent pregnant women received 8 or 12 mg sublingual buprenorphine tablets daily for 15–16 weeks prior to delivery. Results showed that buprenorphine in combination with comprehensive prenatal care was safe and effective in these women. Prenatal exposure to buprenorphine resulted

  8. Perceptions of Guided Imagery for Stress Management in Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. PMID:26165981

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Administration of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) Versus Tetanus and Reduced Diphtheria (Td) in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maha M. Salama; Osama A. W. Hady; Wael Ashour; Amal Mostafa; Sahar El Alkamy; Nehad El Sayed; Remon Abu El Yazeed

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  The present study was designed as a randomized clinical trial to compare the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and efficacy\\u000a of tetanus toxoid (TT) and the combined tetanus and reduced diphtheria (Td) in pregnant women in four rural communities in\\u000a Egypt. The pregnant women in each four villages received either TT or Td randomly. Both TT and Td vaccines are manufactured\\u000a by the

  10. Comparison of Pregnancy-Specific Interventions to a Traditional Treatment Program for Cocaine-Addicted Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea Weisdorf; Theodore V. Parran; Antonnette Graham; Clint Snyder

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use in pregnancy is a significant concern. There is a paucity of treatment programs for substance-abusing pregnant women, especially if indigent. Futhermore, treatment retention is compromised when the drug of choice is crack-cocaine. This paper reports the results of a study comparing treatment retention of cocaine-abusing indigent pregnant women before and after incorporating pregnancy-specific interventions. Audits were

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Chiang; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shu; Huang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Ku, Ming-Kun; Hung, Hsin-Chia

    2008-01-01

    Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to evaluate the effect of hepatitis vaccination program on women of child-bearing age and further explored the potential impact of immigration on the hepatitis B public health policy in Taiwan. Methods Data was collected from 10,327 women born in Taiwan and 1,418 women born in other Southeast Asian countries, both groups receiving prenatal examinations at Fooyin University Hospital between 1996 and 2005. The results of serum hepatitis B s-Antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg) tests and other demographic data were obtained by medical chart review. Results The pregnant women from Taiwan had a higher HBsAg positive rate (15.5%) but lower HBeAg(+)/HBsAg(+) ratio (32.1%) than the women from other countries (8.9% and 52.4%). For those born before July, 1984, the period of no national vaccination program, Taiwanese women had a higher HBsAg positive rate than other Southeast Asian women (15.7% vs. 8.4%), but for women born after that day and before June 1986, the period of vaccination for high risk newborns, the HBsAg positive rates found to be slightly lower for Taiwanese women than for other Southeast Asian women (11.4% vs. 12.3%) and the difference was more significant (3.1% vs. 28.6%) after June 1986, the period of vaccination for all newborns. While the HBeAg(+)/HBsAg(+) ratios decreased with age in both groups, they were consistently higher in women from other Southeast Asian countries than in women born in Taiwan after age 20. Conclusion In Taiwan, the neonatal vaccination program that was implemented in 1984 has successfully reduced hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in present day, and is likely to indirectly prevent hepatitis B infection in the next generation. However, the increasing number of pregnant women from other Southeast Asian countries without a national neonatal vaccination program or with a program that was introduced later than the one in Taiwan will likely lessen the positive impact of this program and should be further assessed. PMID:18254978

  12. Metabolic signature of pregnant women with neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoying; Su, Mingming; Pei, Lijun; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Xu; Qiu, Yunping; Xia, Hongfei; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Gu, Xue; Song, Xinming; Li, Xin; Qi, Xin; Chen, Gong; Bao, Yihua; Chen, Tianlu; Chi, Yi; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common types of birth defects, affecting approximately 1 of every 1000 pregnancies in the United States and an estimated 300?000 newborns worldwide each year. The metabolic signature of pregnant women with NTDs in offspring has not previously been characterized. In this paper, we report a profiling study that characterized the serum metabolome of 101 pregnant women affected with NTDs in offspring in comparison with 143 pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcomes in Lvliang prefecture, the area with the highest birth prevalence of NTDs in China. A serum metabonomic study was also conducted to identify significantly altered metabolites associated with di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced teratogenesis in mice. The metabolic signature of NTD in pregnant women is characterized by the impaired mitochondrial respiration, neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid, and methionine cycle. Of interest, consistent findings from DBP-induced teratogenesis in mice demonstrated increased succinate and decreased fumarate, suggesting an inhibited succinic dehydrogenase implicated in the defective mitochondria. The characteristic disruption of maternal metabolism offers important insights into metabolic mechanisms underlying human NTDs as well as potential preventive strategies. PMID:21902205

  13. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  14. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  15. Endogenous and Uric Acid-Induced Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Mariana Leticia; Romão, Mariana; Weel, Ingrid Cristina; Ribeiro, Vanessa Rocha; Nunes, Priscila Rezeck; Borges, Vera Therezinha; Araújo, João Pessoa; Peraçoli, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Leandro; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a specific syndrome of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. This pathology is associated with hyperuricemia and elevated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Uric acid crystals may activate an intracellular complex called inflammasome, which is important for processing and release of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the state of monocyte activation, both endogenous and stimulated with monosodium urate (MSU), by gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors as well as their association with inflammatory cytokines expression. Monocytes were obtained from peripheral blood of 23 preeclamptic pregnant women, 23 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 23 healthy non-pregnant women (NP). Inflammasome activation was evaluated by the gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? by RT-qPCR in unstimulated monocytes (endogenous expression), or after cell stimulation with MSU (stimulated expression). The concentration of cytokines was assessed by ELISA. In preeclamptic pregnant women, gene expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1? and TNF-? by monocytes stimulated or not with MSU was significantly higher than in NT and NP groups. Stimulation of monocytes from preeclamptic and non-pregnant women with MSU induced increased gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and TNF-? in relation to the endogenous expression in these groups, while this was not observed in the NT group. The cytokine determination showed that monocytes from women with PE produced higher endogenous levels of IL-1?, IL-18 and TNF-? compared to the other groups, while the stimulus with MSU led to higher production of these cytokines in preeclamptic group than in the NT group. In conclusion, the results showed increased basal gene expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 receptors in monocytes from PE group. These cells stimulation with MSU demonstrates that uric acid plays a role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting the participation of this inflammatory complex in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26053021

  16. Mixed infections with distinct cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotypes in Polish pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns.

    PubMed

    Rycel, M; Wujcicka, W; Zawili?ska, B; Paradowska, E; Suski, P; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J; Le?nikowski, Z; Nowakowska, D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe a distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) single and multiple genotypes among infected pregnant women, their fetuses, and newborns coming from Central Poland, as well as congenital cytomegaly outcome. The study involved 278 CMV-seropositive pregnant women, of whom 192 were tested for viral DNAemia. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotyping was performed for 18 of 34 pregnant women carrying the viral DNA and for 12 of their 15 offspring with confirmed HCMV infections. Anti-HCMV antibodies levels were assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) tests. Viral DNA loads and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the UL55 gene. In the pregnant women, we identified HCMV gB1, gB2, gB3, and gB4 genotypes. Single gB2, gB3, or gB4 genotypes were observed in 14 (77.8 %) women, while multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes were observed in four (22.2 %). Maternal HCMV genotypes determined the genotypes identified in their fetuses and newborns (p???0.050). Half of them were infected with single HCMV gB1, gB2, or gB3 genotypes and the other half with multiple gB1-gB2 or gB2-gB3 genotypes. Single and multiple genotypes were observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic congenital cytomegaly, although no gB3 genotype was identified among asymptomatic cases. In Central Poland, infections with single and multiple HCMV strains occur in pregnant women, as well as in their fetuses and neonates, with both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. HCMV infections identified in mothers seem to be associated with the viral genotypes in their children. PMID:25348608

  17. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yue; Dibley, Michael J; Zhang, Xueli; Zeng, Lingxia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97%) and zinc (91%). Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:19589154

  18. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates). PMID:19394271

  19. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  20. Basal and postprandial gut peptides affecting food intake in lean and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sodowski, K; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Kuka, D; Kukla, M; Budziszewska, P; Czuba, B; W?och, A; Cnota, W; Biela?ski, W; Brzozowski, T; Rehfeld, J F; Zdun, R; Konturek, P C

    2007-03-01

    Maternal obesity has been reported as a risk factor for various maternal and fetal complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of certain gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), cholecystokinin (CCK), insulin and glucose in pregnant women with varying body mass gain during physiological pregnancy. The study included 34 women with singleton pregnancies in the 2(nd) trimester of gestation. The examined pregnant women were divided into 4 groups; I. control pregnancy (CP) with weight gain below 0.5 kg/week; II. overweight low weight gain <1 kg/week (OLWG), III. overweight high weight gain >1 kg/week (OHWG); morbidly obese pregnant with weight gain >1.5 kg/week (MOP). The basal acylated-ghrelin levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and no usual suppression of acylated ghrelin after the meal observed in CP as well as in OLWG and OHWG was found in MOP women. Basal PYY(3-36) plasma levels were similar in CP, OLWG and OHWG but in MOP was significantly reduced and no significant increase in hormone level, typically observed in CP, was detected after a meal in overweight or obese women studied. The fasting CCK and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in MOP subjects were significantly higher than those in CP and other overweight women. In conclusion, we found that pregnant women with overweight and obesity exhibit significant changes in fasting and postprandial gut hormones affecting food intake such as acylated ghrelin, PYY(3-36) and CCK as well as in CRP and these changes might contribute, at least in part, the development of obesity in pregnancy. PMID:17443026

  1. Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

  2. Magnetic resonance enterography in pregnant women with Crohn’s disease: case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were performed between January 2007 and November 2012. Imaging findings, clinical management and outcome were extracted from patient’s file and electronic records. Image quality was evaluated. Results Ten studies of 9 patients were included. MRE protocol was modified to maximize maternal and fetal safety, and intravenous gadolinium was not used. In 7 patients, CD diagnosis was previously established; six were admitted with clinical symptoms consistent with CD exacerbation, and an additional patient with a recurrent groin abscess without apparent luminal symptoms. In all seven patients, imaging features consistent with active CD were detected; new penetrating complications were detected in 4 patients. Two patients underwent MRE for suspected CD which was not comforted by study results. The clinical management was significantly impacted by MRE results in all positive cases. The image quality of the fast MRE sequences obtained without gadolinium was satisfactory and allowed meaningful interpretation. Conclusion MRE with an adapted protocol for pregnancy is a reliable imaging modality to manage in pregnant women with known or suspected CD. PMID:25129422

  3. A Review of Recent Findings on Substance Abuse Treatment for Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Embry M. Howell; Nancy Heiser; Mary Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Recent years have brought an increased interest in the treatment needs of pregnant substance abusers. This article reviews the literature on this subject, providing an overview of what is known about the prevalence of substance abuse during pregnancy; the factors in women’s lives, especially pregnant women, that lead to substance abuse and that facilitate and impede treatment success; and the

  4. Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole. PMID:24646407

  5. [Mental disorders in a sample of pregnant women receiving primary health care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Michele Scortegagna de; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Camey, Suzi; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders diagnosed during pregnancy and related sociodemographic causative factors among 712 women between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy receiving prenatal care in 18 basic health units in Porto Alegre and Bento Gonçalves in southern Brazil. PRIME-MD was used to assess mental disorders. The prevalence of probable mental disorder occurred in 41.7% of the women. The most prevalent diagnosis was major depressive disorder (21.6%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (19.8%). A multivariate analysis showed that the factors most significantly associated with a probable psychiatric disorder were: the fact that the pregnant woman did not work or study: PR = 1.25 (95%CI: 1.04-1.51);the fact that the pregnant woman did not live with her spouse: PR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52);the fact that the pregnant woman had two or more children: PR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.01-1.46). A high prevalence of probable mental disorder was observed. The increased search for health care by pregnant women provides an opportunity for screening, diagnosing and treating these disorders under the primary health care system. PMID:22331164

  6. Committee opinion: no. 563: ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant women traditionally have been assigned priority in the allocation of prevention and treatment resources during outbreaks of influenza because of their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explores ethical justifications for assigning priority for prevention and treatment resources to pregnant women during an influenza pandemic, makes recommendations to incorporate ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women, and calls for pandemic preparedness efforts to include clinical research specifically designed to address safety and efficacy of treatment interventions or prevention strategies used by pregnant women. PMID:23635767

  7. Examining the Validity and Reliability of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale in a Population of Pregnant Australian Women.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sally; Davis, Deborah; Browne, Jenny; Taylor, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Antonovsky's Orientation to Life questionnaires were developed to measure sense of coherence (SOC). Although the SOC 13 instrument is widely used to measure health in general populations, it has not been assessed in pregnant women. If the SOC 13 is to be used to assess women's childbearing health, it requires further examination. The purpose of the research is to assess the psychometric properties of Antonovsky's SOC 13 questionnaire in pregnant women. When administered to 718 pregnant Australian women, the construct validity of the SOC 13 was difficult to establish. The SOC 9 was created by removing 4 items and provided best data fit. The SOC 13 and SOC 9 were found to have sound criterion validity, internal reliability, and equivalence between versions. It is hoped that the present study will stimulate additional research on SOC scales to examine their ability to assess women's childbearing health. PMID:25825376

  8. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Osime, Odaburhine E.; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U.; Kolade, Samson O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). Results: The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control subjects (PFC 3.46±0.12g/l and ELT 267±9.0mins). The PCV or hematocrit values in the test subject was 29.1±0.38%, which was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with the control subject (31.3±0.43%). The PV in the test subject was 1.76±0.02 mPa/s, while the control subjects was higher (1.73±0.02 mPa/s). This increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Conclusion: Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia. PMID:25719585

  9. Estimated Incidence and Genotypes of HIV-1 among Pregnant Women in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Zelma Bernardes; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araujo; de Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Borges, Walter Costa; Filho, Clidenor Gomes; Filho, Jose Vicente Macedo; Minuzzi, Ana Lucia; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection among pregnant women from central-western Brazil. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 54,139 pregnant women received antenatal HIV screening from a network of public healthcare centers in 2011. The incidence of confirmed HIV-1 infection was estimated using the Serological Testing Algorithms for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) methodology and BED-capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The yearly incidence was calculated, and adjusted incidence rates were estimated. For a subgroup of patients, protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after performing a nested polymerase chain reaction. Results Of the participants, 20% had a pregnancy before the age of 18 and approximately 40% were experiencing their first pregnancy. Of the 54,139 pregnant women screened, 86 had a confirmed HIV-1 diagnosis, yielding an overall prevalence of 1.59 cases per 1000 women (95% CI 1.27–1.96). A higher prevalence was detected in the older age groups, reflecting cumulative exposure to the virus over time. Among the infected pregnant women, 20% were considered recently infected according to the BED-CEIA. The estimated incidence of HIV infection was 0.61 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.33-0.89); the corrected incidence was 0.47 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.26-0.68). In a subgroup of patients, HIV-1 subtype C (16.7%) was the second most prevalent form after subtype B (66.7%); BF1 recombinants (11.1%) and one case of subtype F1 (5.5%) were also detected. Conclusion This study highlights the potential for deriving incidence estimates from a large antenatal screening program for HIV. The rate of recent HIV-1 infection among women in their early reproductive years is a public health warning to implement preventive measures. PMID:24223904

  10. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme Impact in Pregnant Women and Status of Universal Salt Iodization

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, AK; Tripathi, S; Gandhi, NK; Singh, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies pertaining to current status of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme in India have revealed goiter prevalence in the range of 1.5–44.5%, mean urinary iodine excretion level ranging from 92.5–160 mcg/L and iodized salt coverage ranging from 37–62.3%. Most of these studies were based on school children. However, very few studies have focused on pregnant women. This population is very sensitive to marginalized iodine deficiency throughout their gestational period. Methods: This 40 cluster cross sectional study was done in Raipur district. Iodine content of salt was estimated by using “Rapid Salt Testing Kits” along with observing salt storage practices, at household and in shops. Pregnant women were interviewed by using semi structured comprehensive questionnaire, which was based on knowledge attitude, and practices about salt use pattern and awareness about IDDCP, UIE level were also estimated. Results: Prevalence of goiter was 0.17%. Many (41.12%) pregnant women had <15ppm iodine content in the salt sample and 51.58% of women had subnormal iodine uptake. Wrong salt storage practice was observed in 36.3% of households. Conclusions: There were lacunae in Iodine deficiency control program in Chhattisgarh. Implementation and monitoring of program was weak. Thus for monitoring purpose IDD Cell & IDD Laboratory should be established at district level. This will lead to periodic assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, by monitoring of Iodine intake and all other preventive, promotive as well as curative measures in the state. PMID:23113082

  11. Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís, Brazil. Methods Data regarding 982 pregnant women, aged from 14 to 45 years, interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in a prenatal cohort were used. A self-applied questionnaire was used to screen for violence. Pregnant women submitted to physical and sexual violence were excluded from the analysis of factors associated with exclusive psychological violence. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by a Poisson regression model with a hierarchical approach at three levels. At level 1 of the theoretical-conceptual model, we analyzed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and variables that express gender inequalities; at level 2, we analyzed social support received by the women, and at level 3, the life experiences of the pregnant women. Results Prevalence rate of exclusive psychological violence was 41.6% and of recurrent violence was 32.6%. Exclusive psychological violence was associated with pregnant women’s age of 14 to 18 years (PR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.70), pregnant women’s schooling superior to that of her intimate partner (PR: 1.54 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.16), inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.34 95% CI: 1.11 – 1.62), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 1.80 95% CI: 1.16 – 2.81) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.52 95% CI: 1.18 – 1.96). Recurrent exclusive psychological violence was associated with inadequate social affective support/positive social interaction (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.87), use of illicit drugs by the pregnant women (PR: 2,28 95% CI: 1,40 - 3,71) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.06 – 2.03). Conclusions Psychological violence was a common phenomenon in this population of pregnant women that was associated with gender inequalities, inadequate social support and illicit drug use and should be routinely investigated during prenatal visits at health care services. PMID:24521235

  12. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

  13. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease. PMID:18378182

  14. Pregnant women’s cortisol is elevated with anxiety and depression — but only when comorbid

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Lynn M.; Myers, Michael M.; Monk, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cortisol during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes and may alter fetal development and subsequent adult health. Numerous studies link elevated cortisol to depression and anxiety, but only a few have examined these relationships during pregnancy and in response to laboratory stressors. No studies have investigated the impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on cortisol during pregnancy. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice before and once after a set of computer-based tasks (Stroop color-word matching task and either mental arithmetic or a controlled breathing task) from 180 pregnant women at approximately 36 weeks gestation. Based on psychiatric diagnoses, four groups of women were compared: 121 control, 16 depression, 34 anxiety, and 9 comorbid. Women also completed symptom and stress self-report scales. There was a significant main effect for maternal diagnosis on cortisol levels. Post hoc comparisons showed that comorbid subjects had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls, but subjects with only one diagnosis did not. Similar to cortisol, the comorbid subjects also had higher ratings on pregnancy-specific distress. Comorbidity during pregnancy, versus depression or an anxiety disorder alone, is uniquely associated with elevated cortisol and a negative evaluation of pregnancy. The potential impact of this combined psychiatric diagnosis on fetal development and future adult health needs further investigation. PMID:18493710

  15. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GARCIA GIL; M. C. RODRIGUEZ; R. BARTOLOME; B. BERJANO; L. CABERO; A. ANDREU

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the

  16. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  17. Care From Family Physicians Reported by Pregnant Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Fontaine, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We describe the proportion of family physicians providing care of any sort to pregnant women in the United States from 2000 to 2009. METHODS We used a repeat, cross-sectional design with data from the nationally representative Integrated Health Interview Series (2000–2009) for respondents who reported being pregnant at the time of the survey (N = 3,204). Using multivariate logistic regression, we modeled changes over time in pregnant women’s reports of care from family physicians. We used interaction terms to test for regional differences in trends. RESULTS Approximately one-third of pregnant women reported having seen or talked to a family physician for medical care during the prior year, a percentage that remained stable for the period of 2000 to 2009 (adjusted odds ratio for annual change = 1.006). Most pregnant women reported care from multiple types of clinicians, including family physicians, obstetrician-gynecologists, midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. There were regional differences in trends in family physician care; pregnant women in the North Central United States increasingly reported care from family physicians, whereas women in the South reported a decline (6.7% annual increase vs 4.7% annual decrease, P ?.001). CONCLUSIONS Trends in family medicine care for pregnant women have remained steady for the nation as a whole, but they differ by region of the United States. Most pregnant women reported care from multiple clinicians, highlighting the importance of care coordination for this patient population. PMID:23835821

  18. Increased neopterin level and chitotriosidase activity in pregnant women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Keskin, U?ur; Ulubay, Mustafa; Kurt, Yasemin Gülcan; Fidan, Ula?; Koçyi?it, Yahya Kemal; Honca, Tevfik; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Ergün, Ali

    2014-07-28

    Abstract Objectives: To determine whether the cellular inflammatory markers of activated macrophages, neopterin (NEO), chitotriosidase activity and the acute-phase inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated in pregnancy with threatened preterm labor (TPL). Methods: Thirty-two pregnant women with TPL and 32 women with uncomplicated pregnancy (UP) were included this study. The primary aim was to compare the NEO, chitotriosidase activity and CRP levels between women with TPL and women with UP. Results: NEO levels were all significantly elevated in patients with TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 9.61 [8.47-12.29] versus 4.46 [3.59-6.92], respectively; p?pregnant women with TPL compared to UP (median 25-75%; 59.00 [38.00-87.25] versus 43.50 [23.25-65.25], respectively; p?=?0.036). However, CRP levels were not different in women with TPL compared to UP (p?=?0.573). Furthermore, a significant moderate negative correlation was found between delivery week and NEO level (r?=?-0.557, p?=?0.001). However, a significant correlation was not seen between delivery week and chitotriosidase activity (r?=?-0.042, p?=?0.741). Conclusions: Inflammatory markers such as NEO and chitotriosidase activity, which are markers of macrophages, are more elevated in pregnant women with TPL than in women with UP. These data suggest that there are striking increases in inflammation and cellular immune activation in TPL. PMID:25005858

  19. Characteristics and treatment needs of sexually abused pregnant women in drug rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Daley; Milton Argeriou

    1997-01-01

    Four hundred forty-seven Medicaid-eligible pregnant chemically dependent women were interviewed during their stay in publicly funded detoxification centers in Massachusetts. One hundred eightyfour women (41%) reported sexual abuse during their lifetime. Sexually abused women differed significantly from women who had not been abused, on a variety of psychological, social, and medical problems indicators. Sexually abused women appear to constitute a

  20. Many Pregnant Women Think E-Cigarettes 'Safer' Than Regular Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152294.html Many Pregnant Women Think E-Cigarettes 'Safer' Than Regular Cigarettes But expectant moms shouldn' ... only 57 percent of the women believed that e-cigarettes contain nicotine. And fewer than two-thirds of ...

  1. Assessment of Burden of Depression During Pregnancy Among Pregnant Women Residing in Rural Setting of Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Nivetha; Murthy, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression during perinatal period leads to adverse pregnancy outcome and of child growth. Our study aimed to examine the burden of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women living in rural settings of Chennai, a southern state of India. Materials and Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural settings of Chennai, one of the Southern States of India during August through September 2013. Hundred pregnant women who agreed to participate were enrolled in this study. Edinburg postnatal depression scale was used to assess the depression level of the study participants. Information was also gathered about socio-demographics, obstetric and disease history, social support and marital satisfaction was gathered. Descriptive analysis was performed using univariate statistics to report means and standard deviations for the continuous variables and frequency distribution for the categorical variables. Results Majority of the participants (65%) had scored 13 or higher on the Edinburg Depression Scale reflecting high likelihood of depression. Majority of the participants (66%) had been bothered due to low feeling, depressed or hopelessness during the previous month. Enriched marital satisfaction scale (p=.025) had shown significant association with Edinburg depression scale. Conclusion Pregnancy is very crucial period not only for mother but whole family. This study has shown very high frequency of depression among the participants. There is a need for a longitudinal study to design interventions that can address emerging burden of antenatal depression among pregnant women living in rural settings. PMID:26023573

  2. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (p< 0.05). Fasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

  3. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  4. Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruk; Mahmuda, Ismat; Sattar, Abeda; Akhtaruzzaman, Md

    2003-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in a poor urban population of Bangladesh. It also examined the association of various socio-economic and dietary factors with anaemia and vitamin A status. A maternal and child health clinic in Dhaka city, Bangladesh was used to obtain the sample. Three hundred and eighty three pregnant women, aged 20-30 years, of 20-30 weeks gestation were randomly selected from women on their first presentation for antenatal care. Socio-economic, pregnancy related information, usual dietary pattern and anthropometric data were collected. Blood haemoglobin and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentrations were determined. About 40% of the pregnant women were anaemic (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dl) and 45% had low serum vitamin A levels (<30 microg/dl); with 8.6% having sub-clinical VAD (serum retinol <20 microg/dl). The women with low serum vitamin A levels had 1.8 times greater risk of being anaemic than did the women with normal vitamin A status. Food frequency data revealed that a large proportion of these women did not consume egg (49%), milk (25%), meat (31%), liver (83%), large fish (32%), small fish (39%) and sweet pumpkin (52%) at all; while about 25% of the women reported consuming dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 64% reported an intake of fruit at least four servings a week. The pregnant women who were either illiterate or received only informal education (up to grade ten) had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who completed at least a secondary school certificate. The women whose husbands were illiterate or received only informal education had significantly (P= 0.01) lower serum vitamin A levels than those whose husbands had received at least a secondary school certificate. The women who came from families with a per-capita income below the poverty line had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who came from families with a per-capita income above the poverty line. The women who consumed three servings or less of DGLV and fruit per week had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels than those who consumed four or more servings a week. The women who never consumed large fish had significantly lower haemoglobin compared to those who reported at least one serving a week. Furthermore, the women who never consumed sweet pumpkin had significantly lower serum vitamin A than the women who ate at least one serving a week. By multiple regression analysis, intake of meat, DGLV and fruit, and serum vitamin A levels were found to have a significant independent relationship with haemoglobin. The overall F-ratio (9.9) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.086 (multiple R=0.309). Multiple regression analysis for serum vitamin A also revealed a significant independent relationship with per capita income, haemoglobin levels, intakes of DGLV and sweet pumpkin. The overall F-ratio (10.2) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.10 (multiple R=0.312). In conclusion, anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were highly prevalent among poor urban pregnant women in Bangladesh. Various socio-economic and dietary factors may influence the anaemia and vitamin A status of these women. The present study emphasizes the need for a comprehensive intervention strategy, which include both nutritional and environmental factors, to improve the nutritional status of this population. PMID:14672871

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women of Diverse Ethnicities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisha B. Holden; Robetta McKenzie; Vikki Pruitt; Katrina Aaron; Stephanie Hall

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian\\/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian\\/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in

  6. Utilization of Mental Health Services by Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women on Medical Assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayoung Song; Roberta G. Sands; Yin-Ling Irene Wong

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines mental health service use among publicly insured white and African-American pregnant and postpartum women who live in a metropolitan area. The study examines the extent to which ethnicity, physical health problems, and behavioral health risk factors are associated with the probability of service use during the pre-natal-postpartum period. It also analyzes the patterns of service utilization for

  7. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha L. Velez; Ivan D. Montoya; Lauren M. Jansson; Vickie Walters; Dace Svikis; Hendree E. Jones; Howard Chilcoat; Jacquelyn Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse.

  8. Thyroid Hormone Levels of Pregnant Inuit Women and their Infants Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renée Dallaire; Gina Muckle; Éric Dewailly; Sandra W. Jacobson; Joseph L. Jacobson; Torkjel M. Sandanger; Courtney D. Sandau; Pierre Ayotte

    2009-01-01

    oB jectives : In this study we examined the relationship between exposure to potential thyroid hormone-disrupting toxicants and thyroid hormone status in pregnant Inuit women from Nunavik and their infants within the first year of life. Methods : We measured thyroid hormone parameters (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) and concentrations of several

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Ramos; Afredo Milla; Juan C. Rodríguez; Sergio Padilla; Mar Masiá; Félix Gutiérrez

    In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these\\u000a infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study\\u000a was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection\\u000a of IgG antibodies against

  10. Evaluation of a New Selective Enrichment Broth for Detection of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Heelan; Judith Struminsky; Patricia Lauro; C. James Sung

    2005-01-01

    Studies at two Brown Medical School-affiliated hospitals were undertaken to evaluate a new selective broth medium (GBS broth) and to compare it to the LIM broth currently used to culture for group B streptococci. Beta-hemolytic group B streptococci produce a carotenoid pigment that turns GBS broth an orange color. From a total of 580 pregnant women, duplicate vaginal-rectal swabs were

  11. Informed choice of pregnant women in prenatal screening tests for Down's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H?H; Chao, Y?M (Yu); Yuh, Y?S

    2006-01-01

    Background Although maternal serum screening (MSS) for Down's syndrome has become routinely available in most obstetric clinics in many countries, few studies have addressed the reasons why women agree to undergo the MSS test. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the circumstances in which MSS was offered to pregnant women and their reasons for undertaking it. Methods Participant observation and in depth interviews were used in this study; specifically, the experiences of women who had a positive result for MSS and who then followed this up with amniocentesis were examined. The interviewees were twenty six mothers aged between 22 and 35 years. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed for analysis. The results were analysed by the constant comparative method. Results This study identified the reasons on which pregnant women appeared to base their decisions when undergoing MSS. The reasons were first, the recognition that the procedure was a prenatal routine procedure; second, the need to avoid the risk of giving birth to a baby with Down's syndrome, and third, a trust in modern technology and in the professional authorities. Conclusions This study offers insights into the informed choice made by women with a positive MSS result. The reasons for undergoing MSS might help health professionals and policy makers to reflect on their practice and this may, in turn, improve the quality of prenatal care during MSS. PMID:16648277

  12. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

  13. The challenge of referring HIV-positive pregnant women with treatment indication from PMTCT to ART services: a retrospective follow-up study in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Stefanie; Sewangi, Julius; Nchimbi, Philo; Harms, Gundel; Mbezi, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Providing full antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-positive, pregnant women with treatment indication could significantly reduce overall mother-to-child transmission. However, the effectiveness of referring HIV-positive antenatal care (ANC) clients with a treatment indication to ART services has rarely been assessed to date. We retrospectively followed-up data of a cohort of treatment-eligible ANC clients in Mbeya Region, Tanzania by retracing and merging registries of ANC, Care and Treatment Centers (CTC), and Infant Care. ART initiation and ART duration before delivery served as primary outcome indicators to assess referral effectiveness. We retraced data of 60 ANC clients with treatment indication: 39 (65%) started predelivery ART and 21 (35%) remained untreated during pregnancy. Eight (13.3%) did not initiate ART at all within the observation period. Women starting ART before delivery had significantly lower CD4-cell counts at enrollment than nonstarters (medians: 207.5 vs. 292 cells/µl; p = 0.013). Predelivery ART starters had experienced a significantly shorter duration between staff-declared "ART readiness" and actual ART start (medians: 0 vs. 28 days; p = 0.0004). The median ART duration prior to delivery was 57 days; only eight women (13.3%) accomplished ?90 days ART intake during pregnancy. Early enrollment in ANC at ?24 gestational weeks was associated with longer duration of predelivery ART. At maternity wards, 24.3% of treatment-eligible mothers and newborns with retraceable delivery data had received no or inadequate antiretrovirals. Within 6 months postdelivery, women attended on average 3.5 out of 6 requested CTC visits. Concluding, every third treatment-eligible woman in this cohort was not covered through ART before delivery, and predelivery ART duration was mostly suboptimal regarding vertical transmission prevention. HIV-positive women need to be encouraged to approach ANC early in pregnancy, and health services need to address unnecessary time gaps before ART initiation. In addition, inclusive ART services for HIV-positive ANC clients should be seriously discussed. PMID:24359539

  14. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Its Related Factors in Pregnant Women in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pratumvinit, Busadee; Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Wataganara, Tuangsit; Hanyongyuth, Sithikan; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chatsiricharoenkul, Somruedee; Manonukul, Kotchamol; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data focusing on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. Objectives We determined the vitamin D status in pregnant women and examined the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 pregnant Thai women aged 18–45 years at Siriraj Hospital (a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand) was undertaken. Clinical data and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, albumin, phosphate and magnesium were obtained in pregnant women at delivery. Results The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L] in pregnant women at delivery was 75.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 67.7–82.2%). Of these, vitamin D insufficiency [defined as 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L] was found in 41.5% (95% CI, 33.4–49.9%) and vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was found in 34.0% (95% CI, 26.4–42.3%) of women. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 61.6±19.3 nmol/L. The correlation between 25(OH)D and iPTH was weak (r = –0.29, P<0.01). Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency by multiple logistic regression were: pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in kg/m2, odds ratio (OR), 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97, P = 0.01) and season of blood collection (winter vs. rainy, OR, 2.62, 95% CI 1.18–5.85, P = 0.02). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant Thai women. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased in women who had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI and whose blood was collected in the winter. Vitamin D supplementation may need to be implemented as routine antenatal care. PMID:26147381

  15. A depression preventive intervention for rural low-income African-American pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Crockett; Caron Zlotnick; Melvin Davis; Nanetta Payne; Rosie Washington

    2008-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major health problem for many women, including rural low-income African-American women. Researchers\\u000a have documented the long lasting consequences of PPD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the initial acceptability,\\u000a feasibility, and effectiveness of the ROSE Program, a brief, interpersonally-based intervention in a group of low-income,\\u000a rural African-American pregnant women at risk for

  16. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  18. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Pregnant Women?

    PubMed Central

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Salman, Sam; Mueller, Ivo; Baiwog, Francisca; Gomorrai, Servina; Law, Irwin; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Rogerson, Stephen; Siba, Peter; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of sulfadoxine (SDOX) and pyrimethamine (PYR) when administered as intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, 30 Papua New Guinean women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and 30 age-matched nonpregnant women were given a single dose of 1,500 mg of SDOX plus 75 mg of pyrimethamine PYR. Blood was taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, and 72 h and at 7, 10, 14, 28, and 42 days posttreatment in all women. Plasma samples were assayed for SDOX, N-acetylsulfadoxine (NASDOX), and PYR by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using NONMEM v6.2.0. Separate user-defined mamillary models were fitted to SDOX/NASDOX and PYR. When the covariate pregnancy was applied to clearance, there was a significant improvement in the base model for both treatments. Pregnancy was associated with a significantly lower area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to ? for SDOX (22,315 versus 33,284 mg·h/liter), NASDOX (801 versus 1,590 mg·h/liter), and PYR (72,115 versus 106,065 ?g·h/liter; P < 0.001 in each case). Because lower plasma concentrations of SDOX and PYR could compromise both curative efficacy and posttreatment prophylaxis in pregnant patients, IPTp regimens incorporating higher mg/kg doses than those recommended for nonpregnant patients should be considered. PMID:19620325

  19. Methodology for the evaluation of drugs in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Marina; Rimailho, Alain; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie

    2003-01-01

    Although drugs are prescribed during pregnancy with some reluctance, they fulfill a real need in some circumstances. Adequate drug evaluation is thus essential, either based on efficacy and safety or mainly safety, using available data from non-pregnant women. Evaluation methodology is not fundamentally different during pregnancy. Recommendations for drug development are formulated on the basis of the most common situations as well as specific suggestions, thus raising the awareness of the different partners participating in healthcare (institutions, the pharmaceutical industry and prescribers). In particular, regulatory and economic incentives superimposed upon those recommendations adopted in Europe and the US for orphan diseases should be put into place to assist in the evaluation of drugs used in obstetrics. Medical needs in obstetrics should be better identified, and labelling of drugs for use during pregnancy should be better directed towards prescribers; a national registry of pregnancies should be established in France. PMID:14655319

  20. Impact of Heart Disease on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Koutrolou-Sotiropoulou, Paraskevi; Parikh, Puja B; Miller, Charles; Lima, Fabio V; Butler, Javed; Stergiopoulos, Kathleen

    2015-08-01

    Pregnant women with underlying heart disease (HD) are at increased risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. In this study, we sought to identify the risk and risk factors for adverse maternal and fetal events in pregnant women with underlying HD. Pregnant women referred for echocardiogram with known or suspected HD were categorized into those with (1) cardiomyopathy, (2) other HD (congenital, coronary, arrhythmia, or valvular), and (3) no HD. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as a composite of death, sustained arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and transient ischemic attack/stroke. Secondary outcome was fetal adverse clinical events (FACE), a composite of infant death, prematurity, underweight status, intracranial hemorrhage, and respiratory distress. Of the 173 pregnancies, 37 (21%) had cardiomyopathy, 65 (38%) had other HD, and 68 (39%) had no HD. MACE was higher in pregnancies with cardiomyopathy (p <0.001) because of higher rates of heart failure and cardiac arrest (up to 6 months postpartum, p <0.001 and 0.023, respectively). FACE rates were higher in cardiomyopathy pregnancies (p <0.001). In multivariate analysis, cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7 to 35.4), hypertension (OR 10.69, 95% CI 3.70 to 30.90), and arrhythmia (OR 7.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 27) were independently associated with higher MACE. Cardiomyopathy (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.0) and hypertension (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 9.0) were also independently predictive of higher FACE. In conclusion, pregnant women with cardiomyopathy had higher rates of adverse MACE and FACE rates. Cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia were independently associated with adverse cardiovascular and fetal clinical events, whereas other HD was not. PMID:26059869

  1. Urinary iodine level and its determinants in pregnant women of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Jin, Longmei; Yu, Xiaodan

    2015-05-01

    It is known that iodine deficiency during pregnancy can interfere with normal fetal growth and development. However, iodine levels of pregnant women in Shanghai, China, and factors that could influence its levels remain unclear. A total of 916 pregnant women were selected from the Maternal and Child Care Service Centre of Minhang District in Shanghai. Morning urinary iodine (UI) and iodine content of salt from the participants' home were measured, and UI concentration was adjusted by creatinine concentrations. Serum tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, free tri-iodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were tested in the second trimester of pregnancy by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The median levels of UI in pregnant women were 156·3, 176·9 and 175·1 ?g/g creatinine in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of UI deficiency (UI < 150 ?g/g creatinine) was 48·3, 34·2 and 36·2 % in the three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Factors that significantly influenced the UI levels include the following: iodine content of household salt; age; occupation; multivitamin supplement with iodine; seaweed intakes. Furthermore, UI and iodine content of salt were moderately correlated (r 0·406, P< 0·001). In addition, there was no significant association between UI and thyroid hormone levels. The present study showed a high prevalence of UI deficiency in pregnant women in Shanghai, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. Both iodine content of household salt and multivitamin supplement with iodine are the main determinants of UI levels in Shanghai. PMID:25851149

  2. Association of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Biological Markers Among U.S. Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M.; Woekel, Erica; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine the association between objectively measured light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviors, and biological markers in a national sample of U.S. pregnant women, as few studies have examined these relationships among this population. Methods The sample of noninstitutionalized U.S. civilians was selected by a complex, multistage probability design. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Examination Survey were used. Two hundred six pregnant women were included in the data analysis. Physical activity and sedentary data were objectively measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph 7164). Biomarker data was obtained in the mobile examination center from urine, blood samples, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements. Urine and blood samples were obtained to determine pregnancy status, C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and cotinine as well as fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides, and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol data. Multivariable regression was employed to examine the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and biomarker levels. Results There was a positive association between sedentary behavior and CRP levels (beta coefficient [b]=0.001, p=0.02) and LDL cholesterol (b=0.12, p=0.02). There was an inverse association between light-intensity physical activity and CRP (b=?0.003; p=0.008) and diastolic blood pressure (b=?0.03; p=0.02), with those engaging in higher levels of MVPA having higher HDL cholesterol (b=6.7; p=0.01). Conclusion Physical activity and sedentary behavior were favorably associated with various biomarkers among pregnant women, suggesting that healthcare providers should encourage pregnant women to participate in safe forms of physical activity behaviors while also reducing their amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors. PMID:23968237

  3. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  7. The Prevalence of Anemia Among Pregnant Women at Booking in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dim, Cyril C.; Onah, Hyacinth E.

    2007-01-01

    Background More than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia. Knowledge of the current situation of the condition in our environment is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward early detection and prompt management of anemia in pregnancy. Aims Our aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at registration for antenatal care at a major tertiary healthcare center in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study of 530 normal pregnant women registered with the antenatal unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between January 1, 2005 and October 30, 2005. Data on the age, parity, gestational age at booking, interval between last confinement and last menstrual period in the index pregnancy, hemoglobin concentration at booking, and HIV status were obtained and analyzed. Results The mean gestational age at booking was 21.7 ± 7.1 weeks (range, 6–37). Two hundred fourteen (40.4%) of the women were anemic (hemoglobin [Hb] < 11.0 g/dL). The majority (90.7%) of these anemic patients were mildly anemic, whereas 9.3% were moderately anemic. There was no case of severe anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). The prevalence of anemia at booking was significantly higher in those who registered for antenatal care in the third trimester than in those who registered in the second trimester, and in HIV-positive pregnant women than in HIV-negative ones (P = .00). The patients' age, parity, and the interval between the last confinement and the index pregnancy had no significant relationship with the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women at booking (P > .05). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at booking is still high in Enugu. Preconception care, including iron and folic acid supplementation, is advocated to reduce this problem. Early antenatal booking and improved antenatal care are also necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. All would ensure safe motherhood. PMID:18092018

  8. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WHO Violence Against Women Instrument in Pregnant Women: Results from the BRISA Prenatal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e.; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Bettiol, Heloisa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. Methods Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA) were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. Results The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] ?=?0.060, p<0.001 for the combined model). The multidimensional WHO VAW model showed good fit (RMSEA?=?0.036, p?=?0.999 for the combined model) and standardized factor loadings higher than 0.70, except for the sexual dimension for SL (0.65). The models suggested by the modification indices with cross loadings measuring simultaneously physical and psychological violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p<0.001 for the difference between the model chi-squares). Conclusions Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW model and the modified models are suitable for measuring violence against pregnant women. PMID:25531654

  10. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, air pollution exposure and associated life style factors in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Manrique, Agurtzane; Rebagliato, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2008-12-15

    1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are pollutants produced by the combustion of organic material, and could be found both indoors and outdoors. Prenatal exposure to these compounds has been associated with retarded intrauterine growth and respiratory problems in children. The objective of this study is to describe the 1-OHP levels in urine in pregnant women in the INMA cohort in Valencia, and to study the association with socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, as well as with indicators of air pollution. The study population is a sub-sample (n: 204) of a cohort of pregnant women in the multicentre INMA project in Valencia (Spain). Urine samples were taken in week 12 of gestation, and 1-OHP was analyzed, and adjusted for creatinine. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information was collected using a questionnaire. Data from the monitoring stations in Valencia were used to assign levels of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), total suspended particulates (TSP) and carbon monoxide (CO). The median 1-OHP level was 0.061 muicrool/mol of creatinine. Women who smoked had higher 1-OHP levels (0.095 micromol/mol of creatinine) than non-smokers (0.050 micromol/mol of creatinine). The variables predicting 1-OHP levels on linear multivariate analysis were: tobacco consumption, consumption of fried and smoked foods. There was also a significant association with NO2 levels 4 and 5 days before the samples were taken. The 1-OHP levels found in pregnant women in Valencia were higher than those found among women in reports in USA. 1-hydroxypyrene could be a good marker of exposure to PAHs from tobacco and diet, and also a useful marker of short term exposure to air pollution. PMID:18804258

  11. Relationship between serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and dietary habits of pregnant women in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Lu; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jun-Xia; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2011-07-15

    The use of most polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) has been restricted in China; however, their use remains a concern because of their adverse effects on human health, especially on fetuses and infants. To date, there is no data regarding the exposure levels of pregnant women to PCBs and OCPs in Shanghai. In order to evaluate PCB and OCP exposure levels and the contribution of dietary habits to these levels, we determined the concentrations of 8 PCBs and 14 OCPs in the umbilical cord blood serum of healthy pregnant women in Shanghai. Dietary habits of the pregnant women were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Results showed that p, p'-DDE, HCB and ?-HCH were the major pollutants present in the serum samples; PCBs were detected in a few samples at low concentrations. Age, weight and body mass index before delivery were positively associated with serum levels of p, p'-DDE and ?-HCH. Women and their husbands who had higher education levels, higher income levels, tended to have higher levels of p, p'-DDE and ?-HCH. Spearman correlation analysis results suggested that consumption of foods such as milk, eggs, meat, fish, and shrimp may contribute to higher serum levels of p, p'-DDE and ?-HCH. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the age and educational levels of the pregnant women and their intake of fried/flamed food and shellfish were positively associated with ?-HCH levels, and that the age and educational levels of the pregnant women and their intake of parity, beef, pork, mutton, and shrimp were positively associated with p, p'-DDE levels. This is the first study to investigate the exposure levels of pregnant women to PCBs and OCPs in Shanghai, and it should provide useful information for future related research. PMID:21665017

  12. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezire, Onoriode; Adebayo, Samson B; Idogho, Omokhudu; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Nwokolo, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is still a major health issue in Nigeria, accounting for about 33% of cause of maternal death. Despite massive efforts to make insecticide-treated net (ITN) available to pregnant women in Nigeria, the use is still low. This study was conducted to identify facilitators and inhibitors for the use of ITN/long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2011 State-Specific HIV & AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey conducted in 18 states of Nigeria. The survey was a population-based study among men and women of reproductive age living in households in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select eligible respondents. The sample size per state was 960 respondents. Data were collected between October and November 2011. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results A total of 11.5% of the respondents were pregnant at the time of the survey of which 73.2% lived in rural location and approximately 70% were either not educated or attained at most a primary school education. A total of 93.2% of respondents have heard of net, 82.6% were confident that they can hang or use a net, and 64.6% owned an ITN/LLIN in their household while the actual use was just 19.2%. We found education, location (urban–rural), confidence to use a net, and knowledge that the use of a net can protect a pregnant woman from malaria to be significant at 5% level. The number of nets owned per household, the length of time the net is owned, age, and marital status were not significant. Multiple logistics regression shows that pregnant women who are confident to hang or use a net were almost ten times more likely to use a net than those who do not know, while those who know that the use of an ITN/LLIN can protect a pregnant woman from malaria were almost two times more likely to use a net than those who do not know. Conclusion In general, while owning a net facilitates its use, ownership does not necessarily translate to usage. Owning more than one ITN/LLIN per household was not significant in the use of an ITN/LLIN by pregnant women in this study, neither was the length of time the net was owned. This study shows that increasing the number of nets owned per household might not be a critical decider on whether the net will be used or not. We recommend massive education on the use of ITN. Skill building on use and increasing knowledge on the benefits of using nets may contribute to improving ITN use among pregnant women in Nigeria.

  13. An observational study comparing 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance with fasting plasma glucose in pregnant women: both poorly predictive of birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Ouzilleau, Christian; Roy, Marie-Andrée; Leblanc, Louiselle; Carpentier, André; Maheux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Background The definition and treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy are matters of intense controversy. Our goal was to examine the value of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in terms of its ability to predict birth weight percentile in a group of women with singleton pregnancies who received minimal treatment for their glucose intolerance. Methods We reviewed the results of OGTTs performed between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation in a group of 300 consecutive high-risk women (mean age 29.5 years [95% confidence interval, CI, 28.9–30.1]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.4–1.7]) whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a randomly administered 50-g glucose load was 8.0 mmol/L or above. These data were compared with results for a randomly selected control group of 300 women whose plasma glucose level 1 hour after a 50-g glucose load was less than 8.0 mmol/L (mean age 28.0 years [95% CI 27.4–28.6]; parity 1.5 [95% CI 1.3–1.6]). Results For 76 (25.3%) of the 300 high-risk women, the plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g glucose load (confirmatory OGTT) was 7.8 mmol/L or more, but only 6 of these were treated with insulin, which emphasizes the low level of intervention in this group. Thirty (10.0%) of the neonates in this group were large for gestational age (LGA; adjusted weight at or above the 90th percentile). This proportion did not significantly differ from the proportion for the control group (25 or 8.3%). After exclusion of the 6 insulin-treated women, simple correlations between birth weight percentile and fasting or 2-hour plasma glucose levels were very weak (r = 0.23 and 0.16 respectively; p < 0.01). The correlation between birth weight percentile and fasting or 2-hour plasma glucose persisted in a multiple regression analysis that included the following maternal variables: age, prepregnancy weight, weight gain during pregnancy, parity and smoking. In the multivariate models, the standardized coefficients for fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose levels were low (r = 0.19 [p < 0.001] and r = 0.13 [p = 0.02] respectively). These multivariate models could not explain more than 22% of the total variability in birth weight percentile. Interpretation In this population of pregnant, untreated diabetic women, plasma glucose levels (either fasting or after various glucose loads) were independently but poorly correlated with birth weight; no more than 3% to 5% of birth weight variability could be explained by changes in glucose tolerance. Fasting plasma glucose was consistently but marginally better than the plasma glucose level 2 hours after 75-g glucose load for predicting LGA neonates. We conclude that neonatal macrosomia is influenced by variables that are largely independent of plasma glucose concentrations. PMID:12591779

  14. Monitoring Pregnant Women’s Illicit Opiate and Cocaine Use With Sweat Testing

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Bertrand R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Choo, Robin E.; Mura, Patrick; Jones, Hendrée E.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Dependence on illicit drugs during pregnancy is a major public health concern as there may be associated adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal consequences. Sweat patches (n = 389) were collected from 39 pregnant volunteers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved protocol and wore patches, replaced approximately weekly, from study entry until delivery. Patches were analyzed for opiates (heroin, 6-acetylmor-phine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine and codeine) and cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine methyl ester) by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Seventy-one percent (276) of collected sweat patches were ?5 ng per patch (limit of quantification) for one or more analytes. Cocaine was present in 254 (65.3%) patches in concentrations ranging from 5.2 to 11,835 ng per patch with 154 of these high enough to satisfy the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines for a confirmatory drug test (25 ng per patch). Interestingly, 6-acetylmorphine was the most prominent opiate analyte documented in 134 patches (34.4%) with 11.3% exceeding the proposed opiate Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off (25 ng per patch). Heroin was identified in fewer patches (77), but in a similar concentration range (5.3–345.4 ng per patch). Polydrug use was evident by the presence of both cocaine and opiate metabolites in 136 (35.0%) patches. Sweat testing is an effective method for monitoring abstinence or illicit drug use relapse in this high-risk population of pregnant opiate- and/or cocaine-dependent women. PMID:19927046

  15. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Gregory; Bekker, Linda-Gail; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma HIV viral load (VL) is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33%) were HIV positive and 1521 (85%) were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947) were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ?350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ?500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL<50 copies/mL and 13% had VL >1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26154734

  16. A rapid questionnaire assessment of environmental exposures to pregnant women in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Finkton, D; Purwar, M; Noble, J A; Pang, R; Burnham, O; Cheikh Ismail, L; Farhi, F; Barros, F C; Lambert, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Carvalho, M; Jaffer, Y A; Bertino, E; Gravett, M G; Altman, D G; Ohuma, E O; Kennedy, S H; Bhutta, Z A; Villar, J

    2013-09-01

    Impaired fetal growth and preterm birth are the leading causes of neonatal and infant mortality worldwide and there is a growing scientific literature suggesting that environmental exposures during pregnancy may play a causal role in these outcomes. Our purpose was to assess the environmental exposure of the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) participants in the multinational INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. First, we developed a tool that could be used internationally to screen pregnant women for such exposures and administered it in eight countries on a subsample (n = 987) of the FGLS participants. The FGLS is a study of fetal growth among healthy pregnant women living in relatively affluent areas, at low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and environmental exposures. We confirmed that most women were not exposed to major environmental hazards that could affect pregnancy outcomes according to the protocol's entry criteria. However, the instrument was able to identify some women that reported various environmental concerns in their homes such as peeling paint, high residential density (>1 person per room), presence of rodents or cockroaches (hence the use of pesticides), noise pollution and safety concerns. This screening tool was therefore useful for the purposes of the project and can be used to ascertain environmental exposures in studies in which the primary aim is not focused on environmental exposures. The instrument can be used to identify subpopulations for more in-depth assessment, (e.g. environmental and biological laboratory markers) to pinpoint areas requiring education, intervention or policy change. PMID:24028080

  17. HLA-G5 and G7 Isoforms in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Abediankenari, Saeid; Farzad, Faramars; Rahmani, Zahra; Hashemi-Soteh, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G which is an immune tolerance effecter molecule has an important role in the maintenance of fetus during pregnancy. Abortion is one of the complications of pregnancy period.  In this research, we have studied levels of HLA-G 5, HLA-G7 isoforms in the abortion-threatened pregnant women in comparison with controls. In a case-control study, 101 abortion-threatened women and 101 healthy pregnant women (healthy controls) with age range 21-32 years were studied. Gene expression of HLA-5 and HLA-7 isoforms was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction after mRNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. The results indicated that HLA-G5 was significantly lower in abortion-threatened women in comparison with the control group whereas HLA-G7 was not significantly differentbetween the 2 groups. HLA-G is a vital molecule during pregnancy that can be a key factor in prevention of abortion. It is concluded that determination of HLA-G5 can be of value in pregnancy. PMID:25780888

  18. Effect of milk and calcium supplementation on bone density and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women: a randomized controlled trail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Liu; Ling Qiu; Yu-ming Chen; Yi-xiang Su

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Calcium demand is increased during pregnancy. However, few randomized controlled trials examined the effects of calcium supplementation\\u000a on bone mass during pregnancy. This study determined effects of calcium and milk supplementation on maternal bone mineral\\u000a density (BMD) and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women with habitual low calcium intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this randomized controlled trial, 36 Chinese pregnant women (24–31 years, 18

  19. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Koebnick, Corinna; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Heins, Ulrike A; Wickramasinghe, Sunitha N; Ratnayaka, Indrika D; Gruendel, Sindy; Lindemans, Jan; Leitzmann, Claus

    2004-12-01

    A well-planned vegetarian diet has been stated to be adequate during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare serum vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women (n = 109) consuming vegetarian and Western diets and to evaluate the adequacy of current dietary reference intakes of vitamin B-12 for these women. Pregnant women adhering to vegetarian diets for at least 3 y, with subgroups of ovo-lacto vegetarians (OLVs; n = 27), low-meat eaters (LME, n = 43), and women eating an average Western diet (control group, n = 39), were recruited. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured in wk 9-12, 20-22, and 36-38 of pregnancy. During pregnancy serum vitamin B-12 concentrations of ovo-lacto vegetarians (P < 0.001) and low-meat eaters (P = 0.050) were lower than those of the control group. We observed the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and elevated plasma tHcy in 22% of ovo-lacto vegetarians, in 10% of low-meat eaters, and in 3% of controls (P = 0.003). In OLVs, serum vitamin B-12 predicted 60% of the plasma tHcy variation (P < 0.001), but in LMEs and controls only <10% (NS). Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations increased and plasma tHcy decreased sharply with increasing dietary intake of vitamin B-12 toward a cutoff point of 3 mug/d. Pregnant women consuming a long-term predominantly vegetarian diet have an increased risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Current recommended dietary intakes urgently need reevaluation. PMID:15570032

  20. Dentists’ Perceptions of Barriers to Providing Dental Care to Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rosanna Shuk-Yin; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E.; Conrad, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to understand US dentists’ attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding dental care for pregnant women and to determine the impact of recent papers on oral health and pregnancy and guidelines disseminated widely. Methods In 2006–2007, the investigators conducted a mailed survey of all 1,604 general dentists in Oregon; 55.2% responded). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate associations between dentists’ attitudes toward providing care to pregnant women, dentists’ knowledge about the safety of dental procedures, and dentists’ current practice patterns. Results Dentist’s perceived barriers have the strongest direct effect on current practice and might be the most important factor deterring dentists from providing care to pregnant patients. Five attitudes (perceived barriers) were associated with providing less dental services: time, economic, skills, dental staff resistance, and peer pressure. The final model shows a good fit with a chi-square of 38.286 (p = .12, n=772, df = 52) and a Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit index of .98, CFI = .993. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation is .02. Conclusions Findings suggest attitudes are significant determinants of accurate knowledge and current practice. Multi-dimensional approaches are needed to increase access to dental care and protect the oral health of women during pregnancy. Despite current clinical recommendations to deliver all necessary care to pregnant patients during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, dentists’ knowledge of the appropriateness of procedures continues to lag the state of the art in dental science. PMID:20800772

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus–hepatitis C virus co-infection in pregnant women and perinatal transmission to infants in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Siriungsi, Wasna; Decker, Luc; Khamduang, Woottichai; Le Cœur, Sophie; Sirinontakan, Surat; Somsamai, Rosalin; Pagdi, Karin; Hemvuttiphan, Jittapol; McIntosh, Kenneth; Barin, Francis; Lallemant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected Thai pregnant women and the rate of HCV transmission to their infants. Patients and methods Study subjects included 1435 HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, enrolled in a perinatal HIV prevention trial, and a control group of 448 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Women were screened for HCV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Positive results were confirmed by recombinant immunoblot and HCV RNA quantification. Infants were tested for HCV antibodies at 18 months or for HCV RNA at between 6 weeks and 6 months. Results Of the HIV-infected women, 2.9% were HCV-infected compared to 0.5% of HIV-uninfected women (p = 0.001). Only history of intravenous drug use was associated with HCV infection in HIV-infected women. Ten percent of infants born to co-infected mothers acquired HCV. The risk of transmission was associated with a high maternal HCV RNA (p = 0.012), but not with HIV-1 load or CD4 count. Conclusions Acquisition of HCV through intravenous drug use partially explains the higher rate of HCV infection in HIV-infected Thai women than in HIV-uninfected controls. Perinatal transmission occurred in 10% of infants of HIV–HCV-co-infected mothers and was associated with high maternal HCV RNA. PMID:20047847

  2. HIV testing of pregnant women: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Pedersen, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Andersson, Anna-Karin

    2011-12-01

    Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. We analyse this ethical puzzle from a novel perspective, taking into account the moral importance of certain hypothetical preferences of the child, as well as the moral importance of certain actual preferences of the mother. Finally, we balance the conflicting concerns and try to arrive at an ethically sound solution to this dilemma. Our aim is to introduce a novel perspective from which to analyse testing strategies, and to explore the implications and possible benefits of our proposal. The conclusion from our analysis is that policies that recommend provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing of pregnant mothers, with a risk of becoming involuntary testing in a clinical setting, are acceptable. The rationale behind this is that the increased availability of very effective and inexpensive life-saving drugs makes the ethical problems raised by the possible intrusiveness of HIV testing less important than the child's hypothetical preferences to be born healthy. Health care providers, therefore, have a duty to offer both opt-out HIV testing and available PMTCT (preventing mother-to-child transmission) interventions. PMID:21790963

  3. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in a Nigeria Tertiary Institution

    PubMed Central

    Onigbinde, OO; Sorunke, ME; Braimoh, MO; Adeniyi, AO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingival changes during pregnancy have been well-documented. The prevalence of gingivitis in pregnant women has reportedly ranged from 30% to 100%. Increase in both the rate of estrogen metabolism and synthesis of prostaglandins by the gingiva contributed to the gingival changes observed during pregnancy. In effect increased prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and tooth mobility may be encountered in pregnancy. Aim: The purpose of the study was to determine the association of some variables and the periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women attending the Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos. Subjects and Methods: Women at various stages of pregnancy, attending the ANC of LASUTH, constituted the target population. The questionnaire was administered on each patient followed by dental examinations. Periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index (CPI) of treatment needs. Oral hygiene status was evaluated according to Green and Vermilion simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Results: The association between the CPI scores; OHI-S scores and variables such as trimester and dental visits were statistically significant. Conclusion: This study indicated that the gestational age of pregnancy and dental visits have a definite impact on the periodontal status. Oral health education should be included as an integral part of antenatal care to increase the women awareness. This would improve the mothers’ dental care-seeking behavior. PMID:25506475

  4. Determination of essential and toxic elements in clay soil commonly consumed by pregnant women in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwalongo, D.; Mohammed, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A habit of eating clay soil especially among pregnant women is a common practice in Tanzania. This practice known as geophagy might introduce toxic elements in the consumer's body to endanger the health of the mother and her child. Therefore it is very important to have information on the elemental composition of the eaten soil so as to assess the safety nature of the habit. In this study 100 samples of clay soil, which were reported to be originating from five regions in Tanzania and are consumed by pregnant women were analyzed to determine their levels of essential and toxic elements. The analysis was carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent technique (EDXRF) of Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Arusha. Essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and Mn and toxic elements As, Pb, Co, Ni, U and Th were detected in concentrations above WHO permissible limits in some of the samples. The results from this study show that the habit of eating soil is exposing the pregnant mothers and their children to metal toxicity which is detrimental to their health. Hence, further actions should be taken to discourage the habit of eating soil at all levels.

  5. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851

  6. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: evidence from rural, community-based setting.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-07-01

    Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference?study participants were underweight (body mass index?pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio?=?2.47, 95% confidence interval?=?1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio?=?2.74, 95% confidence interval?=?1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended. PMID:24985910

  7. Tobacco Use and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Pregnant Women in the Dominican Republic: An Exploratory Look into Attitudes, Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones de Monegro, Zahira; French, Lucia; Swanson, Dena P.; Guido, Joseph; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and practices regarding tobacco use and exposure among pregnant women in the Dominican Republic. Methods: The survey was conducted in two public health hospitals in Santiago, Dominican Republic, and was administered to a convenience sample of 192 women during prenatal care visits. Analyses examined pregnant women’s tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure (SHS), knowledge about risks of smoking and benefits of quitting, and attitudes toward women’s tobacco use. All data were collected between April and August 2009. Results: Respondents’ age ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean age of 25 years (SD = 4.59), a high literacy level (82%), low educational levels (48% less than high school education), and a high unemployment rate (65%). Levels of ever having experimented with cigarettes were 14%, and 5% had ever been a regular smoker. Among all respondents, 3% of women reported being current smokers. When respondents were asked if they would try smoking next year, 7% responded yes, maybe, or don’t know. Rates of self-reported SHS among pregnant women were 16%, and 14% reported their young children being exposed to secondhand smoke. More than half of the pregnant women in this study allowed smoking in their home (76%). Conclusions: This study provides a preliminary understanding of tobacco use and exposure among pregnant women and its potential impact on the Dominican Republic’s public health efforts that include improving maternal and child health. PMID:21908462

  8. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  9. Seasonal and gestation-stage associated differences in aflatoxin exposure in pregnant Gambian women

    PubMed Central

    Castelino, Jovita M.; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Routledge, Michael N.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aflatoxin is known to cross the placental barrier and exposures in utero could influence genomic programming, fetal growth and development, resulting in long term health effects. We aimed to determine aflatoxin exposure in Gambian women at two stages of pregnancy and during the rainy and dry seasons. Methods We examined aflatoxin exposure in pregnant Gambian women at early (<16 weeks) and later (16 weeks onward) stages of pregnancy and at different times of the year, during the rainy (June to October 2009) or dry (November to May 2010) season, using aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb). Results Mean AF-alb was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season, in both early and later pregnancy although the difference was strongest in later pregnancy. There was a modest increase in AF-alb in later than early pregnancy (geometric mean 41.8 vs 34.5 pg/mg, P <.0.05), but this was restricted to the dry season when exposures were generally higher. Conclusions The study confirmed that Gambian pregnant women were exposed to aflatoxin throughout the pregnancy, with higher levels in the dry season. There was some evidence in the dry season that women in later pregnancy had higher AF-alb levels than those in earlier pregnancy. Further research on the effects of exposure to this potent mutagen and carcinogen throughout pregnancy, including the epigenetic modification of fetal gene expression and impact on pre- and post-natal growth and development, are merited. PMID:24372685

  10. Depression in Teenager Pregnant Women in a Public Hospital in a Northern Mexican City: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Very little is known about prenatal depression in teenagers in Mexico. We determined the prevalence and correlates of prenatal depression in teenager women attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study to assess depression in 181 teenager pregnant women who attended a public hospital for prenatal care. We used a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg postnatal depression scale (EPDS) to screen depression. Women with EPDS scores suggestive of depression were further examined to confirm depression by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 181 teenager pregnant women studied, 61 (33.7%) had EPDS equal to or higher than 8 (range 8 - 23), and 37 of them were confirmed to have prenatal depression by the psychiatric evaluation. The general prevalence of prenatal depression in the teenager pregnant women studied was 20.4%. Of the 37 women with depression, 34 suffered from minor depression and three suffered from major depression. Thus, the prevalence of minor and major depression in the women studied was 18.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the teenager pregnant women showed that prenatal depression was associated with a previous episode of depression during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68 - 22.30; P = 0.006), and borderline associations with big fetal size (OR = 9.9; 95% CI: 0.94 - 104.24; P = 0.05) and family problems (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 0.99 - 14.84; P = 0.05). Conclusions Results demonstrate that prenatal depression is common in pregnant teenagers in Durango City, Mexico. The history of an episode of depression during pregnancy should alert physicians for further depression episodes during pregnancy in teenagers. Further research to elucidate the association of prenatal depression with size of the fetus and family problems in pregnant teenagers is needed. PMID:26015817

  11. Phthalates Biomarker Identification and Exposure Estimates in a Population of Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyong Yan; Antonia Calafat; Susan Lashley; John Smulian; Cande Ananth; Dana Barr; Manori Silva; Thomas Ledoux; Paromita Hore; Mark G. Robson

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates are known reproductive and developmental toxicants in experimental animals. However, in humans, there are few data on the exposure of pregnant women that can be used to assess the potential developmental exposure experienced by the fetus. We measured several phthalate metabolites in maternal urine, maternal serum, and cord serum samples collected at the time of delivery from 150 pregnant

  12. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with previous history of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Marcinko, Vesna Medjedovi?; Marcinko, Darko; Dordevi?, Veljko; Oreskovi?, Slavko

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome, and stress has been suggested to be important factor. We hypothesized that those female pregnant women with previous spontaneous abortion will have higher anxiety and depression than female pregnant women without previous spontaneous abortion and controls (healthy non-pregnant women). Age and socio-demographic parameters did not differ significantly between the three groups of participants. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were no significant differences in the scores on Beck Depression Inventory between three groups of participants at the week 10 of gestation-1st assessment and week 20 of gestation-2nd assessment. Contrary of these results, pregnant women with history of spontaneous abortion have had statistically significant higher anxiety score than pregnant women without history of spontaneous abortion and control group-non-pregnant women, on both assessment of anxiety. Negative correlations between months passed form the last spontaneous abortion and anxiety on both assessment, emphasize the role of psychological support for the women who have experienced spontaneous abortion. PMID:21648338

  13. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women’s human rights?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

  14. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  15. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  16. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  17. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  19. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  20. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  1. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied...Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in...

  2. The Prevalence of Human T-Cell lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Hamedi, A.; Akhlaghi, F.; Meshkat, Z.; Sezavar, M.; Nomani, H.; Meshkat, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of HTLV1 virus antibodies was determined in pregnant women and their neonates in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, as shown in this prospective cross-sectional study. 407 women who were hospitalized for delivery participated in this study. Venous blood sampling of pregnant women and umbilical cord of their neonates was done. The first samples of all women were tested for HTLV1 seropositivity by ELISA test and confirmed by PCR method. Then, the presence of HTLV1 in samples of umbilical cords blood in neonates who were delivered to an HTLV1-positive mother was determined by PCR method. All HTLV1-positive infants were called again at the age of 9–12 months, and PCR test was done using HTLV1-specific primers for them. Of all the participating women, 6 persons were HTLV1 seropositive by ELIZA test which was confirmed by PCR test. HTLV1 antibodies were found in cord blood samples by PCR test in 6 newborns who were born to HTLV1-seropositive women. All the six infants at the age of 9–12 months showed positive PCR results by HTLV1 LTR-specific primers; however, only one of them was PCR positive using HTLV1 TAX-specific primers. The prevalence of HTLV1 antibodies in pregnant women was 1.5%, and the vertical transmission rate to their neonates was 16.6%. PMID:23213557

  3. Depressive symptoms, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence among pregnant women of diverse ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Holden, Kisha B; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. Descriptive statistics and significant relationships among selected variables using correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Findings are intended to inform strategies for community-based programs better to assist women of diverse ethnicities with addressing depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence during their pregnancies, with the ultimate aim of improving health and mental health outcomes for women and children. PMID:22643473

  4. Gene expression analysis in pregnant women and their infants identifies unique fetal biomarkers that circulate in maternal blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of fetal mRNA transcripts in the maternal circulation holds great promise for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. To identify potential fetal biomarkers, we studied whole blood and plasma gene transcripts that were common to 9 term pregnant women and their newborns but absent or reduced in...

  5. DNA Hybridization Test: Rapid Diagnostic Tool for Excluding Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women with Symptoms Suggestive of Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Witt; Ljubomir Petricevic; Ulrike Kaufmann; Hubertus Gregor; Herbert Kiss

    2002-01-01

    This prospective comparative study evaluated a DNA hybridization test (Affirm VPIII) as an alternative to Gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. We examined vaginal smears from 1,725 pregnant women between the 12th and 36th weeks of gestation with clinical signs of vaginal infection. The DNA hybridization test compared well with Gram stain and can be used as a

  6. Sexual HIV risk behaviour and associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV risk increases during pregnancy. The elevated risk of HIV acquisition in pregnant women may be explained by behavioural and other factors. The aim of this study was to assess sexual HIV risk behaviour and its associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1 502 pregnant women (age range 18–47 years, mean age 26.6 years, standard deviation (SD) 6.1, and the mean gestational age was 6.5 months (SD 1.6). Antenatal women were selected, using systematic sampling from 63 primary care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala District. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results The majority (63%) of the participants had never used a condom with their primary sexual partner in the past 3 months, 60% were not aware of the HIV status of their sexual partner, 7.6% had a casual sexual partner in the past 3 months, 20% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months and 17.3% reported to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (other than HIV) in the past 12 months. The various HIV risk behaviours were predicted, by being single and alcohol use for multiple sexual partners; by fewer antenatal visits, being HIV negative and not having used alcohol for lack of condom use; by being HIV positive, having experienced physical partner violence and psychological distress for having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV); and by lower education, unplanned pregnancy, non-antenatal care attendance by expectant father, the belief that antiretrovirals can cure HIV and being HIV positive for having a partner with HIV positve or unknown status. Conclusion High levels of sexual HIV risk behaviour were found during pregnancy. Pregnant women need to be informed of their increased risk of HIV and the importance of sexual HIV risk reduction including the use of condoms throughout pregnancy. PMID:23510451

  7. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Pregnant Women Entering the 2010 Influenza Season in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W White; Rodney W Petersen; Julie A Quinlivan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To audit the uptake of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine in pregnant women entering the 2010 influenza season in Western Australia, and to identify why some women did not receive the vaccine. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients attending the Joondalup Health Campus public antenatal clinics in WA in January 2010. Intervention: Audit of uptake of

  8. Exploring the adequacy of smoking cessation support for pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, programming and practice; how geographical and sociocultural factors influence provision and uptake of support; and how barriers and challenges can be addressed through a comprehensive approach. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key informants (31) and pregnant or postpartum women (29) were conducted to examine the cessation needs of this subpopulation, barriers to the provision and uptake of cessation support and directions for policy, service provision and programming. Results Key barriers included: the absence of a provincial cessation strategy and funding, capacity and engagement/accessibility issues. Geographical features presented additional challenges to provision/uptake, as did the absence of resources tailored to Aboriginal women and adolescents. Key informants recommended a comprehensive cessation strategy to facilitate coordination of cessation resources provincially and locally and elucidated the need for capacity building within tobacco control and within reproductive, child and maternal health. Participants also highlighted the need to further develop tobacco control policies and target the social determinants of health through poverty reduction, housing and education support. The provision of incentives, transportation, childcare and meals/snacks; adoption of woman-centred, harm-reduction and stigma reduction approaches; and promotion of programs through a variety of local venues were recommended by participants to address engagement and accessibility issues. Conclusions The current cessation system in Ontario is not equipped to adequately reduce smoking among pregnant and postpartum women. A comprehensive, multi-sector strategy designed to provide tailored and sustainable support through different system entry points is needed. A cultural shift in practice is also necessary to eliminate mixed messaging, strengthen practice and encourage open channels of communication about smoking between women and their providers. The study highlights the need to address smoking among women in a more holistic manner and for capacity building strategies that focus on strengthening providers’ competency and confidence in practice. Future research should explore: capacity building strategies, especially among rural and remote communities; the smoking and cessation experiences of different subpopulations of pregnant and postpartum women; the effectiveness of tailored strategies; and interventions that address smoking among partners and other family members. PMID:23672201

  9. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Cuiping; Tian, Huiguang; Zhang, Fuxia; Zhang, Shuang; Dong, Ling; Li, Lili; Yu, Zhijie; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Hu, Gang; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared the increases in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and its risk factors in Tianjin, China, over a 12-year period. We also examined the changes in the prevalence using the criteria of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods In 2010-2012, 18589 women who registered within 12 weeks of gestation underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. Amongst them, 2953 women with 1-hour plasma glucose ?7.8 mmol/L underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 781 women had a positive GCT but absented from the standard OGTT. An adjusted prevalence of GDM was calculated for the whole cohort of women by including an estimate of the proportion of women with positive GCTs who did not have OGTTs but would have been expected to have GDM. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using the IADPSG criteria. The prevalence of GDM risk factors was compared to the 1999 survey. Results The adjusted prevalence of GDM by the 1999 WHO criteria was 8.1%, a 3.5-fold increase as in 1999. Using the IADPSG criteria increased the adjusted prevalence further to 9.3%. Advanced age, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index, Han-nationality, higher systolic blood pressure (BP), a family history of diabetes, weight gain during pregnancy and habitual smoking were risk factors for GDM. Compared to the 1999 survey, the prevalence of overweight plus obesity had increased by 1.8 folds, age?30 years by 2.3 folds, systolic BP by 2.3 mmHg over the 12-year period. Conclusions Increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and older age at pregnancy were accompanied by increasing prevalence of GDM, further increased by change in diagnostic criteria. PMID:25799433

  10. Pertussis and Influenza Vaccination Among Insured Pregnant Women - Wisconsin, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Ruth; Kahn, Danielle; Petit, Ashley B; Schauer, Stephanie L; Hopfensperger, Daniel J; Conway, James H; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2015-07-17

    On February 22, 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) revised recommendations for vaccination of pregnant women to recommend tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during every pregnancy, optimally at 27-36 weeks of gestation, to prevent pertussis among their newborns. Since 2004, influenza vaccination has been recommended for pregnant women in any trimester to prevent influenza and associated complications for mother and newborn. To evaluate vaccination of pregnant women in Wisconsin after the 2013 Tdap recommendation, health insurance claims data for approximately 49% of Wisconsin births were analyzed. The percentage of women who received Tdap during pregnancy increased from 13.8% of women delivering during January 2013 (63.1% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery) to 51.0% of women delivering during March 2014 (90.9% of whom received Tdap 2-13 weeks before delivery). Among women delivering during November 2013-March 2014, 49.4% had received influenza vaccine during pregnancy. After the 2013 recommendation, Tdap vaccination among pregnant women increased but plateaued at rates similar to influenza vaccination rates. Prenatal care providers should implement, evaluate, and improve Tdap and influenza vaccination programs, and strongly recommend that pregnant patients receive these vaccines to prevent severe illness and complications among mothers and infants. PMID:26182193

  11. Care of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Maternal–Fetal Medicine Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bathgate, Susanne L.; Young, Heather A.; Parenti, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To survey the evolution over the past decade of attitudes and practices of obstetricians in maternal–fetal medicine fellowship programs regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Methods: Directors of all 65 approved maternal–fetal medicine training programs were sent questionnaires, responses to which were to reflect the consensus among members of their faculties. Programs were stratified based upon the number of HIV-infected pregnant patients cared for in the previous year. Results: Responses reflect experience with over 1000 infected pregnantwomen per year, nearly one-quarter with advanced disease. Combination antiretroviral therapy was prescribed by all respondents, universally in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. A three-drug regimen (often containing a protease inhibitor) was used more often by those who treated at least 20 HIV-infected pregnant patients per year than by those programs seeing a lower number of patients (80 vs 59%).Despite the known and unknown risks of the use of antiretrovirals during pregnancy, only half of all responding programs report adverse events to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry; reporting was more common among the institutions seeing a higher number of patients (61 vs 45%). Seventy-eight percent of higher volume programs enroll their patients in clinical studies, usually multicenter, versus 35% of lower volume programs. Conclusions: Care for HIV² pregnant women has dramatically changed over the past decade. Antiretroviral therapy is now universally prescribed by physicians involved in maternal–fetal medicine training programs. Given limited experience with these agents in the setting of pregnancy, it is essential for maternal–fetal medicine practitioners to actively report on adverse events and participate in clinical trials. PMID:11495558

  12. Systematic analysis of the relationship between standardized biological levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and thyroid function in pregnant women and newborns.

    PubMed

    El Majidi, Naïma; Bouchard, Michèle; Carrier, Gaétan

    2014-03-01

    The impact polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on thyroid status in pregnant women and newborns was investigated in various epidemiological studies, but findings show inconsistencies, and differences in biological indicators of exposure between studies limits comparison of results. The aim of this research was to use a procedure previously developed to standardize PCB biological concentration data between published studies to perform a systematic analysis of associations between PCB exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) (total and free T3 and T4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in pregnant women and newborns. Biological concentrations from nineteen studies were expressed in total PCB equivalent per kg of lipids in maternal plasma (?g PCBMPEQ kg(-1) lipids). Systematic analysis of the "standardized biological concentration-thyroid parameters" relationship was conducted through the application of methodological criteria in both pregnant women and newborns. Standardization of PCB levels and application of methodological criteria led to assign higher confidence to ten of the reviewed studies. Among the retained studies in pregnant women, only one reported a significant association between PCBs and total T3 levels, but no association were observed when circulating TSH and free T4 levels were used to assess thyroid function. Regarding the association between prenatal PCB exposure and thyroid status in newborns, a lack of significant association was consistently obtained in the retained studies assigned an overall high confidence. The weight of evidence of a significant impact of PCB exposure on TSH and TH levels at the described biological levels in pregnant women and newborns (mean<1000 ?g PCBMPEQ kg(-1) lipids) appears low according to this systematical analysis. PMID:24200047

  13. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsibiani, Sharifa A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years) and the oldest age group (40–49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356

  14. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnant Women in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yassaee, Fakhrolmolouk; Farahani, Masoumeh; Abadi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy. There are no data from Iran about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross sectional study, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured in 3158 pregnant women irrespective of gestational age from October 2008-March 2012. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or more than 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose subclinical/ overt hypothyroidism. If serum free T4 was in the normal range (0.7-1.8 ng/dl) the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal range, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed. Results A total of 3158 pregnant women were evaluated. One hundred forty seven of them were diagnosed as hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were present in 131 (89.1%) and 16 (10.9%) women respectively. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 4.15%. Most of the subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases were diagnosed in the first trimester. Conclusion It appears logical to check TSH during pregnancy due to the observed prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:25083181

  15. Depressed Pregnant Black Women Have a Greater Incidence of Prematurity and Low Birthweight Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Holder, Vitillius; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially explain the higher rate of prematurity and low birthweight among black women. PMID:19004502

  16. Anaemia in pregnant Ghanaian women: importance of malaria, iron deficiency, and haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, F P; Rong, B; Günther, M; Beck, S; Till, H; Kohne, E; Thompson, W N; Bienzle, U

    2000-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, anaemia in pregnancy results from multiple causes including malaria, iron deficiency and haemoglobinopathies. In a cross-sectional study among 530 pregnant women in Ghana in November-December 1998, red blood cell indices were analysed with respect to malaria, serum concentrations of ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the haemoglobin and alpha-globin genotypes. Anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 11 g/dL) was found in 54% of the women; 63% harboured malaria parasites at predominantly low numbers. Ferritin levels were considerably influenced by malaria and inflammatory processes (CRP > 0.6 mg/dL). Depending on the definition applied, the prevalence of iron deficiency ranged between 5% and 46%. The HbAS trait was observed in 14%, HbAC and elevated HbF in 7% each, and sickle cell disease in 1%. Heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was present in 1% of the women and alpha(+)-thalassaemia in 33% (29% heterozygous, 4% homozygous). Women with HbAS had higher malaria parasite densities than those with HbAA. In individuals with highly elevated HbF (> 10%), parasitaemia occurred in 27% only. Low gravidity, second trimester of pregnancy, malaria, raised CRP levels, and homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia were independent risk factors for anaemia in multivariate analysis. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia, however, was associated with a lesser degree of malarial anaemia when compared to non-thalassaemic women. Iron deficiency appears not to be a major health problem in this population. Haemoglobinopathies are common but, except for homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia, do not substantially contribute to anaemia in pregnancy. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia ameliorates malarial anaemia in pregnant women. PMID:11132370

  17. Characteristics and quality of life of opioid-dependent pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Metz, Verena E; Comer, Sandra D; Wuerzl, Johanna; Pribasnig, Anna; Fischer, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated pregnant opioid-dependent women undergoing maintenance therapy, applying a multidisciplinary, case-management approach at the Addiction Clinic of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. It aimed at characterizing the patients' basic demographic and clinical parameters and evaluating their overall quality of life (QoL) prepartum and postpartum. Three hundred ninety women were treated between 1994 and 2009 with buprenorphine (n = 77), methadone (n = 184), or slow-release oral morphine (SROM) (n = 129) on an outpatient basis throughout their pregnancy and postpartum period. All patients were subject to standardized prepartum and postpartum medical and psychiatric assessments, including QoL assessments using a German adaptation of the Lancashire QoL Profile (Berliner Lebensqualitaetsprofil), and regular supervised urine toxicologies. No medication group differences were revealed regarding basic demographic or clinical data. Mean maintenance doses (SD) at time of delivery were as follows: 64 mg (36 mg) methadone, 10 mg (6 mg) buprenorphine, 455 mg (207 mg) SROM. However, buprenorphine-medicated women showed significantly less concomitant benzodiazepine consumption than methadone- or SROM-maintained women (p = 0.005), and significantly less concomitant opioid consumption than methadone-maintained women (p = 0.033) during the last trimester. Overall QoL was good prepartum and postpartum in all measured domains except "finances" and "prospect of staying in the same housing situation," and no differences were observed in QoL among the three medication groups (p = 0.177). QoL improved significantly after delivery in most of the domains (p < 0.001). Although opioid-dependent pregnant women face high-risk pregnancies and show variability in addiction severity, they report good QoL independent of the medication administered. These results show that individually tailored treatment interventions are effective for this patient population and suggest a QoL improvement after delivery. PMID:25023716

  18. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of HIV screening in pregnant women in hospitals in the Paris region].

    PubMed

    Le Galès, C; Moatti, J P

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous diffusion of HIV screening at the occasion of pregnancy has been especially rapid in France. In April-May 1988, 45% of general practitioners systematically prescribed HIV screening during premarital or prenatal consultations. Experimentation of systematic prenatal HIV screening has been performed for some time in various French maternity hospitals. On the basis of real data concerning HIV screening of more than 15,000 pregnant women between August 1987 and July 1988 in 9 Paris hospitals, a cost-effectiveness analysis has been performed. It showed that the total cost of systematic screening for women admitted to maternity hospitals for prenatal care and whose HIV status was previously unknown, was about 1.5 million French francs (about $240,000) and that 22 new cases of HIV positive were discovered. During the first five months (first period), the mean cost per pregnant woman found to be HIV positive was about 42 to 45,000 FF ($6,700-7,150). A similar calculation over the following months, gave a mean cost 4 times higher. The cost and effectiveness of a selective screening for high risk women were also estimated. In this hypothetical case, 13.6% of women would have been tested, the mean cost of discovering, at the hospital, a new HIV positive pregnant woman would have been 7,500 FF ($1,200) during the first period. The quadrupling of the mean cost of identifying an HIV positive pregnant woman by systematic hospital screening, despite a concomitant increase in prevalence in the population, can be explained only by an increase in prenatal screening prescribed by the private practitioner in ambulatory medicine before the first hospital prenatal visit. The monthly evolution of the proportion of women already screened before consultation in one of the nine maternity hospitals had increased by almost 50% between the beginning and the end of the studied period. An evaluation of a policy of HIV screening during pregnancy depends, at least in the French health care system, on the different ways the ambulatory and hospital sectors complement themselves. PMID:2107247

  19. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and six months after childbirth (follow-up). The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable), individual social capital (social support and social networks), demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction) [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90)] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99)] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown ethnicity, more children, urinary infection and water plumbing outside the house. Conclusions Low individual social capital during pregnancy, considered here as social support and social network, was independently associated with poor SRH in women whereas neighbourhood social capital did not affect women’s SRH during pregnancy and the months thereafter. From pregnancy and up to six months postpartum, the effect of individual social capital explained better the consistency of SRH over time than neighbourhood social capital. PMID:23324161

  20. Sociodemographic, reproductive and dietary predictors of organochlorine compounds levels in pregnant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, J; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Guxens, M; Marina, L Santa; Basterrechea, M; Lertxundi, A; Etxeandia, A; Goñi, F; Vioque, J; Ballester, F; Sunyer, J

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are consistently found in human tissues. Serum levels of organochlorine compounds (OC) in pregnant women in particular have raised concern about possible harm to humans in the early phases of physical and behavioural development. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between concentration of OCs in serum of two cohorts of pregnant women from Gipuzkoa and Sabadell in Spain and socioeconomic, reproductive and dietary variables. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH and ?-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in the serum of 1259 pregnant women. Associations between OCs and potential predictor variables were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The compounds most commonly found in the serum were p,p'-DDE (99% of the samples) and PCB-153 (95% of the samples). Geometric means of serum concentrations (ng g?¹ lipid) of organochlorine pesticides were 110.0, 19.1, and 33.5 for p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, and HCB respectively, while the geometric means of PCBs were 21.8, 38.9 and 26.9 for PCB 138, 153, and 180 respectively. The levels of all OCs increased with age. BMI was positively associated with the concentration of organochlorine pesticides but inversely related to PCB concentrations. The serum levels of OCs fell only after a cumulative period of breastfeeding of over a year. Levels of PCBs were related to fish intake, but in general dietary factors did not improve the explained variability of the concentrations of OCs. Overall, the levels of OCs found in the study are at the lower end of the range reported in Spain and other countries. PMID:20965545

  1. Predicting personal exposure of pregnant women to traffic-related air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Teschke, Kay; Brauer, Michael

    2008-05-20

    As epidemiological studies report associations between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, it is important to understand determinants of exposures among pregnant women. We measured (48-h, personal exposure) and modeled (using outdoor ambient monitors and a traffic-based land-use regression model) NO, NO(2), fine particle mass and absorbance in 62 non-smoking pregnant women in Vancouver, Canada on 1-3 occasions during pregnancy (total N=127). We developed predictive models for personal measurements using modeled ambient concentrations and individual determinants of exposure. Geometric mean exposures of personal samples were relatively low (GM (GSD) NO=37 ppb (2.0); NO(2)=17 ppb (1.6); 'soot', as filter absorbance=0.8 10(-5) m(-1) (1.5); PM(2.2)=10 microg m(-3) (1.6)). Having a gas stove (vs. electric stove) in the home was associated with exposure increases of 89% (NO), 44% (NO(2)), 20% (absorbance) and 35% (fine PM). Interpolated concentrations from outdoor fixed-site monitors were associated with all personal exposures except NO(2). Land-use regression model estimates of outdoor air pollution were associated with personal NO and NO(2) only. The effects of outdoor air pollution on personal samples were consistent, with and without adjustment for other individual determinants (e.g. gas stove). These findings improve our understanding of sources of exposure to air pollutants among pregnant women and support the use of outdoor concentration estimates as proxies for exposure in epidemiologic studies. PMID:18334266

  2. Providers' constructions of pregnant and early parenting women who use substances.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Cecilia; Stengel, Camille; Marcellus, Lenora; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Anderson, John; MacKinnon, Karen; Phillips, Rachel; Zazueta, Pilar; Charbonneau, Sinead

    2014-02-01

    The research literature indicates that problematic substance use as a form of health behaviour is poorly understood, being sometimes viewed as deviance, at other times as a disease, and most often as a combination of these states. The use of substances by women who are pregnant or new parents is often conceptualised within an individualised framework. Yet drinking alcohol and using other drugs during pregnancy and early parenthood cuts across social divisions and is shaped by socio-structural contexts including health care. There is a growing body of literature that critically examines public health interventions that are aimed at implementing harm reduction and health promotion techniques in service delivery to help pregnant and early parenting women who are identified as problem substance users. We examine qualitative data from representatives of a recent harm reduction intervention, focusing, in particular, on providers' individual conceptualisations of the problematic behaviour. Our results show that most study participants regard any substance use during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period as fundamentally unacceptable. This framing of problematic substance use is accomplished via gendered responsibilisation of women as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. We discuss our results in light of the current literature and suggest policy implications. PMID:24528306

  3. Physical and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Inhalation on Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future. PMID:23410527

  4. Prophylaxis and treatment of pregnant women for emerging infections and bioterrorism emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cono, Joanne; Cragan, Janet D; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2006-11-01

    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Healthcare providers must be able to discuss the benefits and risks of these interventions with their pregnant patients. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox, and anthrax, as well as response planning for bioterrorism and pandemic influenza, illustrate the challenges of making recommendations about treatment and prophylaxis for pregnant women. Understanding the physiology of pregnancy, the factors that influence the teratogenic potential of medications and vaccines, and the infection control measures that may stop an outbreak will aid planners in making recommendations for care of pregnant women during large-scale infectious disease emergencies. PMID:17283610

  5. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Pregnant Women for Emerging Infections and Bioterrorism Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Cragan, Janet D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2006-01-01

    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism attacks warrant urgent public health and medical responses. Response plans for these events may include use of medications and vaccines for which the effects on pregnant women and fetuses are unknown. Healthcare providers must be able to discuss the benefits and risks of these interventions with their pregnant patients. Recent experiences with outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox, and anthrax, as well as response planning for bioterrorism and pandemic influenza, illustrate the challenges of making recommendations about treatment and prophylaxis for pregnant women. Understanding the physiology of pregnancy, the factors that influence the teratogenic potential of medications and vaccines, and the infection control measures that may stop an outbreak will aid planners in making recommendations for care of pregnant women during large-scale infectious disease emergencies. PMID:17283610

  6. Pregnant Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; Smith, Megan V.; Forray, Ariadna; Epperson, C. Neill; Costello, Darce; Lin, Haiqun; Belanger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in about 8% of pregnant women. Stressful conditions, including PTSD, are inconsistently linked to preterm birth. Psychotropic treatment has been frequently associated with preterm birth. Identifying whether the psychiatric illness or its treatment is independently associated with preterm birth may help clinicians and patients when making management decisions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a likely diagnosis of PTSD or antidepressant and benzodiazepine treatment during pregnancy is associated with risk of preterm birth. We hypothesized that pregnant women who likely had PTSD and women receiving antidepressant or anxiolytic treatment would be more likely to experience preterm birth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of 2654 women who were recruited before 17 completed weeks of pregnancy from 137 obstetrical practices in Connecticut and Western Massachusetts. EXPOSURES Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, and use of antidepressant and benzodiazepine medications. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Preterm birth, operationalized as delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Likely psychiatric diagnoses were generated through administration of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Data on medication use were gathered at each participant interview. RESULTS Recursive partitioning analysis showed elevated rates of preterm birth among women with PTSD. A further split of the PTSD node showed high rates for women who met criteria for a major depressive episode, which suggests an interaction between these 2 exposures. Logistic regression analysis confirmed risk for women who likely had both conditions (odds ratio [OR], 4.08 [95% CI, 1.27–13.15]). For each point increase on the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale (range, 0–110), the risk of preterm birth increased by 1% to 2%. The odds of preterm birth are high for women who used a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02–2.36]) and women who used a benzodiazepine medication (OR, 1.99 [95% CI, 0.98–4.03]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Women with likely diagnoses of both PTSD and a major depressive episode are at a 4-fold increased risk of preterm birth; this risk is greater than, and independent of, antidepressant and benzodiazepine use and is not simply a function of mood or anxiety symptoms. PMID:24920287

  7. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  8. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. Results: The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely. PMID:25386490

  9. Fluctuation in the Levels of Immunoglobulin M and Immunoglobulin G Antibodies for Cardiolipin and ?2-Glycoprotein among Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Balushi, Mohammed S.; Hasson, Sidgi S.; Said, Elias A.; Al-Busaidi, Juma Z.; Al-Daihani, Muna S.; Othman, Mohammed S.; Sallam, Talal A.; Idris, Mohammed A.; Al-Kalbani, Moza; Woodhouse, Nicholas; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Antiphospholipid antibodies fluctuate during a healthy normal pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the levels of both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for cardiolipin and ?2-glycoprotein (?2GP) among healthy pregnant women. Methods: This study was conducted between May 2010 and December 2012. A total of 75 healthy Omani pregnant women with no history of autoimmune disease were investigated during their pregnancy and 90 days after delivery at the Armed Forces Hospital in Muscat, Oman. A control group of 75 healthy Omani non-pregnant women were also investigated as a comparison. Levels of IgM and IgG antibodies for both anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) and ?2GP were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ACA IgM levels were significantly higher in the control group compared to the pregnant women (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed in the ACA IgM levels between the control group and the pregnant women after delivery. In contrast, ACA IgG levels were significantly higher during pregnancy and after delivery compared with those of the healthy control group (P = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). The levels of ?2GP IgG were significantly higher during pregnancy than after delivery and in the control group (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In this study, ACA IgG levels increased during healthy pregnancies and after normal deliveries whereas ?2GP IgG levels increased transiently during the pregnancies. Both phenomena were found to be significantly associated with a transient decline in the levels of IgM specific for these antigens. Therefore, the levels of these antibodies may be regulated during a healthy pregnancy. PMID:25364550

  10. Fundal height growth curve patterns of pregnant women with term low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Deeluea, Jirawan; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Khunpradit, Suthit; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns of fundal height (FH) growth curve in pregnant women with term low birth weight (LBW) infants compared with the standard FH growth curve for Thai women. Subjects and methods A retrospective study was conducted at the four governmental general hospitals in the northern part of Thailand between 2009 and 2011. All data were obtained from antenatal records and labor registry. Serial FH measurements in centimeters of 75 pregnant women with term LBW infants were plotted against the standard FH growth curve for Thai women throughout pregnancy. Results Six patterns of the FH growth curve were summarized: pattern I: FH below or around the tenth percentile throughout pregnancy (n=17, 22.7%); pattern II: FH below normal in early pregnancy, caught up with normal, then decelerated or stagnant (n=19, 25.3%); pattern III: FH normal in early pregnancy, then decelerated or stagnant (n=17, 22.7%); pattern IV: FH normal in early pregnancy, decelerated or stagnant, then caught up to normal (n=6, 8.0%); pattern V: FH normal throughout pregnancy except for the last visit (n=6, 8.0%); and pattern VI: FH normal throughout pregnancy (n=10, 13.3%). Conclusion Patterns I–V may be used to recognize women who are likely to deliver term LBW infants from early pregnancy, during pregnancy, and on the day of admission for labor. Ultrasound evaluation is still recommended in cases with known risk factors that might be undetectable by FH, or in cases where FH measurement may be inaccurate. PMID:25053895

  11. Tap water use amongst pregnant women in a multi-ethnic cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of disinfection by-products in drinking water and measures of adverse fetal growth have often been limited by exposure assessment lacking data on individual water use, and therefore failing to reflect individual variation in DBP exposure. Methods Pregnant women recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study completed a questionnaire which covers water exposure. Information was collected on water consumption, showering, bathing and swimming. Water exposure data from a subset of 39 women of the cohort are described here. Results Mean total tap water intake was 1.8 l/day, and women on average spent 146 minutes per week showering and bathing. Most tap water intake occurred at home (100% for unemployed, 71.8% for employed). Differences between age groups were observed for total tap water intake overall (p = 0.02) and at home (p = 0.01), and for bottled water intake (p = 0.05). There were differences between ethnic groups for tap water intake at home (p = 0.02) and total tap water intake at work (p = 0.02). Total tap water intake at work differed by income category (p = 0.001). Duration per shower was inversely correlated with age (Spearman's correlation -0.39, p = 0.02), and differed according to employment status (p = 0.04), ethnicity (p = 0.02) and income (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study provides estimates of water exposure in pregnant women in a multi-ethnic population in the north of England and suggests differences related to age, employment, income and ethnicity. The findings are valuable to inform exposure assessment in studies assessing the relationship between DBPs and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20102592

  12. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  13. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O G Brooke; I R Brown; C D Bone; N D Carter; H J Cleeve; J D Maxwell; V P Robinson; S M Winder

    1980-01-01

    In a double-blind trial of vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women calciferol (ergocalciferol, 1000 IU\\/day) was administered to 59 women and placebo to 67 controls during the last trimester. The two groups had similar distributions of maternal age, height, parity, number of vegetarians, countries of origin, and sex and gestation of the infants. At entry to the trial maternal

  14. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  15. Care of drug-addicted pregnant women: current concepts and future strategies - an overview.

    PubMed

    Goettler, Simone M; Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-03-01

    This review focuses on drug use during pregnancy and the perinatal period, a constellation that is seen more often. Drug use in pregnant women poses an increased risk for adverse health outcomes both for the mother and child. Care is often complicated by social and environmental factors, as well as psychiatric comorbidities. It is, therefore, very important to provide drug-using pregnant women with optimal ante-, peri- and post-natal care. Health professionals should approach them in a nonjudgmental and supportive way, and provide them with the same care and attention as nondrug-using women. Adequate care requires interdisciplinary teams. Ideally, healthcare providers should be specialized in the care of drug-using pregnant women. PMID:24601808

  16. [Fetal weight gain curve for a cohort of 126 pregnant women at Ouagadougou, Burkino Faso].

    PubMed

    Cissé, R; Ouédraogo, A; Tapsoba, T; Lougue, C; Ouédraogo, C M; Ouattara, T; Lankoande, J; Kone, B

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study at Ouagadougou, from March 1 1997 to April 30 1998, in which we plotted curves of fetal weight gain, estimated by ultrasound biometry, with the aim of comparing our results to those of other authors and establishing a local chart. We established a growth curve from 936 fetal weights estimated during the follow up of 126 pregnant women. The mean age of the women included was 26 +/- 0,8 years and 52.4% were of the mean socioeconomic level. We identified significant differences between our weight gain curve and those of other authors. The factors involved in this difference are unclear but may be nutritive, ecological and ethnic in nature. Further work is required to produce local charts, to optimize the estimation of fetal weight. PMID:11022146

  17. Is intravenous iron sucrose the treatment of choice for pregnant anemic women?

    PubMed

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy remains an important public health problem in developing countries like India. Anemia is the direct cause of 12-15% of maternal deaths. Iron deficiency is the commonest cause for anemia in the Indian subcontinent. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches are in practice. The available routes of iron supplementation are oral and intravenous. In spite of oral iron being least invasive, cheap and safe, the ineffectiveness of oral iron due to dietary inhibitors and poor compliance are well known. Intravenous iron sucrose can be a promising therapy for moderate to severely anemic pregnant women and has been in practice for quite some time in private and public health practices. In this article, we report the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of intravenous iron sucrose in anemic pregnant women on hematological and clinical outcomes. Though the evidence on its efficacy in improving hemoglobin and serum ferritin is convincing, its effect on maternal and fetal outcomes are unclear. This is primarily due to lack of well-designed and larger studies powered to detect difference in clinical outcomes. Hence, there is a need to gather evidence from a well-designed large randomized clinical trial conducted in a developing country. The results of such a study would feed into the national policy and would form the basis to frame guidelines for management of anemia in developing countries. PMID:23167561

  18. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies. PMID:26103694

  19. Screening and recording of alcohol use among women of child-bearing age and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Moumita; Burnett, Margaret; Carrière, Sarah; Cox, Lori Vitale; Dell, Colleen Ann; Gammon, Holly; Geller, Brian; Koren, Gideon; Lee, Lily; Midmer, Deana; Mousmanis, Patricia; Schuurmans, Nan; Senikas, Vyta; Soucy, Danielle; Wood, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A woman's alcohol use during pregnancy is one of the top preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities that are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The social and economic burden of FASD is substantial. Lifetime direct tangible costs per individual related to health care, education and social services in Canada have been estimated to be $1.4 million. Screening women of child-bearing age and pregnant women and recording their alcohol consumption is a practical process to identify and evaluate women at-risk and to identify potentially exposed infants. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes the following three levels of screenings which should be done on consenting women: Level I screening involves practice-based approaches that can be used by health care providers when talking to women about alcohol use, such as motivational interviewing and supportive dialogue. Level II screening includes a number of structured questionnaires that can be used with direct questioning (TLFB) or indirect /masked screening (AUDIT, BMAST / SMAST, CAGE, CRAFFT, T-ACE, TWEAK). Level III screening includes laboratory-based tools that can be used to confirm the presence of a drug, its level of exposure and determine the presence of multiple drugs. There are challenges and limitations in the use of the screening and assessment tools outlined. For example, the single question about alcohol use and the various questionnaires rely on a woman to provide details about her alcohol use. There is no consensus on the appropriate screening to use across Canada as each provincial / territorial jurisdiction, health care organization and healthcare provider uses a variety of formal and informal screening tool. In addition, there are inconsistent processes across Canada for the recording of the alcohol use in a woman's chart and the transfer of the information to the infant and the child's health records. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes eleven recommendations to improve the screening and recording processes for alcohol use in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. PMID:19372602

  20. Relationship between Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Jamile; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nahangi, Rogaiyyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lifestyle during pregnancy has long-term effects on health of mother and child. Having previous illness or unexpected maternal or fetal conditions such as preeclampsia can complicate pregnancy and interfere with health-promoting behaviors and cause stress might interfere with health-promoting behaviors. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and perceived stress in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation design that was conducted on 182 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending in the high risk clinics of Al-Zahra and Talegani hospitals in Tabriz 2014. Data gathering tools were three: demographics, health-promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II), and perceived stress questionnaires. SPSS Ver. 13 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of health promoting lifestyle among pregnant women with preeclampsia was 2.4 (0.4). Among the dimensions of health promoting life style, the highest mean score was for sub domain of nutrition, i.e. 2.8 (0.5), and the lowest score was achieved by the sub-domains of physical activity, i.e. 1.5 (0.5).The mean (SD) score of perceived stress was 27.3 (7.1). There was reverse relationship between perceived stress and health -promoting behaviors. Conclusion: Based upon the results, health promoting behaviors were decreased by increment of perceived stress. Therefore, midwives can help women with preeclampsia by promoting health behaviors to reduce their stress and increase health-promoting behaviors.

  1. Deoxynivalenol exposure assessment in a cohort of pregnant women from Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, S J; Hardie, L J; Fraser, L K; Burley, V J; Mijal, R S; Wild, C P; Azad, R; McKinney, P A; Turner, P C

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a ubiquitous contaminant of cereal crops in temperate regions of the world. It causes growth faltering and immune suppression in animals. Limited information is available on DON exposure in UK subpopulations. The objective of this study was to provide DON exposure assessment in a subset of pregnant women scheduled for an elective caesarean in a large multi-ethnic mother/infant birth cohort from Bradford, UK. Women aged 16-44 years (n = 85) provided a urine sample for DON analysis in the last trimester of pregnancy, and concurrently completed a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The urinary DON biomarker was detected in all measured samples (geometric mean (GM)?= 10.3 ng DON mg(-1) creatinine, range = 0.5-116.7 ng mg(-1)). Levels were higher in women classified as South Asian in origin (GM: 15.2 ng mg(-1); 95% CI = 10.7-21.5 ng mg(-1)) compared with non-South Asians (GM = 8.6 ng mg(-1); 95% CI = 6.6-11.8 ng mg(-1)), p = 0.02). Estimated DON intake from FFQ data and typical levels of DON contamination of food suggest that this was mainly due to higher levels of exposure from bread, particularly daily intake of DON from chapattis in South Asians (estimated mean = 2.4 µg day(-1); 95% CI = 1.2, 3.7 µg day(-1)) compared with non-South Asians (estimated mean = 0.2 µg day(-1); 95% CI = 0-0.4 µg day(-1)), p < 0.001. This is the first biomarker demonstration of DON exposure in pregnant women, and several urinary DON levels were the highest ever recorded in any study. A larger survey within this birth cohort is warranted to investigate any potential risk to mothers and their babies, from DON exposure during pregnancy. PMID:21462017

  2. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. Methods A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women’s medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. Results 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d.?=?2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR?=?1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR?=?1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR?=?1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. Discussion The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations. PMID:22586442

  3. Predictive Factors of Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Pregnant Women in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Dieynaba S.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Results Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%–60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%–47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%–88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7–46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9–14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3–3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p?=?0.019), (compared with gravidity?=?1, if gravidity?3, aOR?=?1.5, 95% CI: [1.1–2.2]; if gravidity?=?2, aOR?=?1.0, 95% CI: [0.7–1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France. PMID:24587077

  4. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children. PMID:24344105

  5. [Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified].

    PubMed

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. PMID:22981085

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in plasma of pregnant women from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stasinska, Ania; Heyworth, Jane; Reid, Alison; Callan, Anna; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Trong Duong, Phi; Van Ho, Quoc; Hinwood, Andrea

    2014-09-15

    PBDEs are a class of brominated flame retardants applied to consumer goods to reduce their flammability. These compounds are lipophilic, persistent and bioaccumulate through the food web. PBDEs have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue and breast milk. There are a small number of studies reporting concentrations of PBDEs in Australian populations. These indicate that concentrations are higher than in studies reporting concentrations from Europe but lower than those from Northern America. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in the plasma of pregnant women participating in the Australian Maternal Exposure to Toxic Substances (AMETS) study in Western Australia. The samples comprised 164 pregnant women, aged 18 years and over, who were non-smokers and not occupationally exposed to persistent substances. Participants provided blood samples at 38 weeks gestation and these were analysed for five PBDE congeners. Maternal health and birth outcomes data were also obtained. The median for sum PBDE concentrations in plasma was 53.9 pg g(-1) (range 13.2 to 1390 pg g(-1)ww). Concentrations were adjusted for the estimated plasma lipid content. The concentrations of ?5PBDE ranged from 2.44 to 258 ng g(-1) lipid with a median of 9.97 ng g(-1) lipid. BDE-47 was the dominant congener (median 21.4 pg g(-1), range <4.95 to 1030 pg g(-1)) followed by BDE-153 (median 12.2 pg g(-1), range <2.94 to 353 pg g(-1)). There were no significant associations between maternal, housing or dietary factors and concentrations of PBDEs in this study. Maternal PBDE concentrations were not associated with infant birth weight. This study builds upon previous Australian research and shows that concentrations in this sample of Western Australian women were higher than in parts of Europe. PMID:24973935

  8. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-1/2 kit for HIV screening. All the tested pregnant women signed a consent form, received HIV education material, and participated in an HIV knowledge survey. Results: All the 890 pregnant women receiving HIV test had negative result. Among these women, 67.6% were Kazakh and 40.9% were farmers. Survey of HIV knowledge showed that these women's awareness about mother-to-child transmission was limited. The levels of HIV knowledge were related with ethnic background, age, education and profession of the pregnant women. Conclusion: The results suggested that HIV infection had not become a significant problem among the pregnant women in this remote area of Xinjiang, but continued efforts to improve the awareness of HIV, especially the knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, in pregnant women were needed. PMID:22207891

  9. French Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire Compared with an Accelerometer Cut Point to Classify Physical Activity among Pregnant Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandonnet, Nadia; Saey, Didier; Alméras, Natalie; Marc, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Given the high risk for inactivity during pregnancy in obese women, validated questionnaires for physical activity (PA) assessment in this specific population is required before evaluating the effect of PA on perinatal outcomes. No questionnaire was validated in pregnant obese women. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) has been designed based on activities reported during pregnancy and validated in pregnant women. We translated the PPAQ to French and assessed reliability and accuracy of this French version among pregnant obese women. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant obese women were evenly recruited at the end of each trimester of pregnancy. They completed the PPAQ twice, with an interval of 7 days in-between, to recall PA of the last three months. Between PPAQ assessments, participants wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) during 7 consecutive days. Fourty-nine (49) pregnant obese women (29.8±4.2 yrs, 34.7±5.1 kg.m?2) participated to the study. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the two PPAQ assessments were 0.90 for total activity, 0.86 for light and for moderate intensity, and 0.81 for vigorous intensity activities. It ranged from 0.59 for “Transportation” to 0.89 for “Household and Caregiving” activities. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCCs) between the PPAQ and the Matthews’ cut point used to classify an activity of moderate and above intensity were 0.50 for total activity, 0.25 for vigorous intensity and 0.40 for moderate intensity. The correlations between the PPAQ and the accelerometer counts were 0.58 for total activity, 0.39 for vigorous intensity and 0.49 for moderate intensity. The highest SCCs were for “Occupation” and “Household and Caregiving” activities. Comparisons with other standard cutpoints were presented in files S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7. The PPAQ is reliable and moderately accurate for the measure of PA of various intensities and types among pregnant obese women. PMID:22701717

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  11. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed. PMID:23423858

  12. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Villar-Loubet, Olga M.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Partner involvement has been deemed fundamental for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, although it remains difficult to achieve. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and their partners who participated in a behavioural risk reduction intervention in six community health centres in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Qualitative methods only were used in this study. Women and their partners took part in four gender-concordant groups that addressed HIV, PMTCT, disclosure of HIV status and safer sex practices. The results indicate that men value and understand the importance of being involved in women's reproductive health, although some components of the PMTCT programme such as condom use were still met with some resistance. Participants demonstrated high levels of HIV- and sexually transmitted infection-related knowledge. Men lacked knowledge about PMTCT but were interested in acquiring information so that they could support their partners. All groups highlighted the emotional and physical benefits of disclosing one's HIV status. The involvement of men in antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV both during pregnancy and post-partum when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. There is a need for interventions that focus on both increasing male involvement and promoting condom use during pregnancy. PMID:24405286

  13. Association between anemia and aflatoxin B1 biomarker levels among pregnant women in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Faisal M B; Jolly, Pauline E; Ehiri, John E; Jiang, Yi; Ellis, William O; Stiles, Jonathan K; Yatich, Nelly J; Funkhouser, Ellen; Person, Sharina D; Wilson, Craig; Williams, Jonathan H

    2010-11-01

    Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate staple food crops in many developing countries. Up to 40% of women attending a prenatal clinic in Africa may be anemic. In a cross-sectional study of 755 pregnant women, Aflatoxin B(1)-lysine adducts (AF-ALB) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants were divided into quartiles "low," "moderate," "high," and "very high." Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dL. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of anemia with AF-ALB. The mean AF-ALB level was 10.9 pg/mg (range = 0.44-268.73 pg/mg); 30.3% of participants were anemic. The odds of being anemic increased 21% (odds ratio [OR], 1.21, P = 0.01) with each quartile of AF-ALB reaching an 85% increased odds in the "very high" compared with the "low" category (OR, 1.85; confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.95). This association was stronger among women with malaria and findings were robust when women with evidence of iron deficiency anemia were excluded. This study found a strong, consistent association between anemia in pregnancy and aflatoxins. PMID:21036841

  14. Family stories: narrative genetics and conceptions of heritability in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Marsha; Lieber, Caroline; Lewis, Linwood J; Grob, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    As our understanding of genetics has grown, and its importance has increased in clinical care, pregnancy and the fetus are often seen through a genetic lens. Clinicians who care for pregnant women are charged with explaining genetic risk and overseeing prenatal screening. For the clinician, genetics represents clearly defined application of a particular kind of scientific knowledge. Further, heritability in clinical terms is understood as purely genetic. Pregnant women themselves, however, may not give these genetic explanations the same primacy or meaning. In order to better understand the way pregnant women actually understand and explain heritability, we completed in-depth interviews with 26 pregnant women, listening as they gave weight and substance to the various factors they describe as influencing the personhood of their unborn children. Two-thirds of our respondents were Hispanic or African American. Most were recruited through programs that serve low-income women. The interviews were coded and analyzed by using categories that emerged directly from the narratives captured in the interviews and that revealed the broad, cross-cutting, overlapping parameters of women's deeply-held beliefs about heritability. These stories represent narratives of heritability that are profoundly familial and cultural. They incorporate belief in the authoritative knowledge of medicine-including any genetic information-into a complex and usually multicultural context, woven together by ancestry, household, and community. PMID:21323847

  15. Natural acquired humoral immunity against serotype-specific group B Streptococcus rectovaginal colonization acquisition in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, G; Adrian, P V; Shiri, T; Buchmann, E J; Cutland, C L; Madhi, S A

    2015-06-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) rectovaginal colonization in pregnant women is associated with invasive GBS disease in newborns, preterm delivery and stillbirths. We studied the association of GBS serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antibody on new acquisition and clearance of rectovaginal GBS colonization in pregnant women from 20 weeks until 37 to 40 weeks' gestation. Serum serotype-specific CPS IgG antibody concentration was measured by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titres. Rectovaginal swabs were evaluated for GBS colonization, using standard culture methods and serotyping by latex agglutination, at five to six weekly intervals. Higher serotype III CPS antibody concentration was associated with lower risk of rectovaginal acquisition of serotype III during pregnancy (p 0.009). Furthermore, serotype-specific OPA titres to Ia and III were higher in women who remained free of GBS colonization throughout the study compared to those who acquired the homotypic serotype (p <0.001 for both serotypes). Serum CPS IgG values of ?1?g/mL for serotype V and ?3?g/mL for serotypes Ia and III were significantly associated with protection against rectovaginal acquisition of the homotypic serotype. A GBS vaccine that induces sufficient capsular antibody in pregnant women, including high OPA titres, could protect against rectovaginal colonization during the latter half of pregnancy. PMID:25680313

  16. Factors associated with rates of participation in WIC by eligible pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, L R; O'Shea, R M; Duffy, L C; Buck, G M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between sociodemographic, biological, and prenatal care characteristics, and participation rates of pregnant women in the Special Supplemental Food Program For Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was studied by interviewing 200 postpartum patients in a Buffalo, NY, hospital between October 1988 and January 1989. Among the 136 women eligible for the program, 94 (69 percent) participated during their index pregnancies. WIC participation was found to be highly associated with source of prenatal care and having made more frequent prenatal visits. WIC was related to having fewer children and earlier initiation of prenatal care. Multivariate analysis showed that program participation remained highly associated with the source of prenatal care and the number of prenatal visits, when combined with other factors considered, such as age, education, marital status, number of living children, and timing of initial prenatal visit. The results suggest the need for a WIC enrollment effort directed to providers of prenatal care, who would be urged to encourage women to seek early and adequate prenatal care through the program. PMID:1738810

  17. Oral administration of lactoferrin increases hemoglobin and total serum iron in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paesano, Rosalba; Torcia, Francesco; Berlutti, Francesca; Pacifici, Enrica; Ebano, Valeria; Moscarini, Massimo; Valenti, Piera

    2006-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy continues to be of world-wide concern. IDA is a risk factor for preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight, and possibly for poor neonatal health. Iron supplementation in pregnancy is a widely recommended practice, yet intervention programs have met with many controversies. In our study, 300 women at different trimesters of pregnancy were enrolled in a trial of oral administration of ferrous sulfate (520 mg once a day) or 30% iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (bLf) (100 mg twice a day). Pregnant women refusing treatment represented the control group. In this group hemoglobin and total serum iron values measured after 30 d without treatment decreased significantly, especially in women at 18-31 weeks of pregnancy. In contrast, after 30 d of oral administration of bLf, hemoglobin and total serum iron values increased and to a greater extent than those observed in women treated orally for 30 d with ferrous sulfate, independently of the trimester of pregnancy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf did not result in any side effects. These findings lead us to hypothesize that lactoferrin could influence iron homeostasis directly or through other proteins involved in iron transport out of the intestinal cells into the blood. PMID:16936810

  18. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria W.; Graff, Ingvild E.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Seldal, Camilla F.; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne C.; Stormark, Kjell M.; Malde, Marian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seafood (fish and shellfish) is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D). Design We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54) with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women. PMID:23467715

  19. Sexual victimization in young, pregnant and parenting, African-American women: psychological and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, J E; Ebert, L; Meyers, A B

    1993-01-01

    The influence of sexual victimization on the psychological and social adjustment of 177 pregnant and parenting African Americans was examined. Compared with those who had not been victimized, young women with a history of sexual victimization were more symptomatic, had lower self esteem, and had a more external locus of control than the non-victimized women. In addition, women who were sexually victimized at some time in their lives reported higher levels of economic strain. Victimized young women were less satisfied with their social support than their non-victimized peers. Taken together, these findings suggest that the link between sexual victimization and psychological distress in pregnant and parenting adolescents may be mediated through young women's interpersonal resources. PMID:8193056

  20. Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Brooker; Peter J. Hotez; Donald A. P. Bundy

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant

  1. The pharmacokinetics of artemether and lumefantrine in pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose McGready; Kasia Stepniewska; Niklas Lindegardh; Elizabeth A. Ashley; Yar La; Pratap Singhasivanon; Nicholas J. White; François Nosten

    2006-01-01

    Objective  To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with recrudescent uncomplicated\\u000a multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Pregnant women who had recurrence of parasitaemia following 7 days supervised quinine treatment were treated with AL. Serial\\u000a blood samples were taken over a 7-day period, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. For lumefantrine, these data\\u000a were compared in a population pharmacokinetic

  2. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ? BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ?30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both urban and rural women. The prevalence of underweight before conception and an insufficient supply of important micronutrients were more pronounced in rural areas. Therefore, attention must be given to the nutritional status, especially of rural women before, or at the latest, during pregnancy. PMID:23912325

  3. Atrial Remodeling in Pregnant Hypertensive Women: Comparison between Chronic and Gestational Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Pennella, Sonia; Demaria, Fabrizio; Farinetti, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Left atrial (LA) enlargement is a common finding in hypertensive patients (pts), however little information is available on LA changes during pregnancy. The present study evaluated LA size and function in pregnant women with hypertension. Methods: Patients population included 30 women with chronic hypertension and 30 patients with gestational hypertension. A control group of 16 normotensive pregnant women was selected. Serial echocardiography was performed at 12 and 24 week of gestation in chronic hypertension and at 24 week in gestational hypertension and after delivery. LA diameters and volumes were measured and compared. LA conduit volume, passive and active emptying volumes were calculated. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to max LAV Index > 32 ml/m2 at 24 week of gestation. Results: Patients with chronic hypertension showed higher LA diameters (42 ± 2.0 vs. 36.5 ± 1.8; p<0.001) and LA volumes (maximal volume 45.5 ± 4.0 vs. 38.1 ± 7.3; p<0.001) compared with patients with gestational hypertension. The median value of max LAVI was 32 + 6.2 ml/m2 in chronic and 26 + 5 ml/m2 in gestational hypertension (p<0.01). During follow-up patients with max LAVI > 32 ml/m2 had more clinical complications evaluated as increase of therapy, fluid retention that need diuretic and hospitalization. Conclusion: Patients with chronic hypertension showed a more marked increased of LA volumes compared to gestational hypertension due to a remodeling of atrial shape as effect of chronic overload. Patients with more dilated LA volumes developed a greater number of clinical complications suggesting that a dilated LA could be a parameter of hemodynamic instability. PMID:22431946

  4. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2007-05-01

    Pregnant women and infants are two groups at the highest risk of severe outcomes from foodborne illnesses. We surveyed adult clients of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic serving predominately African Americans in inner-city Miami, Florida, to assess food safety practices. Eligible and consenting women completed a 23-item self-administered survey with questions concerning food handling practices around the Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC! campaign constructs of "clean", "separate" (not cross-contaminated), "cook", and "chill". Of 342 eligible clients, 299 (87.4%) consented to participate. In general, the clients' food safety practices were most problematic in the cook and chill constructs. Using a cooking thermometer, refrigerating foods within 2 h, and thawing them safely were the least commonly reported safe practices. Women who were pregnant with their first child had the lowest food safety practice scores. Of the 62 pregnant participants, 32 (51.6%) reported eating hot dogs or deli meats without first reheating them some of the time or more often, and 22 (35.5%) reported eating soft cheeses and blue-veined cheeses some of the time or more often, putting the women at risk of listeriosis. Although all women in the WIC program could benefit from food safety education, these findings indicate that women during their first pregnancy should especially be targeted for food safety education. PMID:17536684

  5. Estimations of water balance after validating and administering the water balance questionnaire in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Protopappas, Athanasios; Nyktari, Anastasia; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Antsaklis, Aristides; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Dehydration during pregnancy may be harmful for the mother and fetus; thus our objective was to understand whether pregnant women balance water intake and loss. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was modified to reflect pregnancy (WBQ-P). Validation was performed using 3-day diaries (n?=?60) and hydration indices in urine (osmolality, specific gravity, pH and color, n?=?40). The WBQ-P was found valid according to Kedhal ?-b coefficient agreement. The WBQ-P was administered to 95, 100 and 97 women per trimester, in Greece. Median (IQR) water balance, intake and loss were, respectively, 203 (-577, 971), 2917 (2187, 3544) and 2658 (2078, 3391) ml/day; these did not differ among the trimesters or between pregnant and non-pregnant women. However, more pregnant women were falling in the higher quartiles of water balance distribution. No differences in sources of water intake were identified except that women in the third trimester had lower water intake from beverages. PMID:24295329

  6. [Assessment of antiviral immunity in pregnant women with mixed infection (HIV + CMV), living in Surgut].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, N E; Bakhlykova, N Iu; Bazarny?, V V

    2009-07-01

    Concomitant cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI), a classical opportunistic infection, is an important problem among HIV-infection pregnant women. CMVI in pregnant women runs mainly in the latent form with reactivation under physiological immunosuppression. Therefore the evaluation of immunoresponsiveness in HIV-infected pregnant women with mixed (HIV + CMV) infection becomes to be of particular urgency. Sixty-five women who were registered in the antenatal clinic of Surgut and its anti-AIDS center in 2005-2007 were examined. The examinees' sera were tested for CMV antibody titers by heterogenous solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine the moment of infection and differentiation of primary infection, reinfection, or infectious process reactivation. Assay of plasma CMV DNA was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction technique to evaluate the activity of CMVI. The high spread of serological CMVI markers in the pregnant women of the Middle Ob Region necessitates monitoring this group, by obligatorily determining IgM, IgG, and their avidity. PMID:19715193

  7. Exposures among pregnant women near the World Trade Center site on 11 September 2001.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Mary S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Lioy, Paul J; Santella, Regina M; Wang, Richard Y; Jones, Robert L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Li, Wei; Georgopoulos, Panos; Berkowitz, Gertrud S

    2005-06-01

    We have characterized environmental exposures among 187 women who were pregnant, were at or near the World Trade Center (WTC) on or soon after 11 September 2001, and are enrolled in a prospective cohort study of health effects. Exposures were assessed by estimating time spent in five zones around the WTC and by developing an exposure index (EI) based on plume reconstruction modeling. The daily reconstructed dust levels were correlated with levels of particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5; r = 0.68) or PM10 (r = 0.73-0.93) reported from 26 September through 8 October 2001 at four of six sites near the WTC whose data we examined. Biomarkers were measured in a subset. Most (71%) of these women were located within eight blocks of the WTC at 0900 hr on 11 September, and 12 women were in one of the two WTC towers. Daily EIs were determined to be highest immediately after 11 September and became much lower but remained highly variable over the next 4 weeks. The weekly summary EI was associated strongly with women's perception of air quality from week 2 to week 4 after the collapse (p < 0.0001). The highest levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-deoxyribonucleic acid (PAH-DNA) adducts were seen among women whose blood was collected sooner after 11 September, but levels showed no significant associations with EI or other potential WTC exposure sources. Lead and cobalt in urine were weakly correlated with sigmaEI, but not among samples collected closest to 11 September. Plasma OC levels were low. The median polychlorinated biphenyl level (sum of congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) was 84 ng/g lipid and had a nonsignificant positive association with sigmaEI (p > 0.05). 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzodioxin levels (median, 30 pg/g lipid) were similar to levels reported in WTC-exposed firefighters but were not associated with EI. This report indicates intense bystander exposure after the WTC collapse and provides information about nonoccupational exposures among a vulnerable population of pregnant women. PMID:15929898

  8. Characteristics and management of HIV1-infected pregnant women enrolled in a randomised trial: differences between Europe and the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Louise Newell; Sharon Huang; Simona Fiore; Claire Thorne; Laurent Mandelbrot; John L Sullivan; Robert Maupin; Isaac Delke; D Heather Watts; Richard D Gelber; Coleen K Cunningham

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (MTCT) have historically been lower in European than in American cohort studies, possibly due to differences in population characteristics. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol (PACTG) 316 trial evaluated the effectiveness of the addition of intrapartum\\/neonatal nevirapine in reducing MTCT in women already receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Participation of large numbers of pregnant

  9. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies exploring the role of diet during pregnancy are still scarce, in part due to the complexity of measuring diet and to the lack of valid instruments. The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity (against biochemical biomarkers) of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in pregnant women. Methods Participants were 740 pregnant women from a population-based birth cohort study in Valencia (INMA Study). We compared nutrient and food intakes from FFQs estimated for two periods of pregnancy (reproducibility), and compared energy-adjusted intake of several carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and ?-tocopherol of the FFQ in the first trimester with their concentration in blood specimens (validity). Results Significant correlations for reproducibility were found for major food groups and nutrients but not for lycopene (r=0.06); the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.51 for food groups and 0.61 for nutrients. For validity, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.18), ?-carotene (0.32), ?-carotene (0.22), lutein-zeaxantin (0.29) and ?-cryptoxantin(0.26); non-significant correlations were observed for retinol, lycopene, ?-tocopherol, vitamin B12 and folate (r?0.12). When dietary supplement use was considered, correlations were substantially improved for folate (0.53) and to a lesser extent for vitamin B12 (0.12) and vitamin C (0.20). Conclusion This study supports that the FFQ has a good reproducibility for nutrient and food intake, and can provide a valid estimate of several important nutrients during pregnancy. PMID:23421854

  10. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic pathogens in pregnant women from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  11. Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates

    SciTech Connect

    Baley, J.E.; Schacter, B.Z.

    1985-05-01

    Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr /sup 51/Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by /sup 51/Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing.

  12. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women: attitudes and behaviors of Oregon physician prenatal care providers.

    PubMed

    Arao, Robert F; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; McWeeney, Shannon; Hedberg, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    In spite of increased risk of influenza complications during pregnancy, only half of US pregnant women get influenza vaccination. We surveyed physician prenatal care providers in Oregon to assess their knowledge and behaviors regarding vaccination of pregnant women. From September through November 2011, a state-wide survey was mailed to a simple random sample (n = 1,114) of Oregon obstetricians and family physicians. The response rate was 44.5 %. Of 496 survey respondents, 187 (37.7 %) had provided prenatal care within the last 12 months. Of these, 88.5 % reported that they routinely recommended influenza vaccine to healthy pregnant patients. No significant differences in vaccine recommendation were found by specialty, practice location, number of providers in their practice, physician gender or years in practice. In multivariable regression analysis, routinely recommending influenza vaccine was significantly associated with younger physician age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.13] and greater number of pregnant patients seen per week (AOR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.25-3.06). Among rural physicians, fewer obstetricians (90.3 %) than family physicians (98.5 %) had vaccine-appropriate storage units (p = 0.001). Most physician prenatal care providers understand the importance of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. To increase influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women, it will be necessary to identify and address patient barriers to receiving influenza vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:25034358

  13. Use of fertility treatments in relation to the duration of pregnancy attempt among women who were trying to become pregnant and experienced a live birth.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jessica; Simonsen, Sara; Porucznik, Christina A; Baksh, Laurie; Stanford, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the utilization of medical help for fertility among women who reported up to a year versus more than a year of trying to become pregnant and to describe the characteristics of those women seeking early treatment. Data from the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey were used to assess attempt duration and use of fertility treatments in a sample of 9,517 women who had a recent live birth in Utah. PRAMS respondents who were trying to become pregnant at the time of conception were asked questions about fertility treatments (sampling n = 5,238; representative n = 153,036). Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to describe and compare characteristics of women who sought treatment after attempting pregnancy for a year or less and women who waited at least a year to seek treatment. Among women who were trying to become pregnant, 9.5 % reported using some medical assistance to conceive. Among the women trying to become pregnant, 89.3 % had been trying for ?12 months and 10.7 % reported having tried >12 months. 5.2 % of those trying to become pregnant for up to a year reported use of fertility treatment, compared with 45.8 % of those trying for a year or more. Women who had previous live births were significantly more likely to use early treatment than nulliparous women (aOR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.5, 3.9). The use of fertility drugs and other treatments were more common than ART among recipients of early treatment (aOR = 3.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 7.9). Some women may be receiving fertility treatment before it is clinically indicated. Instead of invasive treatment, these women may benefit from preconception counseling on folic acid, healthy prepregnancy weight and use of ovulation monitoring to time intercourse. PMID:23584927

  14. Intimate Partner Violence after Disclosure of HIV Test Results among Pregnant Women in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Shamu, Simukai; Zarowsky, Christina; Shefer, Tamara; Temmerman, Marleen; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV status disclosure is a central strategy in HIV prevention and treatment but in high prevalence settings women test disproportionately and most often during pregnancy. This study reports intimate partner violence (IPV) following disclosure of HIV test results by pregnant women. Methods In this cross sectional study we interviewed 1951 postnatal women who tested positive and negative for HIV about IPV experiences following HIV test disclosure, using an adapted WHO questionnaire. Multivariate regression models assessed factors associated with IPV after disclosure and controlled for factors such as previous IPV and other known behavioural factors associated with IPV. Results Over 93% (1817) disclosed the HIV results to their partners (96.5% HIV? vs. 89.3% HIV+, p<0.0001). Overall HIV prevalence was 15.3%, (95%CI:13.7–16.9), 35.2% among non-disclosers and 14.3% among disclosers. Overall 32.8% reported IPV (40.5% HIV+; 31.5% HIV? women, p?=?0.004). HIV status was associated with IPV (partially adjusted 1.43: (95%CI:1.00–2.05 as well as reporting negative reactions by male partners immediately after disclosure (adjusted OR 5.83, 95%CI:4.31–7.80). Factors associated with IPV were gender inequity, past IPV, risky sexual behaviours and living with relatives. IPV after HIV disclosure in pregnancy is high but lower than and is strongly related with IPV before pregnancy (adjusted OR 6.18, 95%CI: 3.84–9.93). Conclusion The study demonstrates the interconnectedness of IPV, HIV status and its disclosure with IPV which was a common experience post disclosure of both an HIV positive and HIV negative result. Health services must give attention to the gendered nature and consequences of HIV disclosure such as enskilling women on how to determine and respond to the risks associated with disclosure. Efforts to involve men in antenatal care must also be strengthened. PMID:25350001

  15. Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia C; Hillers, Virginia; Chen, Gang; DiMascola, Steve

    2003-12-01

    This study used a Web-based Delphi process with a group of nationally recognized food safety experts to identify food-handling behaviors of special importance in reducing the risk of foodborne illness among pregnant women, infants and young children, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems because of disease or pharmacologic therapy. Behaviors were related to 13 pathogens. Top-rated behaviors for pregnant women were associated with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, and Salmonella species. Top-rated behaviors for infants and young children, elderly people, and immune-compromised people were associated with a number of different pathogens. The results should help dietetics professionals and community health educators focus their efforts on those behaviors of special importance to the population being targeted. PMID:14647094

  16. High seroprevalence of chikungunya virus antibodies among pregnant women living in an urban area in benin, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Anastasia; Marchi, Serena; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Perrin, Renè Xavier; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Sambri, Vittorio; Landini, Maria Paola; Varani, Stefania; Rossini, Giada

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antichikungunya virus (anti-CHIKV) antibodies in pregnant women living in an urban area of Benin (West Africa). Results were obtained by screening sera collected in 2006 and 2007 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Positive results were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test and microneutralization assay. We found that a large proportion (36.1%) of pregnant women living in Cotonou had specific IgG against CHIKV, indicating a high seroprevalence of the infection in urban southern Benin, whereas no active cases of CHIKV infection were detected. PMID:25940198

  17. Dengue and hepatitis E virus infection in pregnant women in Eastern Sudan, a challenge for diagnosis in an endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Elduma, Adel Hussein; Osman, Waleed Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever and hepatitis E virus infection are both a public health problem in developing countries due to poor sanitation. Infection with viral hepatitis and dengue fever can present with similar clinical such and fever, headache and abortion. This study was conducted in Port-Sudan city in the eastern part of the country. ELISA and Real Time PCR tests were used to detect the infection. A total number of 39 pregnant women with a mean age 26 ±7.8 were included in the study. All of them had fever, 32 (92.3%) admitted with headache, 11 (28.2%) of them had vomiting, and abortion was reported in two cases (5.1%). The study showed that 4 (10.3%) of pregnant women were positive for the Hepatitis E virus, 5 (12.8%) positive for Dengue virus IgG, and only one sample (2.6%) was positive for IgM capture ELISA and real time PCR. Death due to hepatitis E infection was reported in one case with 7th month of pregnancy. Most of hepatitis cases were reported in the central sector of the Portsudan city. The diagnosis of hepatitis E virus and dengue virus in an endemic area is a great challenge for health care staff working in these areas. Both Dengue virus and Hepatitis E virus infection should be considered in pregnant women especially in similar settings. PMID:25995787

  18. Widespread 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in Affluent and Nonaffluent Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Rati; Palekar, Suhaila; Munipally, Tanya; Ghugre, Padmini; Udipi, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This cross-sectional study primarily aimed to assess vitamin D adequacy in the third trimester of pregnancy using 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and explore lifestyle characteristics (sun exposure index, diet, and economic indicators) associated with serum 25(OH)D. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of serum 25(OH)D with birth weight and gestational age. Methods. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay in 150 pregnant women from Mumbai. Sun exposure index was computed. Dietary calcium, phytate?:?calcium ratio, and dietary phosphorus was calculated using the 24-hour diet recall method. Results. All women had 25(OH)D levels < 30.00?ng/ml. Multivariable linear regression showed that nonaffluent women had poorer 25(OH)D status than their affluent counterparts (? = ?0.20; P = 0.03). Higher sun exposure index was associated with higher 25(OH)D concentrations (? = 0.31; P < 0.001), which remained significant after controlling for covariates. At the bivariate level, mothers of infants weighing <2500?g had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to mothers whose infants weighed ?2500?g (P = 0.02). This association became non-significant after controlling for covariates. Conclusions. Vitamin D deficiency was universally prevalent in the cohort studied. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive strategies for improving the 25(OH)D status. PMID:25045711

  19. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  20. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age. PMID:24795825

  1. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    PubMed Central

    Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. Results: The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions: Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester. PMID:24455060

  2. Obstetric therapeutics-how pharmacogenetics may inform drug therapy for pregnant women in the future.

    PubMed

    Haas, David M

    2013-09-01

    Most pregnant women take prescription medications. There are many factors related to pregnancy that make finding the most effective and safe dose of a therapeutic drug difficult for providers. Genetic differences in drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and receptors may also account for some of the differences in drug response. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 families, have been studied in relation to drugs used in pregnancy. Combining clinical characteristics, physiologic parameters in pregnancy, and possibly pharmacogenetic models may allow for providers to individualize pharmacotherapy in pregnancy and get to the most effective and safe dose of medication more quickly than in the current practice model. This article discusses these issues along with helpful Web sites and references for providers. PMID:25102121

  3. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in pregnant women chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L Cardoni; M. Mart??n Garc??a; A. M De Rissio

    2004-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of intracellular parasites could be related to the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. The levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and lnterleukin (IL)-10 were evaluated during pregnancy in sera of women chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi that delivered infected or non-infected children. The levels of IL-10 increased in both, women only pregnant and only infected, compared

  4. The importance of eating rice: changing food habits among pregnant Indonesian women during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hartini, T Ninuk S; Padmawati, R Siwi; Lindholm, Lars; Surjono, Achmad; Winkvist, Anna

    2005-07-01

    This article presents qualitative and quantitative research findings on food habits of pregnant Indonesian women in relation to the economic crisis that arose in 1997. Between 1996 and 1998, dietary intakes were estimated for 450 pregnant women in Central Java. Between January and June 1999, four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews and four non-participant observations were held with women, two in-depth interviews were held with traditional birth attendants, and four with midwives. Women were categorized as urban or rural, rich or poor, and according to rice field ownership. The women reported that before the crisis they bought more foods and cooked more meals and snacks. During the crisis, cooking methods became simpler and cooking tasty foods was more important than cooking nutritious foods. This involved using plenty of spices and cooking oil, but reducing the use of expensive nutritious foods. The herbal drink jamu was drunk by 15% of pregnant women; its consumption was lower during than before the economic crisis. Twenty-six percent of the women avoided certain foods due to food taboos, and most of these women avoided beneficial foods; this phenomenon decreased during the crisis among the rich and the rural, poor, landless women. In spite of increased prices for rice, women did not decrease their rice consumption during the crisis because rice was believed to have the highest value for survival, to provide strength during pregnancy and delivery, and to be easier to store and cook. Finally, children and husbands had highest priority in being served food, and women were the last to eat. PMID:15847972

  5. Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in pregnant women living in malaria holoendemic area of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Daud, Ibrahim I; Ogolla, Sidney; Amolo, Asito S; Namuyenga, Eunice; Simbiri, Kenneth; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sumba, Peter O; Dent, Arlene; Rochford, Rosemary

    2015-03-01

    The role of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transmission among infants early in life remain elusive. We hypothesized that infection with malaria during pregnancy could cause EBV reactivation leading to high EBV load in circulation, which could subsequently enhance early age of EBV infection. Pregnant women in Kisumu, where P. falciparum malaria is holoendemic, were actively followed monthly through antenatal visits (up to 4 per mother) and delivery. Using real-time quantitative (Q)-PCR, we quantified and compared EBV and P. falciparum DNA levels in the blood of pregnant women with and without P. falciparum malaria. Pregnant women that had malaria detected during pregnancy were more likely to have detectable EBV DNA than pregnant women who had no evidence of malaria infection during pregnancy (64 vs. 36 %, p = 0.01). EBV load as analyzed by quantifying area under the longitudinal observation curve (AUC) was significantly higher in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria than in women without evidence of malaria infection (p = 0.01) regardless of gestational age of pregnancy. Increase in malaria load correlated with increase in EBV load (p < 0.0001). EBV load was higher in third trimester (p = 0.04) than first and second trimester of pregnancy independent of known infections. Significantly higher frequency and elevated EBV loads were found in pregnant women with malaria than in women without evidence of P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. The loss of control of EBV latency following P. falciparum infection during pregnancy and subsequent increase in EBV load in circulation could contribute to enhanced shedding of EBV in maternal saliva and breast milk postpartum, but further studies are needed. PMID:24951129

  6. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus; Marco, Alfredo; Grimalt, Joan O

    2010-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, and 4,4'-DDE observed in this study were slightly higher than in other studies, whereas the PCB levels were similar. PMID:20832846

  7. Possible overexposure of pregnant women to emissions from a walk through metal detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagang Wu; Rui Qiang; Ji Chen; Seth Seidman; Donald Witters; Wolfgang Kainz

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the induced current densities and electric fields due to walk-through metal detector (WTMD) exposure. This procedure is then used to assess the exposure of nine pregnant women models exposed to one WTMD model. First, we measured the magnetic field generated by the WTMD, then we extracted the equivalent current source to represent

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Valencia-Quintana, R; Caba, M; Hernández-Chalate, F; García-Aguilar, E; Villalba, R

    2010-06-01

    DDT and Lindane (gamma-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution. Human adipose tissue samples were taken during 2009 from abdominal cavities of 69 pregnant women by cesarean surgery and from 34 samples of control donors by autopsy in Veracruz State. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD. The results of mean levels (mg/kg on fat basis) were higher in controls compared to pregnant women beta-HCH 0.064 vs 0.027; pp'DDE 1.187 vs. 0.745; op'DDT 0.016 vs. 0.011; pp'DDT 0.117 vs. 0.099 and Sigma-DDT 1.337 vs. 0.854. The pregnant women group was divided according to age: up to 20, 20-30, and more than 30 years, and presented an increase for the more persistent pesticides with age in terms of mean concentrations and a more pronounced higher correlation in medians levels. Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women. PMID:20449723

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Hassan, Nayereh; Lotfi, Peyman; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    We report Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence of 34.4% among 419 pregnant women in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Soil contact, living in rural environment, and level of education were associated with infection. The prevalence did not increase with age, suggesting high infection rate during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24006138

  10. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  11. Saving Babies: The Efficacy and Cost of Recent Changes in the Medicaid Eligibility of Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Currie; Jonathan Gruber

    1996-01-01

    The authors provide direct evidence on the effect of health insurance on health outcomes by examining the dramatic increases in the eligibility of pregnant women for the Medicaid program between 1979 and 1992. They find that the 30-percentage-point rise in Medicaid eligibility significantly lowered the incidence of low birth weight and infant mortality. Targeted changes in Medicaid eligibility that were

  12. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørg Hjerkinn; Morten Lindbæk; Elin Olaug Rosvold

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an

  13. Healthy Connections. A Training Program for Volunteers Working with At-Risk Pregnant Women. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn DeMeyer; McKinney, David D., Ed.

    This leader's manual, keyed to an accompanying videotape, contains step-by-step instructions for conducting a training session for volunteers who are preparing to work with young unmarried pregnant women. The manual, which includes transparency masters of handouts, is laid out with the outside column of each page containing instructions to the…

  14. Iodine supplementation of pregnant women in Europe: a review and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Zimmermann; F Delange

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Nearly two-thirds of the population of Western and Central Europe live in countries that are iodine deficient. Damage to reproductive function and to the development of the fetus and newborn is the most important consequence of iodine deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the iodine status of pregnant women in Europe and the potential need for

  15. Metabolomics Tools for Describing Complex Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women in Brittany (France)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Metabolomics Tools for Describing Complex Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women in Brittany (France University of Rennes I, Rennes, France Abstract Background: The use of pesticides and the related the following questions: What is the influence of exposures to multiple pesticides on the metabolome? What

  16. Quality of Measurement of Smoking Status by Self-Report and Saliva Cotinine Among Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal Richard Boyd; Richard A. Windsor; Laura L. Perkins; John B. Lowe

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of this paper were to determine the rate of misclassification of smoking and nonsmoking status by self-reports and saliva cotinine of pregnant women participating in a smoking cessation trial, determine the relationship of the number of cigarettes smoked per day and saliva cotinine, and examine whether misclassification was due to an inappropriate saliva cotinine cutoff point. Methods.

  17. Programs for Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, Single Pregnant Women. A Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhaven Coll., Farmers Branch, TX.

    This guide contains information about academic support services available to single parents, displaced homemakers, and single pregnant women at community, junior, and technical colleges throughout Texas. Over three-fourths of the guide is devoted to program information in the form of brochures, flyers, and forms supplied by representatives of…

  18. Magazine information on safety belt use for pregnant women and young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nakahara; M. Ichikawa; S. Wakai

    2007-01-01

    To assess the information on safety belt use for pregnant women and infants in maternity and baby magazines, we reviewed 2003 issues of the three top-selling monthly baby and maternity magazines. Articles on safety belt use during pregnancy and child safety seat (CSS) use for infants, and advertisements of the CSS, automobiles, or CSS-related products were examined for their informational

  19. HIV testing for pregnant women: A rights-based analysis of national policies

    PubMed Central

    King, Elizabeth J.; Maman, Suzanne; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Pierce, Matthew W.; Groves, Allison K.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical and human rights concerns have been expressed regarding the global shift in policies on HIV testing of pregnant women. The main purpose of this research was to conduct a policy analysis using a human rights-based approach of national policies for HIV testing of pregnant women. We collected HIV testing policies from 19 countries including: Cambodia, China, Guyana, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Moldova, Papua New Guinea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We analysed the HIV testing policies using a standardised framework that focused on government obligations to respect, protect and fulfil. Our results highlight the need for more attention to issues of pregnant women's autonomy in consenting to HIV testing, confidentiality in antenatal care settings and provision of counselling and care services. We conclude with a discussion about potential implications of the current testing policies and provide recommendations for ways that HIV testing policies can more effectively uphold the human rights of pregnant women. PMID:23181608

  20. Reasons Why Some Japanese Pregnant Women Choose Trial of Labor After Cesarean

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Ikeda, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether or not the Japanese pregnant women with a history of a cesarean section have the knowledge about the benefits and harms of trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) and elective repeat cesarean delivery (ERCD). Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 121 Japanese women with a prior cesarean section who visited our hospital for reservation of their second delivery between January and December 2013. Results Forty-five (37%) of them wanted to perform TOLAC at the first interview. Of these, 14 women (31%) with a history of an urgent cesarean chose TOLAC because of the insufficient anesthetic effect during cesarean, while 11 women (24%) with a history of an elective cesarean did not have the knowledge of the risks of TOLAC and urgent cesarean. Nineteen of those (76%) selected ERCD following the counseling. Conclusions Some Japanese pregnant women with TOLAC hope seemed to have insufficient knowledge about the benefits and harms of TOLAC and ERCD. Therefore, the improvement of the process of counseling and decision making may be needed for pregnant women with a history of a cesarean section in Japan. PMID:26124912

  1. Rubella immunity in pregnant women in a north London practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Naish

    1984-01-01

    Congenital malformations due to rubella embryopathy are preventable. All women embarking on pregnancy should be immune and know that they are immune to rubella to guard against the risk of contracting the disease during pregnancy. A previous history of clinical rubella or rubella vaccination is not reliable, and women should be screened for antibodies when possible before planning to conceive,

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and measures of thyroid function in second trimester pregnant women in California.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Park, June-Soo; Wang, Yunzhu; Petreas, Myrto; Zoeller, R Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2011-09-15

    Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may disrupt thyroid function and contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We conducted a pilot study to explore the relationship between serum concentrations of lower-brominated PBDEs (BDE-17 to -154), higher-brominated PBDEs (BDE-183 to -209), and hydroxylated PBDE metabolites (OH-PBDEs) with measures of thyroid function in pregnant women. Concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T(4)), and free T(4) were measured in serum samples collected between 2008 and 2009 from 25 second trimester pregnant women in California. Median concentrations of lower-brominated PBDEs and OH-PBDEs were the highest reported to date in pregnant women. Median concentrations of BDE-47 and the sum of lower-brominated PBDEs (?PBDE(5)) were 43.1 ng/g lipid and 85.8 ng/g lipid, respectively, and the sum of OH-PBDEs (?OH-PBDE(4)) was 0.084 ng/mL. We observed a positive association between the weighted sum of chemicals known to bind to transthyretin (?TTR binders) and TSH levels. We also found positive associations between TSH and ?PBDE(5), ?OH-PBDE(4), BDE-47, BDE-85, 5-OH-BDE47, and 4'-OH-BDE49, and an inverse association with BDE-207. Relationships with free and total T(4) were weak and inconsistent. Our results indicate that PBDE exposures are elevated in pregnant women in California and suggest a relationship with thyroid function. Further investigation is warranted to characterize the risks of PBDE exposures during pregnancy. PMID:21830753

  3. Determinants of urinary bisphenol A concentrations in Mexican/Mexican-American pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Harley, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may be associated with adverse health effects in the developing fetus; however, little is known about predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy. We examined BPA exposure in 491 pregnant women from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort and explored the role of living in the United States on significant dietary predictors of BPA exposure. Women provided urine samples up to two times during pregnancy (n=866 total samples). We computed the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to evaluate variability in concentrations between collections and used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to assess predictors of exposure. Geometric mean (GSD) BPA concentrations were 0.9 (2.8) µg/L and 1.0 (2.6) µg/L at the first and second prenatal visit, respectively. We observed greater within- than between-woman variability in urinary BPA concentrations (ICC=0.22). GEE models suggest that women who lived in the United States their entire life had 38% (CI:?0.1, 89.3) higher urinary BPA concentrations compared with other immigrant women. Additionally, women who consumed ?3 sodas per day or hamburgers three times a week or more had 58% (CI:18.0, 112.1) and 20% (CI: ?0.2, 45.2) higher urinary BPA concentrations, respectively, compared with women who consumed no sodas or hamburgers. A higher percentage of women who lived their entire life in the United States reported increased consumption of sodas and hamburgers compared with other immigrant women. Independent of other factors, BPA urinary concentrations were slightly higher when the sample was collected later in the day. As in previous studies, high within-woman variability in urinary BPA concentrations confirms that several samples are needed to properly characterize exposure during pregnancy. Results also suggest that some factors could be modified to minimize exposures during pregnancy in our study participants (e.g., reducing soda and hamburger intake) and that factors associated with acculturation might increase BPA concentrations. PMID:23816546

  4. Adverse Events in a Cohort of HIV Infected Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Treated with Nevirapine versus Non-Nevirapine Antiretroviral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Erika; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Criniti, Shannon; Tedaldi, Ellen; Gracely, Ed; Warriner, Amy; Kumar, Ritu; Bachmann, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Predictors of adverse events (AE) associated with nevirapine use are needed to better understand reports of severe rash or liver enzyme elevation (LEE) in HIV+ women. Methodology AE rates following ART initiation were retrospectively assessed in a multi-site cohort of 612 women. Predictors of onset of rash or LEE were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Principal Findings Of 612 subjects, 152 (24.8%) initiated NVP-based regimens with 86 (56.6%) pregnant; 460 (75.2%) initiated non-NVP regimens with 67 (14.6%) pregnant. LEE No significant difference was found between regimens in the development of new grade ?2 LEE (p?=?0.885). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an increased likelihood of LEE with HCV co-infection (OR 2.502, 95% CI: 1.04 to 6, p?=?0.040); pregnancy, NVP-based regimen, and baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 were not associated with this toxicity. Rash NVP initiation was associated with rash after controlling for CD4 and pregnancy (OR 2.78; 95%CI: 1.14–6.76), as was baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 when controlling for pregnancy and type of regimen (OR 2.68; 95% CI: 1.19–6.02 p?=?0.017). Conclusions CD4 at initiation of therapy was a predictor of rash but not LEE with NVP use in HIV+ women. Pregnancy was not an independent risk factor for the development of AEs assessed. The findings from this study have significant implications for women of child-bearing age initiating NVP-based ART particularly in resource limited settings. This study sheds more confidence on the lack of LEE risk and the need to monitor rash with the use of this medication. PMID:20838641

  5. The Comparative Clinical Course of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Hospitalised with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; Read, Robert C.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Semple, Malcolm G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Nicholson, Karl G.; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN) was established to gather detailed clinical and epidemiological information about patients with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in UK hospitals. This report focuses on the clinical course and outcomes of infection in pregnancy. Methods A standardised data extraction form was used to obtain detailed clinical information from hospital case notes and electronic records, for patients with PCR-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection admitted to 13 sentinel hospitals in five clinical 'hubs' and a further 62 non-sentinel hospitals, between 11th May 2009 and 31st January 2010.Outcomes were compared for pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 15–44 years, using univariate and multivariable techniques. Results Of the 395 women aged 15–44 years, 82 (21%) were pregnant; 73 (89%) in the second or third trimester. Pregnant women were significantly less likely to exhibit severe respiratory distress at initial assessment (OR?=?0.49 (95% CI: 0.30–0.82)), require supplemental oxygen on admission (OR?=?0.40 (95% CI: 0.20–0.80)), or have underlying co-morbidities (p-trend <0.001). However, they were equally likely to be admitted to high dependency (Level 2) or intensive care (Level 3) and/or to die, after adjustment for potential confounders (adj. OR?=?0.93 (95% CI: 0.46–1.92). Of 11 pregnant women needing Level 2/3 care, 10 required mechanical ventilation and three died. Conclusions Since the expected prevalence of pregnancy in the source population was 6%, our data suggest that pregnancy greatly increased the likelihood of hospital admission with A(H1N1)pdm09. Pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to have respiratory distress on admission, but severe outcomes were equally likely in both groups. PMID:22870239

  6. Health Risk Factors and Mental Health Among US Women with and without Chronic Physical Disabilities by Whether Women are Currently Pregnant.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ? 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ? 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:25421328

  7. Self-efficacy and self-rated oral health among pregnant aboriginal Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy plays an important role in oral health-related behaviours. There is little known about associations between self-efficacy and subjective oral health among populations at heightened risk of dental disease. This study aimed to determine if low self-efficacy was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among a convenience sample of pregnant women. Methods We used self-reported data from 446 Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child (age range 14–43 years) to evaluate self-rated oral health, self-efficacy and socio-demographic, psychosocial, social cognitive and risk factors. Hierarchical entry of explanatory variables into logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for fair or poor self-rated oral health. Results In an unadjusted model, those with low self-efficacy had 2.40 times the odds of rating their oral health as ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ (95% CI 1.54–3.74). Addition of socio-demographic factors attenuated the effect of low self-efficacy on poor self-rated oral health by 10 percent (POR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37–3.51). Addition of the psychosocial factors attenuated the odds by 17 percent (POR 2.07, 95% CI 1.28–3.36), while addition of the social cognitive variable fatalism increased the odds by 1 percent (POR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55–3.78). Inclusion of the behavioural risk factor ‘not brushing previous day’ attenuated the odds by 15 percent (POR 2.11, 95%CI 1.32–3.36). In the final model, which included all covariates, the odds were attenuated by 32 percent (POR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05, 3.08). Conclusions Low self-efficacy persisted as a risk indicator for poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding among this vulnerable population. PMID:24690235

  8. Assessing Diet Quality in a Population of Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Comparison Between Native Americans and Whites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Watts; Helaine Rockett; Heather Baer; Jill Leppert; Graham Colditz

    Objective: To assess diet quality of pregnant women in the WIC program in North Dakota and to compare Native Americans with whites, we used a DQI-P (diet quality index for pregnancy) among low-income pregnant women enrolled in WIC, a special supplemental program for women, infants, and children.Methods: Dietary information was collected for all participants using the Harvard Service Food Frequency

  9. Assessing Diet Quality in a Population of Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Comparison Between Native Americans and Whites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Watts; Helaine Rockett; Heather Baer; Jill Leppert; Graham Colditz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess diet quality of pregnant women in the WIC program in North Dakota and to compare Native Americans with whites,\\u000a we used a DQI-P (diet quality index for pregnancy) among low-income pregnant women enrolled in WIC, a special supplemental\\u000a program for women, infants, and children. Methods: Dietary information was collected for all participants using the Harvard Service Food

  10. Women's Studies (undergraduate)

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    348 Women's Studies (undergraduate) The Women's Studies Program offers an interdisciplinary course of study in the historical, economic, political, social and cultural experi- ence of women. The program courses in women's studies. Each semester the Women's Studies Department publishes a list of courses

  11. Socio-demographic factors related to periodontal status and tooth loss of pregnant women in Mbale district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Margaret; Engebretsen, Ingunn MS; Okullo, Isaac; Tumwine, James K; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene. Methods Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa). In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6) women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5) women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Results The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4–5 mm), whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9), nulliparous (OR = 0.4) and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04) were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5) were more likely to have lost at least one tooth. Conclusion The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4–5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in pregnancy is warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397150 PMID:19615094

  12. Internet Use and Access Among Pregnant Women via Computer and Mobile Phone: Implications for Delivery of Perinatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo Urrutia, Rachel; Berger, Alexander A; Ivins, Amber A; Beckham, A Jenna; Thorp Jr, John M

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Internet-based behavioral programs may be an efficient, flexible method to enhance prenatal care and improve pregnancy outcomes. There are few data about access to, and use of, the Internet via computers and mobile phones among pregnant women. Objective We describe pregnant women’s access to, and use of, computers, mobile phones, and computer technologies (eg, Internet, blogs, chat rooms) in a southern United States population. We describe the willingness of pregnant women to participate in Internet-supported weight-loss interventions delivered via computers or mobile phones. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 100 pregnant women at a tertiary referral center ultrasound clinic in the southeast United States. Data were analyzed using Stata version 10 (StataCorp) and R (R Core Team 2013). Means and frequency procedures were used to describe demographic characteristics, access to computers and mobile phones, and use of specific Internet modalities. Chi-square testing was used to determine whether there were differences in technology access and Internet modality use according to age, race/ethnicity, income, or children in the home. The Fisher’s exact test was used to describe preferences to participate in Internet-based postpartum weight-loss interventions via computer versus mobile phone. Logistic regression was used to determine demographic characteristics associated with these preferences. Results The study sample was 61.0% white, 26.0% black, 6.0% Hispanic, and 7.0% Asian with a mean age of 31.0 (SD 5.1). Most participants had access to a computer (89/100, 89.0%) or mobile phone (88/100, 88.0%) for at least 8 hours per week. Access remained high (>74%) across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, income levels, and number of children in the home. Internet/Web (94/100, 94.0%), email (90/100, 90.0%), and Facebook (50/100, 50.0%) were the most commonly used Internet technologies. Women aged less than 30 years were more likely to report use of Twitter and chat rooms compared to women 30 years of age or older. Of the participants, 82.0% (82/100) were fairly willing or very willing to participate in postpartum lifestyle intervention. Of the participants, 83.0% (83/100) were fairly willing or very willing to participate in an Internet intervention delivered via computer, while only 49.0% (49/100) were fairly willing or very willing to do so via mobile phone technology. Older women and women with children tended to be less likely to desire a mobile phone-based program. Conclusions There is broad access and use of computer and mobile phone technology among southern US pregnant women with varied demographic characteristics. Pregnant women are willing to participate in Internet-supported perinatal interventions. Our findings can inform the development of computer- and mobile phone-based approaches for the delivery of clinical and educational interventions. PMID:25835744

  13. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; Montesinos, Pau; Casale, María F; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; Jiménez, Santiago; Fernández, Isolda; Fernández, Pascual; González-Campos, José; González, José D; Herrera, Pilar; de Lisa, Elena; Olave, Teresa; Rojas, Rafael; Salamero, Olga; Sayas, María J; Pellicer, Antonio; Perales, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    The management of pregnant women with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a challenge with limited evidence-based information available. We are reporting a series of 14 consecutive pregnant women with APL who were registered in the PETHEMA Data Centre between 1996 and 2012. APL was diagnosed during early pregnancy in five women, late pregnancy in seven, and two additional patients after delivery in an extremely poor clinical condition (pulmonary and cerebral hemorrhage). Eleven of the 12 patients eligible for induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin achieved complete remission (CR 92 %) and are still in the first CR. All early pregnancies ended in abortion (four induced and one spontaneous), with four of them achieving CR. Eight of nine women in late pregnancy delivered a healthy infant (six cesarean section and two vaginal delivery). All eight babies developed normally. Our results confirm a high cure rate for pregnant women with APL who received all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin for induction therapy, and an excellent outcome for babies when the disease is diagnosed during late pregnancy. PMID:25911134

  14. Knowledge of pregnant women on transmission of HIV infection through breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kasinga, F; Mogotlane, S M; van Rensburg, G H

    2008-09-01

    Although breast-feeding is nature's way of providing nutrition to the baby, in HIV positive mothers this has been identified as one of the means through which HIV infection is transmitted from the mother to the child. In Africa where children under the age of 5 are killed by preventable diseases like diarrhoea, the issue of HIV transmission through breast feeding poses an added huge problem. Research has, however shown that exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, reduces the risk substantially. It is imperative that mothers be informed about safer methods of infant feeding so that HIV infection is kept to a minimum. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge that pregnant women had about mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. A non-experimental quantitative exploratory and descriptive research design was used to explore the knowledge women had on mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. From the data collected, it showed that although women were aware of the susceptibility of children to HIV infection if fed on breast and formula feeds simultaneously by HIV positive mothers, exclusive feeding was a problem as people associated the practise with a positive HIV status. Women who had not disclosed their HIV status and were HIV positive, found it difficult to comply with the requirement to exclusively feed their infants. These either continued with complementary feeds or did not collect the free formula milk supply preferring instead to buy the formula feeds privately. In this study it was recommended that information on transmission of HIV infection from mother to child through breast -feeding including the benefits of exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, for the first three to six months be provided to the community so that relatives can support the mother on infant feeding method of choice. PMID:19177967

  15. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 ?g/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 ?g/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 ?g/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  17. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Soren; Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman; Murphy, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe activity patterns in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and evaluate the impact of increased structured physical activity on glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose levels (continuous glucose monitoring) were measured in 10 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (age 33.2 years, gestation 20 weeks, BMI 27.9 kg/m2, diabetes duration 16.6 years, HbA1c 6.5% [48 mmol/mol], insulin pump duration 2.4 years) during a day at home (free-living) and during a 24-h visit incorporating controlled diet and structured physical activity with light intensity activity (three 20-min self-paced walks) and moderate intensity activity (two 50-min sessions of brisk treadmill walking). PAEE was evaluated through individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. RESULTS Free-living PAEE was comparable to that under controlled study conditions (3.8 and 5.1 kcal/kg/day, P = 0.241), with women achieving near to the recommended 30 min of moderate physical activity (median 27 min [interquartile range 14–68]). During the free-living period, more time was spent in light activity (10.3 vs. 7.2 h, P = 0.005), with less sedentary time (13.0 vs. 14.9 h, P = 0.047) and less moderate activity (27 vs. 121 min, P = 0.022). The free-living 24-h mean glucose levels by continuous glucose monitoring were significantly higher (7.7 vs. 6.0 mmol/L, P = 0.028). The effect of controlled diet and exercise persisted overnight, with significantly less time spent hyperglycemic (19 vs. 0%, P = 0.028) and less glucose variability (glucose SD 1.3 vs. 0.7 mmol/L, P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS A controlled diet and structured physical activity program may assist women with type 1 diabetes in achieving optimal glucose control during pregnancy. PMID:23404301

  18. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women. PMID:25186090

  19. Shanghai Women's Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Shanghai Women's Health Study, a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 women, which aims to evaluate the causes of cancer among Chinese women.

  20. Development of Antibodies against Chondroitin Sulfate A-Adherent Plasmodium falciparum in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, Bertrand; Fievet, Nadine; Tami, Germaine; Cot, Michel; Boudin, Christian; Deloron, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, pregnant women are at increased risk for malaria, and this risk is greatest during the first pregnancy. The placenta sequesters parasites that are able to cytoadhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), a molecule expressed by the placental syncytiotrophoblast, while parasites from a nonpregnant host do not bind to CSA. Cytoadherence is mediated by the expression of variants of the P. falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family. Each member of this molecule family induces antibodies that specifically agglutinate infected erythrocytes and inhibit their cytoadherence ability. We investigated whether the higher susceptibility of primigravidae was related to the lack of immune response towards CSA-binding parasites. In a cross-sectional study, primigravidae delivering with a noninfected placenta were less likely to have antibodies agglutinating CSA-binding parasites than multigravidae (P < 0.01). In contrast, parasites from nonpregnant hosts were as likely to be recognized by the sera from women of various parities. In a longitudinal study, at 6 months of pregnancy, antibodies against CSA-binding parasites were present in 31.8% of primigravidae and in 76.9% of secundigravidae (P = 0.02). The antibodies against CSA-binding parasites inhibited the cytoadherence of a CSA-adherent parasite strain to the human placental trophoblast. Our data support the idea that the higher susceptibility of primiparae is related to a lack of a specific immune response to placental parasites. PMID:10496918

  1. Development and validation of an iodine-specific FFQ to estimate iodine intake in Australian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Condo, Dominique; Makrides, Maria; Skeaff, Sheila; Zhou, Shao J

    2015-03-28

    Adequate iodine is important during pregnancy to ensure optimal growth and development of the offspring. We validated an iodine-specific FFQ (I-FFQ) for use in Australian pregnant women. A forty-four-item I-FFQ was developed to assess iodine intake from food and was administered to 122 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Iodine supplement use was captured separately at 28 weeks gestation. Correlation between iodine intake from food estimated using the I-FFQ and a 4 d weighed food record as well as correlation between total iodine intake and 24 h urinary iodine excretion (UIE), 24 h urinary iodine concentration (UIC), spot UIC and thyroid function were assessed at 28 weeks gestation. A moderate correlation between the two dietary methods was shown (r 0·349, P< 0·001), and it was strengthened with the addition of iodine supplements (r 0·876, P<0·001). There was a fair agreement (k= 0·28, P<0·001) between the two dietary measures in the classification of women as receiving adequate (?160 ?g/d) or inadequate (<160 ?g/d) iodine intake from food, but the limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman plot were large. Total iodine intake was associated with 24 h UIE (? = 0·488, P<0·001) but not with spot UIC. Iodine intake from food using the I-FFQ was assessed at study entry (<20 weeks gestation) in addition to 28 weeks gestation, and there was a strong correlation in iodine intake at the two time points (r 0·622, P<0·001), which indicated good reproducibility. In conclusion, the I-FFQ provides a valid tool for estimating iodine intake in pregnant women and can be used to screen women who are at risk of inadequate intake. PMID:25744430

  2. A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26) and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99), followed by coping with the new baby (1.57), going to hospital (1.29) and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28). The internal consistency of the scale (0.80) was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians. PMID:20038294

  3. Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12?months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p?pregnant women in Bastar, the district with greater malaria prevalence (51% vs. 11%, p?

  4. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine of non-smoking Polish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Magnus, Per; Seidel, Albrecht

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the PAH exposure level among the non-smoking Polish pregnant women and to identify the minimal set of PAH metabolites that specifically reflect environmental PAH exposure. The study population consisted of 210 non-smoking pregnant women. The urine sample was used for analysis of the following PAH metabolites: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-OH-PHE), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR), 1,6+1,8-dihydroxypyrene (DI-OH-PYR), phenanthrene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol (PHE-1,2-diol) and phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol (PHE-9,10-diol). The analysis of all the biomarkers was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after their derivatization. The mean PAH metabolite concentrations were in the range of 0.15 (± 0.2) ?g/g creatinine for 9-OH-PHE to 5.9 (± 10.6) ?g/g creatinine for PHE-9,10-diol. Women living in the city center had higher concentrations of 1-OH-PHE (?=0.6; p=0.04), 3-OH-PHE (?=0.8; p=0.02), 9-OH-PHE (?=0.9; p=0.02), and DI-OH-PYR (?=1.0; p=0.006) than those living outside the city center. The usage of coal for residential heating was a significant predictor of all PAH metabolites except for 9-OH-PHE (p=0.1) and PHE-9,10-diol (p=0.08). With the increasing cotinine levels we observed a significant increase in the concentrations of the following PAH metabolites: 3-OH-PHE (?=0.2; p=0.007), 4-OH-PHE (?=0.3; p=0.002), PHE-1,2-diol (?=0.3; p<0.001), 1-OH-PYR (?=0.2; p=0.01). High-density housing, usage of coal for residential heating, cotinine level in saliva, season of urine collection and distance from the place of residence to the main road explained 26% of the variance of 3-OH-PHE and 21% of the variance of 1-OH-PHE. 2-OH-PHE, 3-OH-PHE, 9-OH-PHE and PHE-9,10-diol are sufficient to predict environmental PAH exposure. The urinary PAH biomarker levels found in this study indicate that non-smoking Polish pregnant women suffer from a higher PAH exposure than those in other western countries. This higher PAH exposure level probably poses a significant health risk for the newborns and young children and will require further attention in the future. PMID:24784734

  5. Safety of withholding anticoagulation in pregnant women with suspected deep vein thrombosis following negative serial compression ultrasound and iliac vein imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wee-Shian; Spencer, Frederick A.; Lee, Agnes Y. Y.; Chunilal, Sanjeev; Douketis, James D.; Rodger, Marc; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Compression ultrasonography performed serially over a 7-day period is recommended for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in symptomatic pregnant women, but whether this approach is safe is unknown. We evaluated the safety of withholding anticoagulation from pregnant women with suspected deep vein thrombosis following negative serial compression ultrasonography and iliac vein imaging. Methods: Consecutive pregnant women who presented with suspected deep vein thrombosis underwent compression ultrasonography and Doppler imaging of the iliac vein of the symptomatic leg(s). Women whose initial test results were negative underwent serial testing on 2 occasions over the next 7 days. Women not diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis were followed for a minimum of 3 months for the development of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Results: In total, 221 pregnant women presented with suspected deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 16 (7.2%) women by initial compression ultrasonography and Doppler studies; none were identified as having deep vein thrombosis on serial testing. One patient with normal serial testing had a pulmonary embolism diagnosed 7 weeks later. The overall prevalence of deep vein thrombosis was 7.7% (17/221); of these, 65% (11/17) of cases were isolated to the iliofemoral veins and 12% (2/17) were isolated iliac deep vein thromboses. The incidence of venous thromboembolism during follow-up was 0.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09%–2.71%). The sensitivity of serial compression ultrasonography with Doppler imaging was 94.1% (95% CI 69.2%–99.7%), the negative predictive value was 99.5% (95% CI 96.9%–100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.068 (95% CI 0.01–0.39). Interpretation: Serial compression ultrasonography with Doppler imaging of the iliac vein performed over a 7-day period excludes deep-vein thrombosis in symptomatic pregnant women. PMID:23318405

  6. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. Method We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15–49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Results Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Conclusion Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita District are exposed to potentially high levels of chemical elements, depending upon frequency of consumption, daily amount consumed and the source location of soil eaten. PMID:24731450

  7. Seroprevalence and correlates of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type 1 antibodies among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Ugwu, Ngozi I; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Background Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a retrovirus transmitted vertically from mother to child parenterally and sexually by infected lymphocytes. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies and associated risk factors for HTLV-1 infection among pregnant women in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2010. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited consecutively from the antenatal clinic. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each of the participants into a plain sterile bottle and allowed to clot. The serum obtained was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results The average age of the pregnant women was 28.94 years (standard deviation 4.17). The age-group with the highest representation was those between the ages of 26 and 30 years. Thirty-six percent of the population was above 30 years old. The result of the tests showed that only one respondent, a 31-year-old pregnant woman tested positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Therefore, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital was 0.5%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0%–2.8%. Some of the sociodemographic risk factors of HTLV-1 infection found to be applicable to the 31-year-old woman who tested positive included positive history of previous sexually transmitted diseases, high parity, low socioeconomic status, female sex, and age above 30 years. The pregnant women that participated in this study were exposed to risk factors and behaviors associated with HTLV-1 infection. Some of the pregnant women (17.5%) had contracted sexually transmitted diseases, and 80.5% did not use condoms during coitus. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study was low, though it is 100% for anyone infected. More prospective and multicenter studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 among pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:25258559

  8. HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E M; Ritchie, J M; Yankowitz, J; Wang, D; Turek, L P; Haugen, T H

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specimen from their oral cavity. HPV assessment was performed by PCR, dot blot hybridization and DNA sequencing. A sexual and health questionnaire was completed by the pregnant women. RESULTS: HPV prevalence in women was 29% in the cervix and 2.4% in the oral cavity. Among those with both gestational and delivery specimens, 35% were infected at least once and 20% had infection at both intervals. At delivery, 68% of infected women had an oncogenic HPV type in the cervix. There was no type-specific HPV concordance between the two cervical specimens, nor cervical and oral results in women, nor with cervical and oral findings between partners. CONCLUSION: The lack of association in HPV positivity and types between the cervix and oral cavity in these women suggests that self-inoculation is uncommon. This source of infection does not appear to be from oral contact with a current male partner, since there also was no concordance between partners. These results suggest either other modes of HPV transmission or differences in susceptibility to HPV infection or its clearance in the oral cavity and genital mucosa. PMID:15739817

  9. Exposure assessment of pregnant Portuguese women to methylmercury through the ingestion of fish: cross-sectional survey and biomarker validation.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Elisabete; Cavaco, Afonso; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) contamination is a critical public health problem in Portugal, where fish is an important component of the daily diet. The Portuguese are the third largest consumers in the world (after Japan and Iceland) but first in Europe. Prenatal exposure to MeHg is believed to be linked to fetal/child neurodevelopment and behavioral impairments due to the neurotoxicity of the compound. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of pregnant Portuguese women to mercury (Hg) due to fish consumption, calculating the indices of risk and confirming exposure through analyses of a biomarker of exposure. The study consisted of a cross-sectional evaluation of 343 pregnant women recruited at their visit to two antenatal care units in Lisbon, Portugal. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate prenatal exposure. Total Hg levels in hair were analyzed by atomic absorption, in samples from 186 women. The average fish consumption was 3.1 meals per week. Median Hg level in the hair was 1.26 ?g/g (range: 0.07-5.3 ?g/g). The mean calculated risk index was 0.81; however, 28% of the pregnant women ingested levels above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO; 1.6 mg/kg per body weight), indicating the possibility of risk due to MeHg exposure. Multiple linear regression analysis showed the risk index was reliably predicted from predatory fish species and number of fish meals consumed per week. Ingestion of black and silver scabbard fish as well as mixed predatory fish cooked in traditional dishes enhanced the toxicity risk. In conclusion, some exposure levels exceeded the reference value; therefore, nutritional counseling needs to be provided to populations at risk. PMID:24555654

  10. Group Prenatal Care and Doula Care for Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Vonderheid; Rieko Kishi; Kathleen F. Norr; Carrie Klima

    \\u000a There is widespread recognition of the need for innovation to improve the quality of care for ­childbearing women and to reduce\\u000a the long-standing racial\\/ethnic disparities in pregnancy outcomes (Carroli, Rooney, & Villar, 2001; Hughes & Runyan, 1995;\\u000a Institute of Medicine, 2003; Lu & Halfon, 2003; Misra, Grason & Weisman, 2000). This integrated review will examine two promising\\u000a innovations for childbearing

  11. Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcal colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Madani; G. K. Harding; M. Helewa; M. J. Alfa

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The recovery rates of group B streptococcus (GBS) from anorectal swabs (RS) and vaginal swabs (VS) that were enriched were\\u000a compared to the routine method to determine the optimal procedure. Separate RS and VS were collected from women attending\\u000a antenatal clinics. RS and VS were placed in 2 ml enrichment and selective broth. Swabs were inoculated onto colistin\\/nalidixic\\u000a acid agar

  12. Fear of Birth Defects Is a Major Barrier to Soil-Transmitted Helminth Treatment (STH) for Pregnant Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Totañes, Francis Isidore G.; Macatangay, Bernard J. C.; Belizario, Vicente Y.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends anthelminthic treatment for pregnant women after the first trimester in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) endemic regions to prevent adverse maternal-fetal consequences. Although studies have shown the high prevalence of infection in the Philippines, no research has evaluated deworming practices. We hypothesized that pregnant women are not receiving deworming treatment and we aimed to identify barriers to World Health Organization guideline implementation. We conducted key informant interviews with local Department of Health (DOH) administrators, focus group discussions with nurses, midwives, and health care workers, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices surveys with women of reproductive age to elicit perspectives about deworming during pregnancy. Key informant interviews revealed that healthcare workers were not deworming pregnant women due to inadequate drug supply, infrastructure and personnel as well as fear of teratogenicity. Focus group discussions showed that healthcare workers similarly had not implemented guidelines due to infrastructure challenges and concerns for fetal malformations. The majority of local women believed that STH treatment causes side effects (74.8%) as well as maternal harm (67.3%) and fetal harm (77.9%). Women who were willing to take anthelminthics while pregnant had significantly greater knowledge as demonstrated by higher Treatment Scores (mean rank 146.92 versus 103.1, z?=??4.40, p<0.001) and higher Birth Defect Scores (mean rank 128.09 versus 108.65, z?=??2.43, p?=?0.015). This study concludes that World Health Organization guidelines are not being implemented in the Philippines. Infrastructure, specific protocols, and education for providers and patients regarding anthelminthic treatment are necessary for the successful prevention of STH morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. PMID:24586245

  13. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Policy Implications: Our study can help inform policies and multi-sectoral approaches that are being taken by the Indian government to reduce maternal and child morbidity and burdens. PMID:25191141

  14. Periodontal status, tooth loss and self-reported periodontal problems effects on oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, in pregnant women in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret N Wandera; Ingunn M Engebretsen; Charles M Rwenyonyi; James Tumwine; Anne N Åstrøm

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important aim of antenatal care is to improve maternal health- and well being of which oral health is an important part. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) during pregnancy, using a locally adapted OIDP inventory, and to document how periodontal status, tooth-loss and reported periodontal problems are related to oral

  15. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...postsecondary or secondary school settings, including area vocational education schools, and community-based...81(c), that serve single parents, displaced homemakers...C. 2335(b)) Sex Equity...

  16. TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  17. Effects of ?2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on Ritodrine Therapy in Pregnant Women with Preterm Labor: Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Young; Lee, Na Ra; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Sunny; Kim, Young Ju; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms on ritodrine therapy outcomes in patients with preterm labor. Genotyping analysis of ADRB2 gene (rs1042713, rs1042714, rs1042717, rs1042718, and rs1042719) was performed on 137 patients with preterm labor. Survival analysis was conducted for the effects of SNPs on the median time to delivery as a primary outcome. The median time to delivery in the study patients was 349.3 h. Gestational age at admission and modified Bishop scores revealed significant effects on time to delivery (p < 0.001). Among studied SNPs, rs1042717 and rs1042718 showed linkage disequilibrium in this population, and their effects on time to delivery were marginally significant (p < 0.1). Patients with variant-homozygotes in the rs1042713 showed considerably shortened time to delivery compared to wild-allele carriers. The rs1042719 polymorphism significantly affected time to delivery in both univariate and multivariate analysis; the GC and CC carriers showed 64% decrease in time to delivery compared to the wild-type homozygote carriers. Based on the results, it was concluded that the gene polymorphisms of ADRB2 could affect ritodrine therapy in patients with preterm labor. However, given the single-center and the relatively small sample size, our hypothesis requires further independent validation using multi-center and large sample size. PMID:25050782

  18. Reduction in glomerular pore size is not restricted to pregnant women. Evidence for a new syndrome: 'Shrunken pore syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Anders; Lindström, Veronica; Jonsson, Magnus; Bäck, Sten-Erik; Åhlund, Tomas; Rippe, Bengt; Christensson, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The plasma levels of cystatin C, ?2-microglobulin, beta-trace protein, retinol binding protein (RBP) and creatinine were determined in plasma samples from 111 randomly selected patients with eGFRcystatin C ? 60% of eGFRcreatinine and from 55 control patients with 0.9eGFRcreatinine ? eGFRcystatin C ? 1.1eGFRcreatinine (eGFRcystatin C ? eGFRcreatinine). The concentration ratios of cystatin C/creatinine, ?2-microglobulin/creatinine, beta-trace protein/creatinine and RBP/creatinine were significantly higher in patients with eGFRcystatin C ? 60% of eGFRcreatinine than in patients with eGFRcystatin C ? eGFRcreatinine. When the patients were divided into three groups with different estimated GFR intervals (? 40, 40-60 and ? 60 mL/min/1.73m(2)) the concentration ratios of cystatin C/creatinine, ?2-microglobulin/creatinine, and beta-trace protein/creatinine were significantly higher in patients with eGFRcystatin C ? 60% of eGFRcreatinine than in patients with eGFRcystatin C ? eGFRcreatinine for all GFR intervals. Similar results were obtained when the population without pregnant women was studied as well as the subpopulations of men or of non-pregnant women. Populations of pre-eclamptic women and pregnant women in the third trimester display similar results. Since the production of these four proteins with sizes similar to that of cystatin C is not co-regulated, the most likely explanation for the simultaneous increase of their creatinine-ratios in patients with eGFRcystatin C ? 60% of eGFRcreatinine is that their elimination by glomerular filtration is decreased. We suggest that this is due to a reduction in pore diameter of the glomerular membrane and propose the designation 'Shrunken pore syndrome' for this pathophysiological state. PMID:25919022

  19. Predictors of organochlorines in New York City pregnant women, 1998–2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Wolff; Elena Deych; Fiola Ojo; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been found widely in human tissues. However, levels have been rapidly declining since their virtual ban in the 1970s. We measured 1,1?-dichloro-2,2?-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and trans-nonachlor (TN) in 194 pregnant women in New York City and examined demographic and dietary predictors of their levels in serum. Serum OC levels were low (median ?g\\/L: 0.64

  20. Inspiratory flow limitation during sleep in pre-eclampsia: comparison with normal pregnant and nonpregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Connolly; A. R. A. Razak; A. Hayanga; A. Russell; P. McKenna; W. T. McNicholas

    2001-01-01

    Inspiratory flow limitation during sleep in pre-eclampsia: comparison with normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. G. Connolly, A.R.A. Razak, A. Hayanga, A. Russell, P. McKenna, W.T. McNicholas. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Self-reported snoring is common in pregnancy, particularly in females with pre-eclampsia. The prevalence of inspiratory flow limitation during sleep in pre- eclamptic females was objectively assessed and compared with

  1. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women residing in an area with adequate iodine intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Marchioni; Angela Fumarola; Anna Calvanese; Francesca Piccirilli; Valentina Tommasi; Pietro Cugini; Salvatore Ulisse; Filippo Rossi Fanelli; Massimino D'Armiento

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveTo prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders established that for a given population median urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) must be 100–199 ?g\\/L in clinically healthy subjects and 150–249 ?g\\/L in clinically healthy pregnant women. We evaluated whether in the urban area of Rome, Italy,

  2. Predictors of organochlorines in New YorkCity pregnant women, 1998-2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Wolff; Elena Deych; Fiola Ojo; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been found widely in human tissues. However, levels have been rapidly declining since their virtual ban in the 1970s. We measured 1,10-dichloro-2,20-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and trans-nonachlor (TN) in 194 pregnant women in New YorkCity and examined demographic and dietary predictors of their levels in serum. Serum OC levels were low (median mg\\/L: 0.64 DDE,

  3. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of film