Science.gov

Sample records for sua importancia socio-ambiental

  1. Botswana: Ntwetwe and Sua Pans

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. ... coat the surface and turn it bright ("sua" means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland ...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1027 - Sua sponte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sua sponte. 2.1027 Section 2.1027 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses for the Receipt of High-Level Radioactive Waste at a Geologic Repository § 2.1027 Sua sponte. In any initial decision in...

  3. 10 CFR 2.1027 - Sua sponte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Issuance of Licenses for the Receipt of High-Level Radioactive Waste at a Geologic Repository § 2.1027 Sua... high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations area under parts 60 or 63 of this chapter, or an application for a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive...

  4. Estudio muestra importancia de conversaciones tempranas sobre el cuidado en etapa final de la vida

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre la importancia de hablar en forma temprana sobre el cuidado paliativo para asegurar que la atención prestada en la etapa final de la vida sea más acorde con las preferencias de los pacientes.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Sua5, a Novel Gene Required for Normal Growth in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Na, J. G.; Pinto, I.; Hampsey, M.

    1992-01-01

    We have identified the sua5 locus as a suppressor of an aberrant ATG codon located in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. The sua5-1 allele enhances the iso-1-cytochrome c steady state level in the cyc1-1019 mutant from 2% to &60% of normal (Cyc(+)) and also confers a marked slow growth (Slg(-)) phenotype. Suppression is not a consequence of altered transcription initiation at the cyc1 locus. The SUA5 wild-type gene was isolated and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a potential protein of 46,537 Da. SUA5 transcript analyses were consistent with expression of the predicted ORF and Sua5 antisera detected a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 44 kDa. SUA5 was mapped to chromosome VII, immediately adjacent to the PMR1 gene. Hybridization analysis revealed the presence of a related gene on chromosome XII. Neither the SUA5 DNA sequence nor deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to any sequences in the data banks. Disruption of SUA5 conferred the same Cyc(+) and Slg(-) phenotypes as the sua5-1 suppressor, which is the result of a missense mutation, encoding a Ser(107) -> Phe replacement. In addition, sua5 null mutants lack cytochrome a.a(3) and fail to grow on lactate or glycerol medium. These results define SUA5 as a new gene encoding a novel protein that is necessary for normal cell growth. PMID:1325384

  6. Development and evaluation of a SUAS perching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Ryan

    Perching has been proposed as a possible landing technique for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS). The current research study develops an onboard open loop perching system for a fixed-wing SUAS and examines the impact of initial flight speed and sensor placement on the perching dynamics. A catapult launcher and modified COTS aircraft were used for the experiments, while an ultrasonic sensor on the aircraft was used to detect the perching target. Thirty tests were conducted varying the initial launch speed and ultrasonic sensor placement to see if they affected the time the aircraft reaches its maximum pitch angle, since the maximum pitch angle is the optimum perching point for the aircraft. High-speed video was analyzed to obtain flight data, along with data from an onboard inertial measuring unit. The data were analyzed using a model 1, two-way ANOVA to determine if launch speed and sensor placement affect the optimum perching point where the aircraft reaches its maximum pitch angle during the maneuver. The results show the launch speed does affect the time at which the maximum pitch angle occurs, but sensor placement does not. This means a closed loop system will need to adjust its perching distance based on its initial velocity. The sensor placement not having any noticeable effect means the ultrasonic sensor can be placed on the nose or the wing of the aircraft as needed for the design. There was also no noticeable interaction between the two variables. Aerodynamic parameters such as lift, drag, and moment coefficients were derived from the dynamic equations of motion for use in numerical simulations and dynamic perching models.

  7. Unlocking the potential of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, < 25 kg) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remote sensing platforms for Earth observation (EO). sUAS technology affords greater control, lower cost, and flexibility for scientists, and provides new opportunities to match the scale of sUAS data to the scale of the geophysical phenomenon under investigation. Although a mechanism is in place to make sUAS available to researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.

  8. 78 FR 12365 - License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill-License No. SUA-1475

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill--License No. SUA-1475... Materials License Number SUA-1475 for the UNC Church Rock Mill site located in New Mexico (the UNC...

  9. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  10. Validation of Spaceborne Radar Surface Water Mapping with Optical sUAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Murnaghan, K.; Sherman, D.; Poncos, V.; Brisco, B.; Armenakis, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has over 40 years of experience with airborne and spaceborne sensors and is now starting to use small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) to validate products from large coverage area sensors and create new methodologies for very high resolution products. Wetlands have several functions including water storage and retention which can reduce flooding and provide continuous flow for hydroelectric generation and irrigation for agriculture. Synthetic Aperture Radar is well suited as a tool for monitoring surface water by supplying acquisitions irrespective of cloud cover or time of day. Wetlands can be subdivided into three classes: open water, flooded vegetation and upland which can vary seasonally with time and water level changes. RADARSAT-2 data from the Wide-Ultra Fine, Spotlight and Fine Quad-Pol modes has been used to map the open water in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta using intensity thresholding. We also use spotlight modes for higher resolution and the fully polarimetric mode (FQ) for polarimetric decomposition. Validation of these products will be done using a low altitude flying sUAS to generate optical georeferenced images. This project provides methodologies which could be used for flood mapping as well as ecological monitoring.

  11. Genotyping and study of the pauA and sua genes of Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis. PMID:26507633

  12. The universal YrdC/Sua5 family is required for the formation of threonylcarbamoyladenosine in tRNA

    PubMed Central

    El Yacoubi, Basma; Lyons, Benjamin; Cruz, Yulien; Reddy, Robert; Nordin, Brian; Agnelli, Fabio; Williamson, James R.; Schimmel, Paul; Swairjo, Manal A.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universal modification found at position 37 of ANN decoding tRNAs, which imparts a unique structure to the anticodon loop enhancing its binding to ribosomes in vitro. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genetic, structural and biochemical approaches, the universal protein family YrdC/Sua5 (COG0009) was shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of this hypermodified base. Contradictory reports on the essentiality of both the yrdC wild-type gene of Escherichia coli and the SUA5 wild-type gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae led us to reconstruct null alleles for both genes and prove that yrdC is essential in E. coli, whereas SUA5 is dispensable in yeast but results in severe growth phenotypes. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed that the E. coli YrdC protein binds ATP and preferentially binds RNAThr lacking only the t6A modification. This work lays the foundation for elucidating the function of a protein family found in every sequenced genome to date and understanding the role of t6A in vivo. PMID:19287007

  13. Assembly of iron-sulfur clusters. Identification of an iscSUA-hscBA-fdx gene cluster from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Cash, V L; Flint, D H; Dean, D R

    1998-05-22

    An enzyme having the same L-cysteine desulfurization activity previously described for the NifS protein was purified from a strain of Azotobacter vinelandii deleted for the nifS gene. This protein was designated IscS to indicate its proposed role in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Like NifS, IscS is a pyridoxal-phosphate containing homodimer. Information gained from microsequencing of oligopeptides obtained by tryptic digestion of purified IscS was used to design a strategy for isolation and DNA sequence analysis of a 7,886-base pair A. vinelandii genomic segment that includes the iscS gene. The iscS gene is contained within a gene cluster that includes homologs to nifU and another gene contained within the major nif cluster of A. vinelandii previously designated orf6. These genes have been designated iscU and iscA, respectively. Information available from complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli and Hemophilus influenzae reveals that they also encode iscSUA gene clusters. A wide conservation of iscSUA genes in nature and evidence that NifU and NifS participate in the mobilization of iron and sulfur for nitrogenase-specific iron-sulfur cluster formation suggest that the products of the iscSUA genes could play a general role in the formation or repair of iron-sulfur clusters. The proposal that IscS is involved in mobilization of sulfur for iron-sulfur cluster formation in A. vinelandii is supported by the presence of a cysE-like homolog in another gene cluster located immediately upstream from the one containing the iscSUA genes. O-Acetylserine synthase is the product of the cysE gene, and it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cysteine biosynthesis. A similar cysE-like gene is also located within the nif gene cluster of A. vinelandii. The likely role of such cysE-like gene products is to increase the cysteine pool needed for iron-sulfur cluster formation. Another feature of the iscSUA gene cluster region from A. vinelandii is that E. coli genes previously designated as hscB, hscA, and fdx are located immediately downstream from, and are probably co-transcribed with, the iscSUA genes. The hscB, hscA, and fdx genes are also located adjacent to the iscSUA genes in both E. coli and H. influenzae. The E. coli hscA and hscB gene products have previously been shown to bear primary sequence identity when respectively compared with the dnaK and dnaJ gene products and have been proposed to be members of a heat-shock-cognate molecular chaperone system of unknown function. The close proximity and apparent co-expression of iscSUA and hscBA in A. vinelandii indicate that the proposed chaperone function of the hscBA gene products could be related to the maturation of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. Attempts to place non-polar insertion mutations within either A. vinelandii iscS or hscA revealed that such mutations could not be stably maintained in the absence of the corresponding wild-type allele. These results reveal a very strong selective pressure against the maintenance of A. vinelandii iscS or hscA knock-out mutations and suggest that such mutations are either lethal or highly deleterious. In contrast to iscS or hscA, a strain having a polar insertion mutation within the cysE-like gene was readily isolated and could be stably maintained. These results show that the cysE-like gene located upstream from iscS is not essential for cell growth and that the cysE-like gene and the iscSUA-hscBA-fdx genes are contained within separate transcription units. PMID:9582371

  14. Event-based measurement of boundary-layer winds and topographic effects with a small unmanned aircraft system (sUas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, K.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical models are invaluable tools for developing and testing hypotheses about interactions and feedbacks between wind and topography. However, field-based measurements are equally important for building and enhancing confidence in model output. Several field methods are available, including conventional approaches using tall masts equipped with an array of anemometers, as well as weather balloons, but few methods are able to match the level of detail available in model simulations of topographically-modified windflow. Here we propose an alternative method that may enhance numerical models. The method involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUas) equipped with a meteorological sensor payload. The sUas is a two blade helicopter that weighs 5.5 kg, and has a length of 1.32 m. We designed a simple measurement and control system using an Arduino micro-controller, which acquired measurements at pre-defined coordinates autonomously. The entire survey was pre-configured and uploaded to the aircraft, effectively avoiding the need for manual aircraft operation and data collection. We collected raw measurements at each waypoint, yielding a point cloud of windspeed data. During test flights the sUas was able to maintain a stable position (± 0.6 m vertical and horizontal) in wind speeds up to 50 km/h. We used the raw data to map the wind speed-up ratio relative to a reference anemometer. Although it would be preferable to acquire continuous measurements at each waypoint, the sUas method only provides a snapshot of wind at each location. However, despite this limitation, the sUas does fill a void in terms of spatial measurements within the boundary layer. It may be possible to enhance this method in the future through deployment of sUas swarms that measure wind concurrently at many locations. Furthermore, other sensors can be deployed on sUas for measuring aeolian processes such as dust.

  15. Evaluation of the Raven sUAS to detect and monitor greater sage-grouse leks within the Middle Park population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Leanne; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Cowardin, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    The Raven sUAS is a hand-launched reconnaissance and data-gathering tool developed for the U.S. Department of Defense by AeroVironment, Inc. Originally designed to provide aerial observation, day or night, at line-of-site ranges up to 6.2 miles (10 kilometers), the Raven sUAS has a wingspan of 4.5 feet (1.38 meters) and weighs 4.2 pounds (1.9 kilograms). A 60-minute lithium-ion rechargeable battery powers the system which also transmits live video (color or infrared imagery), compass headings, and location information to a ground control station. The Raven sUAS is typically operated by a three-person flight crew consisting of a pilot, mission operator, and a trained observer.

  16. Design, testing and demonstration of a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) and payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Kevin Donald Alexander

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air directly influenced by the Earth's surface and is the layer of the atmosphere most important to humans as this is the air we live in. Methods for measuring the properties of the ABL include three general approaches: satellite based, ground based and airborne. A major research challenge is that many contemporary methods provide a restricted spatial resolution or coverage of variations of ABL properties such as how wind speed varies across a landscape with complex topography. To enhance our capacity to measure the properties of the ABL, this thesis presents a new technique that involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) equipped with a customized payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter. The research presented herein outlines two key phases in establishing the proof of concept of the payload and its integration on the sUAS: (1) design and testing and (2) field demonstration. The first project focuses on measuring wind speed, which has been measured with fixed wing sUASs in previous research. but not with a helicopter sUAS. The second project focuses on the measurement of particulate matter, which is a major air pollutant typically measured with ground-based sensors. Results from both proof of concept projects suggest that ABL research could benefit from the proposed techniques. .

  17. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  18. Disruption of the gene encoding restriction endonuclease SuaI and development of a host-vector system for the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shoji; Kurosawa, Norio

    2016-03-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a useful model organism for the genetic study of thermophilic archaea due to its ease of cultivation. Here we describe the development of a host-vector system for S. acidocaldarius consisting of SuaI restriction system-deficient strain SK-1 and shuttle vector pSAV2. The new host strain SK-1 was constructed by pop-out recombination based on the pyrE marker gene. Plasmid pSAV2 was constructed from the S. islandicus native plasmid pRN1, in which selectable markers and functional genes were inserted in suitable locations and orientations followed by the deletion of non-essential open reading frames. SK-1 allowed direct transformation without N(4)-methylation at SuaI restriction sites, so unmethylated vector pSAV2 could be introduced directly into SK-1 by electroporation. The transformants were selected by pyrEF complementation on xyrose-tryptone solid medium without prior liquid culturing. The transformation efficiency was approximately 1.0 × 10(3)/μg DNA. After replication in S. acidocaldarius, pSAV2 was successfully recovered from transformant cultures by the standard alkaline lysis method. Plasmid yield was approximately 40-50 ng/ml from late-log through stationary phase cultures. In addition, pSAV2 was maintained stably and at relatively high copy number in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:26791382

  19. The evolution of pegmatite-hosted Sn-W mineralization at Nong Sua, Thailand: Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnen, Robert L.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    1994-01-01

    The Nong Sua aplite-pergmatite complex contains two dominant styles of Sn-W-Ta-Nb mineralization. Cassiterite ± Nb-Ta-Ti oxide minerals are disseminated in the pegmatite, and cassiterite and wolframite are hosted by quartz-tourmaline veins which are contained solely within aplite. The orthomagmatic fluid at Nong Sua is preserved as primary fluid inclusions in the cores of magmatic garnet crystals that have high tin concentrations (garnet cores without fluid inclusions do not contain elevated tin concentrations). These fluid inclusions have a composition of 3 wt% NaCl eq. The low salinity suggests that, at vapor saturation, tin was partitioned in favour of the melt, which allowed cassiterite to initially crystallize directly from the melt. Primary, pseudosecondary, and secondary fluid inclusions in cassiterite, tourmaline, and quartz record three-component mixing of the orthomagmatic fluid with high salinity aqueous and with CO 2-rich fluids. The orthomagmatic water is interpreted to have had δ 18O value of +8.7 to +9.9 per mil and a δD value of -72 to -78 per mil from δ18O analyses of muscovite and quartz, and δD of muscovite. The δ18O composition of muscovite decreased from 10.1 to 8.0 per mil and δD increased from - 106 to - 85 per mil, from the magmatic to the hydrothermal stages of pegmatite evolution. These changes are consistent with an influx of metamorphic fluids or evolved meteoric waters. We consider that the saturation of the melt with vapor caused the pressure in the pegmatite to rise to approximately 3.8 kbar, at a temperature of 650°C. Fluid overpressure caused the aplite to fracture, and veins to form from fluids which migrated into the fracture-induced low pressure zones. This event can be modeled by an isothermal decompression to 2.7 kbar. Cassiterite deposition was probably controlled by increasing fO 2, whereas wolframite deposition resulted from the mixing of W-rich with Fe-Mn-rich fluids. In both cases decompression, cooling, and addition of volatiles may have also contributed to mineralization.

  20. Provenance analysis and thermo-dynamic studies of multi-type Holocene duricrusts (1700 BC) in the Sua Salt Pan, NE Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Harald G.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.; Techmer, A.

    2014-08-01

    Multi-type duricrusts, composed of silcretes, calcretes, halcretes and sulcretes developed during the Holocene at the northern rim of the Sua Salt Pan, NE Botswana. They were investigated for their light (quartz/chalcedony, feldspar, analcime, clinoptilolite, calcite, kaolinite/halloysite, illite-smectite mixed-layers, halite) and heavy minerals (baryte, clinozoisite-epidote s.s.s., amphibole, corundum, tourmaline, ilmenite, rutile, sphene, kyanite, andalusite, staurolite, garnet, zircon, apatite, monazite, cassiterite, garnet, biotite) using petrographic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analyses, radio-carbon dating, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an EDX-system, cation exchange capacity and infrared spectroscopy. Detrital minerals predominantly derived from the erosion of rocks belonging to the Archaean Basement Complex, the Stormberg Volcanites and the Kalahari sediments. Of particular interest to exploration geologists, geikielite-enriched ilmenite fragments are a hint to kimberlitic pipes. Biodetritus was derived from invertebrates and from vertebrates (fish bones?). A man-made impact on the heavy mineral suite has to be invoked from small fragments of cassiterite fragments that derived from processing of sulfidic and pegmatitic Sn-bearing ore. In the salt-pan-derived duricrusts mainly the aeolian and to a lesser degree fluvial inputs were responsible for the concentration of clasts in these multi-type duricrusts. Moreover, their variegated mineralogy enables us to constrain the physical-chemical regime, prevalently as to the pH and the chemical composition of the major constituents. All duricrusts developed in a self-sufficient chemically closed system where quartz and feldspar provided the elements Si, Na, K, Ca, and Ba to produce the encrustations. The spatial and temporal trend in the Sua Salt Pan rim encrustations may be described as follows: (1) sulcrete-silcretes, (2) silcretes with kaolinite-group minerals towards more recent stages at the rim and smectite-illite mixed-layers and clinoptilolite towards the basin center, (3) calcretes with analcite towards the basin center, (4) halcretes (and soda ash at a more central position). In the sulcrete-silcrete facies the pH decreases from pH 14 down to 4. In the calcretes and halcretes it increases from pH 8 to pH > 13. marking a chemical hiatus between stages 1 plus 2 and stages 3 plus 4. Mineral assemblages forming more basinward tend to have derived from more alkaline fluids than those near the edge of the salt pan.

  1. 10 CFR 2.1027 - Sua sponte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicable to Proceedings for the Issuance of Licenses for the Receipt of High-Level Radioactive Waste at a... construction authorization for a high-level radioactive waste repository at a geologic repository operations...-level radioactive waste at a geologic repository operations area under parts 60 or 63 of this...

  2. La Importancia de la Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje - Duration: 89 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la Oficina de Exploración de Marte de la NASA, y conozca todas la nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas dentro del nuevo Laboratorio Científico ...

  3. "La Importancia de la Hermandad Latina": Examining the Psychosociocultural Influences of Latina-Based Sororities on Academic Persistence Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgada-Guerro, Marla; Gloria, Alberta M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a psychosociocultural (PSC) approach, we examined how self-beliefs, social support, and cultural fit influenced the academic persistence decisions of 115 Latina sorority members. Upper-division Latinas reported higher self-efficacy than lower-division Latinas; however, lower-division students reported higher college stress and more perceived…

  4. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  5. El uso de las simulaciones educativas en la ensenanza de conceptos de ciencias y su importancia desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes candidatos a maestros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Ramos, Edwin O.

    This research was aimed at establishing the differences, if any, between traditional direct teaching and constructive teaching through the use of computer simulations and their effect on pre-service teachers. It's also intended to gain feedback on the users of these simulations as providers of constructive teaching and learning experiences. The experimental framework used a quantitative method with a descriptive focus. The research was guided by two hypothesis and five inquiries. The data was obtained from a group composed of twenty-nine students from a private Metropolitan University in Puerto Rico and elementary school pre-service teachers. They were divided into two sub-groups: experimental and control. Two means were used to collect data: tests and surveys. Quantitative data was analyzed through test "t" for paired samples and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The results of the pre and post tests do not provide enough evidence to conclude that using the simulations as learning tools was more effective than traditional teaching. However, the quantitative results obtained were not enough to reject or dismiss the hypothesis Ho1. On the other hand, an overall positive attitude towards these simulations was obtained from the surveys. The importance of including hands-on activities in daily lesson planning was proven and well recognized among practice teachers. After participating and working with these simulations, the practice teachers expressed being convinced that they would definitely use them as teaching tools in the classroom. Due to these results, hypothesis Ho2 was rejected. Evidence also proved that practice teachers need further professional development to improve their skills in the application of these simulations in the classroom environment. The majority of these practice teachers showed concern about not being instructed on important aspects of the use of simulation as part of their college education curriculum towards becoming teachers.

  6. 77 FR 24993 - License Amendment Request To Amend Source Materials License SUA-1310 and Proceed With Termination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28... Corporation, Bear Creek Uranium Mill, Converse County, WY AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... ] Creek Uranium Alternate Concentration Proposal is available electronically under ADAMS Accession...

  7. 77 FR 71454 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc. License SUA-1534, License Amendment To Construct and Operate Marsland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007) apply to appeals of NRC... required to install a Web browser plug-in from the NRC's Web site. Further information on the...

  8. 76 FR 53500 - Notice of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1598 and Record of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... request for a materials license was previously noticed in the Federal Register on July 10, 2008 (73 FR...'s Safety Evaluation Report (SER) published in August 2011 [ADAMS Accession No. ML112231724], and the... is documented in the SER. The NRC staff also concluded, in accordance with 10 CFR 40.32(d),...

  9. 76 FR 45300 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License SUA-1597 and Record of Decision for Uranerz Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... request for a materials license was previously noticed in the Federal Register on June 16, 2008 (73 FR... report) (ML080080600), the Commission's Safety Evaluation Report (SER) published in July 2011... property. The NRC staff's review supporting these findings is documented in the SER. The NRC staff...

  10. 75 FR 62153 - Notice of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1596 for Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... request for a materials license was previously noticed in the Federal Register on January 25, 2008 (73 FR... Evaluation Report (SER) published in September 2010 and the Commission's Final Supplemental Environmental... review supporting these findings is documented in the SER. The NRC staff has also concluded,...

  11. 78 FR 17450 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License Renewal, Operating License SUA-1341, Uranium One USA, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 6436), with a notice of an opportunity to request a hearing. The NRC received two requests... FR 41528); and on January 25, 2013, a supplemental environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact relating to this action was also published in the Federal Register (78 FR 5514). The...

  12. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  13. El porque de la importancia de la ninez: Dedicando esfuerzos a la atencion y desarrollo de la primera infancia (Why Children Matter: Investing in Early Childhood Care and Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ruth; Chetley, Andrew

    This Spanish-language publication reflects the philosophy and support of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for early childhood care and development. It highlights different approaches to early childhood care and development and explains why the foundation believes that investing in early childhood is one of the best ways of building a brighter,…

  14. Nacao e Cidadania: A Constituicao de 1824 e Suas Implicacoes Politicas (Nation and Citizenship: The Constitution of 1824 and Its Political Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Cecilia Helena Lorenzini de Salles

    1998-01-01

    Brings a different reading of 1824's Brazilian Imperial Political Constitution. Discusses some historical and political circumstances of the document's construction. Investigates practices, conceptions, and supports that could have clarified some principles stressed by the document, especially those related to citizenship matters. (PA)

  15. Os Portugueses No Sudoeste Da Nova Inglaterra E A Sua Literatura Infantil (The Portuguese in Southeast New England and Their Children's Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkscales, Rosalie Duggan

    The four sections of this paper deal with Portuguese immigrants in southeast New England and with Portuguese-language children's literature. The first section contains a description of Portuguese immigration to the United States from 1511 to the present and notes changes in immigration laws. The second section presents descriptions of the…

  16. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  17. The Science Teachers and Their way of Thinking about Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Los Profesores de Ciencias y Sus Formas de Pensar la Astronomía.) Os Professores de Ciências e Suas Formas de Pensar a Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Cristina; Hosoume, Yassuko

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this article is about the way science teachers from Elementary School think about astronomical elements. Its methodology is based on semi-structured interviews, which were video recorded. The research is centered in a three-dimensional perspective of astronomical Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the stars, and also the conceptions about sky and Universe. The esults indicate a Universe that contains: Sun, stars, planets and Moon; where the Solar System is a little part of the whole. Sometimes they think that the Solar System is the Universe. The objects are in the sky or in the Universe, which, for many of them, is only the space above the Earth. The flat shape of astronomical objects and the spatial structure of the Universe are striking features. Many of them think that Sun and stars are different: the Sun is a hot object and the stars are cold ones. These results worry us and they certainly indicate how urgent it is to plan Professional Development in Astronomy for teachers, after all the PCN's emphasize that this subject is important to be taught. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es la manera de pensar sobre los elementos de la Astronomía de los profesores de Ciencias en la enseñanza fundamental. La metodología consiste en entrevistas semi-estructuradas, filmadas en video y centradas en la tridimensionalidad de los elementos astronómicos, para posibilitar un mapeamiento de las concepciones sobre las formas y dimensiones de la Tierra, del Sol, de la Luna, de los planetas y de las estrellas, como también de la concepción de cielo y de Universo en su totalidad. Los resultados indican un Universo conteniendo: Sol, estrellas, planetas y Luna, donde el Sistema Solar se ubica como parte. Algunas veces, el Universo es concebido como el propio Sistema Solar. Los objetos están en el cielo o en el Universo, que, para muchos, se restringe al espacio que está arriba de la Tierra. La forma plana de los objetos astronómicos y la estructura espacial del montaje del Universo son características fundamentales. Muchos indican Sol y estrellas como cosas distintas: el Sol es un objeto caliente y las estrellas son frías. Esos resultados nos preocupan y ciertamente señalan una urgencia de programas de formación continuada para profesores en el contenido de astronomía, pues los PCN's (Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales) recomiendan con énfasis la enseñanza de este contenido. O modo de pensar dos professores de Ciências do ensino fundamental sobre os elementos da Astronomia é o objeto de pesquisa presente neste artigo, cuja metodologia consiste em entrevistas semiestruturadas, filmadas em vídeo e centradas numa perspectiva tridimensional dos elementos astronômicos, possibilitando um mapeamento das concepções das formas e das dimensões da Terra, do Sol, da Lua, dos planetas e das estrelas, bem como da concepção de céu e de Universo como um todo. Os resultados indicam um Universo contendo: Sol, estrelas, planetas e Lua, onde o Sistema Solar é parte do todo. Algumas vezes o Universo é concebido como o próprio Sistema Solar. Os objetos estão no céu ou no Universo o qual, para muitos, se restringe ao espaço que está acima da Terra. A forma plana dos objetos astronômicos e a estrutura espacial da montagem do Universo são características marcantes. Muitos indicam Sol e estrelas como coisas diferentes: Sol é um objeto quente e as estrelas são frias. Esses resultados nos preocupam e certamente sinalizam uma urgência de programas de formação continuada para professores no conteúdo de astronomia, uma vez que os PCN's indicam fortemente o ensino desse conteúdo.

  18. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  19. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os melhores livros disponíveis no mercado editorial brasileiro, buscamos esquadrinhar algumas categorias constantes no Guia de Livros Didáticos de 2008. A pesquisa caracteriza a freqüência do conteúdo de Astronomia no texto, nas figuras e nas atividades de experimentação. Além disso, descreve alguns erros conceituais e apresenta um conjunto de informações adicionais sobre as coleções.

  20. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam para caminhos que podem proporcionar a motivação e a cultura científica, através de aproximações entre as comunidades científica, amadora e escolar.

  1. Observing Sites in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, H.

    En esta comunicacion se propone revisar la importancia que los grandes relevamientos de galaxias y los diferentes catalogos que de ellos se derivan, tienen en los estudios sobre estructura y evolucion del Universo.

  2. Muchos adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas crónicos de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los resultados de un estudio realizado en 2012 que subrayan la importancia de abordar las necesidades especiales e inquietudes de los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer.

  3. Making the Case for New Research to Support the Integration of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of sUAS regulation, their technical capabilities and the latest technologies that will allow for sUAS NAS integration. The research that is needed to demonstrate sUAS NAS integration capability is identified, and recommendations for conducting this necessary research are suggested.

  4. Education Through Aerospace Components. (Spanish Title: Educación Através de Elementos Aeroespaciales.) Educação Através de Elementos Aeroespaciais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Loureda, Oswaldo; Sobral de Araújo, Jéssyca B.

    2008-12-01

    Education is a field that needs development. For such purposes, there are various methods and tools that suggest ideas in favor of the improvement of the Brazilian people in the pedagogical, psychological and cultural aspects. Teaching is an act that demands a lot of care and responsibility; the behavior and performance of an individual in the society is the result of way that people was educated. However, the area of hard sciences demands a special attention, because the acquired knowledge is essential for the personal development of the individual and the technological future of the country. As an alternative or complementary tool for education it is suggested the use of aerospace element, since they show a vast amount of subjects qualitatively dealing with abilities of great importance for the future professional life of the students. A new Race happens, however this time the goal is not the Moon, but knowledge. El área educacional es un campo que necesita desarrollo. Para esto se dispone de diversos métodos y medios que pueden implantar ideas en pro del avance del pueblo brasilero en los aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos y culturales. Alfabetizar es un acto que exige mucho cuidado y responsabilidad; el comportamento y desempeño de un individuo en la sociedad es el resultado de la manera en que fue educado. En particular, el área de ciencias exactas exige especial atención, pues los conocimientos adquiridos son imprescindibles para el desarrollo personal del individuo y también para el futuro tecnológico del País. Como medio alternativo o complementar de enseñanza se sugiere el uso de elementos aeroespaciales, debido a que compreende una vasta cantidad de disciplinas cualitativamente involucradas en la adquisición de habilidades de gran importancia para su vida profesional futura. Una nueva Carrera está em marcha, sin embargo esta vez la meta no es la Luna, sino el conocimiento. A área educacional é um campo que necessita de desenvolvimento. Para tal, dispõe-se de diversos métodos e meios que vêm implantar idéias em prol do avanço do povo brasileiro nos aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos e culturais. Alfabetizar é um ato que exige muito cuidado e responsabilidade; o comportamento e desempenho de um indivíduo na sociedade é resultado da maneira com que ele foi instruído. Contudo, a área de exatas exige especial atenção, pois os conhecimentos adquiridos são imprescindíveis para o desenvolvimento pessoal do individuo, assim como para o futuro tecnológico do País. Como meio alternativo ou complementar de ensino é sugerido o uso de elementos aeroespaciais, devido ao fato de comportar uma vasta quantidade e qualidade de disciplinas envolvidas respectivamente com competências de grande importância para sua vida profissional futura. Uma nova Corrida acontece, porém dessa vez a meta não é a Lua e sim o conhecimento.

  5. Effects of Special Use Airspace on Economic Benefits of Direct Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Barrington, Craig; Foster, John D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of Special Use Airspace (SUA) on direct route flights is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on evaluating operating costs of aircraft and analyzing the different ground-track distances traveled by flights under different air traffic scenarios. Using this methodology the following objectives are evaluated: optimistic bias of studies that assume accessible SUAs the maximum economic benefit of dynamic use of SUAs and the marginal economic benefit of the dynamic use of individual SUAs.

  6. Impact of different adiposity measures on the relation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lyngdoh, T; Viswanathan, B; Myers, G J; Bochud, M; Bovet, P

    2012-11-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is independently associated with blood pressure (BP) in adults. We examined this association in young adults at an age where anti-hypertension treatment, other potential confounding factors and co-morbidity are unlikely to occur. We assessed BP, anthropometric variables including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), body fat percent (using bioimpedance), lifestyle behaviors, SUA and blood lipids in 549 participants aged 19-20 years from a population-based cohort study (Seychelles Child Development Study). Mean (s.d.) SUA was higher in males than females, 0.33 (0.08) and 0.24 (0.07) mmol l(-1), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in females than males but BP was markedly higher in males than in females. SUA was associated with both systolic and diastolic BP. However, the magnitude of the linear regression coefficients relating BP and SUA decreased by up to 50% upon adjustment for BMI, WC or body fat percent. The association between SUA and BP was not altered upon further adjustment for alcohol intake, smoking, triglycerides or renal function. In fully adjusted models, SUA remained associated with BP (P<0.05) in females. In conclusion, adiposity substantially decreased the association between SUA and BP in young adults, and BP was independently associated with SUA in females. These findings suggest a role of adiposity in the link between hyperuricemia and hypertension. PMID:21938014

  7. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  8. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2002 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of Spanish-language articles includes the following: "La Importancia del Contexto en la Alfabetizacion" (Judith Kalman); "Profesorodo y Formadores: La Formacion para la Transformation de los Distritos y las Comunidades" (Concepcion Dominquez Garrido and Antonio Medina Rivilla); "Valoracion de los Resultados del Proyecto: 'Mujeres…

  9. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  10. A high serum uric acid level is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Negoro, Eiju; Lee, Shin; Takai, Mihoko; Matsuda, Yasufumi; Takagi, Kazutaka; Kishi, Shinji; Tai, Katsunori; Hosono, Naoko; Tasaki, Toshiki; Ikegaya, Satoshi; Inai, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Ueda, Takanori

    2013-09-01

    Uric acid in serum (S-UA) is produced by the breakdown of the cellular nucleic acids of leukemia cells, and may be a marker of disease aggressiveness. S-UA levels were examined for association with clinical outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Fifty-six patients with AML admitted to our Institution were evaluated retrospectively. The median S-UA level at diagnosis was 5.0 mg/dl (range 2-13.8 mg/dl). The S-UA levels did not correlate with peripheral lactate dehydrogenase, peripheral white blood cell counts, or peripheral blast counts, and were not proportional to bone marrow blast counts or marrow cellularity. The S-UA levels in the patients who achieved complete remission were slightly lower than those in those who did not. S-UA levels less than, or equal to the median (5.0 mg/dl) were significantly associated with better prognoses, compared with S-UA levels greater than 5.0 mg/dl. Thus, the S-UA level may predict the prognosis of AML, and is a versatile and cost-effective test for such a purpose. PMID:24023333

  11. Detection of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes using small unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. We set up a ni...

  12. UAS remote sensing for precision agriculture: An independent assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Oregon State U...

  13. Alcohol and Cigarette Free: Examining Social Influences on Substance Use Abstinence among Black Non-Latina and Latina Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in substance use prevalence among girls, as well as a lack of research conducted with urban girls of color, highlight the importance of understanding both predictors and outcomes of substance use abstinence (SUA) within this population. This study addresses gaps in SUA research through a longitudinal investigation conducted with urban…

  14. Serum uric acid and its relationship with cardiovascular risk profile in Chinese patients with early-onset coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Min; Wei, Lei; Ma, Li-Li; Chen, Hui-Yong; Zhang, Zhuo-Jun; Ji, Zong-Fei; Wu, Wan-Long; Ma, Ling-Ying; Kong, Xiu-Fang; Jiang, Lin-Di

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is growing in the young population. We aimed to investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and cardiovascular involvement in individuals under 45 years old diagnosed with early-onset CAD (EOCAD). Seven hundred eighty-six EOCAD patients were recruited and stratified into four groups by SUA levels. General information, serum indicators, and results of coronary angiography and echocardiography were recorded. The associations between SUA levels were explored by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. With the increasing of SUA levels, the prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, triple branches involved, heart failure, and cardiac enlargement of left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA), and right ventricle (RV) were significantly higher (all P?SUA >8 mg/dl) had the highest proportions than other groups (all P?SUA >8 mg/dl were 2.345 for triple branches involved (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.335-4.119), 4.168 for heart failure (95 % CI 1.599-10.862), and 4.122 for LV enlargement (95 % CI 1.874-9.065) (P?SUA >8 mg/dl was independently associated with triple branches involvement, heart failure and LV enlargement in Chinese EOCAD patients. Higher SUA level might play an important role in cardiac dysfunction and severity of EOCAD. PMID:25630308

  15. Association of Serum Uric Acid and Coronary Artery Disease in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-wei; He, Ling-jie; Cao, Shu-jun; Yang, Qing; Yang, Shi-wei; Zhou, Yu-jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To date, no study in the published literature has investigated the role of various serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations in the development of angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in premenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role SUA levels may play in the prevalence, severity, and prognosis of CAD in premenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included 607 premenopausal women who had undergone coronary angiography. The CAD diagnosis was based upon stenosis affecting ?50% of the luminal diameter. Association of the SUA levels with CAD prevalence, severity, and clinical outcomes were assessed by statistical analysis. Results In total, 369 (60.8%) of the patients were diagnosed with CAD. The CAD patients had significantly higher SUA levels than those without CAD (5.3±1.9 vs. 4.8±1.7 mg/dL, P?=?0.001). The SUA levels were found to be significantly associated with CAD prevalence (P?=?0.013). Patients with higher levels of SUA also showed increased rates of multivessel disease and composite end-points, such as major adverse cardiac events. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified abnormally high levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) as an independent risk factor for CAD (OR 1.51 (1.11–2.53), P<0.05). Conclusions The SUA levels are significantly associated with the prevalence of CAD. The SUA levels may be a predictor for incidence of major cardiovascular events in premenopausal women. PMID:25184207

  16. Prenatal Detection of Cardiac Anomalies in Fetuses with Single Umbilical Artery: Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Maternal-Fetal-Medicine and Pediatric Cardiologist

    PubMed Central

    Tasha, Ilir; Brook, Rachel; Frasure, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine agreement of cardiac anomalies between maternal fetal medicine (MFM) physicians and pediatric cardiologists (PC) in fetuses with single umbilical artery (SUA). Methods. A retrospective review of all fetuses with SUA between 1999 and 2008. Subjects were studied by MFM and PC, delivered at our institution, and had confirmation of SUA and cardiac anomaly by antenatal and neonatal PC follow-up. Subjects were divided into four groups: isolated SUA, SUA and isolated cardiac anomaly, SUA and multiple anomalies without heart anomalies, and SUA and multiple malformations including cardiac anomaly. Results. 39,942 cases were studied between 1999 and 2008. In 376 of 39,942 cases (0.94%), SUA was diagnosed. Only 182 (48.4%) met inclusion criteria. Cardiac anomalies were found in 21% (38/182). Agreement between MFM physicians and PC in all groups combined was 94% (171/182) (95% CI [89.2, 96.8]). MFM physicians overdiagnosed cardiac anomalies in 4.4% (8/182). MFM physicians and PC failed to antenatally diagnose cardiac anomaly in the same two cases. Conclusions. Good agreement was noted between MFM physicians and PC in our institution. Studies performed antenatally by MFM physicians and PC are less likely to uncover the entire spectrum of cardiac abnormalities and thus neonatal follow-up is suggested. PMID:24719766

  17. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in the 2005 Toyota Camry Electronic Throttle Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Part of the US DOT investigation of Toyota SUA involved analysis of the throttle control software. JPL LaRS applied several techniques, including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software. A handful of logic models were built. Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found. The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  18. Alcohol and Cigarette Free: Examining Social Influences on Substance Use Abstinence among Black Non-Latina and Latina Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in substance use prevalence among girls, as well as a lack of research conducted with urban girls of color, highlight the importance of understanding both predictors and outcomes of substance use abstinence (SUA) within this population. This study addresses gaps in SUA research through a longitudinal investigation conducted with urban…

  19. The Use of Serum Uric Acid Concentration as an Indicator of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Success

    PubMed Central

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Doulami, Georgia; Tzanetakou, Irene P.; Natoudi, Maria; Kokoroskos, Nikolaos; Almpanopoulos, Konstantinos; Leandros, Emmanouil; Zografos, George; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) effectively reduces weight by restricting gastric capacity and altering gut hormones levels. We designed a prospective study to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and weight loss. SUA and body mass index (BMI) were measured preoperatively and on first postoperative month and year in patients who underwent LSG in our department of bariatric surgery. Data on 55 patients were analyzed. Preoperative SUA concentration had a significant positive correlation with percentage of total weight loss (TWL) on first postoperative month (P = 0.001) and year (P = 0.002). SUA concentration on first postoperative month had a positive correlation with percentage of TWL on first postoperative year (P = 0.004). SUA concentration could be used as a predictor of LSG's success and could help in early detection of patients with rapid loss of weight, in order to prevent complications. PMID:25594659

  20. Admission hyperuricemia increases the risk of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients*

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Harrison, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between elevated admission serum uric acid (SUA) and risk of in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing AKI in all hospitalized patients with various admission SUA levels. Methods This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All hospitalized adult patients who had admission SUA available from January 2011 through December 2013 were analyzed in this study. Admission SUA was categorized based on its distribution into six groups (<3.4, 3.4–4.5, 4.5–5.8, 5.8–7.6, 7.6–9.4 and >9.4 mg/dL). The primary outcome was in-hospital AKI occurring after hospital admission. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain the odds ratio (OR) of AKI of various admission SUA levels using the most common SUA level range (5.8–7.6 mg/dL) as the reference group. Results Of 1435 patients enrolled, AKI occurred in 263 patients (18%). The incidence of AKI and need for dialysis was increased in patients with higher admission SUA levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, SUA >9.4 mg/dL was associated with an increased risk of developing AKI, with ORs of 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.82]. Conversely, admission SUA <3.4 and 3.4–4.5 mg/dL were associated with a decreased risk of developing AKI, with ORs of 0.38 (95% CI 0.17–0.75) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.28–0.87), respectively. Conclusions Elevated admission SUA was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital AKI. PMID:26798461

  1. Longitudinal association between serum urate and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huifen; Jacobs, David R.; Gaffo, Angelo L.; Gross, Myron D.; Goff, David C.; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether serum urate (sUA) concentration is positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of body mass index (BMI), among generally healthy adults. Design and setting The CARDIA study followed 5115 black and white individuals aged 18–30 years in 1985–1986 (year 0). Subclinical atherosclerosis comprised coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC; years 15, 20 and 25) and maximum common carotid intima–media thickness (IMT; year 20). sUA (years 0, 10, 15 and 20) was modelled as gender-specific quartiles that were pooled. Discrete-time hazard regressions and generalized linear regressions were used for analyses. Results Mean sUA concentration was lower in women than in men, and increased with age. Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, the highest versus lowest quartile of sUA at year 0 was associated with a 44% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20%, 73%] greater risk of CAC progression from year 15 to 25 (Ptrend < 0.001), which was attenuated by adjustment for BMI at year 0 (Ptrend = 0.45). A stronger association was found between sUA at year 15 and CAC progression at year 20 or 25 (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.66, 2.58 for the highest versus lowest sUA quartile Ptrend < 0.001), which was attenuated but remained significant with additional adjustment for BMI at year 15 (Ptrend = 0.01). A greater increment in sUA concentration from year 0 to year 15, independent of change in BMI, was related to a higher risk of CAC progression (Ptrend < 0.001). Similar associations were found between sUA and IMT, but only in men. Conclusion sUA may be an early biomarker for subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults; starting in early middle age, sUA predicts subclinical atherosclerosis independently of BMI. PMID:23952533

  2. Serum Uric Acid Increases Risk of Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shushan; Zhang, Pengjun; Xu, Wei; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Hua, Changjiang; Wang, Xuan; Xu, Donghua; Sun, Beicheng

    2015-01-01

    SUA is a potent antioxidant and thus may play a protective role against cancer. Many epidemiological studies have investigated this hypothesis but provided inconsistent and inconclusive findings. We aimed to precisely elucidate the association between SUA levels and cancer by pooling all available publications. Totally, 5 independent studies with 456,053 subjects and 12 with 632,472 subjects were identified after a comprehensive literature screening from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The pooled RRs showed that individuals with high SUA levels were at an increased risk of total cancer incidence (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05, P = 0.007). Positive association between high SUA levels and total cancer incidence was observed in males but not females (for men: RR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.02–1.08, P = 0.002; for women, RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.98–1.04, P = 0.512). Besides, high SUA levels were associated with an elevated risk of total cancer mortality (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.32, P = 0.010), particularly in females (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.45, P = 0.004). The study suggests that high SUA levels increase the risk of total cancer incidence and mortality. The data do not support the hypothesis of a protective role of SUA in cancer. PMID:26504361

  3. Hemispheric sunspot unit area: comparison with hemispheric sunspot number and sunspot area

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. J.; Xiang, N. B.; Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    The monthly mean northern and southern hemispheric sunspot numbers (SNs) and sunspot areas (SAs) in the time interval of 1945 January to 2012 December are utilized to construct the monthly northern and southern hemispheric sunspot unit areas (SUAs), which are defined as the ratio of hemispheric SA to SN. Hemispheric SUAs are usually found to rise at the beginning and to fall at the ending time of a solar cycle more rapidly, forming a more irregular cycle profile than hemispheric SNs and SAs, although it also presents Schwabe-cycle-like hemispheric SNs and SAs. Sunspot activity (SN, SA, and SUA) is found asynchronously and is asymmetrically distributed in the northern and southern hemispheres, and hemispheric SNs, SAs, and SUAs are not in phase in the two hemispheres. The similarity of hemispheric SNs and SAs is found to be much more obvious than that of hemispheric SUAs and SNs (or SAs), and also for their north-south asymmetry. A notable feature is found for the behavior of the SUA around the minimum time of cycle 24: the SUA rapidly decreases from the cycle maximum value to the cycle minimum value of sunspot cycles 19-24 within just 22 months.

  4. Salivary uric acid as a noninvasive biomarker of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated serum uric acid is associated with obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Because a linear relationship exists between serum and salivary uric acid (SUA) concentration, saliva testing may be a useful noninvasive approach for monitoring cardiometabolic risk. The goal of this pilot study was to determine if SUA is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate correlations between SUA and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 without conditions known to affect serum uric acid levels were recruited. Height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a full lipid panel along with fasting blood glucose was obtained. Saliva samples were collected and uric acid levels were determined. 78 volunteers, 35% of whom had metabolic syndrome, completed the study. SUA was significantly elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome (p=.002). The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the 4th quartile for SUA was 67% compared to 25% in quartiles1-3 combined. Significant correlations were seen between SUA and systolic blood pressure (r=.440, p=.000), diastolic blood pressure ( r=.304, p=.007), waist circumference (r=.332, p=.003), BMI ( r=.269, p=.018), fasting blood glucose ( r=.341, p=.002), triglycerides (r=.410, p=.000), HDL ( r=.237, p=.036) and the number of cardiometabolic risk factors present (r=0.257, p=.023). Conclusions These results suggest that SUA may be a useful biomarker for noninvasive monitoring of cardiometabolic risk. Larger studies are needed to validate this approach. PMID:22515434

  5. High serum uric acid level and low urine pH as predictors of metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in a Japanese urban population.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shigeko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ohmoto, Yuki; Amakawa, Kazuhisa; Hsieh, Shiun Dong; Arase, Yasuji; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether hyperuricemia, acidic urine, or their combination predicts metabolic syndrome (MetS). In study 1, 69,094 subjects who received a general health checkup between 1985 and 2005 were included in a cross-sectional study of serum uric acid (SUA) and urine pH in relation to MetS. In study 2, the association of SUA and urine pH with MetS development over a 5-year period was evaluated in 5617 subjects with body mass index less than 25 kg/m(2) at the first examination. In study 1, higher SUA and lower urine pH were both positively correlated to MetS status (P < .001). The combination of high SUA and low urine pH was significantly associated with higher MetS prevalence compared with the combination of low SUA and high urine pH (odds ratio, 3.383; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.034-3.784 in men; odds ratio, 4.000; 95% CI, 2.992-5.452 in women). In study 2, the top quartile of SUA levels was associated with higher MetS development compared with the bottom quartile during the 5-year period in men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.793; 95% CI, 1.084-2.966; P = .023). In women, the HR was 3.732 (95% CI, 0.391-35.62; P = .252) for the upper vs the lower half of SUA levels. For urine pH, the HR was 1.955 (95% CI, 1.089-3.509; P = .025) for the bottom vs the top quartile in men. A likelihood ratio test confirmed that high SUA and low urine pH act synergistically in the development of MetS. High SUA, low urine pH, and their combination are predictive risk factors for MetS development. PMID:21864864

  6. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  7. Serum Urate and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huifen; Jacobs, David R.; Gaffo, Angelo L.; Gross, Myron D.; Goff, David C.; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is controversy about whether serum urate (sUA) predicts future cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of classical risk factors, and the age at which any prediction starts. We studied the sUA-CVD association among generally healthy adults. Methods CARDIA recruited 5115 black and white individuals aged 18–30 years in 1985–1986 (year-0). Fatal and nonfatal CVD events by year 27 (n = 164) were ascertained during annual contacts and classified using medical records. The association with sUA (year-0, 10, 15 and 20) was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression, pooling over gender-specific quartiles. Results Mean sUA concentration was higher in men than women, but increased over time in both genders. Those with elevated sUA had worse metabolic profiles that substantially deteriorated over time. Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors (the minimal model), baseline sUA concentration was positively associated with incident CVD (hazard ratio (HR) per mg/dL = 1.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.39; P = 0.005). This positive association attenuated to nonsignificance in the full model accounting simultaneously for classical CVD risk factors (HR = 1.09; 0.94, 1.27; P = 0.24). Both the minimal and full models appeared to show stronger associations (than year-0 sUA) between year-10 sUA and incident CVD (HR = 1.27 and 1.12, respectively), but sUA was not statistically significant in the full model. Despite fewer events, year-15 sUA showed a significant sUA-CVD association pattern, with minimal model association magnitude comparable to year-10, and remained significant in the full model (HR = 1.19; 1.02, 1.40; P = 0.03). Hyperuricemia at year-15 strongly predicted CVD risk (HR = 2.11; 1.34, 3.33; P = 0.001), with some attenuation in the full model (HR = 1.68; P = 0.04). Conclusions sUA may be an early biomarker for CVD in adults entering middle age. The prediction of CVD by sUA appeared to strengthen with aging. The potential complex relation of sUA with deterioration of a cluster of metabolic abnormalities warrants future exploration. PMID:26381512

  8. A Framework for Safe Integration of Small UAS Into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Bland, Geoffrey; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine classes of platforms and operations. Finally, a framework is proposed for both airworthiness and operations that attempts to balance safety with utility for these important systems.

  9. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  10. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  11. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... License Amendment No. 61 for Rio Algom Mining LLC, Ambrosia Lake, NM--SUA-1473 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Mining LLC (Rio Algom, or the Licensee) to authorize an alternate on-site disposal cell location...

  12. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  13. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers on serum uric acid in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) are a frequently used class of antihypertensive drug. The ARB losartan is known to decrease the serum uric acid (SUA) level. However, there are very few clinical data comparing the effects of other ARBs on SUA level under the conditions of clinical practice. This study evaluated and compared the long-term effects of monotherapy with five ARBs on SUA level in Japanese hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We identified hypertensive patients with type 2 DM who had been treated with monotherapy with losartan (n =?214), valsartan (n =?266), telmisartan (n =?185), candesartan (n =?458), or olmesartan (n =?192), in whom laboratory data of SUA between November 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011 were available, from the Nihon University School of Medicine’s Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM’s CDW). We used a propensity-score weighting method and a multivariate regression model to adjust for differences in the background among ARB users, and compared the SUA level. The mean exposure of losartan was 264.7 days, valsartan 245.3 days, telmisartan 235.9 days, candesartan 248.9 days, and olmesartan 234.5 days. Results In losartan users, mean SUA level was significantly decreased from baseline, while it was conversely increased in users of other ARBs; valsartan, telmisartan, candesartan, and olmesartan. The mean reduction of SUA level from baseline was significantly greater in losartan users compared with that in other ARB users. Comparison of ARBs other than losartan showed no significant difference in mean change in SUA level from baseline. Conclusions Our study showed that losartan had the most beneficial effect on SUA level among five ARBs, and that there was no significant difference in the unfavorable effects on SUA level among four ARBs other than losartan, at least during one year. These findings provide evidence of an effect of ARBs on SUA level, and support the benefit of the use of losartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 DM. PMID:24180232

  14. Dose-response Relationship of Serum Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Incidence: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengtao; Que, Shuping; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that serum uric acid (SUA) elevation might cause metabolic derangements, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, magnitude of the risk has not been quantified. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI databases for relevant studies through 10 May 2015. Prospective studies reporting the risk of SUA elevation on the incidence of MetS/NAFLD were enrolled. Pooled HR of MetS was 1.55 (95%CI: 1.40–1.70) for the highest versus lowest SUA categories, and 1.05 (95%CI: 1.04–1.07) per incremental increased in SUA of 1 mg/dl. The pooled HR of MetS in younger women was higher than age-matched men and older women (1.17 vs. 1.05 and 1.04, respectively, P < 0.05). Individuals in the highest SUA category had a 40% greater risk of disease NAFLD occurrence. Dose-response increment of NAFLD events was 1.03 (95%CI: 1.02–1.05). A positive relationship with a linear trend for SUA elevation with MetS and NAFLD in different genders was examined by a dose-response meta-analysis (P < 0.001).SUA assay is useful in screening metabolic disorders for linear trend between its elevation and MetS/NAFLD incidence. SUA-lowering therapy is a potential strategy for preventing systemic/hepatic metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26395162

  15. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  16. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  17. Ocular Findings in Children with Single Umbilical Artery: A Case Series of 14 Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongshin; Park, Kyo Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the most common malformation of the umbilical cord. However, there have been no studies on the ocular findings in SUA, except for one case report. This study aimed to investigate the ocular findings in children with SUA. Methods Fourteen children (eight boys and six girls) with SUA were evaluated retrospectively. All children underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Results The prevalence of abnormal ocular findings in children was up to 42.9%. Refractive errors are detected in four eyes (14.3%): myopia ?-1.50 diopters (D) in one eye (3.6%) and hyperopia ?+2.00 D in three eyes (10.7%). Epiblepharon was found in three children (21.4%), and strabismus was detected in one child (7.1%). Conclusions Approximately half of the children with SUA showed abnormal ocular findings, therefore, our case series highlight the need for a comprehensive ocular examination and larger prospective research studies in young patients with SUA. PMID:24688258

  18. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  19. Comparison of the effect of high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions on serum uric acid in asymptomatic hyperuricemia adults: an open randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Gao, Yuxia; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions on serum uric acid (SUA) in asymptomatic hyperuricemia adults. A total of 187 Chinese adults (20-59 years old) with asymptomatic hyperuricemia participated in this randomized trial and were assigned to receive the standard diet recommended by guideline (group 1) and high fruit and soybean products diet (group 2) for 3 months. The outcome of SUA was assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 3 months, the SUA in group 1 and group 2 was significant reduced, whereas the SUA was not significantly changed in-between groups. These data suggest that over a 3-month period, although the high fruit and soybean products diet and standard diet interventions yield no different effects on SUA, the high fruit and soybean products dietary intervention could be an effective alternative to a standard diet for achieving clinically important reductions in SUA for asymptomatic hyperuricemia patients. PMID:26940151

  20. Replication of the effect of SLC2A9 genetic variation on serum uric acid levels in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; MacCluer, Jean W; Umans, Jason G; Comuzzie, Anthony G; North, Kari E; Cole, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia, a risk factor for gout, renal and cardiovascular diseases, is caused by either increased production or decreased excretion of uric acid or a mix of both. The solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) gene encodes a transporter that mediates urate flux across the renal proximal tubule. Genome-wide association studies have consistently shown the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene with SUA in majority populations. American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study, belonging to multigenerational families, have high prevalence of hyperuricemia. We conducted measured genotype analyses, based on variance components decomposition method and accounting for family relationships, to assess whether the association between SUA and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms generalized to American Indians (n=3604) of this study. Seven polymorphisms were selected for genotyping based on their association with SUA levels in other populations. A strong association was found between SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms and SUA in all centers combined (P-values: 1.3 × 10(-31)-5.1 × 10(-23)) and also when stratified by recruitment center; P-values: 1.2 × 10(-14)-1.0 × 10(-5). These polymorphisms were also associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine but not albumin-creatinine ratio. In summary, the association of polymorphisms in the uric acid transporter gene with SUA levels extends to a new population of American Indians. PMID:24301058

  1. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  2. Serum uric acid and insulin sensitivity in adolescents and adults with and without type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; McFann, Kimberly; Wadwa, R. Paul; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B.; Johnson, Richard J.; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) exists in type 1 diabetes. Serum uric acid (SUA), whose concentration is related to renal clearance, predicts vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. SUA is also inversely associated with IS in non-diabetics, but has not been examined in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized SUA would be associated with reduced IS in adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods The cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of SUA with IS was investigated in 254 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 70 without in the Determinants of Macrovascular Disease in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Study, and in 471 adults with type 1 diabetes and 571 without in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study. Results SUA was lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes (p<0.0001), but still remained inversely associated with IS after multivariable adjustments- in adolescents (?±SE: ?1.99±0.62, p=0.001, R2=2%) and adults (?±SE:?0.91±0.33, p=0.006, R2=6%) with type 1 diabetes, though less strongly than in non-diabetic controls (adolescents: ?±SE: ?2.70±1.19, p=0.03, R2=15%, adults: ?±SE:?5.99±0.75, p<0.0001, R2=39%). Conclusion We demonstrated a significantly weaker relationship between SUA and reduced IS in subjects with type 1 diabetes than non-diabetic controls. PMID:24461546

  3. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e Física, e não a descrição detalhada dos conceitos aqui discutidos. Describimos en este trabajo algunos aspectos de la dinámica de resonancias de movimientos promedio. Será dado un énfasis mayor al caso de las resonancias entre satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, aunque también son discutidos brevemente algunos aspectos de la física de resonancias en sistemas panetarios extrasolares. La importancia del estudio de las resonancias en sistemas de satélites es discutida más detalladamente através de ejemplos, mostrando cómo ciertas resonancias y los efectos de disipación por mareas pueden ser la clave de parte de la explicación de algunos fenómenos aún no comprendidos en el Sistema Solar. Entre varios ejemplos se destacan el problema de la superficie remodelada del satélite Enceladus, la existencia de volcanes activos en Io y la posible existencia de un océano subterráneo en Europa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la divulgación de algunos tópicos en Mecánica Celeste y Planetología para un público universitario de ciencias exactas, en particular Astronomía y Física, y no la descripción detallada de los conceptos aquí discutidos.

  4. Relation of serum uric acid levels and outcomes among patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the efficacy of vasopressin antagonism in heart failure outcome study with tolvaptan trial).

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Subacius, Haris P; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Maggioni, Aldo P; Swedberg, Karl; Zannad, Faiez; Konstam, Marvin A; Senni, Michele; Givertz, Michael M; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the clinical profiles associated with serum uric acid (sUA) levels in a large cohort of patients hospitalized for worsening chronic heart failure with ejection fraction (EF) ?40%, with specific focus on gender, race, and renal function based interactions. In 3,955 of 4,133 patients (96%) with baseline sUA data, clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared across sUA quartiles. The primary end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization. Interaction analyses were performed for gender, race, and baseline renal function. Median follow-up was 9.9 months. Mean sUA was 9.1 ± 2.8 mg/dl and was higher in men than in women (9.3 ± 2.7 vs 8.7 ± 3.0 mg/dl, p <0.001) and in blacks than in whites (10.0 ± 2.7 vs 9.0 ± 2.8 mg/dl, p <0.001). Higher sUA was associated with lower systolic blood pressure and EF, higher natriuretic peptides, and more impaired renal function. After accounting for 24 baseline covariates, in patients with enrollment estimated glomerular filtration rate ?30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), sUA was strongly associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.69, p <0.001) and the composite end point (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 1.64, p <0.001). However, in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), sUA was not related with either end point (both p >0.4). Adjusted interaction analyses for gender, race, and admission allopurinol use were not significant. In conclusion, sUA is commonly elevated in patients hospitalized for worsening chronic heart failure and reduced EF, especially in men and blacks. The prognostic use of sUA differs by baseline renal function, suggesting different biologic and pathophysiologic significance of sUA among those with and without significant renal dysfunction. PMID:25312638

  5. A Real-World Study of Switching From Allopurinol to Febuxostat in a Health Plan Database

    PubMed Central

    Altan, Aylin; Shiozawa, Aki; Bancroft, Tim; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the real-world comparative effectiveness of continuing on allopurinol versus switching to febuxostat. Methods In a retrospective claims data study of enrollees in health plans affiliated with Optum, we evaluated patients from February 1, 2009, to May 31, 2012, with a gout diagnosis, a pharmacy claim for allopurinol or febuxostat, and at least 1 serum uric acid (SUA) result available during the follow-up period. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted analyses (controlling for patient demographics and clinical factors) assessed the likelihood of SUA lowering and achievement of target SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL or less than 5.0 mg/dL in allopurinol continuers versus febuxostat switchers. Results The final study population included 748 subjects who switched to febuxostat from allopurinol and 4795 continuing users of allopurinol. The most common doses of allopurinol were 300 mg/d or less in 95% of allopurinol continuers and 93% of febuxostat switchers (prior to switching); the most common dose of febuxostat was 40 mg/d, in 77% of febuxostat switchers (after switching). Compared with allopurinol continuers, febuxostat switchers had greater (1) mean preindex SUA, 8.0 mg/dL versus 6.6 mg/dL (P < 0.001); (2) likelihood of postindex SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL, 62.2% versus 58.7% (P = 0.072); (3) likelihood of postindex SUA of less than 5.0 mg/dL, 38.9% versus 29.6% (P < 0.001); and (4) decrease in SUA, 1.8 (SD, 2.2)?mg/dL versus 0.4 (SD, 1.7)?mg/dL (P < 0.001). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared with allopurinol continuers, febuxostat switchers had significantly higher likelihood of achieving SUA of less than 6.0 mg/dL (40% higher) and SUA of less than 5.0 mg/dL (83% higher). Conclusions In this “real-world” setting, many patients with gout not surprisingly were not treated with maximum permitted doses of allopurinol. Patients switched to febuxostat were more likely to achieve target SUA levels than those who continued on generally stable doses of allopurinol. PMID:26580304

  6. Predictive value of serum uric acid on left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hong-Tao; Liu, Fang-Zhou; Xue, Yu-Mei; Zhan, Xian-Zhang; Fang, Xian-Hong; Huang, Jun; Wei, Wei; Rao, Fang; Deng, Hai; Liu, Yang; Lin, Wei-Dong; Wu, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LA-SEC) in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods We retrospectively screened 1,476 consecutive hospitalized patients with AF who underwent transesophageal echocardiography prior to radiofrequency catheter ablation, left atrial appendage closure and electric cardioversion at Guangdong General Hospital. Data on the clinical baseline characteristics of all patients were collected from electronic medical records and analyzed. Results After exclusion of patients with left atrial thrombus, 1,354 patients entered into present study and 57 were LA-SEC. The mean female SUA level (380.88 ± 94.35 µmol/L vs. 323.37 ± 72.19 µmol/L, P < 0.001) and male SUA level (416.97 ± 98.87 µmol/L vs. 367.88 ± 68.50 µmol/L, P = 0.008) were both significantly higher in patients with LA-SEC than in the controls. The mean left atrial dimension (41.32 ± 5.12 mm vs. 36.12 ± 5.66 mm, P < 0.001) was markedly larger in patients with LA-SEC. In multivariate regression analysis, SUA level was an independent risk factor for LA-SEC (OR: 1.008, P < 0.001). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the corresponding area under the curve for SUA predicting LA-SEC in female and male were 0.670 and 0.657, respectively. SUA level is significantly higher in non-valvular AF patients with LA-SEC. Conclusion SUA level is an independent risk factor and has a moderate predictive value for LA-SEC among non-valvular AF patients in Southern China. PMID:26788041

  7. Serum uric acid levels are associated with hypertension and metabolic syndrome but not atherosclerosis in Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Xi; Dong, Xue-Hong; Li, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Li, Ting-Ting; Shen, Juan; Shen, Jing; Bao, Yu-Qian; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with many cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension (HTN) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the association of SUA with atherosclerosis remains controversial. Our aim was to investigate the relationships of SUA with HTN, MetS and atherosclerosis in Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of 2388 hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Both carotid and lower limb atherosclerotic lesions were assessed for intima–media thickness, plaque and stenosis by Doppler ultrasound. Atherosclerotic plaque and stenosis were defined as the presence of either carotid or lower limb plaques and stenoses, respectively. Results: There were significant increases in the prevalence of both HTN and MetS across the SUA quartiles (HTN: 43.4, 49.6, 56.1 and 66.3% for the first, second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively, P < 0.001; MetS: 59.9, 68.8, 74.7 and 84.9% for the first, second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively, P < 0.001). A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that SUA quartile was independently associated with the presence of HTN (P = 0.001) and MetS (P = 0.006). The prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque and stenosis was obviously higher in the patients with either HTN or MetS than in those without HTN or MetS. However, there was no significant association of SUA quartile with the presence of atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions: SUA levels were closely associated with HTN and MetS, but not with atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings strongly suggest that, in select populations such as those with type 2 diabetes, the role of uric acid in atherosclerosis might be attributable to other cardiovascular risk factors, such as HTN and MetS. PMID:25405332

  8. Serum uric acid and impaired cognitive function in a cohort of healthy young elderly: data from the Brisighella Study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Desideri, Giovambattista; Grossi, Giulia; Urso, Riccardo; Rosticci, Martina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Contrasting evidence shows a possible association between serum uric acid (SUA) and cognitive function in elderly subjects. We aimed at evaluating the impact of circulating SUA levels on cognitive function in a cohort of pharmacologically untreated young elderly subjects. For this study, we selected 288 healthy young elderly participants from the historical cohort of the Brisighella Heart Study (M: 108, F: 180; mean age: 69 ± 6 years old). Exclusion criteria were limitation of activities of daily living, depression, chronic pharmacological treatment, patients in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease, known neurodegenerative disorders, confirmed diabetes or gout, and ultrasonic evaluated carotid atherosclerosis. Cognitive functions were assessed by scholarship-adjusted mini-mental state examination (MMSE). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was carried out including a large set of clinical and laboratory parameters, carotid intima-media thickness, and the Beck Depression scale score. The analysis was then repeated by gender. In the multiple regression analysis, the only factors associated with the MMSE score were: age (B = -0.058, 95% CI -0.108, -0.009, p = 0.022), LDL-C (B = -0.639, 95% CI -0.912, -0.411, p = 0.034) and SUA (B = -0.527, 95% CI -0.709, -0.344, p = 0.022). Repeating the analysis by low or high SUA level (based on the gender specific SUA distribution 50th percentile), it appears that in subjects with a low SUA, cognitive decline is only associated with age, while in those with high SUA it is associated with LDL-C (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.33, p = 0.019) and SBP (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.001-1.048, p = 0.039). Our data demonstrate a positive association between circulating levels of uric acid and cognitive dysfunction in a sample of pharmacologically untreated young elderly subjects. PMID:24986078

  9. Serum Uric Acid Predicts Vascular Complications in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Maahs, David M.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Pyle, Laura; Rewers, Marian; Johnson, Richard J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Epidemiologic evidence support a link between serum uric acid (SUA) and vascular complications in diabetes, but it remains unclear whether SUA improves the ability of conventional risk factor to predict complications. We hypothesized that SUA at baseline would independently predict the development of vascular complications over 6 years, and that the addition of SUA to American Diabetes Association’s ABC risk factors (HbA1c, BP, LDL-C) would improve vascular complication prediction over 6-years in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Study participants (N=652) were 19–56 year old at baseline and re-examined 6-years later. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined as incident albuminuria or rapid GFR decline (>3.3%/year) estimated by the CKD-EPI cystatin C. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was based on self-reported history, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was defined as laser eye therapy; coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured using electron-beam computed-tomography. Progression of CAC (CACp) was defined as a change in the square-root transformed CAC-volume ≥ 2.5. Predictors of each complication were examined in stepwise logistic regression with subjects with complications at baseline excluded from analyses. C-statistics, integrated-discrimination indices and net-reclassification improvement were utilized for prediction performance analyses. Results SUA independently predicted development of incident albuminuria (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), rapid GFR decline (1.9, 1.1–3.3), DR (1.4, 1.1–1.9), PDR (2.1, 1.4–3.0) and CACp (1.5 (1.1–1.9). SUA improved the discrimination and net-classification risk of vascular complications over 6-years. Conclusion SUA independently predicted the development of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes, and also improved the reclassification of vascular complications. PMID:24929955

  10. Liver Fat Content Is Associated with Elevated Serum Uric Acid in the Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations: Shanghai Changfeng Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ma, Hui; Xia, Mingfeng; Wang, Dan; Li, Xiaoming; Wu, Jiong; Zhao, Naiqing; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many studies have indicated a relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperuricemia, a few studies specifically examining the effects of the severity of liver fat content (LFC) on serum uric acid (SUA) and the presence of hyperuricemia because of the limitation of the examination methods for NAFLD. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the NAFLD and SUA levels in the Chinese population using standardized quantitative ultrasound. Methods A community-based study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2012. A total of 4,305 people aged 45 years and above without excessive drinking were enrolled. A standard interview and anthropometric and laboratory blood parameters were collected for each person. The standardized ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate was used to quantify LFC. Results The prevalence of NAFLD and hyperuricemia was 33.1% and 17.1%, respectively. A total of 23.5% of the NAFLD subjects had hyperuricemia, and their SUA was higher than that of non-NAFLD subjects (327.2±76.8 vs 301.9±77.4 μmol/L, P<0.001). The LFC was positively correlated with SUA (r = 0.130, P<0.001) and an independent factor for SUA (standardized β = 0.054, P<0.001). The OR for the presence of hypreuricemia was 1.175 (95% CI 1.048–1.318; P<0.001) with a 1 SD increase in the log LFC. LFC greater than 10% was related to elevated SUA and an increased presence of hyperuricemia. Conclusions LFC accumulation was associated with an increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and elevated SUA in our community-based population. LFC greater than 10% is related to the risk for hyperuricemia. PMID:26473493

  11. Association of Elevated Serum Uric Acid with the Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress in Abdominal Obesity Subjects.

    PubMed

    Pingmuangkaew, Patcharin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai; Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with the cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Serum uric acid (SUA) is often elevated in subjects with the AO. We aimed to investigate the association of elevated SUA with the components of MetS, oxidative stress and TG/HDL-C ratio in AO subjects. This cross-sectional study used data from a Health Survey for Prevention of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in residents of two districts in Phitsanulok province, including 443 subjects. Anthropometric, blood pressure (BP) and biochemical variables were measured. We categorized the participants to two-group as 248 AO subjects (median age = 58, interquartile range 50.0-65.0 years) and 195 non-AO subjects (median age = 53, interquartile range 47.0-62.0 years). Waist circumference was significantly correlated with SystBP, DiastBP, Glu and SUA (P < 0.05) and SUA was significantly correlated with Glu, TG, HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio (P < 0.05). By using multiple logistic regression, we found the association of elevated SUA with abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced HDL-C, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, MetS and increased oxidative stress after adjusting for their covariates. Our study demonstrated that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, elevated SUA concentrations associated with oxidative stress, MetS, insulin resistance, and components of MetS. Then, SUA may be a marker of increased oxidative stress, insulin resistance and MetS, implying an increased risk of vascular disease and T2DM. PMID:26089614

  12. Improving management of gout in primary care using a customised electronic records template

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Keith; McNab, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the management of chronic gout in relation to serum uric acid (SUA) monitoring, allopurinol dosing, and lifestyle advice is often sub-optimal in primary care.[1] A quality improvement project in the form of a criterion based audit was carried out in an urban general practice to improve the care of patients being treated for gout. Baseline searching of EMIS confirmed that management of patients with gout who were taking allopurinol was not in line with current guidance. 51(40%) had a SUA checked in the past 12 months, 88(25%) had a SUA below target level, and gout lifestyle advice was not being recorded. An audit was performed to measure and improve the following criteria: Monitoring of SUA levels in the past 12 monthsTitration of urate lowering therapy to bring the SUA below target levelLifestyle advice in the past 12 months An audit standard of 60% achievement at 2 months and 80% achievement at 4 months was set. The intervention consisted of a custom electronic template within EMIS which allowed guidance of gout management to be displayed and for data to be entered. All members of the team including GPs and administrative staff were educated regarding the intervention. This resulted in a sustained improvement over a 6 month period in all 3 components of the audit with 112(84%) having a SUA level checked, 79(51%) having a SUA below target level and 76(57%) receiving lifestyle advice. Although the improvement did not reach the audit standard in 2 of the criteria it would be expected that outcomes would continue given the systems changes which have been made.

  13. Cross kingdom functional conservation of the core universally conserved threonylcarbamoyladenosine tRNA synthesis enzymes.

    PubMed

    Thiaville, Patrick C; El Yacoubi, Basma; Perrochia, Ludovic; Hecker, Arnaud; Prigent, Magali; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Forterre, Patrick; Namy, Olivier; Basta, Tamara; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-09-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) is a universal modification located in the anticodon stem-loop of tRNAs. In yeast, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are modified. The cytoplasmic t(6)A synthesis pathway was elucidated and requires Sua5p, Kae1p, and four other KEOPS complex proteins. Recent in vitro work suggested that the mitochondrial t(6)A machinery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of only two proteins, Sua5p and Qri7p, a member of the Kae1p/TsaD family (L. C. K. Wan et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 41:6332-6346, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt322). Sua5p catalyzes the first step leading to the threonyl-carbamoyl-AMP intermediate (TC-AMP), while Qri7 transfers the threonyl-carbamoyl moiety from TC-AMP to tRNA to form t(6)A. Qri7p localizes to the mitochondria, but Sua5p was reported to be cytoplasmic. We show that Sua5p is targeted to both the cytoplasm and the mitochondria through the use of alternative start sites. The import of Sua5p into the mitochondria is required for this organelle to be functional, since the TC-AMP intermediate produced by Sua5p in the cytoplasm is not transported into the mitochondria in sufficient amounts. This minimal t(6)A pathway was characterized in vitro and, for the first time, in vivo by heterologous complementation studies in Escherichia coli. The data revealed a potential for TC-AMP channeling in the t(6)A pathway, as the coexpression of Qri7p and Sua5p is required to complement the essentiality of the E. coli tsaD mutant. Our results firmly established that Qri7p and Sua5p constitute the mitochondrial pathway for the biosynthesis of t(6)A and bring additional advancement in our understanding of the reaction mechanism. PMID:25038083

  14. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Shanying; Shao, Xiaofei; Guo, Jia; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Aiqun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ?468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ?328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. PMID:24619122

  15. Captura de satélites durante a formação de Júpiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande número de satélites irregulares. As características das órbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos não teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes são de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma região distante do planeta e sua evolução dinâmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos não produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estágio de formação do planeta. Realizamos simulações numéricas para os casos de satélites prógrados e retrógrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e então, evoluimos a integração voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma redução em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satélites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estágio de formação de Jupiter aquele hipotético satélite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satélites retrógrados são capturados assim que entram na região delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satélites prógrados só são capturados quando entram numa região bem mais próxima ao planeta, uma fração da esfera de Hill.

  16. Association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk among university workers from the State of Mexico: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that serum uric acid (SUA) can be an inexpensive and easy-to-obtain indicator of cardiovascular risk (CR). This is especially important in developing countries with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between SUA levels and 10-year global CR among university workers from the State of Mexico, Mexico. Methods A case–control study nested within a cohort was conducted between 2004 and 2006. Anthropometric measures, lifestyle variables, family background and CR factors were assessed. The analysis estimated odds ratios using conditional logistic regression. Results The study included 319 cases with CR and 638 controls. Subjects in the upper tertile of SUA had 48.0% higher odds of having an elevated CR than those in the lower tertile (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI: 1.04 - 2.10) in the crude analysis, but the association was non-significant when adjusting for other covariates. Among physically inactive individuals, being in the third tertile of SUA doubled the odds of high CR, compared with those who perform physical activity three or more hours per week being in the first tertile of SUA (OR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.24 - 4.45). Conclusion Serum concentration of uric acid is associated with 10-year global CR among individuals with high levels of physical inactivity. PMID:23631758

  17. Genome wide association study of uric acid in Indian population and interaction of identified variants with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Anil K; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Shraddha; Kauser, Yasmeen; Undru, Aditya; Roy, Suki; Parekatt, Vaisak; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal level of Serum Uric Acid (SUA) is an important marker and risk factor for complex diseases including Type 2 Diabetes. Since genetic determinant of uric acid in Indians is totally unexplored, we tried to identify common variants associated with SUA in Indians using Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). Association of five known variants in SLC2A9 and SLC22A11 genes with SUA level in 4,834 normoglycemics (1,109 in discovery and 3,725 in validation phase) was revealed with different effect size in Indians compared to other major ethnic population of the world. Combined analysis of 1,077 T2DM subjects (772 in discovery and 305 in validation phase) and normoglycemics revealed additional GWAS signal in ABCG2 gene. Differences in effect sizes of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene variants were observed between normoglycemics and T2DM patients. We identified two novel variants near long non-coding RNA genes AL356739.1 and AC064865.1 with nearly genome wide significance level. Meta-analysis and in silico replication in 11,745 individuals from AUSTWIN consortium improved association for rs12206002 in AL356739.1 gene to sub-genome wide association level. Our results extends association of SLC2A9, SLC22A11 and ABCG2 genes with SUA level in Indians and enrich the assemblages of evidence for SUA level and T2DM interrelationship. PMID:26902266

  18. Genome wide association study of uric acid in Indian population and interaction of identified variants with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anil K; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Shraddha; Kauser, Yasmeen; Undru, Aditya; Roy, Suki; Parekatt, Vaisak; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal level of Serum Uric Acid (SUA) is an important marker and risk factor for complex diseases including Type 2 Diabetes. Since genetic determinant of uric acid in Indians is totally unexplored, we tried to identify common variants associated with SUA in Indians using Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). Association of five known variants in SLC2A9 and SLC22A11 genes with SUA level in 4,834 normoglycemics (1,109 in discovery and 3,725 in validation phase) was revealed with different effect size in Indians compared to other major ethnic population of the world. Combined analysis of 1,077 T2DM subjects (772 in discovery and 305 in validation phase) and normoglycemics revealed additional GWAS signal in ABCG2 gene. Differences in effect sizes of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene variants were observed between normoglycemics and T2DM patients. We identified two novel variants near long non-coding RNA genes AL356739.1 and AC064865.1 with nearly genome wide significance level. Meta-analysis and in silico replication in 11,745 individuals from AUSTWIN consortium improved association for rs12206002 in AL356739.1 gene to sub-genome wide association level. Our results extends association of SLC2A9, SLC22A11 and ABCG2 genes with SUA level in Indians and enrich the assemblages of evidence for SUA level and T2DM interrelationship. PMID:26902266

  19. Administered chrysanthemum flower oil attenuates hyperuricemia: mechanism of action as revealed by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Shinichi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Kitagawa, Masayasu; Nakai, Yuji; Abe, Keiko; Hirata, Dai

    2014-01-01

    We applied Chrysanthemum flower oil (CFO) to a hyperuricemia model by feeding rats a hyperuricemia-inducing diet (HID) and investigated its effect on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and its mode of action. CFO is the oily fraction that contains polyphenols derived from chrysanthemum flowers. Oral administration of CFO to HID-fed rats significantly decreased their SUA levels. It also inhibited xanthine oxidase activities in the liver and increased urine uric acid levels. The effects of CFO on the renal gene expressions that accompanied the induction of hyperuricemia were comprehensively confirmed by DNA microarray analysis. The analysis showed up-regulation of those genes for uric acid excretion by CFO administration. These results suggest that CFO suppresses the increase in SUA levels via two mechanisms: suppression of uric acid production by inhibition of xanthine oxidase in the liver and acceleration of its excretion by up-regulation of uric acid transporter genes in the kidney. PMID:25036964

  20. Examination of Frameworks for Safe Integration of Intelligent Small UAS into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper briefly examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine "classes" of platforms and operations. A framework for categorization of the "intelligence" level of the UAS is postulated for purposes of NAS integration. Finally, constraints on the intelligent systems are postulated to ensure their ease of integration into the NAS.

  1. Effect of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Serum Uric Acid: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Miller, Edgar R.; Gelber, Allan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of vitamin C supplementation on serum uric acid (SUA) by pooling the findings from published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Methods A total of 2,082 publications identified through systematic search were subjected to the following inclusion criteria: (1) RCTs conducted on human subjects; (2) reported end-trial SUA means and variance; (3) study design with oral vitamin C supplementation and concurrent control groups; and (4) trial duration of at least one week. Trials that enrolled children or patients on dialysis were excluded. Two investigators independently abstracted trial and participant characteristics. SUA effects were pooled by random-effects models and weighted by inverse variance. Results Thirteen RCTs were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. The total number of participants was 556, median dose of vitamin C was 500 mg/d, trial size ranged from 8 to 184 participants, and median study duration was 30 days. Pretreatment SUA values ranged from 2.9 to 7.0 mg/dL (SI: 172.5 – 416.4 ?mol/L). The combined effect of these trials was a significant reduction in SUA of -0.35 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.66, -0.03; P = 0.032; SI: -20.8 ?mol/L). Trial heterogeneity was significant (I2 = 77%; P < 0.01). Subgroup analyses based on trial characteristics indicated larger reductions in uric acid in trials that were placebo-controlled. Conclusions In aggregate, vitamin C supplementation significantly lowered SUA. Future trials are needed to determine whether vitamin C supplementation can reduce hyperuricemia or prevent incident and recurrent gout. PMID:21671418

  2. Replication of the effect of SLC2A9 genetic variation on serum uric acid levels in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; MacCluer, Jean W; Umans, Jason G; Comuzzie, Anthony G; North, Kari E; Cole, Shelley A

    2014-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia, a risk factor for gout, renal and cardiovascular diseases, is caused by either increased production or decreased excretion of uric acid or a mix of both. The solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) gene encodes a transporter that mediates urate flux across the renal proximal tubule. Genome-wide association studies have consistently shown the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene with SUA in majority populations. American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study, belonging to multigenerational families, have high prevalence of hyperuricemia. We conducted measured genotype analyses, based on variance components decomposition method and accounting for family relationships, to assess whether the association between SUA and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms generalized to American Indians (n=3604) of this study. Seven polymorphisms were selected for genotyping based on their association with SUA levels in other populations. A strong association was found between SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms and SUA in all centers combined (P-values: 1.3 × 10−31–5.1 × 10−23) and also when stratified by recruitment center; P-values: 1.2 × 10−14–1.0 × 10−5. These polymorphisms were also associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine but not albumin–creatinine ratio. In summary, the association of polymorphisms in the uric acid transporter gene with SUA levels extends to a new population of American Indians. PMID:24301058

  3. Study of the correlation between serum ferritin levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    LI, BIQIANG; LIN, WEI; LIN, NAN; DONG, XIAOWEN; LIU, LIBIN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the correlation between serum ferritin (SF) levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients. A total of 2,600 patients were enrolled in the study. Various parameters, including blood pressure (BP), height, weight, lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), serum uric acid (SUA), the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and SF levels were measured. A homeostatic model was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?). The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and disposition index (DI) were calculated. The QUICKI and DI decreased significantly and other parameters increased significantly when the number of metabolic disorders increased. Patients with high triglycerides (TG), high total cholesterol (TC), high SUA and obesity demonstrated higher SF levels than those with normal TG, normal TC, normal SUA and normal weight, respectively (P<0.01). Male patients with metabolic disorders (high TG, high TC, high BP, high SUA and obesity) had higher SF levels than female patients with the corresponding disorders (P<0.01). BG, FINS, BMI, TC, TG, SUA, HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were positively correlated with SF, while DI and QUICKI were negatively correlated with SF (P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, BMI, TC, TG and SUA were risk factors for elevated SF levels. In conclusion, the SF levels in non-diabetic, elderly individuals with metabolic disorders may be significantly related to the clustering of the metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia, obesity, disorders of purine metabolism and insulin resistance may be important risk factors for higher SF levels in the elderly. PMID:24926364

  4. Serum uric acid level and association with cognitive impairment and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamir A; Quinn, Terence J; Hewitt, Jonathan; Fan, Yuhua; Dawson, Jesse

    2016-02-01

    Serum uric acid (sUA) level may be associated with cognitive impairment/dementia. It is possible this relationship varies with dementia subtype, particularly between vascular dementias (VaD) and Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PDD)-related dementia. We aimed to present a synthesis of all published data on sUA and relationship with dementia/cognition through systematic review and meta-analysis. We included studies that assessed the association between sUA and any measure of cognitive function or a clinical diagnosis of dementia. We pre-defined subgroup analyses for patients with AD, VaD, PDD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mixed or undifferentiated. We assessed risk of bias/generalizability, and where data allowed, we performed meta-analysis to describe pooled measures of association across studies. From 4811 titles, 46 papers (n?=?16,688 participants) met our selection criteria. Compared to controls, sUA was lower in dementia (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)). There were differences in association by dementia type with apparent association for AD (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)) and PDD (SDM -0.67 (95%CI)) but not in cases of mixed dementia (SDM 0.19 (95%CI)) or VaD (SDM -0.05 (95%CI)). There was no correlation between scores on Mini-Mental State Examination and sUA level (summary r 0.08, p?=?0.27), except in patients with PDD (r 0.16, p?=?0.003). Our conclusions are limited by clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias in studies. Accepting this caveat, the relationship between sUA and dementia/cognitive impairment is not consistent across all dementia groups and in particular may differ in patients with VaD compared to other dementia subtypes. PMID:26820749

  5. 10 CFR 820.34 - Accelerated decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accelerated decision. 820.34 Section 820.34 Energy... decision. (a) General. The Presiding Officer, upon motion of any party or sua sponte, may at any time render an Accelerated Decision in favor of the Director or the respondent as to all or any part of...

  6. 10 CFR 820.34 - Accelerated decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accelerated decision. 820.34 Section 820.34 Energy... decision. (a) General. The Presiding Officer, upon motion of any party or sua sponte, may at any time render an Accelerated Decision in favor of the Director or the respondent as to all or any part of...

  7. Detection of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes using unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. We set up a nitrogen rate experiment in 2013 with ‘Ranger Russet’ potatoes by applying four rates of nitrogen fertilizer (112, 224, 337, and 449 kg N/ha) in a randomized...

  8. A Study of Recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits and Special Unemployment Assistance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter; And Others

    This is the final report of a study of approximately 12,000 recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits (FSB) and Special Unemployment Assistance (SUA) during 1975. (The study, involving interviews with recipients in 15 States and analysis of administrative records from each State's Unemployment Insurance Service, was conducted in response to the…

  9. 78 FR 25484 - License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Register Notice (77 FR 24993) requesting comments on the licensee's proposed amendment. No comments were... COMMISSION License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County... issuance of a license amendment to Source Materials License SUA- 1310 issued to Anadarko...

  10. Dissociable effects of natural image structure and color on LFP and spiking activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex and extrastriate visual area V4.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Stefanie; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-07-13

    Visual perception is mediated by unique contributions of the numerous brain regions that constitute the visual system. We performed simultaneous recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity (SUA) in areas V4 and lateral prefrontal cortex to characterize their contribution to visual processing. Here, we trained monkeys to identify natural images at different degradation levels in a visual recognition task. We parametrically varied color and structural information of natural images while the animals were performing the task. We show that the visual-evoked potential (VEP) of the LFP in V4 is highly sensitive to color, whereas the VEP in prefrontal cortex predominantly depends on image structure. When examining the relationship between VEP and SUA, we found that stimulus sensitivity for SUA was well predicted by the VEP in PF cortex but not in V4. Our results first reveal a functional specialization in both areas at the level of the LFP and further suggest that the degree to which mesoscopic signals, such as the VEP, are representative of the underlying SUA neural processing may be brain region specific within the context of visual recognition. PMID:21752998

  11. 24 CFR 26.17 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prehearing conference. 26.17... Development HEARING PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.17 Prehearing conference. (a) Prehearing conference. The hearing officer may, sua sponte or at the request of any party, direct counsel...

  12. 24 CFR 26.39 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prehearing conferences. 26.39... § 26.39 Prehearing conferences. (a) The ALJ may schedule prehearing conferences as appropriate. (b) Upon the motion of any party or sua sponte, the ALJ may schedule a prehearing conference at...

  13. Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Fatty Acids in Southern African Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmark, K. A.; Macko, S. A.; Swap, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    This study, conducted as a part of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), applied compound specific isotope analysis to describe aerosols at source regions and rural locations. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids were determined for aerosol samples collected at four sites throughout southern Africa. Mongu, Zambia and Skukuza, South Africa were chosen for their location within intense seasonal Miombo woodland savanna and bushveld savanna biomass burning source regions, respectively. Urban aerosols were collected at Johannesburg, South Africa and rural samples were collected at Sua Pan, Botswana. Fatty acid isotopic compositions varied temporally. Urban aerosols showed significant isotopic enrichment of selected short chain fatty acids (C < 20) compared to aerosols produced during biomass combustion. Sua Pan short chain fatty acid signatures were significantly different from the other non-urban sites, which suggests that sources other than biomass combustion products, such as organic eolian material, impact the Sua Pan aerosol profile. However, a high degree of correlation between Sua Pan and Skukuza long chain fatty acid ? 13C values confirm atmospheric linkages between the two areas and that isotopic signatures of combusted fatty acids are unaltered during atmospheric transport highlighting their potential for use as a conservative tracer.

  14. 77 FR 2518 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 2 Take notice that the Commission received the... submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: 20120110 TNC-Higher Power Energy SUA to be effective 12/15/2011...: PacifiCorp. Description: PacifiCorp submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: Nevada Power...

  15. 10 CFR 820.38 - Consolidation and severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidation and severance. 820.38 Section 820.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.38 Consolidation and severance. (a) Consolidation. The Presiding Officer may, by motion or sua sponte, consolidate...

  16. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filings. 78.4 Section 78.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES... Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer determines on motion by any party or sua sponte that a filing...

  17. 40 CFR 78.4 - Filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filings. 78.4 Section 78.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES... Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer determines on motion by any party or sua sponte that a filing...

  18. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  19. 75 FR 43168 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Service Network which is comprised of State Units on Aging (SUA), Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) and Local... AAA directors and their staff and focus groups with provider organizations was deemed to be the most... range of AAA and service provider network characteristics. A focus group will be conducted with LSPs...

  20. 77 FR 20637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; OAA Title III-C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... the Aging Network--State Unit on Aging (SUA), Area Agency on Aging (AAA), and Local Service Provider... population served and a survey that covers a variety of topics. The AAA process component includes a short... faxable survey that is comparable to the AAA faxable survey and a web-based survey that covers a range...

  1. Detection of Single Umbilical Artery in the First Trimester Ultrasound: Its Value as a Marker of Fetal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Payo, Cristina; Nieto, Yolanda; Ruiz de Azúa, Miguel; García-Benasach, Fátima; Iglesias, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The value of a single umbilical artery (SUA) in first trimester ultrasound is not well established. The aim of our study was to determinate the relevance of diagnosis of single umbilical artery in first trimester ultrasound as an early marker suggesting the presence of malformations or associated chromosomopathies. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of clinical cases of SUA diagnosed at the University Hospital Puerta de Hierro in Madrid (Spain) during the first trimester ultrasound between September 2008 and September 2012. Results. Prevalence of SUA was 1.1% in single pregnancies and 3.3% in twin pregnancies. Sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, and false negative rate for the finding in the first trimester were 84.2, 99.8, 0.2, and 15.7%, respectively. 17.6% of cases had associated malformations. With an ultrasound in the 16th week most of the cases with significant fetal malformation were diagnosed. Discussion. SUA is a useful marker in the first trimester for fetal malformation pathology, as it will allow detecting a large number of cases with malformations before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:25101287

  2. Half-cell potentials of semiconductive simple binary sulphides in aqueous solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, M.

    1966-01-01

    Theoretical consideration of the charge-transfer mechanism operative in cells with an electrode of a semiconductive binary compound leads to the conclusion that the half-cell potential of such a compound is not only a function of ionic activities in the electrolytic solution, but also a function of the activities of the component elements in the compound phase. The most general form of the electrode equation derived for such a compound with a formula MiXj which dissociates into Mj+ and Xi- ions in aqueous solution is. EMiXj = EMiXj0 + R T 2 ij ln [ (sua Mj+)aqi ?? (suaX)jMiXj/ (suaXi-)aqj ?? (suaM)iMiXj],. where. EMiXj0 = 1 2(EM,Mj+0 + EXi-,X). The equation can be modified to other forms. When applied to semiconductive simple binary sulphides, these equations appear to give better descriptions of the observed electrode potentials of such sulphides than any other proposed equations. ?? 1966.

  3. Tophus resolution with pegloticase: a prospective dual-energy CT study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Elizabeth G; Bayat, Sara; Petsch, Christina; Englbrecht, Matthias; Faustini, Francesca; Kleyer, Arnd; Hueber, Axel J; Cavallaro, Alexander; Lell, Michael; Dalbeth, Nicola; Manger, Bernhard; Schett, Georg; Rech, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intensive lowering of serum uric acid (SUA) levels by pegloticase on the resolution of tophi in patients with refractory gout. Methods Descriptive study in patients with refractory gout receiving pegloticase treatment. SUA levels were measured before and after each infusion. Dual-energy CT (DECT) scans were taken from all patients before the first infusion and after the last infusion. Computerised tophus volumes were calculated for the baseline and follow-up assessments and compared with each other. Results 10 patients with refractory gout and baseline mean SUA level of 8.1 mg/dL were enrolled. Patients were treated for a mean of 13.3 weeks. Pegloticase effectively reduced tophi in all patients showing a decrease in volume by 71.4%. Responders, showing reduction of SUA level below 6 mg/dL during at least 80% of the treatment time, were virtually cleared from tophi (−94.8%). Dependent on their anatomical localisation, resolution of tophi showed different dynamics, with articular tophi showing fast, and tendon tophi slow, resolution. Conclusions Tophi are highly sensitive to pegloticase treatment, particularly when located at articular sites. Debulking of disease and a tophus-free state can be reached within a few months of pegloticase treatment. DECT allows for comprehensively assessing tophus burden and monitoring treatment responses. PMID:26509070

  4. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  5. 75 FR 28752 - Amendment and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Avon Park Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to restructure the SUA at the APAFR, Florida (74 FR 7018). Interested parties...'' under Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  6. 12 CFR 622.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... modify any such subpoena; (3) To receive relevant evidence and to rule upon the admission of evidence and... simplification of issues or for any proper purpose; and (7) To consider and rule upon, as justice may require... authority to correct the record sua sponte with notice to all parties and to rule upon motions to...

  7. 12 CFR 622.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... modify any such subpoena; (3) To receive relevant evidence and to rule upon the admission of evidence and... simplification of issues or for any proper purpose; and (7) To consider and rule upon, as justice may require... authority to correct the record sua sponte with notice to all parties and to rule upon motions to...

  8. 12 CFR 622.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... modify any such subpoena; (3) To receive relevant evidence and to rule upon the admission of evidence and... simplification of issues or for any proper purpose; and (7) To consider and rule upon, as justice may require... authority to correct the record sua sponte with notice to all parties and to rule upon motions to...

  9. 12 CFR 622.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... modify any such subpoena; (3) To receive relevant evidence and to rule upon the admission of evidence and... simplification of issues or for any proper purpose; and (7) To consider and rule upon, as justice may require... authority to correct the record sua sponte with notice to all parties and to rule upon motions to...

  10. 12 CFR 622.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... modify any such subpoena; (3) To receive relevant evidence and to rule upon the admission of evidence and... simplification of issues or for any proper purpose; and (7) To consider and rule upon, as justice may require... authority to correct the record sua sponte with notice to all parties and to rule upon motions to...

  11. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  12. An OEF/OIF study of close combat missions using small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, Gabriel; Tierney, Richard J.; Vitali, Juan A.

    2007-04-01

    The Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) is a rucksack portable aerial observation vehicle designed to supplement reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition tasks of an infantry company. The Raven is an earlier version of the SUAS. Raven is an Urgent Material Release (UMR) acquisition and has been used for the past two years by selected Army units in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Army Test and Evaluation Command-led surveys were used to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Raven in OEF/OIF. Results and analyses of the surveys indicate that Raven enhances situational awareness of a small unit in urban areas and in selected close combat missions. Users of the Raven state it is easy to use, although there are major issues with frequency de-confliction, airspace management, short endurance, and sensor performance. The SUAS is a program of record and completed developmental and operational testing in preparation for full rate production. This paper addresses the SUAS effectiveness, suitability, and survivability evaluation strategy based on actual testing of the system. During the Initial Operational Test (IOT), the SUAS was found to be effective with limitations in a set of 21 closed combat missions and two call for fire tests for which it was tested. Low Mean Time Between Operational Mean Failure (MTBOMF) and human factors issues make the system suitable with limitations. Acoustic (audible to the human ear) and electronic vulnerabilities make the system non-survivable in most combat scenarios. The SUAS was found to be useful as an extra asset usable in certain infantry company close combat missions where terrain and visual line of sight give the system an advantage over traditional reconnaissance patrols. Army aviation and infantry units uncover new ways every day to use this portable "eye in the sky", especially when unmanned aerial reconnaissance assets are in premium demand. A discussion on changes in doctrine with the SUAS and how it will be integrated into future combat systems for the Army completes the evaluation analysis and its likely benefits to the Soldier.

  13. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Kent, Jack W.; Debnath, Subrata; Cole, Shelley A.; Haack, Karin; Göring, Harald H. H.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Moses, Eric K.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 × 10?7). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3–7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 × 10?3) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 × 10?6) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors. PMID:24379826

  14. Relation of Lipid Content of Coronary Plaque to Level of Serum Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuichi; Nakayama, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazumasa; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the pathogenesis of the relation between SUA level and coronary plaque characteristics has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between SUA level and plaque composition of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS. A total of 81 patients with ACS who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention were included. They were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. Using integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS system, tissue components were classified into 4 categories: calcium deposits, dense fibrosis, fibrosis, and lipid. Tertiles of SUA level were as follows: low tertile <5.0 mg/dl; intermediate tertile 5.0 to 6.4 mg/dl; and high tertile >6.4 mg/dl. There was a trend toward greater vessel volume in the high tertile group than in the low and intermediate tertile groups (19.4 ± 3.7 vs 17.4 ± 4.4 vs 16.7 ± 4.1 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in lumen volume between the 3 groups. Plaque volume was significantly greater in the high than in the low tertile group (8.6 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.2 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.01). IB-IVUS analysis demonstrated greater lipid (59.1 ± 9.1% vs 49.7 ± 10.9% vs 51.1 ± 9.3%, p = 0.001) and less fibrous components (36.8 ± 7.8% vs 44.3 ± 7.8% vs 43.2 ± 6.7%, p <0.001) in the high than in the low and intermediate tertile groups. Multivariate analysis showed high SUA as an independent predictor of increasing lipid volume. In conclusion, elevated SUA level is associated with greater lipid content of coronary plaque in patients with ACS than in patients with normal levels. PMID:26381534

  15. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9?N, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  16. Higher Serum Uric Acid on Admission Is Associated with Higher Short-term Mortality and Poorer Long-term Survival After Myocardial Infarction: Retrospective Prognostic Study

    PubMed Central

    Car, Siniša; Trkulja, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess serum uric acid (SUA) levels determined on admission as a potential predictor of short-term mortality and long-term survival in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Method Data for this retrospective prognostic study were drawn from the patient database of the Varaždin County General Hospital in Varaždin, Croatia. We included consecutive patients with verified AMI admitted within 48 hours since the symptom onset during the period between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001. Long-term survival/mortality data were collected through direct contacts with patients and search of the community death registries. Relative risks (RR) and hazard ratios (HR) by 10 µmol/L increase in SUA were determined using modified Poisson regression with robust error variance and proportional hazard regression, respectively. Results A total of 621 patients (age 27-90 years, 64.7% men, 77.5% AMI with ST elevation, SUA 63-993 µmol/L) were included. Higher SUA on admission was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.016; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.031, P?=?0.043) and higher thirty-day mortality (RR, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.003-1.029, P?=?0.018). Considered covariates were demographics, pre-index event cardiovascular morbidity and treatment, on-admission serum creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides, AMI characteristics, and peak creatine phosphokinase. Higher SUA on admission was also independently associated with poorer long-term survival (ie, higher all-cause mortality) (HR, 1.105; 95% CI, 1.020-1.195, P?=?0.010). Considered covariates were demographics, laboratory variables on admission, AMI characteristics, peak creatine phosphokinase, acute complications, and treatment at discharge. Conclusion Higher serum uric acid determined on admission is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and thirty-day mortality and poorer long-term survival after AMI. PMID:20017224

  17. Relationships among low-frequency local field potentials, spiking activity, and three-dimensional reach and grasp kinematics in primary motor and ventral premotor cortices

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Truccolo, Wilson; Donoghue, John P.

    2011-01-01

    A prominent feature of motor cortex field potentials during movement is a distinctive low-frequency local field potential (lf-LFP) (<4 Hz), referred to as the movement event-related potential (mEP). The lf-LFP appears to be a global signal related to regional synaptic input, but its relationship to nearby output signaled by single unit spiking activity (SUA) or to movement remains to be established. Previous studies comparing information in primary motor cortex (MI) lf-LFPs and SUA in the context of planar reaching tasks concluded that lf-LFPs have more information than spikes about movement. However, the relative performance of these signals was based on a small number of simultaneously recorded channels and units, or for data averaged across sessions, which could miss information of larger-scale spiking populations. Here, we simultaneously recorded LFPs and SUA from two 96-microelectrode arrays implanted in two major motor cortical areas, MI and ventral premotor (PMv), while monkeys freely reached for and grasped objects swinging in front of them. We compared arm end point and grip aperture kinematics′ decoding accuracy for lf-LFP and SUA ensembles. The results show that lf-LFPs provide enough information to reconstruct kinematics in both areas with little difference in decoding performance between MI and PMv. Individual lf-LFP channels often provided more accurate decoding of single kinematic variables than any one single unit. However, the decoding performance of the best single unit among the large population usually exceeded that of the best single lf-LFP channel. Furthermore, ensembles of SUA outperformed the pool of lf-LFP channels, in disagreement with the previously reported superiority of lf-LFP decoding. Decoding results suggest that information in lf-LFPs recorded from intracortical arrays may allow the reconstruction of reach and grasp for real-time neuroprosthetic applications, thus potentially supplementing the ability to decode these same features from spiking populations. PMID:21273313

  18. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria.

    PubMed

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-10-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UE(UA)) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UE(UA), suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UE(UA). The increase in UE(UA) was correlated with an increase in urinary D-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UE(UA) is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9?N, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and D-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [(14) C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm D-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [(14) C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm D-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UE(UA) could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  19. Cross-Organization Service Use Management for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, J.; Gerschefske, K.

    2012-09-01

    With the Joint Space Operations Center Mission Systems (JMS) focus to deploy a service-oriented architecture (SOA) environment, the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) community is moving rapidly toward a platform environment. Organizations will no longer rely entirely on systems within their boundaries. Instead, services and data are shared across organizational boundaries between diverse organizations. For SSA to succeed, JMS and similar efforts must employ and share resources across organizational boundaries (from AFSPC, to other US partners, to non-US partners and even universities). However, sharing services across organizational boundaries presents visibility and dependency issues. What information does an organization need to rely on these external services for mission critical needs? This paper presents an approach to dynamic service use agreement (SUA) negotiation that provides service platforms (and SOAs) the ability to dynamically negotiate the use of services across organizational boundaries. Using a small set of common service level agreement metadata (SLA metadata) parameters, service use can automatically be negotiated between SOAs. The Managing Aggregated Services (MASS) toolkit is designed to enable automated SUA across organizational boundaries by standardizing the service use parameters (the SLA metadata) as the foundation for SUA. The MASS toolkit demonstrates that this SUA can be done between systems as the SLA metadata provides the necessary visibility for the consuming organization into the provider organization services. The MASS toolkit also answers the question "who is using my service?" Service access can be limited to only SOAs which have negotiated an SUA, providing information security for service providers. In the highly dynamic SSA environment, where services will be provided by a variety of organizations, previous work has shown that SOA can shorten service integration from months to weeks. MASS demonstrates the potential to move this integration to days and hours by removing the need to negotiate the technical parameters of a service level agreement for each new service interaction by hand.

  20. Astronomía Mocoví

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  1. Movimiento regular y caótico en cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Los cúmulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las órbitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energía ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos caóticos. Como paso preliminar de una investigación más extensa, presentamos aquí los resultados de un estudio de órbitas estelares en un cúmulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una órbita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las órbitas se investigan utilizando dos métodos: 1) La clasificación por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de órbitas de las estrellas del cúmulo. Confirmamos la presencia de órbitas caóticas, particularmente en las zonas externas del cúmulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del cúmulo.

  2. Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, A. F. C.

    Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

  3. Polarización lineal en estrellas simbióticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Ferrer, O. E.

    Se presenta un estudio de polarización lineal en las bandas UBVRI de un grupo de estrellas simbióticas, a fin de analizar el comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición en función de la longitud de onda. En aquellos sistemas observados repetidas veces, se analizan además variaciones temporales en los parámetros de polarización. En base a este comportamiento se determina si la polarización observada es puramente interestelar o si existe una contribución de polarización, intrínseca al objeto. La muestra de objetos estudiados presenta ciertas características comunes, es decir, son sistemas simbióticos tipo D, cuyas respectivas componentes gigantes son variables tipo Mira y además presentan nebulosas ionizadas extendidas con morfología y dimensiones conocidas. Esto es de importancia ya que el conocimiento de la estructura del gas extendido permite interpretar la geometría de scattering que produce la polarización observada. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el Fotopolarímetro de Torino adosado al telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO.

  4. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  5. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  6. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories. PMID:22286175

  7. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  8. Implementation of a sensor guided flight algorithm for target tracking by small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gaemus E.; Stankevitz, Chris; Liese, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Small xed-wing UAS (SUAS) such as Raven and Unicorn have limited power, speed, and maneuverability. Their missions can be dramatically hindered by environmental conditions (wind, terrain), obstructions (buildings, trees) blocking clear line of sight to a target, and/or sensor hardware limitations (xed stare, limited gimbal motion, lack of zoom). Toyon's Sensor Guided Flight (SGF) algorithm was designed to account for SUAS hardware shortcomings and enable long-term tracking of maneuvering targets by maintaining persistent eyes-on-target. SGF was successfully tested in simulation with high-delity UAS, sensor, and environment models, but real- world ight testing with 60 Unicorn UAS revealed surprising second order challenges that were not highlighted by the simulations. This paper describes the SGF algorithm, our rst round simulation results, our second order discoveries from ight testing, and subsequent improvements that were made to the algorithm.

  9. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  10. The structure of the yrdC gene product from Escherichia coli reveals a new fold and suggests a role in RNA binding.

    SciTech Connect

    Teplova , M.; Tereshko, V.; Sanishvili, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Bushueva, T.; Anderson, W. F.; Egli, M.; Vanderbilt Univ.; Russian Academy of Medical Sciences; Northwestern Univ.

    2000-01-01

    The yrdC family of genes codes for proteins that occur both independently and as a domain in proteins that have been implicated in regulation. An example for the latter case is the sua5 gene from yeast. Sua5 was identified as a suppressor of a translation initiation defect in cytochrome c and is required for normal growth in yeast. However, the function of the Sua5 protein remains unknown; Sua5 could act either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional levels to compensate for an aberrant translation start codon in the cyc gene. To potentially learn more about the function of YrdC and proteins featuring this domain, the crystal structure of the YrdC protein from Escherichia coli was determined at a resolution of 2.0 Angstroms. YrdC adopts a new fold with no obvious similarity to those of other proteins with known three-dimensional (3D) structure. The protein features a large concave surface on one side that exhibits a positive electrostatic potential. The dimensions of this depression, its curvature, and the fact that conserved basic amino acids are located at its floor suggest that YrdC may be a nucleic acid binding protein. An investigation of YrdC's binding affinities for single- and double-stranded RNA and DNA fragments as well as tRNAs demonstrates that YrdC binds preferentially to double-stranded RNA. Our work provides evidence that 3D structures of functionally uncharacterized gene products with unique sequences can yield novel folds and functional insights.

  11. The effects of URAT1/SLC22A12 nonfunctional variants,R90H and W258X, on serum uric acid levels and gout/hyperuricemia progression.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Seiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Higashino, Toshihide; Naito, Mariko; Suma, Shino; Hishida, Asahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Sakurai, Yutaka; Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a urate transporter gene, is a causative gene for renal hypouricemia type 1. Among several reported nonsynonymous URAT1 variants, R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) are frequent causative mutations for renal hypouricemia. However, no case-control study has evaluated the relationship between gout and these two variants. Additionally, the effect size of these two variants on serum uric acid (SUA) levels remains to be clarified. Here, 1,993 primary gout patients and 4,902 health examination participants (3,305 males and 1,597 females) were genotyped with R90H and W258X. These URAT1 variants were not observed in any gout cases, while 174 subjects had the URAT1 variant in 2,499 health examination participants, respectively (P?=?8.3?×?10(-46)). Moreover, in 4,902 health examination participants, the URAT1 nonfunctional variants significantly reduce the risk of hyperuricemia (P?=?6.7?×?10(-19); risk ratio?=?0.036 in males). Males, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants of URAT1, show a marked decrease of 2.19 or 5.42?mg/dl SUA, respectively. Similarly, females, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants, also evidence a decrease of 1.08 or 3.89?mg/dl SUA, respectively. We show that URAT1 nonfunctional variants are protective genetic factors for gout/hyperuricemia, and also demonstrated the sex-dependent effect size of these URAT1 variants on SUA (P for interaction?=?1.5?×?10(-12)). PMID:26821810

  12. Serum uric acid as a prognostic marker in the setting of advanced vascular disease: a prospective study in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Di Stolfo, Giuseppe; Mastroianno, Sandra; Potenza, Domenico Rosario; De Luca, Giovanni; d'Arienzo, Carmela; Pacilli, Michele Antonio; Fanelli, Mario; Russo, Aldo; Fanelli, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies analyze the relationship between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular outcomes. This observational prospective study investigates the association of serum uric acid (SUA) levels with adverse cardiovascular events and deaths in an elderly population affected by advanced atherosclerosis. Methods Two hundred and seventy six elderly patients affected by advanced atherosclerosis (217 males and 59 females; aged 71.2 ± 7.8 years) were included. All patients were assessed for history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and traditional risk factors. Patients were followed for approximately 31 ± 11 months. Major events were recorded during follow-up, defined as myocardial infarction, cerebral ischemia, myocardial and/or peripheral revascularization and death. Results Mean SUA level was 5.47 ± 1.43 mg/dL; then we further divided the population in two groups, according to the median value (5.36 mg/dL). During a median follow up of 31 months (5 to 49 months), 66 cardiovascular events, 9 fatal cardiovascular events and 14 cancer-related deaths have occurred. The patients with increased SUA level presented a higher significant incidence of total cardiovascular events (HR: 1.867, P = 0.014, 95% CI: 1.134–3.074). The same patients showed a significant increased risk of cancer-related death (HR: 4.335, P = 0.025, 95% CI: 1.204–15.606). Conclusions Increased SUA levels are independently and significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular events and cancer related death in a population of mainly elderly patients affected by peripheral vasculopathy. PMID:26512243

  13. MISR Images Northeastern Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.

    The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  14. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  15. The effects of URAT1/SLC22A12 nonfunctional variants,R90H and W258X, on serum uric acid levels and gout/hyperuricemia progression

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Seiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Higashino, Toshihide; Naito, Mariko; Suma, Shino; Hishida, Asahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Sakurai, Yutaka; Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a urate transporter gene, is a causative gene for renal hypouricemia type 1. Among several reported nonsynonymous URAT1 variants, R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) are frequent causative mutations for renal hypouricemia. However, no case-control study has evaluated the relationship between gout and these two variants. Additionally, the effect size of these two variants on serum uric acid (SUA) levels remains to be clarified. Here, 1,993 primary gout patients and 4,902 health examination participants (3,305 males and 1,597 females) were genotyped with R90H and W258X. These URAT1 variants were not observed in any gout cases, while 174 subjects had the URAT1 variant in 2,499 health examination participants, respectively (P = 8.3 × 10−46). Moreover, in 4,902 health examination participants, the URAT1 nonfunctional variants significantly reduce the risk of hyperuricemia (P = 6.7 × 10−19; risk ratio = 0.036 in males). Males, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants of URAT1, show a marked decrease of 2.19 or 5.42 mg/dl SUA, respectively. Similarly, females, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants, also evidence a decrease of 1.08 or 3.89 mg/dl SUA, respectively. We show that URAT1 nonfunctional variants are protective genetic factors for gout/hyperuricemia, and also demonstrated the sex-dependent effect size of these URAT1 variants on SUA (P for interaction = 1.5 × 10−12). PMID:26821810

  16. The Association Between Hyperuricemia and Hematological Indicators in a Chinese Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Zhao, Yifan; Sun, Hang; Li, Liang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between hyperuricemia and hematological indicators.Five hundred twenty-two male and 255 female subjects (18-90 years old) were recruited in the study. The level of serum uric acid (SUA), total white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count was measured, computed, and analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficients, Student t-tests, multivariate linear regression models, and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to analyze the results.For men, WBC count (r = 0.13, P < 0.01), RBC count (r = 0.15, P < 0.001), and hemoglobin (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) were significantly correlated with SUA. For women, WBC count (r = 0.24, P < 0.001), RBC count (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), hemoglobin (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), and hematocrit (r = 0.29, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with SUA. For men, WBC (P < 0.01) and RBC (P < 0.05) counts were significantly higher in patients with hyperuricemia than in normal subjects. For men, after adjustment for confounding factors, those in the fourth quartiles of WBC counts had 1.66-fold increased odds of hyperuricemia as compared with those in the reference group. For women, after adjustment, those in the second to fourth quartiles of WBC count, RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit had increased the odds of hyperuricemia as compared with those in the reference groups.Our study showed significant relations between the level of SUA and WBC count, RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, which could be important biological markers of hyperuricemia. PMID:26886635

  17. Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  18. Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2004-02-01

    Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

  19. Mapeamento do fenômeno de pulsações não-radiais no DHR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho de IC, pretende-se estabelecer um mapa das características do fenômeno das pulsações não-radiais (PNR) no diagrama HR (DHR). Trata-se de oscilações que não mantém a homotecia radial. O fenômeno foi inicialmente descoberto no Sol nos anos 60 e hoje é detectado num grande número de objetos. Sua grande importância reside em que as pulsações descrevem a física da cavidade em que se propagam. As PNR são classificadas basicamente por suas frequências, amplitudes e certos números quânticos associados. Com o objetivo de descrever a variação desses parâmetros no DHR, procedeu-se a um extenso levantamento bibliográfico (artigos de revistas e outras fontes) cobrindo o tema. Compôs-se assim uma tabela, que será apresentada nesta comunicação, contendo os parâmetros físicos das estrelas (T, L, logg, M) e suas características de PNR, deduzidas a partir de observações fotométricas e/ou espectroscópicas. No momento, completamos os dados sobre as Anãs Brancas e Beta Cep. Apresentaremos no trabalho diagramas L-T com os últimos resultados obtidos, eventualmente com uma terceira dimensão que descreva características pulsacionais.

  20. A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

  1. Common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2 have stronger impact on hyperuricemia progression than typical environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Oikawa, Yuji; Takada, Tappei; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shimizu, Seiko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Chiba, Toshinori; Abe, Junko; Wakai, Kenji; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Tamura, Takashi; Shichijo, Yuka; Akashi, Airi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Sakurai, Yutaka; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gout/hyperuricemia is a common multifactorial disease having typical environmental risks. Recently, common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, a urate exporter gene also known as BCRP, are revealed to be a major cause of gout/hyperuricemia. Here, we compared the influence of ABCG2 dysfunction on serum uric acid (SUA) levels with other typical risk factors in a cohort of 5,005 Japanese participants. ABCG2 dysfunction was observed in 53.3% of the population investigated, and its population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) for hyperuricemia was 29.2%, much higher than those of the other typical environmental risks, i.e. overweight/obesity (BMI ? 25.0; PAR% = 18.7%), heavy drinking (>196 g/week (male) or >98 g/week (female) of pure alcohol; PAR% = 15.4%), and aging (?60 years old; PAR% = 5.74%). SUA significantly increased as the ABCG2 function decreased (P = 5.99 × 10(-19)). A regression analysis revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction had a stronger effect than other factors; a 25% decrease in ABCG2 function was equivalent to "an increase of BMI by 1.97-point" or "552.1 g/week alcohol intake as pure ethanol" in terms of ability to increase SUA. Therefore, ABCG2 dysfunction originating from common genetic variants has a much stronger impact on the progression of hyperuricemia than other familiar risks. Our study provides a better understanding of common genetic factors for common diseases. PMID:24909660

  2. Point Cloud Generation from sUAS-Mounted iPhone Imagery: Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladai, A. D.; Miller, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapidly growing use of sUAS technology and fast sensor developments continuously inspire mapping professionals to experiment with low-cost airborne systems. Smartphones has all the sensors used in modern airborne surveying systems, including GPS, IMU, camera, etc. Of course, the performance level of the sensors differs by orders, yet it is intriguing to assess the potential of using inexpensive sensors installed on sUAS systems for topographic applications. This paper focuses on the quality analysis of point clouds generated based on overlapping images acquired by an iPhone 5s mounted on a sUAS platform. To support the investigation, test data was acquired over an area with complex topography and varying vegetation. In addition, extensive ground control, including GCPs and transects were collected with GSP and traditional geodetic surveying methods. The statistical and visual analysis is based on a comparison of the UAS data and reference dataset. The results with the evaluation provide a realistic measure of data acquisition system performance. The paper also gives a recommendation for data processing workflow to achieve the best quality of the final products: the digital terrain model and orthophoto mosaic. After a successful data collection the main question is always the reliability and the accuracy of the georeferenced data.

  3. Febuxostat (Feburic tablet) in the management of hyperuricemia in a general practice cohort of Japanese patients with a high prevalence of cardiovascular problems.

    PubMed

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Ishiguro, Yoshiaki; Matsuyama, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kenji; Kato, Kazuo; Noba, Manji; Uemura, Akihisa; Matsubara, Yoshirou; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kani, Atsushi; Tokuda, Mamoru; Kato, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Tatsushi; Matsubara, Shiro; Mori, Kazuma; Kimura, Hisashi; Shino, Kenji; Kato, Yasuchika; Ishii, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is increasing in prevalence and this is paralleled by an increased incidence of acute gout. In addition, there is growing evidence of an association between high serum levels of uric acid (sUA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this preliminary report, we present 12-16 week results from a multicenter, general practice study in which we evaluated the usefulness of febuxostat in a cohort of untreated patients with hyperuricemia with a high prevalence of CVD. Febuxostat titrated from 10 mg/day up to 40 mg/day resulted in statistically significant and clinically relevant reductions in sUA after 12-16 weeks. A "responder" level of 6.0 mg/dL or lower was achieved in 95 of 100 (95%) patients. Significant reductions in sUA were achieved regardless of the presence/absence of coexisting diseases (e.g. CVD, renal insufficiency, diabetes and obesity) or the class of antihypertensive agent being used by the patient. No serious adverse reactions were noted with febuxostat. Although allopurinol has been used generally for hyperuricemia/gout, it is excreted fully via the kidneys, restricting its use in patients with reduced renal function, and its three-times-daily administration leads to poor adherence. Based on the results of this study, febuxostat may provide an easier option than allopurinol for clinicians specializing in CVDs. PMID:24164405

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies ABCG2 (BCRP) as an allopurinol transporter and a determinant of drug response

    PubMed Central

    Wen, CC; Yee, SW; Liang, X; Hoffmann, TJ; Kvale, MN; Banda, Y; Jorgenson, E; Schaefer, C; Risch, N; Giacomini, KM

    2015-01-01

    The first-line treatment of hyperuricemia, which causes gout, is allopurinol. The allopurinol response is highly variable, with many users failing to achieve target serum uric acid (SUA) levels. No genome-wide association study (GWAS) has examined the genetic factors affecting allopurinol effectiveness. Using 2,027 subjects in Kaiser Permanente’s Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort, we conducted a GWAS of allopurinol-related SUA reduction, first in the largest ethnic group, non-Hispanic white (NHW) subjects, and then in a stratified transethnic meta-analysis. ABCG2, encoding the efflux pump BCRP, was associated with SUA reduction in NHW subjects (P = 2 × 10?8), and a missense allele (rs2231142) was associated with a reduced response (P = 3 × 10?7) in the meta-analysis. Isotopic uptake studies in cells demonstrated that BCRP transports allopurinol and genetic variants in ABCG2 affect this transport. Collectively, this first GWAS of allopurinol response demonstrates that ABCG2 is a key determinant of response to the drug. PMID:25676789

  5. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  6. RESPONSE PROPERTIES OF LOCAL FIELD POTENTIALS AND NEIGHBORING SINGLE NEURONS IN AWAKE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Lashgari, Reza; Li, Xiaobing; Chen, Yao; Kremkow, Jens; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Alonso, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Recordings from local field potentials (LFPs) are becoming increasingly common in research and clinical applications, however, we still have a poor understanding of how LFP stimulus selectivity originates from the combined activity of single neurons. Here, we systematically compared the stimulus selectivity of LFP and neighboring single unit activity (SUA) recorded in area V1 of awake primates. We demonstrate that LFP and SUA have similar stimulus preferences for orientation, direction of motion, contrast, size, temporal frequency and even spatial phase. However, the average SUA had 50 times better signal to noise, 20% higher contrast sensitivity, 45% higher direction selectivity and 15% more tuning depth than the average LFP. Low LFP frequencies (< 30 Hz) were most strongly correlated with the spiking frequencies of neurons with non-linear spatial summation and poor orientation/direction selectivity that were located near cortical current sinks (negative LFPs). In contrast, LFP gamma frequencies (> 30 Hz) were correlated with a more diverse group of neurons located near cortical sources (positive LFPs). In summary, our results indicate that low- and high-frequency LFP pools signals from V1 neurons with similar stimulus preferences but different response properties and cortical depths. PMID:22895722

  7. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  8. Prediction of Imagined Single-Joint Movements in a Person with High Level Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Simeral, John D.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical neuroprostheses for movement restoration require developing models for relating neural activity to desired movement. Previous studies have focused on correlating single-unit activities (SUA) in primary motor cortex to volitional arm movements in able-bodied primates. The extent of the cortical information relevant to arm movements remaining in severely paralyzed individuals is largely unknown. We record intracortical signals using a microelectrode array chronically implanted in the precentral gyrus of a person with tetraplegia, and estimate positions of imagined single-joint arm movements. Using visually guided motor imagery, the participant imagined performing eight distinct single-joint arm movements while SUA, multi-spike trains (MSP), multi-unit activity (MUA), and local field potential time (LFPrms) and frequency signals (LFPstft) were recorded. Using linear system identification, imagined joint trajectories were estimated with 20 – 60% variance explained, with wrist flexion/extension predicted the best and pronation/supination the poorest. Statistically, decoding of MSP and LFPstft yielded estimates that equaled those of SUA. Including multiple signal types in a decoder increased prediction accuracy in all cases. We conclude that signals recorded from a single restricted region of the precentral gyrus in this person with tetraplegia contained useful information regarding the intended movements of upper extremity joints. PMID:22851229

  9. Greenhouse Gas Sensing Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems - Field Experiment Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Christensen, L. E.; Brockers, R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Requirements for greenhouse gas point source detection and quantification often require high spatial resolution on the order of meters. These applications, which help close the gap in emissions estimate uncertainties, also demand sensing with high sensitivity and in a fashion that accounts for spatiotemporal variability on the order of seconds to minutes. Low-cost vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provide a means to detect and identify the location of point source gas emissions while offering ease of deployment and high maneuverability. Our current fielded gas sensing sUAS platforms are able to provide instantaneous in situ concentration measurements at locations within line of sight of the operator. Recent results from field experiments demonstrating methane detection and plume characterization will be discussed here, including performance assessment conducted via a controlled release experiment in 2013. The logical extension of sUAS gas concentration measurement is quantification of flux rate. We will discuss the preliminary strategy for quantitative flux determination, including intrinsic challenges and heritage from airborne science campaigns, associated with this point source flux quantification. This system approach forms the basis for intelligent autonomous quantitative characterization of gas plumes, which holds great value for applications in commercial, regulatory, and safety environments.

  10. On-admission serum uric acid predicts outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis of prognostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir; Car, Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the prognostic value of serum uric acid (SUA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of prognostic studies assessing AMI outcomes (death, major adverse cardiac events, MACE) in relation to on-admission SUA. Results Nine studies (7655 patients) were identified, 6 in the ST-segment elevation AMI patients treated with invasive revascularization and three in mixed AMI type cohorts with variable reperfusion strategies. “High” SUA (vs “low,” different cut-offs) was univariately associated with higher short-term mortality (8 studies/6805 patients; odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-4.27) and incidence of MACE (7/6467; OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.84-3.27, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias), and with higher medium-term mortality (5/5194; OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.00-3.62, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias) and MACE (4/4299; OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74, high heterogeneity, mild bias). It was independently associated with a higher short-term (4/3625; OR, 2.26, 95% CI, 1.85-2.77) and medium/long-term (3/2683; hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.68, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias) occurrence of poor outcomes (death/MACE). As a continuous variable (by 50 ?mol/L), higher SUA was also independently associated with poorer medium/long-term outcomes (4/3533; HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37, high heterogeneity, mild bias). All individual study effects (unadjusted or adjusted) were in the same direction, but differed in size. Heterogeneity was mainly due to the included AMI type and/or definition of MACE. All bias-corrected pooled effects remained significant. Conclusion Based on the available data, high(er) on-admission SUA independently predicts worse short-term and medium/long-term outcomes after AMI. However, the number of data are modest and additional prospective studies are warranted. PMID:22522995

  11. Coupled Boltzmann computation of mixed axion neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Lessa, Andre; Serce, Hasan

    2014-10-01

    The supersymmetrized DFSZ axion model is highly motivated not only because it offers solutions to both the gauge hierarchy and strong CP problems, but also because it provides a solution to the SUSY μ-problem which naturally allows for a Little Hierarchy. We compute the expected mixed axion-neutralino dark matter abundance for the SUSY DFSZ axion model in two benchmark cases—a natural SUSY model with a standard neutralino underabundance (SUA) and an mSUGRA/CMSSM model with a standard overabundance (SOA). Our computation implements coupled Boltzmann equations which track the radiation density along with neutralino, axion, axion CO (produced via coherent oscillations), saxion, saxion CO, axino and gravitino densities. In the SUSY DFSZ model, axions, axinos and saxions go through the process of freeze-in—in contrast to freeze-out or out-of-equilibrium production as in the SUSY KSVZ model—resulting in thermal yields which are largely independent of the re-heat temperature. We find the SUA case with suppressed saxion-axion couplings (ξ=0) only admits solutions for PQ breaking scale falesssim 6× 1012 GeV where the bulk of parameter space tends to be axion-dominated. For SUA with allowed saxion-axion couplings (ξ =1), then fa values up to ~ 1014 GeV are allowed. For the SOA case, almost all of SUSY DFSZ parameter space is disallowed by a combination of overproduction of dark matter, overproduction of dark radiation or violation of BBN constraints. An exception occurs at very large fa~ 1015-1016 GeV where large entropy dilution from CO-produced saxions leads to allowed models.

  12. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  13. Stars with Extended Atmospheres. Homage to Cees de Jager.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2003-05-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA: Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the talks presented on 3 May, 2001 as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Kees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  14. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Visual-Line-of-Sight Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Mcadaragh, Raymon; Burdette, Daniel W.; Comstock, James R.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Fan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) project, research on integrating small UAS (sUAS) into the NAS was underway by a human-systems integration (HSI) team at the NASA Langley Research Center. Minimal to no research has been conducted on the safe, effective, and efficient manner in which to integrate these aircraft into the NAS. sUAS are defined as aircraft weighing 55 pounds or less. The objective of this human system integration team was to build a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) and to develop a research test-bed and database that provides data, proof of concept, and human factors guidelines for GCS operations in the NAS. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flying sUAS in Class D and Class G airspace utilizing manual control inputs and voice radio communications between the pilot, mission control, and air traffic control. The design of the experiment included three sets of GCS display configurations, in addition to a hand-held control unit. The three different display configurations were VLOS, VLOS + Primary Flight Display (PFD), and VLOS + PFD + Moving Map (Map). Test subject pilots had better situation awareness of their vehicle position, altitude, airspeed, location over the ground, and mission track using the Map display configuration. This configuration allowed the pilots to complete the mission objectives with less workload, at the expense of having better situation awareness of other aircraft. The subjects were better able to see other aircraft when using the VLOS display configuration. However, their mission performance, as well as their ability to aviate and navigate, was reduced compared to runs that included the PFD and Map displays.

  15. Dust emission thresholds from sodic playas with varying geochemistry and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; McKenna Neuman, C.; O'Brien, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sodic playa surfaces can be major sources of dust emission but their erodibility depends on the surface salt crust characteristics. Here we determine dust emission thresholds in a wind tunnel for 22 different crusts with varying concentrations of sodium sulphate and sodium chloride. Crusts mimic those on Sua Pan, in the Makgadikgadi Basin, Botswana, which is one of the biggest dust hot spots in the Southern Hemisphere. Crusts were grown by encouraging capillary processes and subjected to several weeks of diurnal temperature variation to enable the development of hydrated and dehydrated salt crystals, along with low density, 'fluffy' sediment beneath the primary (and in some cases, secondary) crust. Spray on crusts and liquefied crusts were also developed for response comparison. Using laser scanning we tracked surface change and crystal growth, which we link to crust type and evaporation rates. We found that under pre-dawn and early morning Sua Pan conditions, crusts were typically non-emissive, but during mid-day temperature and humidity conditions typical of Sua Pan in August and September (dry and peak dust emission season), several crusts became friable and highly emissive above wind velocities of 7 m/s, which agrees with in-situ field observations. Thenardite capillary crusts were the most emissive, in contrast to supply limited, halite liquefied crusts which were relatively stable. Disturbances, or small crust fractures, common on polygonal surface patterns decreased the dust emission threshold values and enabled emission from more stable crusts. Our study confirms the potential of playa surfaces to emit dust without the presence of saltation, and highlights the sensitivity of emission thresholds to crust geochemistry, evaporation rates and temperature and humidity conditions.

  16. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  17. Associations between blood pressure responses to acute stress and impaired renal function and serum uric acid level.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sachi; Miyata, Masaaki; Kohjitani, Atsushi; Tohya, Akina; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to examine correlations between blood pressure (BP) responses to direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and parameters of renal function, serum uric acid (SUA) level, and mean preoperative BP. Fifty-four patients (?40 years) who were scheduled for oral surgery were analyzed. General anesthesia was induced by the rapid sequence method without opioid analgesics. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP) in the operation room were measured when an electrocardiogram, a BP cuff, and a pulse oximetry probe were attached to the patients (T1) and immediately after the trachea was intubated (T2). The ?SBP was defined as the difference between SBP at T2 and T1. The increasing rate of SBP (?SBPr) was defined as ?SBP/SBP at T1. SBP at T2 was associated with increasing age (R?=?0.44), serum creatinine (R?=?0.32), SUA (R?=?0.30), mean preoperative SBP and DBP (R?=?0.54 and 0.37, respectively), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (R?=?-0.44). Serum creatinine and SUA were positively associated, and eGFR was negatively associated with ?SBP (R?=?0.36, 0.34, and -0.29) and ?SBPr (R?=?0.39, 0.37, and -0.29). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age and mean preoperative SBP was independently associated with SBP at T2, and serum creatinine was independently associated with ?SBP and ?SBPr. These findings suggested that elevated serum creatinine level, as well as elevated preoperative BP level, was associated with enhanced BP responses to acute stress in middle-aged to elderly patients. PMID:26114353

  18. Coupled Boltzmann computation of mixed axion neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Serce, Hasan; Lessa, Andre E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu E-mail: serce@ou.edu

    2014-10-01

    The supersymmetrized DFSZ axion model is highly motivated not only because it offers solutions to both the gauge hierarchy and strong CP problems, but also because it provides a solution to the SUSY μ-problem which naturally allows for a Little Hierarchy. We compute the expected mixed axion-neutralino dark matter abundance for the SUSY DFSZ axion model in two benchmark cases—a natural SUSY model with a standard neutralino underabundance (SUA) and an mSUGRA/CMSSM model with a standard overabundance (SOA). Our computation implements coupled Boltzmann equations which track the radiation density along with neutralino, axion, axion CO (produced via coherent oscillations), saxion, saxion CO, axino and gravitino densities. In the SUSY DFSZ model, axions, axinos and saxions go through the process of freeze-in—in contrast to freeze-out or out-of-equilibrium production as in the SUSY KSVZ model—resulting in thermal yields which are largely independent of the re-heat temperature. We find the SUA case with suppressed saxion-axion couplings (ξ=0) only admits solutions for PQ breaking scale f{sub a}∼< 6× 10{sup 12} GeV where the bulk of parameter space tends to be axion-dominated. For SUA with allowed saxion-axion couplings (ξ =1), then f{sub a} values up to ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV are allowed. For the SOA case, almost all of SUSY DFSZ parameter space is disallowed by a combination of overproduction of dark matter, overproduction of dark radiation or violation of BBN constraints. An exception occurs at very large f{sub a}∼ 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} GeV where large entropy dilution from CO-produced saxions leads to allowed models.

  19. Long-term decoding stability of local field potentials from silicon arrays in primate motor cortex during a 2D center out task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Li, Yue; Wang, Yiwen; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Many serious concerns exist in the long-term stability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) based on spike signals (single unit activity, SUA; multi unit activity, MUA). Some studies showed local field potentials (LFPs) could offer a stable decoding performance. However, the decoding stability of LFPs was examined only when high quality spike signals were recorded. Here we aim to examine the long-term decoding stability of LFPs over a larger time scale when the quality of spike signals was from good to poor or even no spike was recorded. Approach. Neural signals were collected from motor cortex of three monkeys via silicon arrays over 230, 290 and 690 days post-implantation when they performed 2D center out task. To compare long-term stability between LFPs and spike signals, we examined them in neural signals characteristics, directional tuning properties and offline decoding performance, respectively. Main results. We observed slow decreasing trends in the number of LFP channels recorded and mean LFP power in different frequency bands when spike signals quality decayed over time. The number of significantly directional tuning LFP channels decreased more slowly than that of tuning SUA and MUA. The variable preferred directions for the same signal features across sessions indicated non-stationarity of neural activity. We also found that LFPs achieved better decoding performance than SUA and MUA in retrained decoder when the quality of spike signals seriously decayed. Especially, when no spike was recorded in one monkey after 671 days post-implantation, LFPs still provided some kinematic information. In addition, LFPs outperformed MUA in long-term decoding stability in a static decoder. Significance. Our results suggested that LFPs were more durable and could provide better decoding performance when spike signals quality seriously decayed. It might be due to their resistance to recording degradation and their high redundancy among channels.

  20. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  1. Maturation in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Levallius, Johanna; Rydén, Göran; Norring, Claes

    2015-08-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder have a characteristic and extreme personality associated with psychopathology. The aim was to investigate personality change in relation to suicidality following treatment. 21 patients were assessed before and after psychotherapy on personality (NEO PI-R) and suicidality (SUAS). At follow-up, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness normalized along with six lower-order facets; Depression, Impulsiveness, Competence, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline and Deliberation. Thirteen patients showed a positive personality development paralleled by a lesser degree of suicidality. PMID:26106055

  2. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Update on the Recognition and Management of Gout: More Than the Great Toe.

    PubMed

    Doghramji, Paul P

    2015-12-01

    Gout is a rheumatic disease resulting from chronic deposition of uric acid crystals as monosodium urate (MSU) in tissues and joints causing joint pain and swelling that, over time, may result in permanent bone and joint damage. In humans, uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism given the evolutionary loss of the hepatic enzyme uricase. This loss of uricase and the consequential higher serum uric acid (sUA) levels observed in humans may contribute to the development of this disease in individuals. PMID:26845010

  3. Bio-inspired sensing and control for disturbance rejection and stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremillion, Gregory; Humbert, James S.

    2015-05-01

    The successful operation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) in dynamic environments demands robust stability in the presence of exogenous disturbances. Flying insects are sensor-rich platforms, with highly redundant arrays of sensors distributed across the insect body that are integrated to extract rich information with diminished noise. This work presents a novel sensing framework in which measurements from an array of accelerometers distributed across a simulated flight vehicle are linearly combined to directly estimate the applied forces and torques with improvements in SNR. In simulation, the estimation performance is quantified as a function of sensor noise level, position estimate error, and sensor quantity.

  4. Modeling Stratigraphic Architecture of Deep-water Deposits Using a Small Unmanned Aircraft: Neogene Thin-bedded Turbidites, East Coast Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminski, N.; Graham, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the outstanding challenges of field geology is inaccessibility of exposure. The ability to view and characterize outcrops that are difficult to study from the ground is greatly improved by aerial investigation. Detailed stratigraphic architecture of such exposures is best addressed by using advances and availability of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) that can safely navigate from high-altitude overviews of study areas to within a meter of the exposure of interest. High-resolution photographs acquired at various elevations and azimuths by sUAS are then used to convert field measurements to digital representations in three-dimensions at a fine scale. Photogrammetric software is used to capture complex, detailed topography by creating digital surface models with a range imaging technique that estimates three-dimensional structures from two-dimensional image sequences. The digital surface model is overlain by detailed, high-resolution photography. Pairing sUAS technology with readily available photogrammetry software that requires little processing time and resources offers a revolutionary and cost-effective methodology for geoscientists to investigate and quantify stratigraphic and structural complexity of field studies from the convenience of the office. These methods of imaging and modeling remote outcrops are demonstrated in the East Coast Basin, New Zealand, where wave-cut platform exposures of Miocene deep-water deposits offer a unique opportunity to investigate the flow processes and resulting characteristics of thin-bedded turbidite deposits. Stratigraphic architecture of wavecut platform and vertically-dipping exposures of these thin-bedded turbidites is investigated with sUAS coupled with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry software. This approach allows the geometric and spatial variation of deep-water architecture to be characterized continuously along 2,000 meters of lateral exposure, as well as to measure and quantify cyclic variations in thin-bedded turbidites at centimeter scale. Results yield a spatial and temporal understanding of a deep-water depositional system at a scale that was previously unattainable using conventional field geology techniques, and a virtual outcrop that can be used for classroom education.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (<20 lbs.). The USGS is dedicated to expanding the use of sUAS technology in support of scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is currently being used by USGS and our partners to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Our ultimate goal is to support informed decision making by creating the opportunity, via UAS technology, to gain access to an increased level of persistent monitoring of earth surface processes (forest health conditions, wildfires, earthquake zones, invasive species, etc.) in areas that have been logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  6. Bases para la elaboracion de unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de ciencias (Fisica y Quimica 3 deg ESO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, Elena Lucia

    Este Trabajo Fin de Master tiene como objeto, el estudio previo de la educacion de la ciencia en la actualidad y mas destacable, del diseno de las unidades didacticas segun las metodologias mas frecuentes aplicadas por los diferentes sistemas educativos en el area de las Ciencias teniendo en cuenta la importancia y el efecto de la psicologia del alumnado y todo ello como no puede ser de otro modo bajo el corse de la Legislacion aplicable, Estatal, Autonomica y europea. Con estos antecedentes, se extrae cuales son las preguntas que deben contestarse en la elaboracion de una unidad didactica de calidad en el contexto, generacional (edad y sexo), del Proyecto Educativo de Centro, y de la Programacion del Departamento, discutiendo y justificando cada uno de los apartados en que estructuradamente dividiremos dicha Unidad, con un formato manejable, util, y dinamico en el tiempo que sea un verdadero instrumento educativo de aula. Teniendo en cuenta estas premisas, se procede a hacer una recopilacion de una misma unidad didactica publicada por diferentes editoriales, elegidas no al azar, sino en funcion de su penetracion editorial en nuestros centros de ESO, siendo las elegidas (SM y Oxford). Las diferentes unidades seleccionadas son analizadas de forma critica, atendiendo a los criterios generales de calidad bajo parametros cientificos y normativos, concluyendo con la aportacion final que es la redaccion de unas pautas cientifico-pedagogicas, para redactar unidades didacticas de calidad en el area de la Ciencias, en concreto en la Asignatura de Fisica y Quimica de 3º de ESO.

  7. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  8. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  9. Estudio ab initio del mecanismo de la reacción HSO + O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebot Gil, I.

    La reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista experimental debido a la importancia que tiene el radical HSO en la oxidación de los compuestos de azufre reductores y a que puede contribuir a la producción de H2SO4 [1-4]. Se realizaron diversos estudios teóricos sobre la cinética de la reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono. La reacción del HSO con el ozono presenta tres canales diferentes : HSO + O3 &rightarrow &HSO2 + O2 &rightarrow &HS + 2 O2 &rightarrow &SO + OH + O2 La controversia existente entre los grupos experimentales sobre cuál de las tres vías es la predominante, se ha resuelto mediante un estudio teórico de todas ellas utilizando métodos ab initio. La estructura de todos los reactivos, productos, intermedios y estados de transición ha sido optimizada a nivel ab initio utilizando los métodos UMP2 /6-31G** y QCISD/6-31G**.

  10. Sitios de interés astronómico en el Noroeste Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Mosconi, M.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    Se presenta la distribución geográfica de nubosidad en la región comprendida entre las latitudes 23o y 28o Sur, y las longitudes 66o y 69o Oeste, obtenida a partir del análisis de imágenes GOES, tomadas durante los años 1999 al 2002 inclusive. Del análisis de esta información, se revelan como de gran interés las áreas circundantes a los Salares de Antofalla y de Arizaro, en la región de la Puna, en las provincias de Catamarca y Salta. Se hacen comentarios sobre sitios explorados en estas regiones y sobre las posibilidades de asentamientos de grandes facilidades astronómicas en la región. Se complementa la presentación con información tectónica, topográfica y logística de relevante importancia y, finalmente, se discute sobre la selección de emplazamientos para dos estaciones meteorológicas automáticas de la Universidad de Cornell, en las áreas mencionadas.

  11. El nuevo panorama de la Dinámica Galáctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovaroff, Michael James

    En general, la tendencia imperante en Dinámica Galáctica ha sido considerar que los movimientos estelares son básicamente regulares y que el caos no tiene mayor relevancia en los sistemas estelares. Sin embargo, en el último lustro se vienen acumulando pruebas de la importancia del movimiento caótico en ciertos sistemas estelares que existen en la naturaleza. Por una parte, sobre todo el grupo de David Merritt, lo ha mostrado en los casos de galaxias elípticas con concentraciones centrales de materia; por otra parte, en nuestro propio grupo, lo hemos mostrado para el caso de los satélites galácticos. Las consecuencias de estos hallazgos son tanto de tipo técnico, por la necesidad de construir modelos que contengan órbitas caóticas, como astrofísico, por los efectos del caos sobre la estacionariedad y evolución de los sistemas estelares en los que se presenta.

  12. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  13. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  14. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  15. Problem Definition and Solution Concept for En Route Constrained Airspace Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA's AATT Program is investigating potential ground-based decision support tool (DST) development for en route controllers and managers. NASA's previous work in en route DST development has focused on Transition airspace, where aircraft are impacted by constraints associated with the transition of aircraft from en route to terminal airspace. This paper investigates the problems associated with aircraft in non-transitional en route airspace, termed Constrained Airspace. A literature search was performed to catalog previously identified constrained airspace problems. The results of this search were investigated with industry representatives to validate these problems were significant in constrained airspace. Three general problem areas were identified. The first problem area involves negative impacts caused by a loss of airspace (e.g., activation of Special Use Airspace (SUA), weather cell formation, and overloaded sectors). The second problem area is the lack of identifying and taking advantage of gained airspace (e.g., SUA deactivation, weather dissipation, and sector loading reductions). The third problem area is unforeseen negative impacts caused by the acceptance of user routing requests (e.g., a route change into an area of congestion that negated the users intended benefit). Based upon the problems identified, an operational concept was developed for a DST to help handle these problems efficiently. The goal is to strategically identify constrained airspace problems and to provide functionality to support ARTCC TMUs in resolving the identified impacts. The capability lends itself well to TMU and Airline Operations Center (AOC) collaboration.

  16. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  17. Lesinurad: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-03-01

    Lesinurad (ZURAMPIC(®)) is an oral urate-anion exchanger transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor developed by Ardea Biosciences (a subsidiary of AstraZeneca) for the treatment of hyperuricaemia associated with gout. It reduces serum uric acid (sUA) levels by inhibiting the function of the transporter proteins (URAT1 and organic anion transporter 4) involved in uric acid reabsorption in the kidney. In December 2015, lesinurad was approved in the USA as combination therapy with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricaemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved sUA target levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. Lesinurad has also received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for this indication and is in phase III development as a combination therapy in several other countries. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of lesinurad leading to this first approval for hyperuricaemia associated with gout. PMID:26861027

  18. Hyperuricemia in the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Jamner, A.H.

    1984-06-01

    Annual medical examinations are conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a population of Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954, for a comparison population, and for all inhabitants of the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik. Disease surveillance includes analysis of serum samples. Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are common along Pacific populations, and modifying environmental factors have been investigated as a cause for this finding. The authors have studied SUA levels of people living in the Marshall Islands, and have found elevated values similar to those reported for other Micronesian populations. The nearly Gaussian distribution of individual serum uric acid values for men, and for women less than or equal to45 years of age, indicates that the elevation is due to a regularized increase in serum uric acid rather than to a subpopulation that has pathologic hyperuricemia. The higher serum uric acid levels appear, therefore, to be normal for the Marshallese, a conclusion supported by the infrequency of clinical gout in the population tested.

  19. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of uric acid synthesis--can it be used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Iwao; Yamauchi, Takayuki; Onuma, Masahiro; Nozaki, Shigeo

    2009-05-01

    Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and inhibits the generation of uric acid (UA) as the final product of purine catabolism, as well as the resulting generation of superoxide (O2(-)), in humans. Elevation of the serum UA (SUA) level, referred to as hyperuricemia (HU), eventually leads to gout and allopurinol has been used for the treatment of HU and gout. Studies have revealed the role of elevated SUA levels and the associated oxidative stress (OS) in a broad spectrum of pathological conditions and it is anticipated that these findings would also expand the use of allopurinol as a therapeutic drug. This article presents a review of reports, mainly of recent studies, on the efficacy of allopurinol in various diseases and explores novel potential uses of the drug. Important novel and potential uses of great interest include metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders, chronic kidney disease (CKD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Ischemia-reperfusion injury and mucositis, encountered as adverse effects of cancer treatment, have also been under investigation as potential targets for allopurinol. PMID:19584965

  20. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R.; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R.L.C.; Mercier, Patrick P.; Wang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  1. Large and small UAS for trace gas measurements in climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; D'Amore, P.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Gao, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA and CIRES scientists have used Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for the measurement of trace gases involved in climate change since 2005, including both high altitude-long endurance (HALE UAS: NASA Altair & Global Hawk) and 1-m wingspan, small UAS (sUAS: SkyWisp, Aero). These gases include nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and water vapor (H2O). In particular, atmospheric N2O is the third strongest greenhouse gas (326 parts-per-billion, ppb) and is the largest increasing stratospheric ozone depleting gas in terms of future emissions (~4 Tg N2O-N yr-1), primarily from fertilizer use. Atmospheric SF6, another potent greenhouse gas, is present globally at 8.2 parts-per-trillion (ppt) and growing at a rate of 0.25 ppt yr-1, and is used primarily in electrical power distribution. It is an excellent indicator of transport timescales (e.g., mean age) in the troposphere and stratosphere, because of its source distribution (~95% emitted in NH), long atmospheric lifetime (~600-3200 yr), and large relative atmospheric growth rate (~3%). We have developed atmospheric instrumentation for HALE platforms using a two-channel gas chromatograph with an ozone photometer and a water vapor tunable diode laser spectrometer. We are currently investigating a sUAS glider (SkyWisp) for balloon-assisted high altitude flights (30 km) and propeller driven sUAS (Aero) as a test bed for a new autopilot (Pixhawk, 3DRobotics). Our motivation for utilizing this autopilot is a low cost, open source autopilot alternative that can be used to return AirCore samples from high altitude balloons for quick laboratory analysis. The goal is a monitoring program to understand transport changes as a result of climate change during different seasons at many locations from a balloon-borne package (Moore et al., BAMS, pp. 147-155, Jan. 2014). The glider version of our open source autopilot system is also being considered for a future aerosol and trace gas study, called GOAHEAD (Gao et al., Fall Meeting 2014). Figure-1 Collage of UAS platforms used left to right, including NASA Altair during NOAA 2005 Demo, NASA Global Hawk during ATTREX in 2014, SkyWisp (SwRI), and Aero (3DRobotics).

  2. Estimating Turbulent Surface Fluxes from Small Unmanned Aircraft: Evaluation of Current Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Elston, J.; Cassano, J. J.; Mack, J.; Wildmann, N.; Nigro, M. A.; Ivey, M.; Wolfe, D. E.; Muschinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    Heat transfer between the atmosphere and Earth's surface represents a key component to understanding Earth energy balance, making it important in understanding and simulating climate. Arguably, the oceanic air-sea interface and Polar sea-ice-air interface are amongst the most challenging in which to measure these fluxes. This difficulty results partially from challenges associated with infrastructure deployment on these surfaces and partially from an inability to obtain spatially representative values over a potentially inhomogeneous surface. Traditionally sensible (temperature) and latent (moisture) fluxes are estimated using one of several techniques. A preferred method involves eddy-correlation where cross-correlation between anomalies in vertical motion (w) and temperature (T) or moisture (q) is used to estimate heat transfer. High-frequency measurements of these quantities can be derived using tower-mounted instrumentation. Such systems have historically been deployed over land surfaces or on ships and buoys to calculate fluxes at the air-land or air-sea interface, but such deployments are expensive and challenging to execute, resulting in a lack of spatially diverse measurements. A second ("bulk") technique involves the observation of horizontal windspeed, temperature and moisture at a given altitude over an extended time period in order to estimate the surface fluxes. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) represent a unique platform from which to derive these fluxes. These sUAS can be small ( 1 m), lightweight ( 700 g), low cost ( $2000) and relatively easy to deploy to remote locations and over inhomogeneous surfaces. We will give an overview of the ability of sUAS to provide measurements necessary for estimating surface turbulent fluxes. This discussion is based on flights in the vicinity of the 1000 ft. Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower, and over the US Department of Energy facility at Oliktok Point, Alaska. We will present initial comparisons between UAS-derived turbulent fluxes and those derived from tower-based instrumentation and discuss differences in the context of sensor technology and flight patterns employed to collect data.

  3. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  4. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  5. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  6. CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE – RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, ELSA DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia); também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei. PMID:20689657

  7. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  8. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  9. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de los efectos NLTE.

  10. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  11. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela comunidade acadêmica e mostramos como alguns episódios da história da astronomia podem levar a discussões envolvendo alguns dos aspectos da natureza da ciência.

  12. Combinación de Valores de Longitud del Día (LOD) según ventanas de frecuencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. I.; Arias, E. F.; Gambis, D.

    El concepto de solución combinada se sustenta en el hecho de que las diferentes series temporales de datos derivadas a partir de distintas técnicas de la Geodesia Espacial son muy disimiles entre si. Las principales diferencias, fácilmente detectables, entre las distintas series son: diferente intervalo de muestreo, extensión temporal y calidad. Los datos cubren un período reciente de 27 meses (julio 96-oct. 98). Se utilizaron estimaciones de la longitud del día (LOD) originadas en 10 centros operativos del IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) a partir de las técnicas GPS (Global Positioning System) y SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging). La serie temporal combinada así obtenida se comparó con la solución EOP (Parámetros de la Orientación Terrestre) combinada multi-técnica derivada por el IERS (C04). El comportamiento del ruido en LOD para todas las técnicas mostró ser dependiente de la frecuencia (Vondrak, 1998). Por esto, las series dato se dividieron en ventanas de frecuencia, luego de haberles removido bies y tendencias. Luego, se asignaron diferentes factores de peso a cada ventana discriminando por técnicas. Finalmente estas soluciones parcialmente combinadas se mezclaron para obtener la solución combinada final. Sabemos que la mejor solución combinada tendrá una precisión menor que la precisión de las series temporales de datos que la originaron. Aun así, la importancia de una serie combinada confiable de EOP, esto es, de una precisión aceptable y libre de sistematismos evidentes, radica en la necesidad de una base de datos EOP de referencia para el estudio de fenómenos geofísicos que motivan variaciones en la rotación terrestre.

  13. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  14. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  15. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  16. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  17. Characterizing the Microstructure of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate using N-sulfoglucosamine 1H and 15N NMR Chemical Shift Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Langeslay, Derek J.; Beecher, Consuelo N.; Naggi, Annamaria; Guerrini, Marco; Torri, Giangiacomo; Larive, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) are members of a biologically important group of highly anionic linear polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Because of their structural complexity, the molecular-level characterization of heparin and HS continues to be a challenge. The work presented herein describes an emerging approach for the analysis of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins as well as porcine and human-derived HS. This approach utilizes the untapped potential of 15N NMR to characterize these preparations through detection of the NH resonances of N-sulfo-glucosamine residues. The sulfamate group 1H and 15N chemical shifts of six GAG microenvironments were assigned based on the critical comparison of selectively modified heparin derivatives, NMR measurements for a library of heparin-derived oligosaccharide standards, and an in-depth NMR analysis of the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin through systematic investigation of the chemical exchange properties of NH resonances and residue-specific assignments using the [1H, 15N] HSQC-TOCSY experiment. The sulfamate microenvironments characterized in this study include GlcNS(6S)-UA(2S), ΔUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S), GlcNS(3S)(6S)-UA(2S), GlcNS-UA, GlcNS(6S)-redα, and 1,6-anhydro GlcNS demonstrate the utility of [1H, 15N] HSQC NMR spectra to provide a spectroscopic fingerprint reflecting the composition of intact GAGs and low molecular weight heparin preparations. PMID:23240897

  18. Two male siblings with hereditary renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced ARF.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Itoh, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazunori; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Wakita, Naoki; Adachi, Masataka; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Endou, Hitoshi; Tomita, Kimio

    2003-12-01

    Familial renal hypouricemia with exercise-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is rare. A 45-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and oliguria after severe exercise. The diagnosis was ARF based on high serum creatinine (SCr) level (5.1 mg/dL [451 micromol/L]). Renal function recovered completely within 2 weeks of conservative treatment (creatinine clearance [Ccr], 100.4 mL/min [1.67 mL/s]). After remission, laboratory results showed serum urate (SUA) of 0.8 mg/dL (48 micromol/L), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FE(UA)) of 46%. The final diagnosis was ARF associated with idiopathic renal hypouricemia. Other diseases that could increase the excretion of urate were excluded. Because only mild responses were observed both in pyradinamide and benzbromarone loading tests, he was considered to be a presecretory reabsorption disorder type. The younger brother (42 years old) also had episodes of low and middle back pain after severe exercise and experienced similar attacks at least 5 times since the age of 29. SCr level was elevated in every attack. Hypouricemia (SUA, 1.0 mg/dL [59 micromol/L]) and high urinary urate excretion (FE(UA), 65.7%) also were detected. Renal function recovered almost completely without any specific treatment. Radiologic examination of the 2 cases showed bilateral urolithiasis probably caused by the high urinary urate excretion. Sequence analysis of a urate anion exchanger known to regulate blood urate level (URAT1 gene) in both brothers showed homozygous mutation in exon 4 (W258Stop), resulting in a premature truncated URAT1 protein. Both their parents and their children showed heterozygous mutation of the URAT1 gene. This is the first report of the 2 male siblings of familial renal hypouricemia complicated with exercise-induced ARF, with definite demonstration of genetic abnormality in the responsible gene (URAT1). PMID:14655203

  19. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  20. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  1. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a divisão da família no HCM, sem prejuízo para o agrupamento dos demais membros.

  2. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Coherent Atmospheric Structures using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mapping the structure of localized atmospheric phenomena, from sea breeze and shallow cumuli to thunderstorms and hurricanes, is of scientific interest. Low-cost small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) open the possibility for autonomous "instruments" to map important small-scale phenomena (kilometers, hours) and serve as a testbed for for much larger scales. Localized phenomena viewed as coherent structures interacting with their large-scale environment are difficult to map. As simple simulations show, naive Eulerian or Lagrangian strategies can fail in mapping localized phenomena. Model-based techniques are needed. Meteorological targeting, where supplementary UAS measurements additionally constrain numerical models is promising, but may require many primary measurements to be successful. We propose a new, data-driven, field-operable, cooperative autonomous observing system (CAOS) framework. A remote observer (on a UAS) tracks tracers to identify an apparent motion model over short timescales. Motion-based predictions seed MCMC flight plans for other UAS to gather in-situ data, which is fused with the remote measurements to produce maps. The tracking and mapping cycles repeat, and maps can be assimilated into numerical models for longer term forecasting. CAOS has been applied to study small scale emissions. At Popocatepetl, in collaboration with CENAPRED and IPN, it is being applied map the plume using remote IR/UV UAS and in-situ SO2 sensing, with additional plans for water vapor, the electric field and ash. The combination of sUAS with autonomy appears to be highly promising methodology for environmental mapping. For more information, please visit http://caos.mit.edu

  3. Reconstitution and characterization of eukaryotic N6-threonylcarbamoylation of tRNA using a minimal enzyme system

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Leo C. K.; Mao, Daniel Y. L.; Neculai, Dante; Strecker, Jonathan; Chiovitti, David; Kurinov, Igor; Poda, Gennadiy; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Yuan, Fang; Szilard, Rachel K.; Lissina, Elena; Nislow, Corey; Caudy, Amy A.; Durocher, Daniel; Sicheri, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The universally conserved Kae1/Qri7/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC protein families have been implicated in growth, telomere homeostasis, transcription and the N6-threonylcarbamoylation (t6A) of tRNA, an essential modification required for translational fidelity by the ribosome. In bacteria, YgjD orthologues operate in concert with the bacterial-specific proteins YeaZ and YjeE, whereas in archaeal and eukaryotic systems, Kae1 operates as part of a larger macromolecular assembly called KEOPS with Bud32, Cgi121, Gon7 and Pcc1 subunits. Qri7 orthologues function in the mitochondria and may represent the most primitive member of the Kae1/Qri7/YgjD protein family. In accordance with previous findings, we confirm that Qri7 complements Kae1 function and uncover that Qri7 complements the function of all KEOPS subunits in growth, t6A biosynthesis and, to a partial degree, telomere maintenance. These observations suggest that Kae1 provides a core essential function that other subunits within KEOPS have evolved to support. Consistent with this inference, Qri7 alone is sufficient for t6A biosynthesis with Sua5 in vitro. In addition, the 2.9 Å crystal structure of Qri7 reveals a simple homodimer arrangement that is supplanted by the heterodimerization of YgjD with YeaZ in bacteria and heterodimerization of Kae1 with Pcc1 in KEOPS. The partial complementation of telomere maintenance by Qri7 hints that KEOPS has evolved novel functions in higher organisms. PMID:23620299

  4. CaseBook challenges: Managing gout, hyperuricemia and comorbidities -- dialogue with the experts.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Doghramji, Paul P; Keenan, Robert T; Silber, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia are on the rise in the United States corresponding with an increase in risk factors for these conditions, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and the use of diuretics. A progressive disorder, untreated gout can be debilitating and result in tophi, chronic arthropathy, and recurrent kidney stones. Although joint aspiration is needed for a definitive diagnosis, the majority of patients are diagnosed presumptively based on medical history and presentation with characteristic signs and symptoms. Patients with gout also often have multiple comorbidities, and there is an increasing body of evidence that shows hyperuricemia is associated with incidence hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. Clinical strategies for the management of gout and hyperuricemia must include considerations for these and other common cardiometabolic and renal conditions. In addition to acute flare therapy and prophylaxis, the treatment of gout involves lowering serum uric acid (SUA) levels with the urate-lowering therapies (ULTs) allopurinol or febuxostat. Once begun, treatment with ULT is lifelong. However, inadequate dosing and patient nonadherence or intolerance to therapy often lead to treatment failure. Recent guidelines from the American College of Rheumatology stress tailoring therapy and target SUA level (traditionally <6 mg/dL, but lower levels may be needed for certain patients) based on gout severity and the presence of comorbid conditions. Because painful acute gout flares may result in trips to the emergency department and because the majority of gout cases are managed in primary care, it is important for clinicians practicing in these settings to be able to diagnose and treat this condition and communicate with patients to improve their understanding of the disease process and adherence to treatment. PMID:24268074

  5. Association between self-reported snoring and arterial stiffness: data from the Brisighella Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Urso, Riccardo; Rosticci, Martina; Parini, Angelo; Grandi, Elisa; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    The correlation of both obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and snoring with cardiovascular risk is well known, but its investigation is complex and not suitable for studying large cohorts of subjects. Thus, we prospectively evaluated 1476 non-pharmacologically treated subjects selected from the last survey of the Brisighella Heart Study. Snoring and sleep apnoea were investigated asking the subjects if they were aware of snoring during the night, and if this was associated with episodes of apnoea. A full set of clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated, while augmentation index (AIx), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were recorded with the Vicorder(®) apparatus. A logistic regression analysis identifies as main independent predictors of AIx age (OR 1.058, 95 % CI 1.043-1.065, p < 0.001), Body Mass Index (OR 1.046, 95 % CI 1.014-1.079, p = 0.005), and apolipoprotein B (OR 1.014, 95 % CI 1.004-1.023, p = 0.001). The main independent predictors of PWV are snoring (OR 1.215, 95 % CI 1.083-1.390, p < 0.001), and snoring with apnoea (OR 1.351, 95 % CI 1.135-1.598, p = 0.014), age (OR 1.078, 95 % CI 1.052-1.089, p < 0.001), serum uric acid [SUA] (OR 1.093, 95 % CI 1.026-1.151, p < 0.001) and mean arterial pressure (OR 1.042, 95 % CI 1.024-1.056, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in our cohort of overall healthy subjects, self-reported snoring and sleep apnoea are independently associated with a higher PVW, and AIx is statistically significantly higher in snorers with or without sleep apnoea than in non-snorers. Body Mass Index and apolipoprotein B are associated with AIx, while SUA and mean arterial pressure are related to PWV. PMID:26415727

  6. Mapping patients’ experiences from initial symptoms to gout diagnosis: a qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    Liddle, Jennifer; Roddy, Edward; Mallen, Christian D; Hider, Samantha L; Prinjha, Suman; Ziebland, Sue; Richardson, Jane C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore patients’ experiences from initial symptoms to receiving a diagnosis of gout. Design Data from in-depth semistructured interviews were used to construct themes to describe key features of patients’ experiences of gout diagnosis. Participants and setting A maximum variation sample of 43 UK patients with gout (29 men; 14 women; age range 32–87?years) were recruited from general practices, rheumatology clinics, gout support groups and through online advertising. Results Severe joint pain, combined with no obvious signs of physical trauma or knowledge of injury, caused confusion for patients attempting to interpret their symptoms. Reasons for delayed consultation included self-diagnosis and/or self-medication, reluctance to seek medical attention, and financial/work pressures. Factors potentially contributing to delayed diagnosis after consultation included reported misdiagnosis, attacks in joints other than the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and female gender. The limitations in using serum uric acid (SUA) levels for diagnostic purposes were not always communicated effectively to patients, and led to uncertainty and lack of confidence in the accuracy of the diagnosis. Resistance to the diagnosis occurred in response to patients’ beliefs about the causes of gout and characteristics of the people likely to be affected. Diagnosis prompted actions, such as changes in diet, and evidence was found of self-monitoring of SUA levels. Conclusions This study is the first to report data specifically about patients’ pathways to initial consultation and subsequent experiences of gout diagnosis. A more targeted approach to information provision at diagnosis would improve patients’ experiences. PMID:26369796

  7. UAS Developments Supporting Wildfire Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosia, V. G.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Watts, A.; Reynolds, K. W.; Ball, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfires are regularly occurring emergency events that threaten life, property, and natural resources in every U.S. State and many countries around the world. Despite projections that $1.8 billion will be spent by U.S. Federal agencies alone on wildfires in 2014, the decades-long trend of increasing fire size, severity, and cost is expected to continue. Furthermore, the enormous potential for UAS (and concomitant sensor systems) to serve as geospatial intelligence tools to improve the safety and effectiveness of fire management, and our ability to forecast fire and smoke movements, remains barely tapped. Although orbital sensor assets are can provide the geospatial extent of wildfires, generally those resources are limited in use due to their spatial and temporal resolution limitations. These two critical elements make orbital assets of limited utility for tactical, real-time wildfire management, or for continuous scientific analysis of the temporal dynamics related to fire energy release rates and plume concentrations that vary significantly thru a fire's progression. Large UAS platforms and sensors can and have been used to monitor wildfire events at improved temporal, spatial and radiometric scales, but more focus is being placed on the use of small UAS (sUAS) and sensors to support wildfire observation strategies. The use of sUAS is therefore more critical for TACTICAL management purposes, rather than strategic observations, where small-scale fire developments are critical to understand. This paper will highlight the historical development and use of UAS for fire observations, as well as the current shift in focus to smaller, more affordable UAS for more rapid integration into operational use on wildfire events to support tactical observation strategies, and support wildfire science measurement inprovements.

  8. Evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Lazzaro, D.; Roig, F.; Duffard, R.; Kodama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Asteróides reacumulados (rubble-piles) são corpos formados por um conjunto de fragmentos agregados primariamente pela sua gravidade. A importância do estudo de corpos reacumulados para a compreensão da evolução do Cinturão de Asteróides tem sido bastante evidenciada, não apenas pela constatação de que estes devem corresponder a uma grande parcela da população de asteróides, mas também por recentes estudos da estrutura e evolução colisional deste tipo de asteróide. A evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados e a formação de famílias têm sido estudadas pelo nosso grupo, com base no modelo de elipsóides interagentes. Este modelo foi desenvolvido recentemente pelo grupo, e baseia-se na integração numérica das equações de movimento para translação e rotação de corpos formados por um conjunto de elipsóides que interagem entre si pela sua gravidade, força de contato e dissipação de energia por atrito. Considerar a rotação de cada fragmento é a principal diferenciação do nosso modelo em relação aos que têm sido desenvolvidos recentemente. Apresentamos aqui os resultados obtidos para a evolução da rotação de populações de corpos reacumulados. Estes foram submetidos a séries de colisões com projéteis de altas velocidades (5Km/s, típicas do Cinturão atual), distribuídos em uma lei de potências de tamanhos. Estes resultados são comparados com os de Harris (1979), um dos poucos trabalhos analíticos existentes para evolução rotacional de asteróides. O principal resultado obtido por Harris foi a distribuição final de velocidades de rotação como uma lei de potências para corpos pequenos, passando de forma bem definida para rotação constante para os grandes. Nas nossas simulações observamos que as distribuições de velocidades de rotação resultantes tendem a leis de potência, com a inclinação evoluindo no decorrer de colisões subsequentes.

  9. Contribution of uric acid to cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Fini, Mehdi A; Elias, Anthony; Johnson, Richard J; Wright, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Two risk factors for the development and progression of cancers that are amenable to life style modification are chronic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. This review proposes two new targets that may mechanistically integrate inflammation and metabolic syndrome, have been largely ignored, and are known to be druggable. Recent evidence has demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is associated with excess cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality. Although uric acid (UA) can function as a systemic antioxidant, its pro-inflammatory properties have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also associated with excess cancer, chronic inflammation, and with hyperuricemia, suggesting that UA may represent an important link between these disorders and the development of cancer. While pharmacological modulation of hyperuricemia could in principal augment anti-cancer therapeutic strategies, some cancer cells express low intracellular levels of the enzyme Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) that are associated with increased cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Thus, systemic pharmacological inhibition of XOR may worsen clinical outcome, and specific strategies that target serum uric acid (SUA) without inhibiting tumor cell XOR may create new therapeutic opportunities for cancer associated with hyperuricemia. This review will summarize the evidence that elevated SUA may be a true risk factor for cancer incidence and mortality, and mechanisms by which UA may contribute to cancer pathogenesis will be discussed in the hope that these will identify new opportunities for cancer management. PMID:23369448

  10. Contribution of uric acid to cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two risk factors for the development and progression of cancers that are amenable to life style modification are chronic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. This review proposes two new targets that may mechanistically integrate inflammation and metabolic syndrome, have been largely ignored, and are known to be druggable. Recent evidence has demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) is associated with excess cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality. Although uric acid (UA) can function as a systemic antioxidant, its pro-inflammatory properties have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also associated with excess cancer, chronic inflammation, and with hyperuricemia, suggesting that UA may represent an important link between these disorders and the development of cancer. While pharmacological modulation of hyperuricemia could in principal augment anti-cancer therapeutic strategies, some cancer cells express low intracellular levels of the enzyme Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) that are associated with increased cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Thus, systemic pharmacological inhibition of XOR may worsen clinical outcome, and specific strategies that target serum uric acid (SUA) without inhibiting tumor cell XOR may create new therapeutic opportunities for cancer associated with hyperuricemia. This review will summarize the evidence that elevated SUA may be a true risk factor for cancer incidence and mortality, and mechanisms by which UA may contribute to cancer pathogenesis will be discussed in the hope that these will identify new opportunities for cancer management. PMID:23369448

  11. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes) y de comparaciones entre etnoespecies. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de descriptores de grupo y descriptores específicos. Se identificaron cuales etnoespecies son consideradas similares, cómo contribuyen a las descripciones los atributos de menor peso, la relación entre los descriptores específicos y las etnoespecies, la presencia de prototipos cognitivos, así como las propiedades emergentes más relevantes desde la perspectiva émica. Conclusiones La importancia estimada de los atributos descriptores nos ha permitido identificar el espectro de propiedades emergentes que son relevantes desde la perspectiva emic para caracterizar las abejas sin aguijón. En este sentido el análisis aquí propuesto es de utilidad para estudiar taxonomías folclóricas en grupos heterogéneos culturalmente o en regiones pluriculturales, donde los elementos lingüísticos usualmente empleados no son aplicables. PMID:22330012

  12. Comprension de los conceptos de los enlaces ionico y covalente en estudiantes universitarios del primer curso de quimica general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros Benavides, Maria Elvira

    Para este trabajo utilizamos el estudio de casos cualitativo que se llevo a cabo en una universidad privada de Puerto Rico. Empleamos como unidad de analisis el concepto de enlace quimico, ionico y covalente. Los participantes fueron los estudiantes de la seccion nocturna del curso de Quimica General I. La investigacion se desarrollo por medio de dos entrevistas de persona a persona, observaciones de las expresiones no verbales y la hoja de identificacion de conceptos. Para la triangulacion tomamos en consideracion las preconcepciones erroneas, las concepciones alternativas y el mapa de conceptos de cada participante. Preparamos un mapa de conceptos para el enlace quimico validado por un comite de expertos. Tambien, elaboramos los mapas de conceptos de los participantes que sirvieron para varios propositos: conocer la estructura conceptual, expresar los logros, hacer comparaciones e identificar la presencia de concepciones alternativas. Entre los hallazgos encontramos que todos los participantes poseen conocimiento previo de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente y dentro de ese conocimiento existen preconcepciones erroneas mas numerosas para el enlace ionico. Al principio del semestre el 50% de los participantes demostraron tener "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente. Al finalizar el semestre encontramos en el 40% de los participantes concepciones alternativas tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente y el 90% no lograron distinguir un enlace del otro. Nuestras conclusiones fueron que los participantes sin distincion del aprovechamiento academico demostraron tener la tendencia de "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente, presentaron dificultad al integrar los conceptos de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente que se pusieron de manifiesto al dar los ejemplos. Las preconcepciones erroneas contribuyen en el desarrollo de las concepciones alternativas. Ademas, los participantes no lograron diferenciar los dos enlaces quimicos. Esto implica que reflexionemos sobre la necesidad de revisar tanto las competencias cognoscitivas como la forma de ensenar quimica en el salon de clase. Recomendamos indagar y dar importancia al conocimiento previo de los estudiantes, enfatizar la ensenanza de los conceptos y propiciar el aprendizaje con significado.

  13. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas que enfrentan dificultades en la escuela. La inclusión debe estar en todas las instituciones educacionales (formales o no). Nuestro objetivo en el trabajo de final de curso de licenciatura, fue el de presentar un relato de la experiencia de mediación a los alumnos con deficiencias visuales del Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) en el Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST) y las modificaciones y nuevas propuestas para el Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) a través de un aparato especialmente construido con el cual se puede percibir el cielo en una latitud próxima a la de Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las carácteristicas principales de las nubes ionizadas (distribución espacial del gas, estructura de ionización y de temperatura) y de los cúmulos ionizantes (función inicial de masa, historia de formación estelar, edad). En ambos casos, mostramos que con modelos numéricos calculados para el valor de metalicidad que se determina a partir de la temperatura de [O III], no es posible reproducir el espectro de emisión observado, y que para reproducir las restricciones más robustas es necesario subir la metalicidad de los modelos por un factor de 2. Esto constituye una fuerte indicación en favor de la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. d) Para poder comparar los modelos numéricos con los datos observacionales. mostramos la importancia de corregir las predicciones de los modelos por el sesgo introducido por el tamaío finito de la rendija.

  15. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  16. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  17. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

  18. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  19. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  20. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  1. Proving the Orbits of the Galilean Moons Through Astrophotography. (Spanish Title: Comprobando Las Órbitas de Las Lunas Galileanas a Través de la Astrofotografía.) Evidenciando as Órbitas das Luas Galileanas Atravéd da Astrofotografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    An activity related to the observation of the Galilean moons and to amateur astrophotography is presented in this work. Through the reading of excerpts of the book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger), by Galileo, it is possible to trace a methodology to observe the planet and its natural satellites and, with the aid of the astrophotography, to analyze the field recordings. Moreover, it is possible to compare the images obtained after plotting the relative positions of these moons to prove their orbits. This activity can be conducted by teachers, students and amateur astronomers, in order to develop their capabilities of observation of astronomical phenomena. Se presenta en este trabajo una actividad relacionada a la observación de las lunas Galileanas y a la astrofotografía amateur. A través de la lectura de tramos de la obra Sidereus Nuncius (El Mensajero Sideral) de Galileo, es posible trazar una metodología para la observación del planeta y de sus satélites naturales y, con el auxilio de la astrofotografía, analizar las anotaciones de campo. Además, es posible comparar las imágenes obtenidas con el gráfico de las posiciones relativas de estas lunas para comprobar sus órbitas. Esa actividad puede ser realizada por maestros, estudiantes y astrónomos amateurs, de forma a desarrollar sus capacidades de observación de los fenómenos astronómicos. Uma atividade relacionada à observação das luas Galileanas e à astrofotografia amadora é apresentada neste trabalho. Através da leitura de trechos da obra Sidereus Nuncius (Mensageiro Sideral), de Galileu, é possível traçar uma metodologia para a observação do planeta e de seus satélites naturais e, com o auxílio da astrofotografia, analisar as anotações de campo. Além disso, é possível comparar as imagens obtidas com o gráfico das posições relativas destas luas para evidenciar suas órbitas. Essa atividade pode ser realizada por professores, estudantes e astrônomos amadores, de forma a desenvolverem suas capacidades de observar fenômenos astronômicos.

  2. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  3. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do teste notamos que a porcentagem de acertos a respeito de alguns conceitos teve um aumento significativo associado à reformulação da pergunta, ressaltando a importância de tomar cuidado para evitar respostas erradas geradas por perguntas pouco claras e não por ignorância do respondente sobre o assunto. Confirmamos os resultados de outros estudos de que as maiores dificuldades dos alunos sobre o tema Fases da Lua dizem respeito a relacionar a fase que a Lua apresenta com a sua posição no céu em determinada hora. Por outro lado, nossos resultados sugerem que, em geral, os estudantes de Física entendem melhor o fenômeno das fases lunares do que a média dos estudantes universitários.

  4. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  5. Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided additional conflicts, whereas, those making tactical maneuvers often caused additional conflicts. Many of these second-generation conflicts could be avoided by improved conflict prevention tools that clearly present to the pilot which maneuver choices will result in a conflict-free path. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  6. Resolution of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by rosuvastatin monotherapy in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kargiotis, Konstantinos; Athyros, Vasilios G; Giouleme, Olga; Katsiki, Niki; Katsiki, Evangelia; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Boutari, Chrysoula; Doumas, Michael; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of rosuvastatin monotherapy on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). At present there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or its advanced form NASH. METHODS: This prospective study included 20 biopsy proven patients with NASH, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and dyslipidaemia. Biochemical parameters of the blood of the patients and an ultrasonography of the liver were performed at baseline. Then patients received lifestyle advice and were treated for a 12 mo period with rosuvastatin (10 mg/d) monotherapy. Patients were re-evaluated during the study at 3 mo intervals, during which biochemical parameters of the blood were measured including liver enzymes. A repeat biopsy and ultrasonography of the liver were performed at the end of the study in all 20 patients. Changes in liver enzymes, fasting plasma glucose, serum creatinine, serum uric acid (SUA), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipid profile were assessed every 3 mo. The primary endpoint was the resolution of NASH and the secondary endpoints were the changes in liver enzyme and lipid values. RESULTS: The repeat liver biopsy and ultrasonography showed complete resolution of NASH in 19 patients, while the 20th, which had no improvement but no deterioration either, developed arterial hypertension and substantial rise in triglyceride levels during the study, probably due to changes in lifestyle including alcohol abuse. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were normalised by the 3rd treatment month (ANOVA P < 0.001), while alkaline phosphatase activities by the 6th treatment month (ANOVA, P = 0.01). Fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin were significantly reduced (P < 0.001). Lipid values were normalised by the 3rd treatment month. No patient had MetS by the 9th treatment month. Body mass index and waist circumference remained unchanged during the study. Thus, changes in liver pathology and function should be attributed solely to rosuvastatin treatment. A limitation of the study is the absence of a control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that rosuvastatin monotherapy could ameliorate biopsy proven NASH and resolve MetS within 12 mo. These effects and the reduction of fasting plasma glucose and SUA levels may reduce the risk of vascular and liver morbidity and mortality in NASH patients. These findings need confirmation in larger studies. PMID:26167086

  7. População estelar jovem em galáxias irregulares próximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, T. A.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    A análise do conteúdo estelar de galáxias próximas através da fotometria das suas estrelas resolvidas nos fornece informações importantes sobre a história de formação estelar e os processos de formação estelar em galáxias, que estão diretamente ligados ao estudo de evolução de galáxias. Quando nenhuma estrela puder ser resolvida o método mais poderoso consiste na análise do conteúdo estelar integrado das galáxias através das suas cores integradas em conjunto com informação espectroscópica que combinados com modelos de síntese evolutiva podem restringir simultaneamente a função de massa inicial (IMF) e a taxa de formação estelar (SFR). Nesse contexto, galáxias do tipo tardio, em particular, irregulares, são relevantes por várias razões: elas são objetos relativamente simples, com alta atividade de formação estelar e são objetos relativamente jovens (geralmente apresentam baixas abundâncias de elementos pesados e grande quantidade de gás). Apresentamos uma análise fotométrica de uma amostra de 7 galáxias do tipo tardio do universo local (NGC 2366, NGC 4395, NGC 4656, NGC 4214, NGC 4236, HOII, IC2574) que foram observadas com uma boa resolução espacial nas bandas B, V e R no telescópio Isaac Newton de 2.5m de Roque de los Muchachos nas Ilhas Canárias, Espanha. A distribuição espacial da população estelar jovem dessas galáxias é discutida sobre os pontos de vista dos íindices de cor integrados e dos seus diagramas cor magnitude, que comparados com isócronas teóricas, nos fornecem informações sobre os eventos de formação estelar, como por exemplo, indicações sobre a idade dos mesmos. As principais conclusões do trabalho podem ser resumidas em: (i) As galáxias irregulares possuem formação estelar recente (FE) espalhada ocorrendo nos últimos 50 Manos; (ii) A formação estelar em galáxias irregulares não é auto-propagante em escalas globais ( > 100 pc) ; (iii) A FE pode ser auto-regulável em escalas espaciais de poucas dezenas de parsec; (iv) As galáxias irregulares sofreram um evento principal de FE há 1010 anos atrás, o que implica que houve um momento na evolução do universo onde a maior parte das estrelas se formaram em galáxias.

  8. Modelo de atmosfera solar ajustado às observações do raio solar em 17GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Silva, A. V. R.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo das variações do raio solar durante o ciclo de atividades do Sol e das diferenças em relação à sua distribuição angular nos fornece informações importantes sobre as mudanças na estrutura da atmosfera solar. Neste trabalho foram analisados mais de 3600 mapas do Sol em 17 GHz obtidos pelo Rádio Heliógrafo de Nobeyama (NoRH), durante 1 ciclo de atividade solar (1992-2003). O raio solar foi definido no ponto onde a temperatura de brilho do mapa era equivalente à metade da temperatura do Sol calmo (temperatura mais comum no mapa).Em relação à sua variação ao longo do ciclo solar, o estudo foi dividido em duas partes: a) ajuste de uma circunferência a pontos distribuídos ao redor do Sol todo. Este estudo mostrou uma variação correlacionada com o ciclo de atividade do Sol. b) ajuste da circunferência a pontos situados somente nas regiões polares. Neste caso os resultados mostraram que o raio polar sofre pouca variação durante o ciclo, com tendência à anticorrelação com este. Além disto, a média do raio polar, durante o período analisado, foi 1" menor que o raio medido no Sol todo. Para estudar a distribuição angular do raio solar, comparamos a média da distribuição de 10 mapas no período de mínima atividade solar com a média de 10 mapas no período de máximo, este estudo mostrou um grande aumento do raio na região equatorial no período de máxima atividade solar. As medidas do raio foram usadas como um dos parâmetros para a criação de um modelo atmosférico (além da temperatura de brilho do Sol e do abrilhantamento do limbo observado), onde mostramos que um modelo atmosférico com a região de transição situada a 3500 km fornece um raio 5" menor que as medidas observacionais. Esta incompatibilidade do modelo com os dados observacionais foi contornada com a inclusão de espículas, estas fazem com que o raio solar aumente proporcionalmente à altura que estas atingem na atmosfera solar. A anticorrelação do raio polar com ciclo de atividade pode ser interpretada como reflexo do aumento de abrilhantamento de limbo nos pólos, visto que este está anticorrelacionado com o ciclo solar. Porém, a presença de espículas, não é capaz de explicar os valores muito altos do raio solar medidos na região equatorial, que acreditamos ser devido às mudanças intrínsecas na estrutura local da atmosfera solar.

  9. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no primeiro semestre de 2013 junto a um grupo de 80 sujeitos de diferentes níveis de instrução. Nesta pesquisa, buscou-se averiguar os acontecimentos terrestres que esse grupo de pessoas atribui ao fenômeno das fases lunares. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram empregadas entrevistas semiestruturadas guiadas por questões que buscavam manter a atenção dos entrevistados no objeto de investigação. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas, e os resultados, após serem analisados quanti e qualitativamente, foram confrontados com estudos científicos da área. Os dados da pesquisa demonstram que a Lua e suas fases continuam fascinando e despertando o interesse da população. No entanto, a falta de conhecimentos para proferir explicações corretas relativas aos fenômenos que ocorrem com o astro acaba originando uma série de crenças na população sobre sua influência nos acontecimentos terrestres.

  10. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  11. Emotional and behavioural reactions to moral transgressions: cross-cultural and individual variations in India and Britain.

    PubMed

    Laham, Simon M; Chopra, Sonavi; Lalljee, Mansur; Parkinson, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Reactions to moral transgressions are subject to influence at both the cultural and individual levels. Transgressions against an individual's rights or against social conventions of hierarchy may elicit different reactions in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. In the current study, affective and behavioural reactions to transgressions of autonomy (rights) and community (hierarchy) were examined in India and Britain. Results revealed that although reactions to autonomy transgressions are similar in India and Britain, Indian participants express more moral outrage than do Britons in response to transgressions of community. Results also supported the contention of emotion-specificity in affective moral reaction: Participants in both India and Britain reported anger in response to autonomy transgressions, but contempt in response to violations of community. Importantly, these results extend previous research by demonstrating the importance of emotion specificity in moral reactions, as opposed to categorization or dilemma resolution. In addition, an individual difference measure of respect for persons was shown to moderate reactions to moral transgressions. Specifically, participants with high respect for persons were less negative to violators of the community ethic, but not the autonomy ethic. These findings highlight the importance of examining emotion-specific responses in the moral domain and introduce a significant individual difference variable, respect for persons, into the psychology of morality. Les réactions aux transgressions morales sont susceptibles d'influence à la fois aux niveaux culturel et individuel. Les transgressions contre les droits d'un individu ou contre les conventions sociales d'hiérarchie peuvent susciter de différentes réactions dans les cultures individualiste et collectiviste. Dans la présente étude, les réactions affective et comportementale aux transgressions de l'autonomie (droits) et de la communauté (hiérachie) ont été examinées en Inde et en Grande-Bretagne. Les résultats ont indiqué que, malgré la similitude des réactions aux transgressions de l'autonomie en Inde et en Grande-Bretagne, les participants indiens ont exprimé plus d'indignation morale que les britanniques en réponse aux transgressions de la communauté. Les résultats ont également appuyé la controverse de la spécifité de l'émotion dans la relation morale affective: les participants à la fois en Inde et en Grande-Bretagne ont rapporté de la colère en réponse aux transgressions de l'autonomie mais du mépris en réponse aux transgressions de la communauté. De façon importante, ces résultats ont élargi la recherche passée en démontrant l'importance de la spécificité de l'émotion dans les réactions morales, contrairement à la catégorisation ou à la solution du dilemme. En plus, il a été démontré qu'une mesure des différences individuelles du respect envers les personnes a modéré les réactions aux transgressions morales. Spécifiquement, les participants ayant un grand respect envers les personnes ont été moins négatifs envers les violateurs de l'éthique de la communauté mais pas de l'éthique de l'autonomie. Ces résultats soulignent l'importance d'examiner les réponses spécifique à l'émotion dans le domaine moral et introduisent une variable des différences individuelles, soit le respect envers les personnes, dans la psychologie de la moralité. Las reacciones a las transgresiones morales están sujetas a la influencia a niveles culturales e individuales. Las transgresiones contra los derechos individuales o convenciones sociales de jerarquías pueden provocar distintas reacciones en las culturas individualistas y colectivistas. En el presente estudio, se examinaron las reacciones afectivas y conductuales a las transgresiones contra la autonomía (derechos) y comunidad (jerarquía) en la India y en Gran Bretaña. Los resultados demostraron que, aunque las reacciones a las transgresiones contra la autonomía fueran parecidas en la India y en Gran Bretaña, los participantes indios expresaron más indignación moral que los británicos en la respuesta a la transgresión contra la comunidad. Los resultados también apoyan la visión de la especificidad emocional en la reacción afectiva moral: los participantes en la India y también en Gran Bretaña mostraron ira en respuesta a la transgresión contra la autonomía y desprecio en respuesta a la violación de la comunidad. De forma importante, estos resultados amplían los estudios anteriores demostrando la importancia de la especificidad emocional en las reacciones morales frente a la categorización o resolución de los dilemas. Adicionalmente, las medidas de las diferencias individuales en el respeto para personas moderan las reacciones a la transgresión moral. Específicamente, los participantes con alto respeto para personas fueron menos negativos a la hora de violar la ética de la comunidad pero no la ética de la autonomía. Estos resultados subrayan la importancia de estudiar las respuestas emocionales específicas en el dominio moral e introducen una variable de diferencias individuales significativas, respeto para personas, dentro de la psicología de la moralidad. PMID:22043850

  12. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. RÉSULTATS La prévalence globale des fumeurs actuels est de 28,1%. Près de la moitié des personnes âgées ont fumé à un moment quelconque dans leur vie et parmi celles-ci, 44% ont cessé de fumer. Les personnes âgées ont cessé de fumer lorsqu’elles en ont perçu les effets négatifs sur la santé. Le fait d’avoir au moins une maladie chronique et de souffrir d’une incapacité fonctionnelle ont augmenté d’une façon significative les chances d’arrêt du tabagisme. De plus, le fait d’être un ancien fumeur a augmenté le risque d’admission hospitalière. CONCLUSIONS Cette étude est d’une importance particulière car ses implications s’élargissent à des collectivités à faibles revenus similaires et chez les réfugiés dans la région ainsi qu’ailleurs. Il est nécessaire que les responsables de la santé publique fassent un effort plus concerté pour cibler les personnes âgées comme groupe en vue d’interventions d’arrêt du tabagisme, d’autant plus que les avantages en matière de mortalité et de santé ont aujourd’hui été bien documentés. RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Investigar los tipos de hábito tabáquico en una población de personas ancianas, de bajos ingresos y determinar los factores pronósticos del abandono del hábito. Asimismo, se analizó la importancia del tabaquismo en relación con otros factores de riesgo de hospitalización. DISEÑO Los datos formaban parte de un estudio de salud urbana de 740 personas de ≥60 años de edad, en tres comunidades suburbanas de bajo estrato socioeconómico en Beirut, una de las cuales era un campo de refugiados. Se administró una entrevista estructurada que aportaba amplia información social y sanitaria. RESULTADOS La prevalencia global de fumadores fue de 28,1%. Casi la mitad de las personas ancianas había sido fumadora en algún momento y 44% habían abandonado el tabaquismo. Estas personas abandonaron el hábito tabáquico cuando tuvieron repercusiones negativas sobre su salud. La presencia de por lo menos una enfermedad crónica y de discapacidad funcional aumentó en forma significativa las probabilidades de abandono del tabaquismo. Además, el antecedente de tabaquismo aumentó el riesgo de hospitalización. CONCLUSIÓN El presente estudio reviste una importancia particular, pues sus implicaciones son amplias para comunidades similares de escasos ingresos y de refugiados en esta y otras regiones. Pone en evidencia la necesidad de iniciativas más coordinadas por parte de los funcionarios de salud pública, destinadas a enfocar las campañas de abandono del tabaquismo en la población de edad mayor ; aún más hoy, cuando se ha demostrado la utilidad del abandono en términos de disminución de la mortalidad y consecuencias positivas para la salud. PMID:16898378

  13. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines issues of impact and innovation in groundwater research by using bibliometric data and citation analysis.The analysis is based on 3120 papers from the journal Water Resources Research with full contents and their citation data from the ISI Web of Science. The research is designed to develop a better understanding of the way citation numbers can be interpreted by scientists. Not surprisingly, the most highly cited papers appear to be pioneers in the field with papers departing significantly from what has come before and to be effective in creating similar, follow-on papers. Papers that are early contributions to a new research strand that is highly influential will be on average highly cited. However, the importance of a research strand as measured by citations seems to fall with time. The citation patterns of some classic papers show that the activity in the topical area and impact of follow-on papers gradually decline with time, which has similarities with Kuhn's ideas of revolutionary and normal science. The results of this study reinforce the importance of being a pioneer in a research strand, strategically shifting research strands, adopting strategies that can facilitate really major research breakthroughs. L'article examine les problèmes d'impact et d'innovation dans la recherche des eaux souterraines en utilisant les données bibliométriques et l'analyse des citations. L'analyse a été faite sur 3120 articles parus dans Water Resources Research en tenant compte de leur texte complet et de toutes citations parues dans l' ISI Web de la Science. Le but de la recherche a été de mieux comprendre comment le nombre des citations peut être interprété par les scientifiques. Ce n'est pas une surprise que les plus cités articles soient les articles-pionniers dans leurs domaines, qui s'écartent d'une manière significative de ce qui a été écrit auparavant et qui ont été suivi par des nouveaux articles. Les articles qui présentent une première contribution dans leur domaine et qui ont beaucoup influencé la recherche sont en général les plus cités. Il semble que la diminution de l'importance d'un domaine de recherche est aussi reflétée par le nombre de citations. Le modèle des citations des quelques articles classiques montre que l'activité dans le domaine ainsi que l'impact sur les articles suivantes déclinent progressivement pendant le temps ce qui présente une analogie avec les idées de Kuhn sur la science normale et révolutionnaire. Le résultat de l'étude renforce une fois de plus l'importance d'être un pionnier dans un domaine, en faisant avancer la recherche dans le domaine respectif, en adoptant des stratégies qui peuvent créer des percées majeures dans la recherche. Este artículo examina los temas de impacto e innovación en la investigación de las aguas subterráneas, mediante el uso de datos bibliométricos y del análisis de las referencias bibliográficas. El análisis se basó en 3120 artículos de la revista Water Resources Research, con el contenido completo y sus datos de referencias bibliográficas obtenidos de la Red de Ciencia ISI. La investigación se diseñó para desarrollar un entendimiento mayor de la forma en que la cantidad de citas bibliográficas puede ser interpretada por los científicos. No es sorprendente que los artículos más citados, parecen ser los pioneros en el campo, siendo artículos que divergen significativamente de lo que se ha hecho anteriormente, los cuales son efectivos creando de manera similar otros artículos "seguidores". Los artículos que son contribuciones iniciales en una línea de investigación nueva, la cual es de alta influencia, serán en promedio citados muy frecuentemente. Sin embargo, la importancia de una línea de investigación, de acuerdo a su medida por las veces que es citada, parece disminuir con el tiempo. Las tendencias en cuanto a hacer citas bibliográficas de algunos artículos clásicos, muestran que la actividad en el área de actualidad, lo mismo que el impacto de los artículos "seguidores", declinan con el tiempo gradualmente, lo cual muestra parecidos con las ideas de Kuhn acerca de la ciencia revolucionariay la ciencia normal. Los resultados de este estudio refuerzan la importancia de ser un pionero en una línea de investigación, cambiando estratégicamente de líneas de investigación y adoptando estrategias que puedan facilitar verdaderos avances en investigaciones de trascendencia.

  14. Teaching and Popularization of Astronomy in Latin America by the Liada Perspective. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza y Divulgación de la Astronomía en la América Latina en la Perspectiva de la Liada.) Ensino e Divulgação da Astronomia na América Latina na Perspectiva da Liada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of the developed activities of the Teaching and Popularization Section (SEDA) of the Liga Ibero-Americana de Astronomía (LIADA). After a history of the LIADA, are presented the projects of the section that have the support of 16 coordinators from most Latin-American countries. The projects that aim to attract the attention of the general public, teachers and students to encourage the observation and send reports to be posted at the Internet page are presented. More specifically, the projects and reports related with eclipses ocurriesd since the year 2000. Using the available files on the page of the section, an analysis and discussion about their importance for scientific education is done. It is presented a data form as a suggestion for reports buy individuais or institutions and the importance of the systematization of experiences to give more visibility and changes of informations in the area. It is concluded with an assessment of the projects, their potential and limitations, as well as suggestions of future projects looking for more interaction between the Latin American countries and making the Section available to this goal.

    Esto trabajo visa divulgar y analizar las actividades de La Sección de Enseñanza y Divulgación de la Astronomía (SEDA) de la Liga Iberoamericana de Astronomía (LIADA). Después de un histórico da la LIADA, son presentados los diversos proyectos de la Sección que cuenta con la colaboración de los coordinadores locales en la mayoría de los países de la América Latina. Son presentados los proyectos que visan chamar la atención de público en general, estudiantes y profesores para la observación del cielo e posterior envío de los relatos para colocación en la página de La Sección en la Internet. Más específicamente son analizados los proyectos y relatos relacionados con los eclipses ocurridos desde el año 2000. Utilizando-se los ficheros disponibilizados en la página de la Sección, faz-se una análisis y discusión sobre la importancia de tales relatos para finalidades educacionales. Es presentada una Hoja de reporte elaborado como sugestión para presentación de relatos por parte de individuos y instituciones ben como discutida la importancia de la sistematización de experiencias visando mayor visibilidad y cambio de informaciones en el área. Concluí con una evaluación de los proyectos, su potencial y limitaciones, ben como sugestiones de proyectos futuros visando mayor interacción entre los países de la América Latina y tornando disponible la Sección para esta finalidad.

    Esse trabalho visa divulgar e analisar as atividades da Seção de Ensino e Divulgação de Astronomia (SEDA) da Liga Iberoamericana de Astronomia (LIADA). Após um histórico da LIADA, são apresentados os diversos projetos da Seção que conta com a colaboração de coordenadores locais na maioria dos países da América Latina. São apresentados os projetos que visam chamar a atenção do público em geral, estudantes e professores para a observação do céu e posterior envio de relatos para colocação na página da Seção na Internet. Mais especificamente são analisados os projetos e relatos relacionados aos eclipses ocorridos desde o ano 2000. Utilizando-se os arquivos disponibilizados na página da Seção, faz-se uma análise e discussão sobre a importância de tais relatos para finalidades educacionais. É apresentado um formulário elaborado como sugestão para apresentação de relatos por parte de indivíduos e instituições bem como discutida a importância da sistematização de experiências visando maior visibilidade e troca de informações na área. Conclui com uma avaliação dos projetos, seu potencial e limitações, bem como sugestões de projetos futuros visando maior interação entre os países da América Latina e tornando disponível a Seção para esta finalidade.

  15. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  16. Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

  17. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  18. Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems to Advance Hydrological Models in Coastal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, R.; Hathcock, L.; Coffey, J. J.; Hood, R. E.; van Cooten, S.; Choate, K.; Rawson, H.; Kosturock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) have the potential to provide highly useful information for models of earth systems that vary over time intervals of days and for which sub-meter resolution is crucial. In particular, the state of coastal watershed plains are highly dependent on vegetation type and cover, soil type, weather, river flooding, and coastal inundation. The vegetation type and cover affect the drying potential, as well as the watershed's resistance to flood water movement. The soil type, soil moisture, and pond depths affect the ability of the watershed to absorb river flood waters and inundation from the sea. In this presentation we will describe a data collection campaign and model modification effort for hydrological models in a coastal watershed. The data collection campaign is obtaining data bimonthly using multiple UASs to capture the state of the watershed quicker. In particular, the vegetation cover and the extent of the water surface expression are captured at approximately a 1 inch spatial resolution over a few days with sUASs that can image 1-2 square miles per hour. The vegetation data provides a time-varying input to improve the estimation of the roughness coefficient and the dry potential from the traditionally static datasets. By correlating the high spatio-temporal resolution surface water expression with data from approximately ten river gauges, models can be improved and validated under more conditions. The presentation will also discuss the requisite sUAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  19. Removing the "Silencer": Coverage and Protection of Physician Speech Under the First Amendment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ryan T

    2016-01-01

    The physician-patient relationship rests on a bedrock of trust. Without trust, patients--and for that matter, physicians--are less willing to divulge information critical to providing accurate medical diagnoses and treatments. The state of Florida seemingly ignored this when its legislature, with support from the National Rifle Association and other pro-gun advocates, enacted the Firearm Owners Privacy Act (FOPA), a statute that restricts physicians from questioning their patients about firearm ownership. In Wollschlaeger v. Governor of Florida, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that FOPA did not regulate physician speech but, instead, regulated physician conduct. As such, the law was exempted from First Amendment scrutiny. But almost one year to the day after publishing its first Wollschlaeger opinion, the Eleventh Circuit sua sponte vacated its original opinion and substituted in its place a brand new opinion--one holding that FOPA was subject to First Amendment scrutiny, but nonetheless passed constitutional muster. This Note uses the diverging Wollschlaeger opinions as a vehicle to analyze the First Amendment's coverage and protection of physician speech. Specifically, it argues that an uninhibited line of communication is required to protect the trust necessary for an effective physician-patient relationship. This logical underpinning leads to the conclusion that the First Amendment presumptively covers physician speech and, furthermore, that physician speech should be subject to intermediate scrutiny--a level of scrutiny that FOPA cannot meet. PMID:26817040

  20. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  1. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  2. Análise de Estruturas Morfológicas da Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1997-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o período de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfológicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A análise revelou 151 estruturas ondulatórias, 146 ondas solitárias (sólitons), 12 caudas do tipo Swan (Hyder et al., 1974; Niedner & Brandt, 1980; Jockers, 1985), 47 eventos de desconexão (D.E.'s) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991) e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots") (Matsuura & Voelzke, 1990; Voelzke, 1996). - feita uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos similares objetivando disciplinar a nomenclatura das estruturas morfológicas e a sua classificação. As estruturas ondulatórias correspondem a ondulaçóes ou trens de onda, enquanto que os sólitons referem-se a estruturas morfológicas usualmente denominadas "kinks" (Tomita et al., 1987). O valor médio do comprimento de onda, corrigido dos efeitos de projeção, Lc medido em 16 estruturas ondulatórias distintas corresponde a (2,2 +- 0,2) x 10^6 km. O valor médio da velocidade de fase cometocêntrica, corrigida dos efeitos de projeção, Vfc é igual a (114 +- 31) km/s e a amplitude média A da onda corresponde a (2,8 +- 0,5) x 10^5 km. Lc e A tendem a aumentar com o incremento da distància cometocêntrica. As ondas são claramente não-lineares e é discutido o local de sua excitação. A distribuição dos D.E.'s na distància heliocêntrica apresenta um caráter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuição espacial das fronteiras de setor magnético do meio interplanetário. Em geral, pode-se associar a ocorrência de um "knot" e/ou de uma cauda do tipo Swan com a ocorrência de um D.E., mas este último pode ocorrer independentemente. Os 47 D.E.'s em diferentes fases de evolução foram fotografados em 47 imagens distintas que permitiram determinar o instante de suas origens, ou seja, o instante em que supostamente a de sconexão teve lugar no núcleo. Assim, foram identificados 19 D.E.'s distintos. Aparentemente o plasma desconectado de um dado D.E. afasta-se com velocidade constante do núcleo cometário. Tal velocidade, contudo, varia enormemente de um D.E. para outro. Nove D.E.'s pré-periélicos apresentaram velocidade média Vc, corrigida dos efeitos de projeção, igual a (260 +- 87) km/s e dez pós-periélicos (130 +- 37) km/s. Esta assimetria de Vc em relação ao periélio pode ser devida ao modo assimétrico com que a componente radial da velocidade orbital do cometa se combina com a velocidade do vento solar no sistema de referência cometocêntrico. Os D.E.'s foram correlacionados com variações simultâneas de brilho, formação de jatos e outros fenômenos associados. Sua ocorrência é discutida no contexto dos modelos de reconexão magnética e de compressão dinâmica por vento solar exacerbado. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Rahe, J., The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (printed by: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO), University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992. - Celnik, W.E., Koczet, P., Schlosser, W., Schulz, R., Svejda, P. and Weissbauer, K., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 72, 89, 1988. - Delva, M., Schwingenschuh, K., Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Gringauz, K.I., Planet. Space Sci. 39, Number 5, 697, 1991. - Hyder, C.L., Brandt, J.C. and Roosen, R.G., Icarus 23, 601, 1974. - Jockers, K., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 62, 791, 1985. - Matsuura, O.T. and Voelzke, M.R., Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrof. 21, 609, 1990. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., Astrophys. J. 234, 723, 1979. - Niedner, M.B.Jr. and Brandt, J.C., Icarus 42, 257, 1980. - Tomita, K., Saito, T. and Minami, S., Astron. Astrophys. 187, 215, 1987. - Voelzke, M.R., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 108, Number 729, 1063, 1996.

  3. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    These daytime astronomy activities arose from research done in New Zealand by a group of teachers and astronomers into the problems of teaching astronomy. This showed that it was generally regarded as a difficult subject to take, traditionally relying on books, films and models. The fortunate may have had a visit to an observatory or planetarium, the adventurous may have attempted an outdoor evening viewing session, which sometimes had weather-related difficulties. The problem of not having many 'hands-on' activities, the feelings of inadequate knowledge, the felt need for astronomical equipment and expertise become too daunting for many teachers to do the subject justice. If astronomy was to be taught then a way around these difficulties needed to be found. Our group, working with teachers and children using the constructivism teaching approach, found that the principles of astronomy could be discovered during the day when the students are at school. Working co-operatively they measured and recorded observations of their shadows caused by the motions and interactions of the nearest star, the Sun (Sol), and our planet, Earth. Because children were involved so personally they were much more interested in the results of the study. Astronomy became enthralling and challenging for both teacher and class after applying their daytime experiences to night time viewing at home and reporting back to class. Estas actividades astronómicas diurnas surgieron de una investigación hecha en NuevaZelandia por un grupo de maestros y astrónomos sobre los problemas de la enseñanza de la Astronomía. Este trabajo mostró que la Astronomía es generalmente considerada una disciplina difícil de enseñar, y tradicionalmente basada en libros, filmes y modelos. Los más afortunados pueden haber efectuado alguna visita a un observatorio o planetario, y los más aventajados pueden tal vez haber intentado una sesión de observación nocturna, las cuales sufren a veces de dificultades relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas aulas. Se a Astronomia ia ser introduzida, então era preciso encontrar uma forma de resolver essas dificuldades. Nosso grupo, trabalhando com professores e alunos numa abordagem construtivista, encontrou que os princípios da Astronomia podem ser descobertos durante o dia, enquanto os alunos estão na escola. Trabalhando de forma cooperativa os alunos mediram e registraram observações de suas próprias sombras causadas pelos movimentos da estrela mais próxima, o Sol, e nosso planeta Terra. Devido ao fato de os alunos se envolverem muito pessoalmente nas atividades, eles ficaram muito mais interessados nos resultados do estudo. A Astronomia passou a ser um desafio para o professor e seus alunos quando aplicaram suas experiências diurnas à observação noturna desde suas casas, relatada depois em sala de aula.

  4. The IscA from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an iron-sulfur protein which assemble the [Fe4S4] cluster with intracellular iron and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jia; Geng, Meimei; Jiang, Huidan; Liu, Yuandong; Liu, Jianshe; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2007-07-15

    IscA was proposed to be involved in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoded by the iscSUA operon, but the role of IscA in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly still remains controversial. In this study, the IscA from A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography to homogeneity. To our surprise, the purified IscA was observed to be an iron-sulfur protein according to MALDI-TOF-MS and spectra results, which was capable of recruiting intracellular iron and sulfur and hosted a stable [Fe4S4] cluster. Site-directed mutagenesis for the protein revealed that Cys35, Cys99 and Cys101 were in ligating with the [Fe4S4] cluster. The [Fe4S4] cluster could be assembled in apoIscA with Fe2+ and sulfide in vitro. The IscA from A. ferrooxidans may function as a scaffold protein for the pre-assembly of Fe-S cluster and then transfer it to target proteins in A. ferrooxidans. PMID:17470358

  5. Asp97 is a crucial residue involved in the ligation of the [Fe4S4] cluster of IscA from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huidan; Zhang, Xiaojian; Ai, Chenbin; Liu, Yuandong; Liu, Jianshe; Qiu, Guanzhou; Zeng, Jia

    2008-06-01

    IscA was proposed to be involved in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly encoded by the iscSUA operon, but the role of IscA in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly still remains controversial. In our previous study, the IscA from A. ferrooxidans was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to be a [Fe4S4]-cluster-containing protein. Cys35, Cys99, and Cys101 were important residues in ligating with the [Fe4S4] cluster. In this study, Asp97 was found to be another ligand for the iron-sulfur cluster binding according to site-directed mutagenesis results. Molecular modeling for the IscA also showed that Asp97 was a strong ligand with the [Fe4S4] cluster, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Thus, the [Fe4S4] cluster in IscA from A. ferrooxidans was ligated by three cysteine residues and one aspartic acid. PMID:18600049

  6. Prevention of comorbidity and acute attack of gout by uric acid lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kowoon; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Lim, Mie-Jin; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Joo, Hoyeon; Park, Won

    2014-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of uric acid lowering therapy in reducing the new development of comorbidities and the frequency of acute attacks in gout patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed to have gout with at least 3 yr of follow up. They were divided into 2 groups; 53 patients with mean serum uric acid level (sUA)<6 mg/dL and 147 patients with mean sUA≥6 mg/dL. Comorbidities of gout such as hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and urolithiasis were compared in each group at baseline and at last follow-up visit. Frequency of acute gout attacks were also compared between the groups. During the mean follow up period of 7.6 yr, the yearly rate of acute attack and the new development of HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis was lower in the adequately treated group compared to the inadequately treated group. Tight control of uric acid decreases the incidence of acute gout attacks and comorbidities of gout such as HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis. PMID:24851021

  7. Providing knowledge on climate variability and change in African countries as the basis of a national adaptation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelen, J.; Stendel, M.; May, W.; Olesen, M.; Jørgensen, A. M. K.

    2010-09-01

    The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is improving the knowledge of future climate problems through scientific cooperation with Zambia, Ghana and Tanzania. Collaboration with Zambia on Climate Change The Danish Meteorological Institute has established a twinning project with the Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) with a focus on enhancing ZMD's competence in the fields of climate variability and change in Zambia. By strengthening ZMD's capacity in climate monitoring and modelling as well as in the production and dissemination of weather and climate products, ZMD will be better prepared for providing weather and climate related information and services to the public as well as governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. The project, which covers the period 2009-2012, was initiated by the Royal Danish Embassy in Lusaka, Zambia. This project is one of a number of similar initiatives, both ongoing and concluded, with the main goal of providing developing countries with the best possible knowledge on future climate change and its impacts. Other related projects in Africa Ghana From 1997 to 2004 DMI collaborated with Ghana's Meteorological Services Department (MSD) on water resource information systems. The aim of the project was to rehabilitate hydrological and other meteorological information. Tanzania From 2009 to 2014 DMI will collaborate with the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), The University of Dar Es Salaam (UDSM) and Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) on the availability of water resources for agriculture under future climate conditions and to simulate the future rate of the ice cap on Mt. Kilimanjaro.

  8. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  9. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  10. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  11. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  12. NOAA Marine and Arctic Monitoring Using UASs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, T.; Coffey, J. J.; Hood, R. E.; Hall, P.; Adler, J.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned systems have the potential to efficiently, effectively, economically and safely bridging critical observation requirements in an environmentally friendly manner. As the United States' Marine and Arctic areas of interest expand and include hard-to-reach regions of the Earth (such as the Arctic and remote oceanic areas) optimizing unmanned capabilities will be needed to advance the United States' science, technology and security efforts. Through increased multi-mission and multi-agency operations using improved inter-operable and autonomous unmanned systems, the research and operations communities will better collect environmental intelligence and better protect our Country against hazardous weather, environmental, marine and polar hazards. This presentation will examine NOAA's Marine and Arctic Monitoring UAS strategies which includes developing a coordinated effort to maximize the efficiency and capabilities of unmanned systems across the federal government and research partners. Numerous intra- and inter-agency operational demonstrations and assessments have been made to verify and validated these strategies. The presentation will also discuss the requisite sUAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  13. Gene looping facilitates TFIIH kinase-mediated termination of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Scott; Ansari, Athar

    2015-01-01

    TFIIH is a general transcription factor with kinase and helicase activities. The kinase activity resides in the Kin28 subunit of TFIIH. The role of Kin28 kinase in the early steps of transcription is well established. Here we report a novel role of Kin28 in the termination of transcription. We show that RNAPII reads through a termination signal upon kinase inhibition. Furthermore, the recruitment of termination factors towards the 3? end of a gene was compromised in the kinase mutant, thus confirming the termination defect. A concomitant decrease in crosslinking of termination factors near the 5? end of genes was also observed in the kinase-defective mutant. Simultaneous presence of termination factors towards both the ends of a gene is indicative of gene looping; while the loss of termination factor occupancy from the distal ends suggest the abolition of a looped gene conformation. Accordingly, CCC analysis revealed that the looped architecture of genes was severely compromised in the Kin28 kinase mutant. In a looping defective sua7-1 mutant, even the enzymatically active Kin28 kinase could not rescue the termination defect. These results strongly suggest a crucial role of Kin28 kinase-dependent gene looping in the termination of transcription in budding yeast. PMID:26286112

  14. Genetic interactions of DST1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest a role of TFIIS in the initiation-elongation transition.

    PubMed Central

    Malagon, Francisco; Tong, Amy H; Shafer, Brenda K; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2004-01-01

    TFIIS promotes the intrinsic ability of RNA polymerase II to cleave the 3'-end of the newly synthesized RNA. This stimulatory activity of TFIIS, which is dependent upon Rpb9, facilitates the resumption of transcription elongation when the polymerase stalls or arrests. While TFIIS has a pronounced effect on transcription elongation in vitro, the deletion of DST1 has no major effect on cell viability. In this work we used a genetic approach to increase our knowledge of the role of TFIIS in vivo. We showed that: (1) dst1 and rpb9 mutants have a synthetic growth defective phenotype when combined with fyv4, gim5, htz1, yal011w, ybr231c, soh1, vps71, and vps72 mutants that is exacerbated during germination or at high salt concentrations; (2) TFIIS and Rpb9 are essential when the cells are challenged with microtubule-destabilizing drugs; (3) among the SDO (synthetic with Dst one), SOH1 shows the strongest genetic interaction with DST1; (4) the presence of multiple copies of TAF14, SUA7, GAL11, RTS1, and TYS1 alleviate the growth phenotype of dst1 soh1 mutants; and (5) SRB5 and SIN4 genetically interact with DST1. We propose that TFIIS is required under stress conditions and that TFIIS is important for the transition between initiation and elongation in vivo. PMID:15082542

  15. Elettrodinamica classica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Kurt

    Nella scoperta della Relatività Ristretta l'Elettrodinamica, rappresentando una teoria relativistica per eccellenza, ha giocato un ruolo fondamentale. Il principio di relativit` a einsteiniana, che afferma che tutte le leggi della fisica devono avere la stessa forma in tutti i sistemi di riferimento inerziali, è emerso con forza da questa teoria ed è andato consolidandosi sempre di più, man mano che le nostre conoscenze del mondo microscopico sono diventate più complete: tutte le interazioni fondamentali rispettano infatti tale principio. Il modo più semplice ed elegante per implementarlo — difatti l'unico di un'utilità concreta — è rappresentato dal paradigma della covarianza a vista nell'ambito del calcolo tensoriale. Questo paradigma è stato applicato con successo a tutte le teorie di carattere fondamentale, come le teorie che descrivono le quattro interazioni fondamentali e le più speculative teorie di superstringa, e mantiene la sua piena efficacia anche in teoria quantistica. La nostra esposizione dell'Elettrodinamica classica si baserà dunque a ragione su questo paradigma.

  16. Functional assignment of KEOPS/EKC complex subunits in the biosynthesis of the universal t6A tRNA modification

    PubMed Central

    Perrochia, Ludovic; Guetta, Dorian; Hecker, Arnaud; Forterre, Patrick; Basta, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universal tRNA modification essential for normal cell growth and accurate translation. In Archaea and Eukarya, the universal protein Sua5 and the conserved KEOPS/EKC complex together catalyze t6A biosynthesis. The KEOPS/EKC complex is composed of Kae1, a universal metalloprotein belonging to the ASHKA superfamily of ATPases; Bud32, an atypical protein kinase and two small proteins, Cgi121 and Pcc1. In this study, we investigated the requirement and functional role of KEOPS/EKC subunits for biosynthesis of t6A. We demonstrated that Pcc1, Kae1 and Bud32 form a minimal functional unit, whereas Cgi121 acts as an allosteric regulator. We confirmed that Pcc1 promotes dimerization of the KEOPS/EKC complex and uncovered that together with Kae1, it forms the tRNA binding core of the complex. Kae1 binds l-threonyl-carbamoyl-AMP intermediate in a metal-dependent fashion and transfers the l-threonyl-carbamoyl moiety to substrate tRNA. Surprisingly, we found that Bud32 is regulated by Kae1 and does not function as a protein kinase but as a P-loop ATPase possibly involved in tRNA dissociation. Overall, our data support a mechanistic model in which the final step in the biosynthesis of t6A relies on a strictly catalytic component, Kae1, and three partner proteins necessary for dimerization, tRNA binding and regulation. PMID:23945934

  17. The association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome among adolescents in northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Nan; Li, Ping; Jiang, Ran-Hua; Li, Ling; Li, Xue; Li, Liang; Liu, Cong; Tian, Cong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Data about the association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in healthy adolescents are sparse. This study examined this association and determined the optimal cutoffs for serum uric acid to predict metabolic syndrome among healthy adolescents. Methods: During 2010-2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 927 adolescents (53.0% boys) aged 11-16 years from junior and senior high schools in northeast China. All participants received a physical examination and gave venous blood samples. Results: Serum uric acid was positively associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension in boys and with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia in girls. For those with hyperurecemia, the odds ratios (95% CI) for metabolic syndrome were 7.67 (95% CI, 2.58~22.78) for boys and 4.77 (95% CI, 1.01~22.60) for girls. SUA was a better predictor of metabolic syndrome than fasting glucose, though not as good as waist circumference. Conclusions: Among adolescents in China, serum uric acid level may be a useful predictor of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26885044

  18. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  19. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  20. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract. PMID:25648044

  1. Propriedades físicas de condensações densas no Escorpião

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Barbosa, P. R., Jr.; Hickel, G. R.

    2003-08-01

    O conhecimento das propriedade físicas das condensações das nuvens escuras e sua relação com a dinâmica das núvens é um dos caminhos para o entendimento dos mecanismos de formação de estrelas de massas pequenas. Nesse trabalho, 8 condensações da nuvem escura do Escorpião foram observadas através de transições das moléculas de 13CO, C18O e NH3, utilizando-se os radiotelescopios de 15 m do SEST e 64 m de PARKES. Embora localizadas na superfície de uma bolha com velocidade de expansão entre 12 km/s e 15 km/s (Vilas-Boas et al), as linhas de monóxido de carbono apresentaram características típicas daquelas observadas em nuvens escuras. Em apenas uma condensação, contendo um objeto Pre-Sequência Principal (PMS), foi detectada emissão da molécula de amônia. A comparação direta entre as propriedades dessas condensações densas (núcleos) e aquelas identificadas na Musca, que se caracteriza por ser uma núvem de baixa atividade de formação estelar, mostra que elas têm propriedades idênticas e que as eficiências de formação estelar nos núcleos de ambas as nuvens são similares.

  2. Biobased polyesters with composition-dependent thermomechanical properties: synthesis and characterization of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene azelate).

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Rosica; Delangre, Adrien; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Narayan, Ramani; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-03-11

    Environmentally friendly poly(butylenesuccinate-co-butyleneazelate) (P(BS-co-BAz)s) aliphatic copolyesters with composition-dependent thermomechanical properties were synthesized from succinic acid (SuA), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), and dimethylazelate (DMAz) through a two-step polycondensation reaction. The molar SuA/AzA ratio was varied from 4:1 to 1:4, and the chemical structure and molecular characteristics of resulting (co)polyesters were characterized by NMR and SEC, whereas thermal properties and crystallinity were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analyses (DMTA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A good agreement between theoretical and experimental SuA/AzA molar ratios in the copolyesters was achieved, together with the recovery of semicrystalline random copolymers of uniform composition along the chains. NMR, DSC, DMTA, and XRD results show that depending on their composition the P(BS-co-BAz) copolyesters might find applications from elastomers to high-impact thermoplastics. PMID:23369072

  3. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    Volunteer advisors at Itaocara Astronomy Club Marcos Pontes(CAIMP), in their majority high school students, introduced students at Teotônio Brandão Vilela Elementary School to basic concepts in Astronomy, Physics, and Mythology. Computer Science, Arts, puppetry, and educational videos were used to stimulate students to share their feelings and test their knowledge of the concepts presented. The work done by the volunteers helped boost the student's self-esteem and improved their oral skills by applying their knowledge of Physics and Astronomy in Lab experiments. The main goals of the CAIMP are the possibility of including astronomy in Elementary school curricula and developing an interdisciplinary work involving Astronomy, Arts, and Mythology. Through tests and reports, the students who participated in the Brazilian Astronomy Olympics, showed an increase in their knowldge of the sujects presented during the volunteer work. Durante el curso de un trabajo voluntario con estudiantes de nivel primario (1 º a 4 º grado), los guías de Astronomía miembros del CAIMP (Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Puentes"), en su mayoría estudiantes secundarios, desarrollaron un trabajo de introducción a las Ciencias y Astronomía con alumnos del colegio estatal Teotônio Vilela Brandão. A través de talleres de informática, artes, videos educativos y teatro de títeres, los estudiantes pudieron expresar sus conocimientos y emociones frente a las leyendas mitológicas con las que se inició el trabajo de introducción. La labor desarrollada por los guías con los alumnos promovió la integración entre las aulas del colegio haciéndolos participar en actividades con el fin de estimular su expresión verbal y aumentar su autoestima. Trabajando diversas formas de expresión, los alumnos pudieron realizar experimentos y conocer algunos conceptos de Física y Astronomía al mismo tiempo que adquirían autonomía para la libre expresión de sus sentimientos y de los conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  4. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  5. Evolução química de galáxias HII anãs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraresi, M., Jr.; Cuisinier, F.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    Galáxias HII anãs são galáxias de baixa massa, com alto conteúdo de gás, e se encontram em uma fase intensa de formação estelar. A taxa de formação estelar está tão alta nestas galáxias que não pode ter se mantido durante sua vida inteira. O tempo máximo de duração do episódio atual de formação estelar deve ser no máximo de algumas dezenas de milhões de anos, bem inferior à idade destas galáxias. Isto leva naturalmente a idéia de que já aconteceram surtos anteriores. Abundâncias químicas oferecem uma ferramenta poderosa para investigar a história evolutiva destas galáxias, porque aumentam de geração em geração estelar. O hidrogênio, o oxigênio, o nitrogênio produzem algumas das linhas mais importantes em um gás foto-ionizado, permitindo a determinação das abundâncias destes elementos facilmente. A dispersão das abundâncias em oxigênio e nitrogênio é significativa, sendo maior que os erros observacionais. O oxigênio é produzido em estrelas massivas, que explodem quase instâneamente, enquanto o nitrogênio é produzido em estrelas de massa intermediária, que só o liberam depois de um atraso de @ 500 mihões de anos. Construímos um modelo de evolução química semi-analítico, utilizando rendimentos empíricos baseados nas abundâncias observadas destes dois elementos. Conseguimos através deste modelo rudimentar explicar nas galáxias de mais baixas metalicidades as abundâncias de oxigênio e de nitrogênio, assim como a dispersão dos dados observacionais devida a formação estelar descontínua, e isto com um número baixo de surtos (1 ou 2, no máximo 3).

  6. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  7. Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satélites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elíptico e precessionando, as perturbações seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

  8. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  9. Neural decoding of treadmill walking from noninvasive electroencephalographic signals

    PubMed Central

    Presacco, Alessandro; Goodman, Ronald; Forrester, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons in primary motor and somatosensory areas in rhesus macaques provide accurate information about bipedal locomotion (Fitzsimmons NA, Lebedev MA, Peikon ID, Nicolelis MA. Front Integr Neurosci 3: 3, 2009). Here we show that the linear and angular kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during both normal and precision (attentive) human treadmill walking can be inferred from noninvasive scalp electroencephalography (EEG) with decoding accuracies comparable to those from neural decoders based on multiple single-unit activities (SUAs) recorded in nonhuman primates. Six healthy adults were recorded. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed while receiving visual feedback of their lower limbs (i.e., precision walking), to repeatedly avoid stepping on a strip drawn on the treadmill belt. Angular and linear kinematics of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints and EEG were recorded, and neural decoders were designed and optimized with cross-validation procedures. Of note, the optimal set of electrodes of these decoders were also used to accurately infer gait trajectories in a normal walking task that did not require subjects to control and monitor their foot placement. Our results indicate a high involvement of a fronto-posterior cortical network in the control of both precision and normal walking and suggest that EEG signals can be used to study in real time the cortical dynamics of walking and to develop brain-machine interfaces aimed at restoring human gait function. PMID:21768121

  10. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  11. Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 ?m pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 ?m and 25 ?m microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

  12. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  13. Control of resin production in Araucaria angustifolia, an ancient South American conifer.

    PubMed

    Perotti, J C; da Silva Rodrigues-Corrêa, K C; Fett-Neto, A G

    2015-07-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an ancient slow-growing conifer that characterises parts of the Southern Atlantic Forest biome, currently listed as a critically endangered species. The species also produces bark resin, although the factors controlling its resinosis are largely unknown. To better understand this defence-related process, we examined the resin exudation response of A. angustifolia upon treatment with well-known chemical stimulators used in fast-growing conifers producing both bark and wood resin, such as Pinus elliottii. The initial hypothesis was that A. angustifolia would display significant differences in the regulation of resinosis. The effect of Ethrel(®) (ET - ethylene precursor), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), sulphuric acid (SuA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP - nitric oxide donor) on resin yield and composition in young plants of A. angustifolia was examined. In at least one of the concentrations tested, and frequently in more than one, an aqueous glycerol solution applied on fresh wound sites of the stem with one or more of the adjuvants examined promoted an increase in resin yield, as well as monoterpene concentration (?-pinene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene). Higher yields and longer exudation periods were observed with JA and ET, another feature shared with Pinus resinosis. The results suggest that resinosis control is similar in Araucaria and Pinus. In addition, A. angustifolia resin may be a relevant source of valuable terpene chemicals, whose production may be increased by using stimulating pastes containing the identified adjuvants. PMID:25545585

  14. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  15. A UA (1) symmetry restoration scenario supported by the generalized Witten-Veneziano relation and its analytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benić, S.; Horvatić, D.; Kekez, D.; Klabučar, D.

    2014-11-01

    The Witten-Veneziano relation, or, alternatively, its generalization proposed by Shore, facilitates understanding and describing the complex of η and η‧ mesons. We present an analytic, closed-form solution to Shore's equations which gives results on the η-η‧ complex in full agreement with results previously obtained numerically. Although the Witten-Veneziano relation and Shore's equations are related, the ways they were previously used in the context of dynamical models to calculate η and η‧ properties, were rather different. However, with the analytic solution, the calculation can be formulated similarly to the approach through the Witten-Veneziano relation, and with some conceptual improvements. In the process, one strengthens the arguments in favor of a possible relation between the UA (1) and SUA (3) chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. To test this scenario, the experiments such as those at RHIC, NICA and FAIR, which extend the RHIC (and LHC) high-temperature scans also to the finite-density parts of the QCD phase diagram, should pay particular attention to the signatures from the η‧-η complex indicating the symmetry restoration.

  16. Como os Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo obtém Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rápido e seguro a todo tipo de informação e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de São Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos básicos de astronomia quanto aos fenômenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná~los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espaço amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola e 59% através da mídia em geral. Neste mesmo espaço amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residência, 5% no trabalho e 43% não utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou também que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentação sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos não obtém na escola seus conhecimentos astronômicos, estes provém de fontes não especificamente didático-pedagógicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que não raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  17. Novel features of the ISC machinery revealed by characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that survive without iron-sulfur clusters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoyuki; Kanazawa, Miaki; Tonosaki, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Nao; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Biological assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters is mediated by complex systems consisting of multiple proteins. Escherichia coli possesses two distinct systems called the ISC and SUF machineries encoded by iscSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscX and sufABCDSE respectively. Deletion of both pathways results in absence of the biosynthetic apparatus for Fe-S clusters, and consequent lethality, which has hampered detailed genetic studies. Here we report that modification of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway can offset the indispensability of the Fe-S cluster biosynthetic systems and show that the resulting Δisc Δsuf double mutants can grow without detectable Fe-S cluster-containing proteins. We also constructed a series of mutants in which each isc gene was disrupted in the deletion background of sufABCDSE. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants revealed that Fdx, an essential electron-transfer Fe-S protein in the ISC machinery, is dispensable under anaerobic conditions, which is similar to the situation with IscA. Furthermore, we found that several suppressor mutations in IscU, an Fe-S scaffold protein responsible for the de novo Fe-S cluster assembly, could bypass the essential role of the chaperone system HscA and HscB. These findings pave the way toward a detailed molecular analysis to understand the mechanisms involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. PMID:26560204

  18. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  19. A Prenatally Ascertained De Novo Terminal Deletion of Chromosomal Bands 1q43q44 Associated with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities in a Female Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulou, Georgia; Donoghue, Jacqueline; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E.; Velissariou, Voula

    2015-01-01

    Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) and a single umbilical artery (SUA) and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8?Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS). Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome. PMID:25722899

  20. Espectroscopía de Microondas en Jets Supersónicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. L.; López, J. C.; Lesarri, A.; Blanco, S.; Sanz, M. E.; Mata, S.; Cocinero, J. E.; Sánchez, R.

    Complejos con Enlace de Hidrógeno. El entorno de bajas temperaturas de una expansión supersónica es un excelente laboratorio para estudiar el comportamiento conformacional de los complejos con enlace de hidrógeno. Nuestro grupo ha observado por vez primera enlaces de hidrógeno axial y ecuatorial en los complejos de tetrahidropirano, sulfuro de pentametileno y sulfuro de trimetileno con HCl y HF [1-6] generados en las expansiones adiabáticas en He, Ne o Ar y caracterizados por espectroscopía de microondas con transformadas de Fouier. Existe controversia a la hora de considerar a las interacciones C-H\\cdotsO como enlaces de hidrógeno o como simples interacciones de van der Waals. Las interacciones C-H\\cdotsO han sido estudiadas en el dímero del dimetil eter generado en la expansión supersónica y caracterizado por espectroscopía de microondas [7]. Estas interacciones se han analizado en los complejos formados entre los alcanos sustituidos del trifluorometano y difluorometano con oxirano [8] caracterizándose la existencia de interacciones C-F\\cdotsH-C que contribuyen a la estabilización de estos complejos. Ablación Láser: Estructura de Aminoácidos. Los aminoácidos poseen puntos de fusión elevados (>200oC) y se presentan en fases condensadas como formas dipolares (+H3N-CH(R)-COO-) distintas de las neutras de las cadenas polipéptidas. Con el fin de obtener la estructura de estas formas neutras es necesario experimentar en fase gas, en un entorno libre de interacciones como el de una expansión supersónica. Para solventar el problema de su baja presión de vapor, se ha diseñado un nuevo instrumento que combina la espectroscopía de microondas en jet supersónicos con técnicas de ablación láser [9] que evita los métodos de vaporización por calentamiento que conducen a la descomposición de los aminoácidos. Diversos confórmeros de los aminoácidos naturales de la prolina [10], valina [11], cis- y trans- hidroxiprolina, serina, cisteina, ldots han sido caracterizados hasta el presente. Con este mismo dispositivo experimental de ablación láser ha sido igualmente posible generar clusters metálicos como los de Si3, Se-Te, ldots. entre otros. Moléculas generadas por descargas eléctricas. Utilizando diferentes precursores (1,1-difluoroetileno, trifluoroacetileno, acetileno, ldots) diversos fluoropoliinos [12] y fluorometilpoliinos [13] han sido por primera vez generados y caracterizados por sus espectros de rotación en la expansión adiabática de un instrumento de MBFTMW dotado de un dispositivo de descargas. Solvatación en fase gas. La formación de complejos de biomoléculas con agua en fase gas es de gran importancia para entender la naturaleza de la solvatación a escala microscópica. Los complejos indol\\cdotsH2O [14], glicina\\cdotsH2O (mediante ablación láser) azetidinona\\cdotsH2O, azetidinona\\cdots2H2O, ldots entre otros, han sido analizados en fase gas.

  1. Mapping opportunities and challenges for rewilding in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceaușu, Silvia; Hofmann, Max; Navarro, Laetitia M; Carver, Steve; Verburg, Peter H; Pereira, Henrique M

    2015-01-01

    Farmland abandonment takes place across the world due to socio-economic and ecological drivers. In Europe agricultural and environmental policies aim to prevent abandonment and halt ecological succession. Ecological rewilding has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy. We developed a framework to assess opportunities for rewilding across different dimensions of wilderness in Europe. We mapped artificial light, human accessibility based on transport infrastructure, proportion of harvested primary productivity (i.e., ecosystem productivity appropriated by humans through agriculture or forestry), and deviation from potential natural vegetation in areas projected to be abandoned by 2040. At the continental level, the levels of artificial light were low and the deviation from potential natural vegetation was high in areas of abandonment. The relative importance of wilderness metrics differed regionally and was strongly connected to local environmental and socio-economic contexts. Large areas of projected abandonment were often located in or around Natura 2000 sites. Based on these results, we argue that management should be tailored to restore the aspects of wilderness that are lacking in each region. There are many remaining challenges regarding biodiversity in Europe, but megafauna species are already recovering. To further potentiate large-scale rewilding, Natura 2000 management would need to incorporate rewilding approaches. Our framework can be applied to assessing rewilding opportunities and challenges in other world regions, and our results could guide redirection of subsidies to manage social-ecological systems. Mapeo de Oportunidades y Retos para el Retorno de la Vida Silvestre Resumen El abandono de tierras agrícolas ocurre en todo el mundo debido a factores socio-económicos y ecológicos. En Europa, las políticas ambientales y agrícolas tienen el objetivo de prevenir el abandono y frenar la sucesión ecológica. La reintroducción o el retorno de la vida silvestre (“rewilding”) representa una estrategia alternativa a esto. Desarrollamos un marco de trabajo para evaluar las oportunidades de reintroducción en diferentes dimensiones de naturaleza a lo largo de Europa. Mapeamos la luz artificial, la accesibilidad para humanos con base en la infraestructura de transporte, la proporción de productividad primaria (es decir, la productividad del ecosistema incautado por los humanos por medio de la agricultura o la silvicultura) y la divergencia de vegetación natural potencial en áreas que se proyecta estarán abandonadas para el 2040. A nivel continental, los niveles de luz artificial fueron bajos y la divergencia de vegetación natural potencial fue alta en las áreas de abandono. La importancia relativa de las medidas de naturaleza difirió regionalmente y estuvieron conectadas fuertemente a los contextos ambientales y socio-económicos locales. Las grandes áreas de abandono proyectado estuvieron localizadas frecuentemente en o alrededor de sitios Natura 2000. Con base en estos resultados, argumentamos que el manejo debería ser fabricado para restaurar los aspectos de la naturaleza que son carentes en cada región. Todavía quedan muchos obstáculos con respecto a la biodiversidad en Europa, pero las especies de megafauna ya se están recuperando. Para potenciar aún más la reintroducción a gran escala, el manejo de Natura 2000 necesitaría incorporar estrategias de reintroducción. Nuestro marco de trabajo puede aplicarse a la evaluación de las oportunidades de reintroducción y a los obstáculos en otras regiones del mundo, y nuestros resultados pueden guiar la redirección de los subsidios para manejar los sistemas socio-ecológicos. PMID:25997361

  2. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

  3. Reviving Erathostenes. (Breton Title: Revivendo Eratóstenes.) Reviviendo a Eratóstenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo Cesar R.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the commemorations of the International Year of the Physics and having as its main objective to introduce students to the scientific method, the Rio de Janeiro Planetarium Foundation, in partnership with many institutions of Brazil and Europe, coordinated the activity "Reviving Eratosthenes" whose objective was the determination of the Earth's circumference. We used the famous procedure adopted by Eratosthenes more than 2000 years ago, with some adaptations. This work considers and analyzes the method used by us, aiming the application in schools. The use of places in different meridians allows a better understanding of the abstract concepts such as geographic coordinate and time zones. We obtained reasonably precise results, which improve for pairs of distant cities. Finally, one of the most important conclusions achieved by the students involved is the importance of the cooperation (international in this case) to solve problems. Fazendo parte das comemorações do Ano Internacional da Física e tendo como principal objetivo introduzir estudantes do ensino médio ao método científico, a Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em parceria com diversas instituições do Brasil e da Europa, coordenou a atividade "Revivendo Eratóstenes" cujo objetivo foi a determinação da circunferência da Terra. Para isso, utilizou-se um procedimento semelhante ao empregado pelo sábio Eratóstenes há mais de 2.000 anos, com algumas adaptações. Este trabalho propõe e analisa o método que empregamos, visando a aplicação em escolas. A possibilidade de se trabalhar com locais em diferentes meridianos permite uma melhor compreensão dos conceitos mas abstratos, como coordenadas e fusos horários. A precisão dos resultados é bastante razoável, melhorando para cidades bem afastadas. Finalmente, uma das conclusões mais importantes é a percepção, por parte dos estudantes, da importância da colaboração (neste caso, internacional) para resolver problemas. Como parte de las conmemoraciones del Año Internacional de la Física y con el objetivo principal de introducir a los estudiantes secundarios al método científico, la Fundación Planetario Rio de Janeiro, en conjunto con diversas instituciones de Brasil y de Europa, coordinó la actividad denominada "Reviviendo a Eratóstenes" cuyo objetivo consistió en la determinación de la cincunferencia de la Tierra. Para esto se utilizó un procedimiento semejante al empleado por Eratóstenes hace más de 2.000 años, con algunas adaptaciones. Este trabajo expone y analiza el método empleado, con la intención de aplicarlo en las escuelas. La posibilidad de trabajar en lugares situados en diferentes meridianos permite una mejor comprensión de los conceptos más abstractos, tales como coordenadas y husos horarios. La precisión de los resultados resultó razonable, mejorando para aquellas ciudades mas apartadas. Finalmente, una de las conclusiones más importantes es la de la percepción, por parte de los estudiantes, de la importancia de la colaboración (en este caso internacional) para resolver problemas.

  4. Efectos de la irradiación iónica en hielos de moléculas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satorre, M. A.

    En Astrofísica podemos encontrar numerosos contextos en los cuales se observan moléculas en estado sólido que, en condiciones estándar de presión y temperatura, se encontrarían como gases o líquidos. Dichas moléculas se denominan hielos y han sido observadas en nubes densas del medio interestelar, en envolturas circumestelares, en satélites del Sistema Solar, en cometas, etc. Los hielos pueden ser alterados en su composición química debido a diversos factores como por ejemplo variaciones de temperatura o aportes energéticos por parte de la irradiación, ya sea tanto de fotones ultravioleta como de iones. Dependiendo del escenario astrofísico que analicemos, unos factores cobran más importancia que otros. Los experimentos de laboratorio muestran el efecto que produce sobre la composición de los hielos la irradiación iónica, en particular sobre los que contenían alguna molécula con átomos de carbono. Dicha composición se analiza con espectroscopía IR en el rango de 2 a ˜ 25? m. La aplicabilidad de los resultados de los experimentos es distinta dependiendo de la composición química inicial de los hielos, del tipo de ion utilizado y de la dosis total de irradiación. Existen efectos generales de la irradiación sobre la materia en los experimentos de relevancia astrofísica como son: - la formación de nuevas moléculas, que pueden incluir o no el ion incidente; - la progresiva pérdida de hidrógeno (carbonización) cuando irradiamos muestras que originalmente contienen una determinada relación carbono/hidrógeno; - la variación de la temperatura de sublimación que presentan algunos hielos. Esto puede suceder tanto en hielos que estaban presentes antes de la irradiación como en hielos formados por ésta. Se presentará el papel del ion en la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de las que originalmente se encontraban en el hielo. Al penetrar en él, el ion provoca distintos procesos como rotura de enlaces y excitaciones electrónicas. En la mayor parte de los casos las especies producidas por la rotura del enlace, se recombinan volviendo a formar la molécula original. Sin embargo un pequeño porcentaje es capaz de formar nuevas moléculas. Si el ion queda implantado en el hielo y es reactivo (H+, C+,ldots) podría formar parte de una molécula nueva que incorpora un átomo que inicialmente no se encontraba presente en el hielo. También se presentará un contraejemplo para demostrar que no es posible asegurar que siempre que implantemos un ion reactivo, éste formará parte de nuevas moléculas en la mezcla. También se presentará la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de la irradiación de hielos de metano, que llevan a la formación de otros compuestos como acetileno, eteno, etano,... en los cuales la relación C/H ha variado. Además de estos compuestos se forma también un residuo carbonoso (refractario) que es estable a temperatura ambiente y cuya composición química no es bien conocida. Por último, el aumento de la temperatura de sublimación es también una consecuencia de la irradiación, aunque la magnitud del aumento depende de la mezcla original y de la irradiación sufrida. Existen moléculas que llegan a variar su temperatura de sublimación en decenas de grados. Para el caso de moléculas carbonadas se forman especies por irradiación que son estables a temperatura ambiente. Con todo ello se muestra que los experimentos de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos a comprender la formación, destrucción y variación de las propiedades físicas de los hielos de interés astrofísico con la irradiación.

  5. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, M.

    Pocos campos de la química están tan bien adaptados a la modelización por medio de los métodos teóricos de la Química Cuántica como la Astroquímica y la Química de la Atmósfera, donde las interacciones moleculares son, generalmente, lo suficientemente pequeñas para que el modelo de molécula aislada funcione muy bien. En España son varios los grupos teóricos que dedican su esfuerzo de investigación, o parte de él, al estudio de moléculas o procesos de interés en Astrofísica o en atmósferas planetarias. Presentaremos diferentes ejemplos paradigmáticos de esta actividad en la que se exploran desde aspectos estructurales, hasta aspectos espectroscópicos y dinámicos. Entre los últimos, cabe destacar estudios en los que se demuestra la importancia de procesos a dos estados, prohibidos por espín, en la formación astrofísica de diversos derivados de interés. En el tratamiento espectroscópico se han hecho esfuerzos interesantes, que han aunado teoría y experimento, en el estudio de sistemas relevantes desde el punto de vista atmosférico, como los hidratos de ácido nítrico, o el tratamiento espectroscópico de moléculas no rígidas. No menos interesantes son los estudios de fotoabsorción de radicales o de procesos multifotónicos. Son particularmente abundantes los estudios dedicados a la reactividad específica de sistemas de interés astrofísico o atmosférico, con el objetivo de esclarecer vías de formación de determinados compuestos o de proporcionar mecanismos que permitan identificar las etapas reactivas limitantes de reacciones de interés en esos medios y sobre los que no existía información previa. Así, por ejemplo, se han publicado interesantes estudios sobre la formación o propiedades de compuestos de fósforo, de silico o de azufre o sobre mecanismos de reacción en los que intervienen el ozono, el radical nitrato, el radical OH u otras especies. Finalmente, son también particularmente relevantes los estudios que varios grupos españoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas débilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidrógeno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosféricos como interestelares.

  6. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  7. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders’ nonmaterial desires, needs, and values often critically influence the success of conservation projects. These considerations are challenging to articulate and characterize, resulting in their limited uptake in management and policy. We devised an interview protocol designed to enhance understanding of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The protocol begins with discussion of ecosystem-related activities (e.g., recreation, hunting) and management and then addresses CES, prompting for values encompassing concepts identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and explored in other CES research. We piloted the protocol in Hawaii and British Columbia. In each location, we interviewed 30 individuals from diverse backgrounds. We analyzed results from the 2 locations to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol in elucidating nonmaterial values. The qualitative and spatial components of the protocol helped characterize cultural, social, and ethical values associated with ecosystems in multiple ways. Maps and situational, or vignette-like, questions helped respondents articulate difficult-to-discuss values. Open-ended prompts allowed respondents to express a diversity of ecosystem-related values and proved sufficiently flexible for interviewees to communicate values for which the protocol did not explicitly probe. Finally, the results suggest that certain values, those mentioned frequently throughout the interview, are particularly salient for particular populations. The protocol can provide efficient, contextual, and place-based data on the importance of particular ecosystem attributes for human well-being. Qualitative data are complementary to quantitative and spatial assessments in the comprehensive representation of people's values pertaining to ecosystems, and this protocol may assist in incorporating values frequently overlooked in decision making processes. Un Protocolo para Obtener Valores No Materiales por medio de un Marco de Servicios Ambientales Culturales Resumen Los deseos, necesidades y valores no materiales de los accionistas influyen frecuentemente sobre el éxito de los proyectos de conservación. Estas consideraciones son difíciles de articular y caracterizar, lo que resulta en entendimiento limitado en el manejo y la política. Concebimos un protocolo de entrevista diseñado para mejorar el entendimiento de los servicios ambientales culturales (SAC). El protocolo inicia con la discusión de actividades relacionadas con ecosistemas (p. ej.: recreación, cacería) y manejo; después señala a los SAC, dando pie a los valores que encierran conceptos identificados en la Evaluación Ambiental del Milenio (2005) y explorado en otras investigaciones sobre SAC. Hicimos pruebas piloto del protocolo en Hawái y Columbia Británica. En cada localidad entrevistamos a 30 individuos de diversos entornos. Analizamos los resultados de las dos localidades para determinar la efectividad del protocolo de entrevista en la obtención de valores no materiales. Los componentes cualitativos y espaciales del protocolo nos ayudaron a caracterizar los valores culturales, sociales y éticos asociados con el ecosistema de múltiples maneras. Los mapas y las preguntas de situación, o de tipo viñeta, ayudaron a los encuestados a articular valores difíciles de discutir. Las preguntas abiertas permitieron a los encuestados expresar una diversidad de valores ambientales y demostraron ser suficientemente flexibles para que los encuestados comunicaran valores que el protocolo no buscaba explícitamente. Finalmente, los resultados sugieren que ciertos valores, aquellos mencionados frecuentemente en la entrevista, son particularmente prominentes para poblaciones particulares. El protocolo puede proporcionar datos eficientes, contextuales y basados en lugar sobre la importancia de atributos ambientales particulares para el bienestar humano. Los datos cualitativos son complementarios para las evaluaciones cuantitativas y espaciales en la representación comprensiva de los valores de los valores que pertenecen a los ecosistemas. Este protocolo puede ayudar a incorporar valores frecuentemente ignorados en el proceso de toma de decisiones. PMID:25354730

  8. Moléculas orgánicas no-rígidas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent Díez, M. L.

    Se destaca la importancia del estudio espectroscópico ab initio de una serie de moléculas no-rígidas detectadas en el medio interestelar (acetona, dimetil-eter, etanol, metanol, metilamina, ldots), así como los últimos avances del desarrollo de la metodología para el tratamiento teórico de estas especies. Se describe, a modo de ejemplo, el análisis del espectro roto-torsional de la molécula de glicoaldehido que ha sido recientemente detectada en el centro Galáctico Sagitario B2 (N) [1]. Esta especie presenta dos movimientos de gran amplitud que interaccionan, descansan en el Infrarrojo Lejano y le confiere propiedades no-rígidas. La molécula puede existir en posiciones cis y trans y presenta cinco confórmeros estables, tres de simetría Cs (I, II y IV) y un doble mínimo trans de simetría C1 (III) . La conformación favorita, I, presenta simetría Cs y se estabiliza por la formación de un puente de hidrógeno entre los grupos OH y C=O. Los mínimos secundarios II, III, y IV se han determinado a 1278.2 cm-1 (trans, Cs), 1298.8 cm-1 (trans, C1) y 1865.2 cm-1 (cis, Cs) con cálculos MP4/cc-pVQZ que incluyen sustituciones triples. Para determinar que vibraciones interaccionan con las torsiones, se ha realizado un análisis armónico en los mínimos. Las frecuencias fundamentales armónicas correspondientes al mínimo I se han calculado en 213.4 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 425.7 cm-1 (torsión OH). Es de esperar que tan sólo dos vibraciones, la flexión del grupo C-C-O y el aleteo del hidrógeno del grupo aldehídico puedan desplazar el espectro torsional de la molécula aislada. Para determinar el espectro torsional, se ha determinado la superficie de potencial en dos dimensiones mediante el cálculo ab initio de las geometrías y energías de 74 conformaciones seleccionadas. Estas últimas se han ajustado a un doble serie de Fourier. A partir de la PES y de los parámetros cinéticos del Hamiltoniano vibracional se han obtenido frecuencias e intensidades. Las frecuencias fundamentales se han calculado en 208.0 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 349.9 cm-1 (torsión OH). Se discute el método de cálculo que se ha empleado para la clasificación de los niveles. Los niveles rotacionales se han determinado empleando el método desarrollado para el estudio del ácido acético [2]. Se emplean la base de funciones rotacionales de [3]. A partir de los niveles se han determinado las constantes rotacionales y las constantes de distorsión centrífuga que se comparan con las experimentales de Herbst et al [3].

  9. Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

    Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

  10. Variabilidad de la Estación de Crecimiento en la Región Sur de Tamaulipas en condiciones climaticas actuales y futuras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Barrios, M.; Conde-Alvarez, C.; Gay-Garcia, C.

    2007-05-01

    El impacto de la variabilidad y cambio climáticos, afectan el potencial agrícola de la Región Sur de Tamaulipas. Además de los cambios estacionales, bajos rendimientos agrícolas, el manejo de los cultivos y las políticas locales de producción, existe la incertidumbre del mercado regional para los pequeños y grandes productores. La diversificación agrícola ha sido una alternativa para enfrentar las condiciones imperantes en esta región. Pero ésta ha provocado la fragmentación territorial, por lo que sólo algunos productores logran competir en un mercado nacional. Existe una preocupación generalizada por buscar soluciones que permitan que la población que es afectada por la inseguridad de la producción agrícola y económica, pueda adaptarse a las variaciones climáticas que afectan el proceso productivo. La seguridad alimentaría queda sujeta a la fluctuación de las importaciones para los sectores básicos y a las estrategias mercantiles de empresas trasnacionales. La percepción local sugiere un número creciente de eventos climatológicos extremos, constantes y severos en los últimos 20 años, con el aumento creciente de pérdidas económicas. El análisis se centra en la disponibilidad de agua, agregándose un aspecto de capital importancia como es la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia, que condiciona muy fuertemente el riesgo agrícola en el trópico seco, siendo ésta la que determina el momento de inicio de la estación favorable para el crecimiento y su duración. En este trabajo se han obtenido modelos de la distribución espacial de la precipitación y temperaturas, para el escenario base 1961-1990, el escenario actual 1971-2000, para algunos años El Niño y La Niña, así como para los escenarios de Cambio Climático HADLEY, ECHAM y GFDL, con escenarios A2 y B2, para las décadas de los 20s y 50s, para establecer el inicio y duración de la Estación de Crecimiento, utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica (ArcView). Estos resultados serán utilizados por los administradores de las decisiones locales, para estrategias de manejo y para la difusión entre los habitantes, de tal manera que esto les permita establecer prioridades en las medidas de mitigación, y formular las posibilidades de adaptación.

  11. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois períodos possíveis: 2,2 ou 3,8 dias, além de variações irregulares superpostas. Foram observados, também, dois eventos súbitos, espaçados de uma hora, com amplitudes de 0,05mag e duração de aproximadamente 30 minutos. Admitindo-se que tal modulação seja originada por acréscimo sobre a superfície estelar, dois cenários são possíveis. No caso do menor período, apenas uma mancha quente seria visível. No outro caso, duas manchas seriam necessárias, explicando assim a presença de dois picos ao se colocar os pontos em fase.

  12. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  13. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  15. Investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the properties of protein hydrolysate from fish muscle (Collichthys niveatus) and evaluation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Guo, Rui; Dai, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanping

    2012-05-23

    This study was carried out to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the properties of protein hydrolysate from fish muscle of the marine fish species Collichthys niveatus. About 160 fish samples were tested, and the analyzed fish species was found to be a lean fish with low fat (1.77 ± 0.01%) and high protein (16.76 ± 1.21%). Fish muscle of C. niveatus was carefully collected and hydrolyzed with four commercial enzymes: Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavourzyme under the conditions recommended by the manufacturers. Among the tested proteases, Neutrase catalyzed the hydrolysis process most effectively since the hydrolysate generated by Neutrase has the highest content of sweet and umami taste amino acids (SUA). The effect of hydrolysis conditions was further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimum values for temperature, pH, and enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S ratio) were found to be 40.7 °C, 7.68, and 0.84%, respectively. Finally, the amino acid composition of the hydrolysate was analyzed by AccQ·Tag derivatization and HPLC-PDA determination. Major amino acids of the muscle of C. niveatus were threonine, glutamic acid, phenyalanine, tryptophan, and lysine, accounting for respectively 10.92%, 10.85%, 10.79%, 9.86%, and 9.76% of total amino acid content. The total content of essential amino acids was 970.7 ng·mL(-1), while that of nonessential amino acids was 709.1 ng·mL(-1). The results suggest that the fish muscle and its protein hydrolysate from C. niveatus provide a versatile supply of the benefits and can be incorporated as supplements in health-care foods. PMID:22530872

  16. Abundâncias de oxigênio e enxofre nas estrelas de tipo solar da vizinhança solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requeijo, F.; Porto de Mello, G. F.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns resultados sugerem que o Sol seja 58% mais abundante em oxigênio que o meio interestelar local. Esta anomalia parece estender-se para o carbono e o criptônio. Entre as possíveis explicações deste fenômeno estão: uma supernova de tipo II que tenha enriquecido a nebulosa protosolar, tornando-a superabundante em oxigênio; um episódio de infall de material pobre em metais sobre o disco Galático, diluindo o meio interestelar local ou uma migração dinâmica do Sol de uma órbita mais interna da Galáxia para sua posição atual. A escolha entre estes cenários exige o conhecimento preciso da abundância solar em relação às anãs G da vizinhança. Neste contexto, o oxigênio e enxofre, são elementos-chave por serem ambos produzidos pelas supernovas de tipo II, devendo portanto possuir o mesmo padrão de abundância. Este projeto visa esclarecer qual a posição do Sol na distribuição local de abundâncias de enxofre e oxigênio para uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar com idades e metalicidades bem conhecidas. Para tal, analisamos espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído nas regiões espectrais de ll 6300, 7774 (O) e l8695 (S). Para o enxofre encontramos que o Sol parece ser uma estrela típica dentre as da vizinhança, e que este elemento não mostra a sobreabundância para baixas metalicidades, já bem estabelecida para o oxigênio. Discutimos as abundâncias do enxofre no contexto da Evolução Química da Galáxia. Apresentamos resultados preliminares muito precisos para a linha proibida do oxigênio l6300 e comparamos estes com os obtidos para o tripleto em l7774. Quantificamos os efeitos não-ETL presentes no tripleto em função dos parâmetros atmosféricos estelares.

  17. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anobha; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, has severe air pollution, although few studies examine air pollution and health in this region. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies in Nepal used time-activity diaries or conducted personal monitoring of individuals' exposures. We investigated personal exposure of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM(2.5)) by location, occupation, and proximity to roadways. PM(2.5) monitoring, time-activity diary, respiratory health questionnaire, and spirometer testing were performed from 28 June 2009 to 7 August 2009 for 36 subjects, including traffic police (TP), indoor officer workers next to main road (IOWs_NMR) and away from main road (IOWs_AMR), in urban area (UA), urban residential area, and semi-UA (SUA). TP had the highest exposure of all the occupations (average 51.2??g/m(3), hourly maximum >500??g/m(3)). TP levels were higher at the UA than other locations. IOW_NMR levels (averaged 46.9 ?g/m(3)) were higher than those of IOW_AMR (26.2??g/m(3)). Exposure was generally higher during morning rush hours (0800-1100 hours) than evening rush hours (1500-1800 hours) for all occupations and areas (78% of days for TP and 84% for urban IOW). PM(2.5) personal exposures for each occupation at each location exceeded the World Health Organization ambient PM(2.5) guideline (25??g/m(3)). Findings suggest potential substantial health impacts of air pollution on this region, especially for TP. PMID:22395259

  18. Uracil salvage pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum: Transcription and genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Nicoloff, Hervé; Kammerer, Benoît; Martinussen, Jan; Bringel, Françoise

    2006-07-01

    The uracil salvage pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum was demonstrated to be dependent on the upp-pyrP gene cluster. PyrP was the only high-affinity uracil transporter since a pyrP mutant no longer incorporated low concentrations of radioactively labeled uracil and had increased resistance to the toxic uracil analogue 5-fluorouracil. The upp gene encoded a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzyme catalyzing the conversion of uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate to UMP and pyrophosphate. Analysis of mutants revealed that UPRT is a major cell supplier of UMP synthesized from uracil provided by preformed nucleic acid degradation. In a mutant selection study, seven independent upp mutants were isolated and all were found to excrete low amounts of pyrimidines to the growth medium. Pyrimidine-dependent transcription regulation of the biosynthetic pyrimidine pyrR1-B-C-Aa1-Ab1-D-F-E operon was impaired in the upp mutants. Despite the fact that upp and pyrP are positioned next to each other on the chromosome, they are not cotranscribed. Whereas pyrP is expressed as a monocistronic message, the upp gene is part of the lp_2376-glyA-upp operon. The lp_2376 gene encodes a putative protein that belongs to the conserved protein family of translation modulators such as Sua5, YciO, and YrdC. The glyA gene encodes a putative hydroxymethyltransferase involved in C1 unit charging of tetrahydrofolate, which is required in the biosynthesis of thymidylate, pantothenate, and purines. Unlike upp transcription, pyrP transcription is regulated by exogenous pyrimidine availability, most likely by the same mechanism of transcription attenuation as that of the pyr operon. PMID:16788187

  19. Uracil Salvage Pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum: Transcription and Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Nicoloff, Hervé; Kammerer, Benoît; Martinussen, Jan; Bringel, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The uracil salvage pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum was demonstrated to be dependent on the upp-pyrP gene cluster. PyrP was the only high-affinity uracil transporter since a pyrP mutant no longer incorporated low concentrations of radioactively labeled uracil and had increased resistance to the toxic uracil analogue 5-fluorouracil. The upp gene encoded a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzyme catalyzing the conversion of uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl-?-1-pyrophosphate to UMP and pyrophosphate. Analysis of mutants revealed that UPRT is a major cell supplier of UMP synthesized from uracil provided by preformed nucleic acid degradation. In a mutant selection study, seven independent upp mutants were isolated and all were found to excrete low amounts of pyrimidines to the growth medium. Pyrimidine-dependent transcription regulation of the biosynthetic pyrimidine pyrR1-B-C-Aa1-Ab1-D-F-E operon was impaired in the upp mutants. Despite the fact that upp and pyrP are positioned next to each other on the chromosome, they are not cotranscribed. Whereas pyrP is expressed as a monocistronic message, the upp gene is part of the lp_2376-glyA-upp operon. The lp_2376 gene encodes a putative protein that belongs to the conserved protein family of translation modulators such as Sua5, YciO, and YrdC. The glyA gene encodes a putative hydroxymethyltransferase involved in C1 unit charging of tetrahydrofolate, which is required in the biosynthesis of thymidylate, pantothenate, and purines. Unlike upp transcription, pyrP transcription is regulated by exogenous pyrimidine availability, most likely by the same mechanism of transcription attenuation as that of the pyr operon. PMID:16788187

  20. Correlation of hypothetical virulence traits of two Streptococcus uberis strains with the clinical manifestation of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Riccardo; McNeilly, Tom N; Sipka, Anja; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Several virulence mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the species' ability to cause disease. Here, virulence characteristics were compared between S. uberis strains FSL Z1-048, which consistently caused clinical mastitis in a challenge model, and FSL Z1-124, which consistently failed to cause disease in the same model, to ascertain whether in vitro virulence characteristics were related to clinical outcome. Macrophages derived from bovine blood monocytes failed to kill FSL Z1-048 whilst reducing survival of FSL Z1-124 by 42.5%. Conversely, blood derived polymorphonuclear cells caused more reduction (67.1 vs. 44.2%, respectively) in the survival of FSL Z1-048 than in survival of FSL Z1-124. After 3 h of coincubation with bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1, 1000-fold higher adherence was observed for FSL Z1-048 compared to FSL Z1-124, despite presence of a frame shift mutation in the sua gene of FSL Z1-048 that resulted in predicted truncation of the S. uberis Adhesion Molecule (SUAM) protein. In contrast, FSL Z1-124 showed higher ability than FSL Z1-048 to invade BME-UV1 cells. Finally, observed biofilm formation by FSL Z1-124 was significantly greater than for FSL Z1-048. In summary, for several hypothetical virulence characteristics, virulence phenotype in vitro did not match disease phenotype in vivo. Evasion of macrophage killing and adhesion to mammary epithelial cells were the only in vitro traits associated with virulence in vivo, making them attractive targets for further research into pathogenesis and control of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26497306

  1. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  2. Populações estelares do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, A. V.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Os estudos mais recentes do bojo galáctico têm enfocado essencialmente as abundâncias químicas de elementos pesados, como o ferro, obtidos a partir das estrelas nas regiões centrais da galáxia. Elementos leves, como hélio, nitrogênio, oxigênio e argônio ainda são pouco estudados nestas regiões, devido à difícil determinação de suas abundâncias a partir de estrelas. Nestas condições as nebulosas planetárias desempenham um importante papel, pois permitem a determinação de abundâncias destes elementos usando técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Neste trabalho, reportamos a análise das abundâncias químicas de uma nova amostra de nebulosas planetárias do bojo, bem como os resultados preliminares de um código numérico destinado a modelar a evolução química desta região. Usamos como vínculos observacionais os resultados obtidos das nebulosas planetárias, bem como de abundâncias estelares da região do bojo, obtidas da literatura. A partir deste modelo da evolução química e dos vínculos observacionais foi possível fazer um diagnóstico mais preciso das populações que constituem o bojo galáctico. O estudo destas populações que compõem a região central de nossa galáxia é de extrema importância para o maior entendimento da evolução química e dinâmica da galáxia como um todo. Por isto, verificamos a importância dos modelos de formação simples e mista utilizados para explicar características da população da região central da galáxia. Algumas destas características são: uma grande dispersão nos valores das abundâncias químicas e um grande espalhamento nas correlações entre as abundâcias de nitrogênio e oxigênio. Estas peculiaridades são dificilmente reproduzidas por modelos de formação simples, e portanto são importantes indícios da validade dos modelos de formação mista, tais como um rápido colapso do bojo seguido de uma evolução secular. (FAPESP, CNPq)

  3. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  4. Cometa Hyakutake (C/1996 B2): análise do gás e características físicas das partículas de poeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    A completa caracterização e compreensão do núcleo de um cometa novo é de fundamental importância para a elucidação dos processos físicos e químicos atuantes na época da formação do Sistema Solar. O Cometa Hyakutake, conjuntamente com o Cometa Hale-Bopp representam os objetos mais brilhantes que visitaram o Sistema Solar Interno nos últimos 20 anos. Neste Trabalho, nós aplicamos o Método Semi-Empírico das Magnitudes Visuais (MSEMV) à aproximadamente 4000 dados observacionais que correlacionam a magnitude visual absoluta com a distância heliocêntrica para o Cometa Hyakutake nas fases pré- e pós-periélicas. Como produto da aplicação desse método, conseguimos caracterizar dimensionalmente seu núcleo e área ativa efetiva. As taxas de produção dos radicais CN, C2 e C3, obtidos a partir de dados disponíveis na literatura, revelam que, além de muito brilhante, o Hyakutake é um cometa "normal" no sentido de Cochran (1986). Desse modo, deduzimos as taxas de perdas de água (em moléculas/s) a partir da análise de sua magnitude visual aparente, e as convertemos em taxas de perdas de gás (em g/s), despreendido pelo nucleo cometário. Com o auxílio do modelo fotométrico clássico da poeira, realizamos uma análise sistemática e uniforme dessa componente cometária, a partir dos fluxos observacionais no contínuo, para os comprimentos de onda 365,0 e 484,5 nm, assumindo que esses fluxos são o resultado da radiação solar espalhada por grãos de partículas micrométricos presentes na coma. Com isso, pudemos obter as taxas de produção (em g/s), cores (relativas à cor neutra solar), e as dimensões efetivas médias das partículas de poeira, bem como as razões poeira-gás.

  5. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  6. A Compact L-band Radiometer for High Resolution sUAS-based Imaging of Soil Moisture and Surface Salinity Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Stachura, M.; Dai, E.; Elston, J.; McIntyre, E.; Leuski, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the long electrical wavelengths required along with practical aperture size limitations the scaling of passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and salinity from spaceborne low-resolution (~10-100 km) applications to high resolution (~10-1000 m) applications requires use of low flying aerial vehicles. This presentation summarizes the status of a project to develop a commercial small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) hosting a microwave radiometer for mapping of soil moisture in precision agriculture and sea surface salinity studies. The project is based on the Tempest electric-powered UAS and a compact L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer developed specifically for extremely small and lightweight aerial platforms or man-portable, tractor, or tower-based applications. Notable in this combination are a highly integrated sUAS/radiometer antenna design and use of both the upwelling emitted signal from the surface and downwelling cold space signal for precise calibration using a unique lobe-differencing correlating radiometer architecture. The system achieves a spatial resolution comparable to the altitude of the UAS above the surface while referencing upwelling measurements to the constant and well-known background temperature of cold space. The radiometer has been tested using analog correlation detection, although future builds will include infrared, near-infrared, and visible (red) sensors for surface temperature and vegetation biomass correction and digital sampling for radio frequency interference mitigation. This NASA-sponsored project is being developed for commercial application in cropland water management (for example, high-value shallow root-zone crops), landslide risk assessment, NASA SMAP satellite validation, and NASA Aquarius salinity stratification studies. The system will ultimately be capable of observing salinity events caused by coastal glacier and estuary fresh water outflow plumes and open ocean rainfall events.

  7. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI features of acute gouty arthritis on top of chronic gouty involvement in different joints.

    PubMed

    Emad, Yasser; Ragab, Yasser; El-Naggar, Ahmed; El-Shaarawy, Nashwa; Abd-Allah, Mayada A; Gamal, Rania M; Fathy, Ahmed; Hawass, Mona; Rasker, Johannes J

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the current study are to describe gadolinium-enhanced MRI features of an acute flare of established gouty arthritis in different joints and to examine a possible association between serum uric acid and MRI signs indicative of ongoing inflammation and/or structural joint damage as well as association with disease characteristics and laboratory findings. Twenty-seven male patients with established chronic gout agreed to participate, mean age 47.6 years, and mean disease duration in months 43.2 (±31.8). For all patients, detailed demographic, disease characteristics, and laboratory findings were obtained and correlated with MRI findings. In 27 patients with established gout, a total of 50 MRI studies were performed of the following joints: feet joints (n?=?23), ankles (n?=?18), knees (n?=?5), and hand and wrist joints (n?=?4). MRI revealed capsular thickening in 19 patients, bone marrow edema (BME) in 15, soft tissue edema (STE) in 20, joint effusion in 21, bone erosions in 17, cartilaginous erosions in 4, and tenosynovitis in 9 cases. In 17 cases, tophaceous lesions were found. Post contrast MRI showed synovial thickening in seven cases. Positive correlations were observed between serum uric acid levels and the following MRI findings: capsular thickening (r?=?0.552, p?=?0.003), BME (r?=?0.668, p???0.0001), STE (r?=?0.559, p?=?0.002), and tenosynovitis (r?=?0.513, p?=?0.006). Using MRI in chronic gout, important features can be detected like BME, minute cartilaginous erosions, and hypertrophic synovial inflammation in post contrast MR images. Serum uric acid (SUA) was positively correlated with capsular thickening, BME, STE, and tenosynovitis. PMID:25681072

  8. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  9. Massa do gás e das estrelas em aglomerados: eficiência da formação estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganá, T. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados de galáxias apresentam um interesse especial para a cosmologia observacional. Eles são as maiores estruturas ligadas pela gravitação no Universo e relaxadas na região central. A comparação entre a massa do gás intra-aglomerado (responsável por ~25% da massa total, inferida a partir de observações em raios-X), a massa contida nas estrelas (i.e., nas galáxias) e a massa total (incluindo a matéria escura não bariônica), nos dá informações importantes sobre os processos de formação e evolução de aglomerados. Por exemplo, a razão entre a massa do gás e a massa total é uma medida da fração de bárions no Universo (razão entre a matéria bariônica e matéria escura) e, utilizando a densidade de bárions predita pela nucleosíntese primordial, podemos deduzir a densidade de matéria escura no Universo (cf. White et al. 1993). O objetivo deste trabalho é obter as razões entre as massas do gás, estelar (contida nas galáxias), e a total (massa dinâmica). As massas do gás e total são obtidas a partir das análises fotométrica e espectroscópica em raios-X enquanto que a massa estelar é obtida pela análise fotométrica das galáxias. Esta análise foi aplicada ao aglomerado Abell 496 observado pelo satélite XMM-Newton. A massa contida nas galáxias foi estimada a partir da função de luminosidade obtida por Durret et al. (2002). Para determinar as massas dinâmica e do gás nos precisamos determinar os perfis radiais de densidade e temperatura. Nós apresentaremos aqui estes resultados e suas implicações na eficiência da formação estelar em Abell 496.

  10. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  11. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  12. Serum uric acid is inversely proportional to estimated stroke volume and cardiac output in a large sample of pharmacologically untreated subjects: data from the Brisighella Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Rosticci, Martina; Parini, Angelo; Baronio, Cristina; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Serum uric acid is representative for xanthine-oxidase, the key enzyme involved in the production of uric acid, which is up-regulated in the failing heart, and may play an important role in the pathophysiologic process that leads to heart failure. In our study, we investigated the relation between stroke volume, cardiac output and serum uric acid in a large sample of overall healthy pharmacologically untreated subjects. The Brisighella Heart Study included 2,939 men and women between the ages of 14-84 without prior coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease who were not taking antihypertensive therapy at baseline. For this study, we selected 734 adult subjects enrolled in the last Brisighella population survey not taking antihypertensive, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering and uric acid-lowering drugs, and who were also not affected by chronic heart failure or by gout. The main predictors of cardiac functionality parameters were mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, SUA and age (all p < 0.001), while gender, BMI, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity and smoking habit were not significantly associated (all p > 0.05). In particular, there is a strong relation between estimated cardiac output and serum uric acid (B = -0.219, p < 0.001) and between stroke volume and serum uric acid (B = -3.684, p < 0.001). These observations might have an impact on future considerations about serum uric acid as an early inexpensive marker of heart function decline in the general population. PMID:24214336

  13. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

  14. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  15. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    PubMed

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology. PMID:11445997

  16. Analysis of the Presence of Content about Astronomy in a Decade of the National High School Examination (1998-2008). (Spanish Title: Análisis de la Presencia de Contenidos de Astronomía em Uma Década del Examen Nacional de Enseñaza Secundária (1998-2008).) Análise da Presença de Conteúdos de Astronomia em Uma DÉcada do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (1998-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Hanny Angeles; Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the presence of contents of Astronomy in the National High School Examination (ENEM) in its first decade (1998-2008). We verified the number of questions addressing this topic that were present over the years, as well as the most recurrent subjects. We discussed the results from what is proposed by the official documents regarding the teaching of Astronomy in the Elementary and Secondary Education and we entertain future expectations about the presence of contents of this science in future official examinations. En este trabajo realizamos un análisis de la presencia de contenidos de Astronomía em las pruebas del Examen Nacional de Enseñanza Secundaria (ENEM) em su primera década de existência (1998-2008). Contabilizamos la cantidad de preguntas incluyendo este tema que estuvieron presentes en el transcurso de los años, así como los temas más recurrentes. Discutimos los resultados a partir de lo propuesto por los documentos oficiales en relación a la enseñanza de Astronomía en la Educación Básica y elaboramos algunos apuntes sobre futuras expectativas em relación a la presencia de contenidos de esta ciencia en examenes oficiales. No presente trabalho fizemos uma análise da presença de conteúdos de Astronomia nas provas do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM), em sua primeira década de existência (1998-2008). Verificamos a quantidade de questões envolvendo essa temática que estiveram presentes no decorrer dos anos, assim como os temas mais recorrentes. Discutimos os resultados a partir do que é proposto pelos documentos oficiais em relação ao ensino de Astronomia na Educação Básica e tecemos alguns apontamentos sobre a expectativa futura quanto à presença de conteúdos dessa ciência nesse exame oficial.

  17. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  18. Characterization of α-actin isoforms in white and red skeletal muscle types of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae).

    PubMed

    Alves-Costa, Fernanda A; Silva, Maeli D P; Wasko, Adriane P

    2015-12-01

    RESUMO Dois genes de α-actina do peixe Leporinus macroce-phalus, referindo-se aos tecidos musculares branco e vermelho, foram isolados. Isoformas de actinas, que principalmente diferiram por uma substituição Ser/Ala155, podem ter uma significância funcional relacionada à interação entre actina e ATP. Um resíduo de Ala155, como observado na α-actina esquelética do músculo vermelho, resulta em uma diminuição da afinidade da actina pelo ATP, o que também pode estar associado à ação contrátil lenta desse tecido. Adicionalmente, uma substituição Phe/Ile262 na actina do músculo vermelho leva a uma variação na hidrofobicidade no "plug-D" da proteína, o que pode alterar sua estabilidade. Dados de qRT-PCR evidenciaram significante maior nível de actina RNAm em músculo branco, quando comparado ao músculo vermelho (T=105 Mann Whitney; p=<0,001). Este resultado pode estar relacionado às demandas energéticas do tecido muscular branco, com fibras de contração rápida e metabolismo glicolítico para fornecimento de energia. Os dados disponíveis sobre actinas musculares levam a propor que as α-actinas esqueléticas dos músculos branco e vermelho são geneticamente e funcionalmente distinguíveis em espécies de peixes, uma característica não encontrada em outros grupos de vertebrados. PMID:26628021

  19. ABCG2: the molecular mechanisms of urate secretion and gout.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Owen M

    2015-09-15

    The human propensity for high levels of serum uric acid (SUA) is a trait that has defied explanation. Is it beneficial? Is it pathogenic? Its role in the human diseases like gout and kidney stones was discovered over a century ago [Richette P, Bardin T. Lancet 375: 318-328, 2010; Rivard C, Thomas J, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ. Rheumatology (Oxford) 52: 421-426, 2013], but today emerging new genetic and epidemiological techniques have revived an age-old debate over whether high uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) independently increase risk for diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease [Feig DI. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 14: 346-352, 2012; Feig DI, Madero M, Jalal DI, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ. J Pediatr 162: 896-902, 2013; Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. JAMA 300: 924-932, 2008; Wang J, Qin T, Chen J, Li Y, Wang L, Huang H, Li J. PLoS One 9: e114259, 2014; Zhu P, Liu Y, Han L, Xu G, Ran JM. PLoS One 9: e100801, 2014]. Part of the mystery of the role uric acid plays in human health stems from our lack of understanding of how humans regulate uric acid homeostasis, an understanding that could shed light on the historic role of uric acid in human adaptation and its present role in human pathogenesis. This review will highlight the recent work to identify the first important human uric acid secretory transporter, ABCG2, and the identification of a common causal ABCG2 variant, Q141K, for hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:26136557

  20. Net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI/NAPI) and riverine nutrient fluxes in the watersheds of the US and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, B.; Swaney, D. P.; Howarth, R. W.; Humborg, C.

    2011-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  1. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  2. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em estudar o tema Astronom! ia entre os educandos.

  3. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  4. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  5. Mixed axion/neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Chun, Eung Jin E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-12-01

    We examine mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter production in the SUSY DFSZ axion model where an axion superfield couples to Higgs superfields. We calculate a wide array of axino and saxion decay modes along with their decay temperatures, and thermal and non-thermal production rates. For a SUSY benchmark model with a standard underabundance (SUA) of Higgsino-like dark matter (DM), we find for the PQ scale f{sub a}∼<10{sup 12} GeV that the DM abundance is mainly comprised of axions as the saxion/axino decay occurs before the standard neutralino freeze-out and thus its abundance remains suppressed. For 10{sup 12}∼10{sup 14} GeV, both neutralino dark matter and dark radiation are typically overproduced. For judicious parameter choices, these can be suppressed and the combined neutralino/axion abundance brought into accord with measured values. A SUSY benchmark model with a standard overabundance (SOA) of bino DM is also examined and typically remains excluded due at least to too great a neutralino DM abundance for f{sub a}∼<10{sup 15} GeV. For f{sub a}∼>10{sup 15} GeV and lower saxion masses, large entropy production from saxion decay can dilute all relics and the SOA model can be allowed by all constraints.

  6. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

  7. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  8. Calorimetria nucleare in collisioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.

    2002-07-01

    Nel presente lavoro di tesi ci si e' occupati di uno studio sistematico di misure di temperatura ed energia di eccitazione in sistemi nucleari formati in reazioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie. La temperatura a stata misurata tramite due diversi metodi: rapporto tra le rese di isotopi che differiscono di uno stesso numero di nucleoni ( d/t-3He/4He , 3He/4He -6Li/7Li) - temperatura isotopica -, e rapporto tra le popolazioni degli stati eccitati in frammenti instabili (5Li e 6Li) che decadono in particelle leggere in coincidenza - temperatura di emissione. Le misure in esame sono state effettuate presso i Laboratori Nazionali del Sud per i sistemi 93Nb+93Nb, 93Nb+116,124Sn, 116,120Sn+116,124Sn e 116Sn+93Nb ad energie comprese tra 17 e 40 A MeV. L'apparato di rivelazione era costituito da un odoscopio ad alta granularite (96 telescopi Si (50micron)-Si(300micron)-CsI(Tl) ) e basse soglie di rivelazione, utilizzato sia per identificare risonanze in frammenti eccitati che per misure di rese di isotopi di frammenti con 2<=Z<=6, e dal multirivelatore FIASCO che, grazie alla misura contemporanea di posizione e tempo di volo dei frammenti provenienti dal proiettile (PLF - Projectile Like Fragments) e dal bersaglio (TLF - Target Like Fragment), e' stato utilizzato per misurare direttamente l'energia di eccitazione del sistema in studio. Analisi precedenti, condotte nell'ambito di varie collaborazioni, hanno messo in evidenza la possible esistenza di una transizione di fase liquido-gas del primo ordine nella materia nucleare. In tale contesto, ci siamo occupati di una verifica della curva calorica nucleare, ovvero della correlazione esistente fra temperatura ed energia di eccitazione del sistema, indagando, nel contempo, sulla sua dipendenza dalla massa del sistema che si frammenta. Si e' effettuato, inoltre, un confronto fra i due diversi metodi di misura della temperatura (temperatura isotopica e di emissione): l'andamento plateau-like della curva calorica e' stato confermato sia dalle temperature isotopiche che dalle temperature di emissione. Le "temperature limite", ovvero quelle relative all'andamento plateau-like della curva calorica, misurate per i vari sistemi studiati, sono state confrontate con quelle attualmente disponibili in letteratura, confermando la dipendenza dalla massa del sistema di tale grandezza.

  9. Análise cinemática bi-dimensional dos núcleos de NGC 4051 e NGC 4941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, F. K. B.; Storchi-Bermagnn, T.; Schmitt, H. R.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Winge, C.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos recentes da cinemática da região dentro de 1 kpc do núcleo de galaxias Seyfert próximas usando espectroscopia de fenda longa com alta resolução espacial (~ 100 pc ou melhores) encontraram uma queda na dispersão de velocidades nas regiões centrais dentro de um raio de ~ 300 pc do núcleo. Essa queda vem sendo tentativamente explicada por um cenário evolutivo em que um evento de formação estelar recente cria as estrelas da região central em um disco de dimensões 300 pc. Desde sua criação, tais estrelas não tiveram tempo de "virializar", ou seja, seguir a distribuição radial de dispersões de velocidades determinada pelo campo gavitacional da galáxia e, portanto, a dispersão de velocidades medida nessa região do bojo acaba sendo menor do que a dispersão medida nas vizinhanças. No presente trabalho investigamos a cinemática estelar no núcleo das galáxias Seyfert NGC 4051 e NGC 4941 usando o tripleto do Ca ii (8500 Å) em absorção. Os dados foram obtidos com o IFU GMOS no telescópio Gemini. O elemento de resolução espacial nas galáxias é da ordem de 30 pc. No intervalo espectral coberto pelo espectrografo a linha [S iii] (9068 Å) também é visível, o que permite estudar a cinemática do gás na mesma região. Serão apresentados mapas bi-dimensionais da velocidade e dispersão de velocidades das estrelas e do gás, além de imagens na linha [S iii] que mapeia o gás de alta excitação.

  10. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  11. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  12. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Serão discutidas as implicações desse resultado nos modelos de afterglows de ECRGs.

  13. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Quevedo, Roberto; Fernandes, Paulo; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    A new eruption started at Fogo volcanic island on November 23, 2014, an active stratovolcano, located in the SW of the Cape Verde Archipelago; rising over 6 km from the 4000m deep seafloor to the Pico do Fogo summit at 2829m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Since settlement in the 15th century, 27 eruptions have been identified through analysis of incomplete written records (Ribeiro, 1960), with average time intervals of 20 yr and average duration of two months. The eruptions were mostly effusive (Hawaiian to Strombolian), with rare occurrences of highly explosive episodes including phreatomagmatic events (Day et al., 1999). This study reports sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission rate variations observed throughout the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde. More than 100 measurements of SO2 emission rate have been carried out in a daily basis by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV/SNPC research team since November 28, 2014, five days after the eruption onset, by means of a miniDOAS using the traverse method with a car. The daily deviation obtained of the data is around 15%. Estimated SO2 emission rates ranged from 12,476 ± 981 to 492 ± 27 tons/day during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption until January 1, 2015. During this first five days of measurements, the observed SO2 emission rates were high with an average rate of 11,100 tons/day. On December 3, 2014 the SO2 emission rate dropped to values close to 4,000 tons/day, whereas few days later, on December 10, 2014, an increase to values close to 11,000 tons/day was recorded. Since then, SO2 emission rate has shown decrease trend to values close to 1,300 tons/day until December 21, 2014. The average of the observed SO2 emission rate was about 2,000 tons/day from December 21, 2014 to January 1, 2015, without detecting a specific either increasing or decreasing trend of the SO2 emission rate. The objective of this report is to clarify relations between the SO2 emission rate and surface eruptive activity during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption. Day, S. J., Heleno da Silva, S. I. N., and Fonseca, J. F. B. D.: A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 94, 191-218, 1999. Ribeiro, O.: A ilha do Fogo e as suas erupções, 12a edição, Memórias, Série Geográfica, J. Inv. Ultramar, 1960.

  14. Demonstration of Technologies for Remote and in Situ Sensing of Atmospheric Methane Abundances - a Controlled Release Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Thorpe, A. K.; Christensen, L. E.; Dinardo, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Rahn, T. A.; Dubey, M.

    2013-12-01

    It is critical to constrain both natural and anthropogenic sources of methane to better predict the impact on global climate change. Critical technologies for this assessment include those that can detect methane point and concentrated diffuse sources over large spatial scales. Airborne spectrometers can potentially fill this gap for large scale remote sensing of methane while in situ sensors, both ground-based and mounted on aerial platforms, can monitor and quantify at small to medium spatial scales. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborators recently conducted a field test located near Casper, WY, at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (RMOTC). These tests were focused on demonstrating the performance of remote and in situ sensors for quantification of point-sourced methane. A series of three controlled release points were setup at RMOTC and over the course of six experiment days, the point source flux rates were varied from 50 LPM to 2400 LPM (liters per minute). During these releases, in situ sensors measured real-time methane concentration from field towers (downwind from the release point) and using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) to characterize spatiotemporal variability of the plume structure. Concurrent with these methane point source controlled releases, airborne sensor overflights were conducted using three aircraft. The NASA Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) participated with a payload consisting of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and an in situ methane sensor. Two imaging spectrometers provided assessment of optical and thermal infrared detection of methane plumes. The AVIRIS-next generation (AVIRIS-ng) sensor has been demonstrated for detection of atmospheric methane in the short wave infrared region, specifically using the absorption features at ~2.3 μm. Detection of methane in the thermal infrared region was evaluated by flying the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES), retrievals which interrogate spectral features in the 7.5 to 8.5 μm region. Here we discuss preliminary results from the JPL activities during the RMOTC controlled release experiment, including capabilities of airborne sensors for total columnar atmospheric methane detection and comparison to results from ground measurements and dispersion models. Potential application areas for these remote sensing technologies include assessment of anthropogenic and natural methane sources over wide spatial scales that represent significant unconstrained factors to the global methane budget.

  15. On the Quality of Point-Clouds Derived from Sfm-Photogrammetry Applied to UAS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, P.; James, T.

    2014-12-01

    Structure from Motion photogrammetry (SfM-photogrammetry) recently appeared in environmental sciences as an impressive tool allowing for the creation of topographic data from unstructured imagery. Several authors have tested the performance of SfM-photogrammetry vs that of TLS or dGPS. Whilst the initial results were very promising, there is currently a growing awareness that systematic deformations occur in DEMs and point-clouds derived from SfM-photogrammetry. Notably, some authors have identified a systematic doming manifest as an increasing error vs distance to the model centre. Simulation studies have confirmed that this error is due to errors in the calibration of camera distortions. This work aims to further investigate these effects in the presence of real data. We start with a dataset of 220 images acquired from a sUAS. After obtaining an initial self-calibration of the camera lens with Agisoft Photoscan, our method consists in applying systematic perturbations to 2 key lens parameters: Focal length and the k1 distortion parameter. For each perturbation, a point-cloud was produced and compared to LiDAR data. After deriving the mean and standard deviation of the error residuals (ɛ), a 2nd order polynomial surface was fitted to the errors point-cloud and the peak ɛ defined as the mathematical extrema of this surface. The results are presented in figure 1. This figure shows that lens perturbations can induce a range of errors with systematic behaviours. Peak ɛ is primarily controlled by K1 with a secondary control exerted by the focal length. These results allow us to state that: To limit the peak ɛ to 10cm, the K1 parameter must be calibrated to within 0.00025 and the focal length to within 2.5 pixels (≈10 µm). This level of calibration accuracy can only be achieved with proper design of image acquisition and control network geometry. Our main point is therefore that SfM is not a bypass to a rigorous and well-informed photogrammetric approach. Users of SfM-photogrammetry will still require basic training and knowledge in the fundamentals of photogrammetry. This is especially true for applications where very small topographic changes need to be detected or where gradient-sensitive processes need to be modelled.

  16. Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae cells: transcriptomic characterization of a novel host-symbiont interaction.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Grant L; Ren, Xiaoxia; Ramirez, Jose L; Sakamoto, Joyce M; Bailey, Jason A; Jedlicka, Anne E; Rasgon, Jason L

    2011-02-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is being investigated as a potential control agent in several important vector insect species. Recent studies have shown that Wolbachia can protect the insect host against a wide variety of pathogens, resulting in reduced transmission of parasites and viruses. It has been proposed that compromised vector competence of Wolbachia-infected insects is due to up-regulation of the host innate immune system or metabolic competition. Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit human malaria parasites, have never been found to harbor Wolbachia in nature. While transient somatic infections can be established in Anopheles, no stable artificially-transinfected Anopheles line has been developed despite numerous attempts. However, cultured Anopheles cells can be stably infected with multiple Wolbachia strains such as wAlbB from Aedes albopictus, wRi from Drosophila simulans and wMelPop from Drosophila melanogaster. Infected cell lines provide an amenable system to investigate Wolbachia-Anopheles interactions in the absence of an infected mosquito strain. We used Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to investigate the effect of wAlbB and wRi infection on the transcriptome of cultured Anopheles Sua5B cells, and for a subset of genes used quantitative PCR to validate results in somatically-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Wolbachia infection had a dramatic strain-specific effect on gene expression in this cell line, with almost 700 genes in total regulated representing a diverse array of functional classes. Very strikingly, infection resulted in a significant down-regulation of many immune, stress and detoxification-related transcripts. This is in stark contrast to the induction of immune genes observed in other insect hosts. We also identified genes that may be potentially involved in Wolbachia-induced reproductive and pathogenic phenotypes. Somatically-infected mosquitoes had similar responses to cultured cells. The data show that Wolbachia has a profound and unique effect on Anopheles gene expression in cultured cells, and has important implications for mechanistic understanding of Wolbachia-induced phenotypes and potential novel strategies to control malaria. PMID:21379333

  17. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred approach to learning.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2006-03-01

    Pre-prepared concept maps that organise knowledge in a non-linear fashion appeal to a variety of cognitive learning styles and may thus represent an educational tool that supports 'teaching to all types'. However, another central cognitive factor, learning approach, may have a bearing on student take-up of this learning resource. Student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were therefore examined in relation to the principal learning orientations according to Duff's 30-item revised approaches to study inventory (RASI). Approximately one half of students (49.6 +/- 4.5%) reported pre-prepared concept maps to be useful to their learning (n = 121). When preferred learning approach was examined, derived from the highest RASI score per individual and excluding ties, 31.9 +/- 4.3%, 29.3 +/- 4.2% and 38.8 +/- 4.5% of students demonstrated a preference for the deep approach (DA), strategic approach (STA) and surface approach (SUA), respectively (P > 0.05, chi2 goodness-of-fit test, n = 116). There was a weak but statistically significant association between preferred learning approach identified by Duff's 30-item RASI and the self-reported usefulness of concept maps (P < 0.05, chi2 test of independence; Cramer's V = 0.235; lambda = 0.193). In contrast, gender was not significantly associated with attitude to concept maps in this student cohort. A preliminary analysis of standardised residuals based on observed and expected frequencies revealed that the greatest contributions to this significant association were: a positive influence of DA and a negative influence of STA, respectively, on attitude to concept maps. These data now indicate a contribution of the principal learning orientations vis-à-vis student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps when employed alongside more traditional teaching/learning activities in medical and biomedical science education, and may further suggest a role for concept maps in the support of deep learning. PMID:16707287

  18. Controls of dust emission fluxes and wind erosion threshold on a wet playa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggs, G.; King, J.; Thomas, D. S.; Washington, R.

    2012-12-01

    The control of dust emissions from crusted surfaces is both highly variable and difficult to measure directly. Seasonal changes in moisture availability, temperature, evaporation, surface roughness, and sediment supply result in a highly complex surface condition that remains to be fully described in the context of wind erosion potential. A highly intensive project on Sua Pan, Botswana using the PI-SWERL (portable wind tunnel) combined with surface measurements of crust and soil properties has led to a new understanding of the controls on wind erosion from these surfaces. The PI-SWERL is a highly portable wind tunnel that applies a wind shear to the surface using a motor-controlled rotating annular blade and measures resulting dust emissions with a DustTrak dust monitor. We undertook a sequence of tests with the PI-SWERL to obtain both the wind erosion threshold (using a slowly increasing shear velocity) and a dust emission flux (using a constant shear velocity) across a 12 km by 12 km grid across the pan surface. A total of just under 1000 wind tunnel tests and 2000 correlated measurements of a variety of surface properties including crust thickness, surface and subsurface soil moisture, shearing strength (shear vane), normal stress resistance (penetrometer), and surface roughness were conducted in August 2011. These results show that wind erosion potential is best described by measurements of normal stress resistance rather than shearing strength at low dust emission fluxes, but despite their frequent use in wind erosion studies of crusted surfaces neither metric provided a good explanation of higher dust emission fluxes. Surface soil moisture explained the most variation in both dust emissions and wind erosion threshold although much variation remains unexplained. Our results suggested that combining measurements of surface roughness, soil moisture, and crust thickness provided a reasonable explanation of wind erosion potential on the salt pan surface. As pan surfaces can exhibit a range of aerodynamic roughness lengths over three orders of magnitude the small-scale partition of wind stress could be considered. Surface soil moisture also had a very large range in which a relatively sharp threshold was found to increase dust emissions when combined with other surface factors. Although the role of surface moisture in dust emissions is understood it remains a very difficult (yet critical) parameter to measure and a call for more precise estimations of this metric is highly encouraged.

  19. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim como os respectivos períodos encontrados (1h20min e 4h48min). No caso do FO Aqr, ficou evidente, também, a modulação decorrente da rotação da anã branca receptora (21min). O erro estimado é de 0,01 magnitude. Propomos uma maior utilização de telescópios de pequeno porte, como suporte ao ensino (médio e superior) em cidades com poluição luminosa. Escolas e Planetários seriam ambientes propícios para a localização do telescópio. Os critérios adotados na escolha dos objetos e o método observacional empregado são também apresentados.

  20. Crystal Structure of Human Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 9

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, S.; Su, M; Seetharaman, J; Huang, Y; Chen, C; Maglaqui, M; Janjua, H; Montelione, G; Tong, L; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    As a step towards better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) (www.nesg.org) has constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well-known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as hubs or bottlenecks in the HCPIN (http://nmr.cabm.rutgers.edu/hcpin). NESG has selected more than 1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long-range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes, in the context of their interaction networks. Human retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9) is one of the HCPIN proteins targeted by NESG. RBBP9 was initially identified as the product of a new gene, Bog (for B5T over-expressed gene), in several transformed rat liver epithelial cell lines resistant to the growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-1 as well as in primary human liver tumors. RBBP9 contains the retinoblastoma (Rb) binding motif LxCxE in its sequence, and was shown to interact with Rb by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Mutation of the Leu residue in this motif to Gln blocked the binding to Rb. RBBP9 can displace E2F1 from E2F1-Rb complexes, and over expression of RBBP9 overcomes TGF-1 induced growth arrest and results in transformation of rat liver epithelial cells leading to hepatoblastoma-like tumors in nude mice. RBBP9 may also play a role in cellular responses to chronic low dose radiation. A close homolog of RBBP9, sharing 93% amino acid sequence identity and also known as RBBP10, interacts with a protein with sua5-yciO-yrdC domains.

  1. A Prospective Follow-Up of Adipocytokines in Cohort Patients With Gout: Association With Metabolic Syndrome But Not With Clinical Inflammatory Findings: Strobe-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Sergio; Rivera-Bahena, Carolina Bustos; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of leptin (Lep) and adiponectin (AdipoQ) in patients with gout and its relationship with joint inflammatory data and/or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables, during 1 year follow-up.Forty-one patients (40 males) with gout diagnosis, attending for the first time to a rheumatology department, were included. Evaluations were performed baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Variables included the following: demographic, clinical and laboratory data related to gout and associated diseases. Lep and AdipoQ determinations by the ELISA method were performed in frozen serum from each visit. The pharmacological and no-pharmacological treatment for gout and associated diseases was individualized for each patient according to published guidelines. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher test, x, ANOVA, Cochran Q, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests, as well as linear regression.In the baseline evaluation, 29.2% had MetS (hypertriglyceridemia 66%, hypertension 44% and obesity 37%); patients with MetS had higher C reactive protein (CRP) levels [34.1 ± 28.6 vs. 12.2 ± 11.2 mg/dL, P = 0.033]. Although not significant, also had higher Lep and lower AdipoQ levels (3.2 ± 3.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL, P = 0.142 and 40.5 ± 26.8 vs. 38.0 ± 24.9 ng/mL, P = 0.877, respectively). During follow-up, our patients had significant improvement in serum uric acid (sUA) levels and variables evaluating pain and joint swelling (P ? 0.05). Metabolic abnormalities tended to persist or even worsen during the monitoring period: significant increase in total cholesterol (P = 0.004), tendency to higher triglycerides (P = 0.883) and slight improvement in glycaemia (P = 0.052). Lep values increased significantly during follow-up (P = 0.001) while AdipoQ levels diminished slightly (P = 0.317). Neither Lep nor AdipoQ values showed important correlation (r > 0.5) with metabolic variables or joint swelling.This study suggests that in patients with gout, concentrations of Lep and AdipoQ are more in line with the metabolic state than with clinical disease activity. PMID:26131838

  2. Internal boundary layer devleopment over a salt pan: Measured and modelled dust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J.; Wiggs, G.; Haustein, K.; Eckardt, F. D.; Thomas, D. S. G.; Washington, R.

    2014-12-01

    A key component of a dust emission scheme is the threshold for sediment transport, which is a function of soil size distribution, soil moisture, air and soil particle density, and surface roughness. For a particular region or landform that is not vegetated the variable that controls the transport threshold the most is soil moisture. This is because it is assumed that the other components vary little (air and soil particle densities) or are kept constant (soil size distribution and surface roughness). This puts the emphasis very heavily on soil moisture and wind stress as the key drivers of dust emission for specific landforms and dust emission schemes. Dust emission measurements were undertaken in 2011 on Sua Pan in Botswana, a large, flat, unvegetated salt pan, as part of the Dust Observation for Models (DO4 Models) campaign. The observations consisted of 11 climate stations placed within a 144 km2. Out of the measured and calculated erodibility parameters responsible for predicting transport threshold within current schemes, surface soil moisture and aerodynamic roughness length varied the most over the duration of the project and spatially across the pan. In 2011, the pan was drying from extensive flooding and rainfall in the previous wet season. Within the dry winter season months of June through September the dominantly eastern winds dried the pan developing a directional increase in aerodynamic roughness length over time. This cumulated in a region of maximum roughness length with the highest potential for dust emissions. In some cases, the aerodynamic roughness length of the bare soil increased by three orders of magnitude within the three month period. This increase in roughness almost doubles the modelled threshold shear velocity required for this surface to be emissive. The temporal and spatial variability of the calculated transport threshold is explored with observed data and compared with the modelled transport threshold for this region for the campaign duration. These results suggest that for dry saline lakes and other evaporite and unvegetated emissive surfaces the surface roughness changes dramatically from season to season and can have a direct effect on the soil surface emissivity. In conclusion, more research is needed to resolve the variation in spatial and temporal dust production within these landform.

  3. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  4. Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open question in geomagnetism whether induction by the slowly changing main field in conductive structures in the lithosphere is a measurable part of what is observed as secular variation at and above the Earth's surface. In our study we test different time-scale periods and different order polynomials to create the most appropriate prediction model and to estimate our results. We find that linear models which are used to determine the annual declination variation in cartography provide enough accurate information for the declination map's users.

  5. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (<1%) observed could not explain observational concentrations. Therefore heterogeneous or gaseous formation of NDMA with partitioning to droplet must be the source of aqueous NDMA. Box-model calculations tended to demonstrate a predominance of a gas phase formation mechanism followed by partitioning into the cloud droplets. The calculations were consistent with field measurements of gaseous and aqueous NDMA concentrations. Measurements and model calculations showed that while NDMA is eventually photolyzed, it might persist in the atmosphere for hours.

  6. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  7. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de novos métodos pedagógicos.

  8. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em meados do século passado. Se analisa a situação atual dessa disciplina, seus problemas, e algumas medidas para fortalecer seu desenvolvimento.

  9. A Prospective Follow-Up of Adipocytokines in Cohort Patients With Gout: Association With Metabolic Syndrome But Not With Clinical Inflammatory Findings

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Sergio; Rivera-Bahena, Carolina Bustos; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the levels of leptin (Lep) and adiponectin (AdipoQ) in patients with gout and its relationship with joint inflammatory data and/or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables, during 1 year follow-up. Forty-one patients (40 males) with gout diagnosis, attending for the first time to a rheumatology department, were included. Evaluations were performed baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Variables included the following: demographic, clinical and laboratory data related to gout and associated diseases. Lep and AdipoQ determinations by the ELISA method were performed in frozen serum from each visit. The pharmacological and no-pharmacological treatment for gout and associated diseases was individualized for each patient according to published guidelines. Statistical analysis included Mann–Whitney U test, Fisher test, x2, ANOVA, Cochran Q, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests, as well as linear regression. In the baseline evaluation, 29.2% had MetS (hypertriglyceridemia 66%, hypertension 44% and obesity 37%); patients with MetS had higher C reactive protein (CRP) levels [34.1 ± 28.6 vs. 12.2 ± 11.2 mg/dL, P = 0.033]. Although not significant, also had higher Lep and lower AdipoQ levels (3.2 ± 3.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL, P = 0.142 and 40.5 ± 26.8 vs. 38.0 ± 24.9 ng/mL, P = 0.877, respectively). During follow-up, our patients had significant improvement in serum uric acid (sUA) levels and variables evaluating pain and joint swelling (P ≤ 0.05). Metabolic abnormalities tended to persist or even worsen during the monitoring period: significant increase in total cholesterol (P = 0.004), tendency to higher triglycerides (P = 0.883) and slight improvement in glycaemia (P = 0.052). Lep values increased significantly during follow-up (P = 0.001) while AdipoQ levels diminished slightly (P = 0.317). Neither Lep nor AdipoQ values showed important correlation (r > 0.5) with metabolic variables or joint swelling. This study suggests that in patients with gout, concentrations of Lep and AdipoQ are more in line with the metabolic state than with clinical disease activity. PMID:26131838

  10. Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS–III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para evaluar si la relación entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, así como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (razón de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer análisis arrojó que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traumáticos reportados, la violación sexual tuvo una correlación más alta con el TEPT que los demás hechos traumáticos. Las mujeres tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, después de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo análisis evidenció que los que habían sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiquiátrico en comparación con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. También se encontró que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron más probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de pánico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del número de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demográficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto histórico-cultural y una economía diferente a otros países en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiología del TEPT, el presente estudio reflejó tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes países. También estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traumáticos en la infancia (y no en la adultez) pueden estar relacionados con la ocurrencia de trastornos psiquiátricos específicos. PMID:21113425

  11. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation résultante fait apparaître des rognons, des pentes qui s'évasent, des roches en équilibre, des inselbergs et des plaines de corrosion d'extension régionale. La migration des sels dissous des eaux souterraines crée des croûtes de compositions variées, qui constituent des paysages particuliers. (3) Les processus d'érosion des sols et des roches par les eaux souterraines comprennent les phénomènes suivants: la chenalisation, l'érosion par suintement, le sapement, qui tous sont des agents notables du recul des versants et d'érosion régressive vers l'amont. Les seuils et les limites sont importants dans de nombreuses actions chimiques et mécaniques des eaux souterraines. Une approche morphométrique quantitative des formes et des processus liés aux eaux souterraines est donnée en exemple à partir d'études choisies dans les terrains carbonatés et détritiques d'origine aussi bien ancienne que récente. Resumen Las aguas subterráneas tienen una importancia fundamental en la evolución de los paisajes geomorfológicos. En este artículo se consideran tres grandes categorías de procesos ligados al agua subterránea y sus correspondientes paisajes resultantes: (1) La disolución crea distintas geometrías kársticas, fundamentalmente en rocas carbonatadas, como respuesta a las condiciones de recarga, condicionantes geológicos, litologías y al propio flujo de agua subterránea. La velocidad de denudación y formación de cavernas se puede estimar a partir de los parámetros cinéticos e hidráulicos. (2) La erosión producida por las aguas subterráneas genera regolitas de alteración residual en los frentes de erosión, con los subsiguientes afloramientos de rocas inalteradas, inselbergs, rocas oscilantes o llanuras de corrosión de carácter regional. La recolocación de las sales disueltas crea costras superficiales de diferente composición. (3) La erosión de rocas y suelos por procesos ligados al agua subterránea, como filtración y arrastre de finos da lugar a un movimiento de retroceso de taludes y barrancos. La existencia de umbrales y límites de actuación es muy importante en muchas acciones químicas y mecánicas. Una metodología para el estudio de relieves y procesos, basada en aspectos cuantitativos y morfométricos se ejemplifica mediante estudios realizados en rocas carbonatadas y en terrenos clásticos de diferentes edades.

  12. Eco-hydrology: Groundwater flow and site factors in plant ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klijn, Frans; Witte, Jan-Philip M.

    Résumé En écologie végétale, le site est un concept central. Un site, c'est l'endroit où une espèce végétale ou une communauté de plantes se développe le site assure un ensemble de conditions dans lesquelles elles vivent. Dans un matériau homogène à l'origine, l'écoulement gravitaire d'une nappe influence les conditions du site par l'intermédiaire de la distribution spatiale des nutriments et d'autres composés chimiques associés. Les remontées d'eau peuvent tout spécialement produire et maintenir les conditions du site essentielles pour différentes espèces et communautés de plantes relativement rares. Les écologues ont porté une attention accrue à ces remontées d'eau, en sorte qu'une coopération avec les hydrologues en a résulté, avec l'émergence d'une discipline propre, l'éco-hydrologie, à la limite des deux domaines scientifiques et liée au concept de site. Aux Pays-Bas, une classification des types d'eau, basée sur l'histoire de l'eau souterraine à proximité de la surface, a été mise en oeuvre pour constituer une base nationale de données géographiques sur les remontées d'eau d'intérêt écologique. Des analyses des correspondances des données de cette base, portant sur l'existence de certaines espèces de plantes, montrent que dans les sols sableux pauvres du Pléistocène la remontée d'eau explique très bien la présence de certaines espèces et communautés, alors que, dans les plaines fluviales et les régions de polders à sols argileux riches, l'influence de la remontée d'eau est masquée par l'importance des caractéristiques des sols. En conclusion donc, certaines espèces de plantes peuvent être utilisées comme des indicateurs de la remontée d'eau dans des diagnostiques et des levés de terrain rapides, mais à condition de prendre en permanence des précautions sur les limites de l'approche. Resumen En ecología botánica un concepto de gran importancia es el de emplazamiento, definido como el lugar que proporciona unas condiciones de vida adecuadas que permiten el crecimiento de una especie o una comunidad botánica. En un material inicialmente homogéneo, el flujo subterráneo gravífico influencia las condiciones del emplazamiento variando la distribución espacial de los nutrientes y de otros agentes químicos relevantes. En especial, el flujo ascendente puede producir y mantener una serie de condiciones que son esenciales para algunas especies y comunidades de plantas relativamente raras. La especial atención hacia este fenómeno ha dado lugar a una cooperación entre ecologistas e hidrogeólogos y a la aparición de una nueva disciplina - eco-hidrología -, en la frontera de los dos campos científicos. En Holanda, se ha usado una clasificación sencilla de tipos de agua para crear una base de datos, a nivel nacional, de lugares donde la presencia de flujos ascendentes pueda ser de interés ecológico. El análisis de correspondencias entre esta base de datos y los tipos de plantas existentes muestra que en los suelos arenosos pobres del Pleistoceno los flujos ascendentes explican la presencia de algunas especies y comunidades de plantas. Por el contrario, en las llanuras fluviales y pólders, con suelos más arcillosos, la influencia de estos flujos es despreciable frente a la relativa a las propias características de los suelos. Se concluye que las especies botánicas se pueden usar como indicadores de la presencia de flujo ascendente sólo en campañas preliminares, pero que el método presenta grandes limitaciones para su extensión a casos generales.

  13. Managing for sustainability in an arid climate: lessons learned from 20 years of groundwater management in Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Katharine L.; Holway, James M.

    Substantial progress has been made within central Arizona in moving towards a more sustainable water future, particularly in transitioning the urban demand from a primarily nonrenewable groundwater-based supply to increasing dependence on the Colorado River, Salt River and effluent. Management efforts include a wide range of regulatory and voluntary programs which have had mixed success. The Department of Water Resources has learned a number of key lessons throughout the years, and this paper attempts to establish the water management context and identify those lessons for the benefit of others who may want to evaluate alternative approaches to groundwater management. Themes to be discussed include evaluating water management approaches in a public policy context, the effectiveness of alternative management approaches and the relative merits of regulatory vs. nonregulatory efforts, and the importance of high-quality data in making management decisions. De nets progrès ont été faits dans le centre de l'Arizona pour aller vers une gestion plus durable de l'eau, en particulier en reportant la demande urbaine d'une alimentation basée sur l'eau souterraine primitivement non renouvelable sur une dépendance croissante des rivières Colorado et Salt et des effluents. Les efforts de gestion portent sur une large gamme de programmes de réglementation et d'actions volontaires qui ont réussi. Le Département des Ressources en Eau a appris un certain nombre de leçons clés au cours des années cet article tente d'établir le contexte de gestion de l'eau et d'identifier ces leçons pour le bénéfice de ceux qui cherchent à évaluer des approches alternatives de gestion de l'eau souterraine. Les thèmes à discuter portent sur l'évaluation des approches de gestion de l'eau dans un contexte de politique publique, l'efficacité d'approches alternatives de gestion et les mérites relatifs d'efforts de réglementation par rapport à une absence de réglementation, et l'importance de données de haute qualité dans la prise de décisions de gestion. Resumen Se ha logrado un progreso substancial en el centro de Arizona para conseguir un futuro más sustentable del agua, particularmente al trasladar la demanda urbana desde un suministro basado principalmente en aguas subterráneas no renovables hacia una mayor dependencia de las aguas superficiales de los ríos Colorado y Salado y de los efluentes de aguas depuradas. Los esfuerzos de gestión incluyen un amplio rango de programas legales y voluntarios que han tenido un éxito combinado. El Departamento de Recursos Hídricos ha aprendido diversas lecciones clave a lo largo de los años, y este artículo intenta establecer el contexto de la gestión del agua e identificar lo averiguado para beneficio de terceros que quieran evaluar enfoques alternativos para gestionar las aguas subterráneas. Entre los temas tratados, destaca la evaluación de los enfoques de gestión del agua en un contexto político público, la efectividad de enfoques alternativos de gestión y los méritos relativos de los esfuerzos regulativos y no regulativos, y la importancia de los datos de alta calidad para la toma de decisiones de gestión. Groundwater use in many areas of Arizona greatly exceeds the natural replenishment of the aquifer, so although a portion of the groundwater use is renewable, the majority is not.

  14. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l'imperméable, dans le but d'évaluer l'importance relative des processus d'alimentation des aquifères inférieurs. À partir d'une vaste base de données constituée par les mesures faites dans les puits et contenant des informations à la fois certaines et incertaines, la méthode de simulation par indicateur séquentiel est utilisée pour créer des cartes d'épaisseur de l'imperméable et de probabilité d'existence des fenêtres. Ces cartes peuvent être utilisées pour mettre en évidence les aquifères de chenaux et pour identifier les zones potentielles de recharge des aquifères inférieurs. Les conductivités hydrauliques sont modélisées à partir de données clairsemées en supposant que leur gamme de corrélation est beaucoup plus faible que le pas de la grille. La drainance à l'échelle des blocs est obtenue par accroissement du niveau d'échelle des valeurs nodales basé sur les champs de conductivité simulée et des épaisseurs. À partir de l'hypothèse d'écoulement dans l'aquifère, l'accroissement d'échelle est réalisé en faisant une moyenne arithmétique spatiale. Des histogrammes et des cartes de drainance avec accroissement d'échelle montrent que les hétérogénéités associées aux fenêtres dans l'imperméable constituent l'effet le plus important dans l'organisation des écoulements souterrains régionaux. Resumen. El Till de Newmarket forma un acuitardo de extensión regional que separa dos sistemas acuíferos principales en la zona de Greater Toronto (Canadá). El till está horadado, y a veces completamente erosionado, por una red de canales rellenos de arena y grava. Estos constituyen acuíferos productivos y, localmente, conexiones de alta permeabilidad entre sistemas acuíferos. El goteo a través del till puede ser fundamental en ciertos lugares. Este estudio investiga la variabilidad espacial del goteo desde el acuitardo con el fin de establecer la importancia relativa de los procesos de recarga hacia los acuíferos inferiores. Se ha utilizado el método de la Simulación Indicadora Secuencial, soportado por una gran base de datos que contiene registros de sondeos e incluye información blanda y dura, para generar mapas de espesor del acuitardo y mapas de probabilidad de discontinuidades laterales en el acuitardo. Estos resultados se pueden emplear para identificar canales y las zonas de recarga potencial a los acuíferos inferiores. Se han modelado las conductividades a partir de datos dispersos, suponiendo que la distancia de correlación es mucho menor que el espaciado de la malla. Se han calculado valores de goteo a escala de bloque por medio del escalado de los valores nodales, basándose en los campos simulados de conductividad y espesor. El escalado se calcula mediante un promedio aritmético espacial, bajo la hipótesis de "flujo en el acuífero". Los histogramas y mapas de goteos escalados muestran que las heterogeneidades asociadas a las discontinuidades en el acuitardo producen el efecto más notable en la distribución regional del flujo de aguas subterráneas.

  15. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes personnelles envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA avec leur perception des normes sociales liées aux personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Nous avons sélectionné au hasard trois hôpitaux provinciaux, quatre hôpitaux de villelpréfecture, dix hôpitaux ruraux, 18 centres hospitaliers de cantons et 54 cliniques de village au Yunnan en Chine. Les médecins et les infirmiéres étaient échantillonés au hasard de maniére proportionnelle au ratio médecin-infirmiére de chaque hôpital ou clinique. Les techniciens de laboratoire ont été suréchantillionnés afin d’inclure une représentation adéquate dans l’analyse. Un total de 1, 101 fournisseurs de soins ont participé à un sondage volontaire et anonyme oú les caractéristiques démographiques, l’attítude individuelle et les normes sociales perçues envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA, l’intention de discrimination au travail, l’attitude générale de préjugé et les connaissances sur le VIH/SIDA ont été mesurées. Une majorité de l’échantillon a démontré une similarité entre leurs opinions personnelles et qu’ils pensaient que la plupart des gens dans la société croyaient. Des régressions logistiques multiples ont indiqué que les participants qui étaient plus jeunes ou ceux qui ont rapporté un contact personnel avec les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA ont été significativement plus enclines á rapporter des attitudes personnelles envers la population qui étaient plus libérales que leurs normes sociales perçues. Avoir une attitude personnelle plus libérale envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SID A que les normes sociales perçues était significativement et négativement lié au niveau de l’intention de discrimination au travail, à la discrimination perçue au niveau interpersonnel et au niveau de l’attitude générale de préjugé envers les personnes atteintes du VIH/SIDA. Les résultats soulignent l’importance de comprendre les normes sociales et les attitudes personnelles dans l’étude de la stigmatisation lié au VIH et pr?nent l’incorporation de l’existence du capital humain dans les futurs programmes de réduction de la stigmatisation du VIH. En este estudio se examinó el estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA entre proveedores de servicios chinos mediante la comparación de sus actitudes hacia las personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA con su precepción de las normas sociales relacionadas a personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA. Se seleccionaron al azar tres hospitales provinciales, cuatro de la ciudadlhospitales de la prefectura, diez hospitales del condado, 18 clinicas de salud municipales, y 54 clinicas de la aldea de Yunnan, China. Los médicos y las enfermeras fueron incluidos en la muestra de manera aleatoria y considerando la relación enfermera-médico de cada hospital o clínica. Una muestra grande de técnicos de laboratorio fue incluida en el estudio con el fin de garantizar su adecuada representación en los análisis. Un total de 1,101 proveedores de servicios participaron de manera voluntaria en una encuesta anónima, en la cual se evaluaron las caracteristicas demográficas, las actitudes individuales, asi como la percepción de las normas sociales hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, la intención de discriminación laboral, las actitudes globales de prejuicio y los conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA. La mayor parte de la muestra presentó similitudes entre sus opiniones personales y lo que ellos pensaban, eran las creencias de la mayoria de las personas de su sociedad. En una regresión logistica multiple se pudo observar que los participantes más jóvenes o que indicaron un contacto personal con personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, mostraron de manera más significativa respecto de esta población actitudes personales mucho más liberales que las normas sociales percibidas. El presentar una actitud personal más liberal que las normas sociales percibidas, hacia personas que viven con el VIH/SIDA, estaba significativa y negativamente relacionado con el nivel de intención de discriminación laboral, la percepción de discriminación a nivel interpersonal y el nivel general del actitudes prejuiciosas hacia estas personas. Los resultados remarcan la importancia de la comprensión de las normas sociales y de las actítudes personales en el estudio del estigma relacionado con el VIH y propone la incorporación del capital humano existente en programas futuros de reducciôn del estigma hacia el VIH. PMID:20090857

  16. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el exilio: el uso de productos vegetales, animales y minerales con fines de perfumería, cosmética y curativos de la piel entre los refugiados saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Durante la última década ha habido un creciente interés en los estudios etnobiológicos de los conocimientos y prácticas de las personas que migran. Dentro de esta tendencia, los estudiosos han prestado relativamente menor atención a las personas desplazadas y a los refugiados: a la pérdida, el mantenimiento y la adaptación de sus conocimientos etnobiológicos, y su importancia para el bienestar de los refugiados. Este estudio se centra en los cosméticos y remedios para curar problemas de la piel tradicionalmente utilizados por los refugiados saharauis en los campamentos de desplazados al sudoeste de Argelia. Métodos Los métodos de investigación que se utilizaron son: una encuesta estructurada con 37 familias de refugiados, entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 77 refugiados, 24 entrevistas retrospectivas con refugiados e informantes conocedores, y una colección de muestra de las plantas y productos citados. Resultados Se registró el uso de 55 especies vegetales, nueve especies animales, y seis productos minerales utilizados en tres principales categorías de usos: 1) Recursos contra los problemas de salud característicos del entorno desértico donde una vez vivieron los saharauis como nómadas y donde ahora viven como refugiados (por ejemplo problemas en los ojos); 2) Remedios para heridas que reflejan la historia reciente de guerra de guerrilla de los nómadas saharauis; y 3) Cosméticos y productos utilizados para el cuidado del cuerpo, decoración y perfumes (por ejemplo, atención al cabello, limpieza de dientes, uso del henna) y como aromatizantes del aire al interior de las tiendas, que son ampliamente utilizados en la vida y las prácticas sociales cotidianas de los refugiados. Conclusiones En la discusión, se analizan los cambios que se han producido en los patrones de uso y en la adquisición de estos productos durante el exilio. Llegamos a la conclusión de que los refugiados no son recipientes pasivos de la ayuda nacional e internacional, sino más bien luchan para mantener y recuperar sus prácticas tradicionales etnobiológicas en el exilio. Finalmente, sugerimos nuevas direcciones para la investigación de las prácticas y los conocimientos etnobiológicos de las poblaciones desplazadas. PMID:23270531

  17. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    This work analyses results obtained in a solar physics course for high school students promoted at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory of the University of São Paulo (USP). The course was elaborated by the authors with the intention of investigating student's concepts about the Sun, teaching topics of modern physics related to the Sun and providing students with knowledge about our star as well. The methodology of data gathering consisted of audio and video records of classes and of semi-structured interviews, and analysis of answers to written questionnaires. The results showed that most high school students conceived the Sun as made of fire, while sunspots were thought to be holes in the Sun. Even though some students did know that a spectrum is formed using a prism or diffraction grating, most of them ignored the nature of the observed spectral lines. Through the course, this topic was developed by means of a practical approach with solar and lamp spectra observations. The results obtained in the course point to the importance of science centers as partners in formal education. In this specific case, the Solar Room at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory is as a favorable environment for teaching modern physics in high school. Este artículo analiza los resultados obtenidos en un curso sobre la física solar, auspiciado por el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel de la USP para estudiantes de las escuelas secundarias. El curso fue diseñado por los autores con la intención de investigar las concepciones sobre el sol, enseñar temas relacionados con la física moderna del Sol y conocimientos generales sobre el astro rey. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos consistió en grabar, en audio y video, las clases, las entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las respuestas a los cuestionarios escritos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los participantes conciben el Sol como constituido por fuego y las manchas solares en la superficie solar como agujeros. Aunque algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  18. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de estudios de las enfermedades del ganado en pueblos de pastores nómadas porque pueden revelar fenómenos biológicos aún desconocidos y merecen ser investigados. PMID:23305273

  19. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero según el positivismo francés, y el segundo de acuerdo al positivismo alemán. También señalaremos la distinta actitud de ambos observatorios frente a la educación. En esta última dimensión veremos cómo las ideas positivistas tuvieron gran importancia en la formación de maestros impartida en las Escuelas Normales. Estableceremos también la relevante influencia del contexto socio-histórico en el desarrollo de la astronomía, y, a su vez, apreciaremos que esta última fue un actor social fundamental en la Historia Argentina. Domingo F. Sarmiento acreditava que a astronomia de Copérnico fosse uma das disciplinas científicas fundamentais para a formação de um cidadão "moderno". Neste trabalho estudaremos astronomia a partir de duas perspectivas: a científica e a educacional Nosso estudo será desenvolvido para a Argentina no século XIX, a partir da iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia, em 1821, que estabeleceu um observatório astronômico em Buenos Aires, até as primeiras atividades dos observatórios de Córdoba e La Plata. Em ambas as perspectivas, científica e educativa, vamos analisar a influência das ideias positivistas. Discutiremos como existiram diferenças epistemológicas entre eles, o Observatório de Córdoba orientado de acordo com o positivismo francês, e La Plata, de acordo com o positivismo alemão. Ambos os observatórios tinha uma atitude diferente em relação à educação. As ideias positivistas foram muito importantes para treinar professores do ensino primário na Argentina. Nós iremos enfatizar a importante influência do contexto sócio-histórico na astronomia, já que esta ciência foi um importante ator social na história da Argentina.

  20. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la partie sud du bassin de la rivière Augustus, exemple de bassin en roches altérées. Les données concernant le site ont mis en évidence la présence simultanée d'aquifères poreux dans le profil d'altération et d'aquifères de roches fracturées dans le socle. Des campagnes de géophysique aéroportée et d'autres données de forages ont identifié de très nombreux dykes de dolérite traversant le site. Des veines de quartz fracturées ont été trouvées aux marges de ces dykes de dolérite. Des mesures détaillées de niveau des nappes et des estimations des effets barométriques indiquent que ces dykes de dolérite et les veines de quartz fracturées affectent les directions d'écoulement souterrain, favorisant une forte connexion hydraulique entre tous ces aquifères, et influençant également les mécanismes de recharge. La signification hydrogéologique des dykes de dolérite et des veines de quartz fracturées a été analysée en combinant des mesures à haute fréquence du niveau des nappes (toutes les 30 min), de la pluie (toutes les 5 min) et des variations de la pression barométrique (toutes les 30 min). Un modèle conceptuel a été établi pour décrire les différents phénomènes hydrogéologiques de la région étudiée. Ce modèle indique que les veines de quartz aux marges des dykes de dolérite sont une importante composante de l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées. Entender la hidrogeología de cuencas con rocas meteorizadas es esencial para gestionar diversos problemas relacionados con el incremento de salinidad en muchas ciudades de Australia Occidental. Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización de varios emplazamientos con el fin de mejorar el conocimiento general de la hidrogeología en la zona sur de la cuenca del Río Augustus, que sirve como ejemplo de cuenca en rocas meteorizadas. Los datos de campo resaltan la presencia tanto de medios acuíferos porosos dentro del perfil meteorizado como de acuíferos en rocas fracturadas dentro de la roca fresca. Los registros geofísicos aéreos y datos de las perforaciones han identificado un gran número de diques de dolerita que intersectan el emplazamiento. Se ha hallado venas de cuarzo fracturado a lo largo de los márgenes de los diques de dolerita. Medidas detalladas del nivel piezométrico y estimaciones de la eficiencia barométrica indican que los diques de dolerita y las venas de cuarzo fracturado afectan las direcciones del flujo de las aguas subterráneas, originando una fuerte conexión hidráulica entre todos los acuíferos e influenciando también a los mecanismos de recarga. Se ha establecido la importancia hidrogeológica de los diques de dolerita y de las venas de cuarzo fracturado mediante una combinación de medidas muy frecuentes del nivel piezométrico (cada 30 min), de la precipitación (cada 5 min) y de las fluctuaciones de la presión barométrica (cada 30 min). Se ha desarrollado un modelo conceptual para describir varias características hidrogeológicas del área de estudio. El modelo indica que las venas de cuarzo fracturado en los márgenes de los diques de dolerita constituyen un componente importante de la hidrogeología de cuencas con rocas meteorizadas.

  1. Caracterización espectroscópica de hielos de interés atmosférico y astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, R.

    En años recientes se ha incrementado el estudio de procesos físicos y químicos que tienen lugar en la superficie o el interior de hielos, tanto en medios astrofísicos como en la atmósfera terrestre y en otros cuerpos del sistema solar. Se ha comprobado que las partículas heladas actúan como catalizadores de reacciones químicas, que no ocurrirían en su ausencia. En la atmósfera terrestre, es bien conocida la importancia de partículas de hidratos de ácido nítrico, formando las llamadas nubes estratosféricas polares, en los procesos de destrucción de ozono estratosférico. En hielos astrofísicos, átomos como H, C, N y O pueden adherirse o introducirse en la estructura cristalina o amorfa del hielo, y dar lugar a reacciones de formación de moléculas evitando su barrera de activación. Existen partículas heladas en el medio interestelar formando parte de las llamadas nubes moleculares densas y frías, con valores del orden de 106 átomos de H por cm3 y temperaturas entre 3 y 90 K. Alrededor de protoestrellas, pueden formarse hielos de distinta composición, polares o apolares, en las zonas de alejamiento y temperatura decreciente a partir del núcleo caliente. Por su parte, los cometas están formados por un núcleo de hielo y rocas, sobre el que se encuentran adheridas moléculas gaseosas, y una cola, formada por los gases liberados por efecto del calentamiento debido a la radiación solar incidente. En nuestro sistema solar, los polos de La Tierra y de Marte están cubiertos de hielo, así como la mayoría de los cuerpos externos. Los satélites de Júpiter han sido estudiados detalladamente, y se han encontrado en ellos, y en Tritón (satélite de Neptuno), hielos de moléculas como SON2, CO2, N2, CH4 y otros. Para la caracterización espectroscópica de estos hielos se precisan medidas en el laboratorio, aún conociendo la imposibilidad intrínseca de reproducir exactamente las condiciones en que se formaron y se encuentran en los medios astrofísicos. El montaje experimental requiere un sistema que permita alcanzar bajas presiones y temperaturas, formado usualmente por una cámara en cuyo interior se forman películas de hielo de la composición deseada, depositadas sobre un sustrato inerte. Las películas pueden ser a continuación tratadas por diversas técnicas, tales como irradiación UV, bombardeo con electrones o iones, calentamiento y enfriamiento, etc. Habitualmente todos los procesos se controlan por espectroscopía de infrarrojo. La radiación proveniente de un espectrómetro se hace incidir sobre la muestra y se extrae de la cámara mediante ventanas, y se enfoca posteriormente sobre el detector. En el laboratorio de Física Molecular del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia disponemos de un montaje experimental diseñado para el estudio de partículas de hielo similares a las formadas en las nubes estratosféricas polares de nuestra atmósfera. El montaje es similar al descrito anteriormente, excepto en lo que se refiere a las condiciones de presión y temperatura, que son menos estrictas en nuestros experimentos. La extensión de estas condiciones de trabajo a las requeridas en medios astrofísicos es una posibilidad a discutir. Por otra parte, disponemos de un método de cálculo de estructuras periódicas, basado en el programa SIESTA (acrónimo de Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations of Thousands of Atoms), que ha proporcionado excelentes resultados en lo relativo a la determinación de estructuras cristalinas y predicción de su espectro infrarrojo, en los sistemas estudiados hasta la fecha, es decir, los hidratos de ácido nítrico de interés atmosféricos. Su aplicación para el estudio de hielos de relevancia astrofísica podría ser del máximo interés.

  2. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour tester cette hypothèse, 832 étudiants collégiaux issus de six ethnies/nationalités différentes (la France, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Suisse romande et allemande, la Belgique française et néerlandaise, les Pays-Bas) ont complété un questionnaire sur les taux de sympathie et de similitude. Les résultats ont indiqué que les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique avec une autre nation représentent une menace pour l'identité de la nation ou du groupe ethnique plus petit. Les différences en taille en combinaison avec la similitude linguistique étaient associées, d'une part, avec des asymétries dans la sympathie mutuelle et, d'autre part, avec des perceptions asymétriques de similitude avec l'autre nation. Les conclusions de cette étude sont en accord avec les résultats des études antérieures et soutiennent l'importance du langage pour l'identité d'une nation. De plus, les résultats appuient l'utilité de la théorie de l'identité sociale pour comprendre les relations intergroupes et internationales. Naciones vecinas con similitudes lingüísticas pero que difieren en tamaño son frecuentemente asimétricas respecto de sus relaciones actitudinales una respecto de la otra. Los cuidadanos de naciones pequeñas tienden a ver a naciones más grandes como menos simpáticas y parecidas que viceversa. Nosotros hipotetizamos que la reacción de las naciones más pequeñas es la consequencia de una identidad amenazada debido a su menor tamaño combinada con una similitud muy grande relacionada con una parte vital de su identidad: es decir el lenguaje. Para probar esta hipótesis 832 alumnos de la escuela secundaria de seis diferentes grupos étnicos/nacionales (Francia, Alemania, Austria, regiones en Suiza en las que se habla francés y alemán, regiones en Bélgica en las que se habla francés y holandés así como los Países Bajos) completaron un cuestionario sobre gustos y similitudes. Los resultados mostraron - en alto grado - que las diferencias en el tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas con otras naciones, se asocian con la amenaza de la identidad de las naciones o grupos étnicos más pequeños. Las diferencias en tamaño en combinación con las similitudes lingüísticas estuvieron asociadas con asimetrías repecto del aprecio mutuo por un lado, así como por otro lado, con percepciones asimétricas de similitud con el otro país. Las conclusiones de este estudio son consistentes con los descubrimientos de estudios previos y recalcan la importancia del lenguaje en la identidad de una nación. Adicionalmente estos resultados soportan la Teoría de la Identidad Social como una teoría útil en la comprensión de las relaciones entre grupos así como a nivel de las relaciones internacionales. PMID:22043848

  3. Aquifer/aquitard interfaces: mixing zones that enhance biogeochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Several important biogeochemical reactions are known to occur near the interface between aquifer and aquitard sediments. These reactions include O2 reduction; denitrification; and Fe3+, SO42-, and CO2 (methanogenesis) reduction. In some settings, these reactions occur on the aquitard side of the interface as electron acceptors move from the aquifer into the electron-donor-enriched aquitard. In other settings, these reactions occur on the aquifer side of the interface as electron donors move from the aquitard into the electron-acceptor-enriched, or microorganism-enriched, aquifer. Thus, the aquifer/aquitard interface represents a mixing zone capable of supporting greater microbial activity than either hydrogeologic unit alone. The extent to which biogeochemical reactions proceed in the mixing zone and the width of the mixing zone depend on several factors, including the abundance and solubility of electron acceptors and donors on either side of the interface and the rate at which electron acceptors and donors react and move across the interface. Biogeochemical reactions near the aquifer/aquitard interface can have a substantial influence on the chemistry of water in aquifers and on the chemistry of sediments near the interface. Résumé. Il se produit au voisinage de l'interface entre les aquifères et les imperméables plusieurs réactions biogéochimiques importantes. Il s'agit des réactions de réduction de l'oxygène, de la dénitrification et de la réduction de Fe3+, SO42- et CO2 (méthanogenèse). Dans certaines situations, ces réactions se produisent du côté imperméable de l'interface, avec des accepteurs d'électrons qui vont de l'aquifère vers l'imperméable riche en donneurs d'électrons. Dans d'autres situations, ces réactions se produisent du côté aquifère de l'interface, avec des donneurs d'électrons qui se déplacent de l'imperméable vers l'aquifère riche en accepteurs d'électrons ou en microorganismes. Ainsi, l'interface aquifère/imperméable constitue une zone de mélange capable de supporter une plus grande activité microbienne que chacune des deux unités hydrogéologiques seules. L'extension des réactions biogéochimiques dans la zone de mélange et la largeur de cette zone dépendent de plusieurs facteurs, dont l'abondance et la solubilité des accepteurs et des donneurs d'électrons de chaque côté de l'interface, et le taux de réaction et de déplacement des accepteurs et des donneurs d'électrons au travers de cette interface. Les réactions biogéochimiques au voisinage de l'interface aquifère/imperméable peuvent avoir une influence appréciable sur le chimisme de l'eau des aquifères et sur celui des sédiments au niveau de l'interface. Resúmen. Es conocido que varias reacciones biogeoquímicas de importancia pueden tener lugar cerca de la interfaz entre los sedimentos de un acuífero y de un acuitardo. Entre ellas, destaca la reducción del O2, la denitrificación, y la reducción del Fe+3, SO4-2 y CO2 (metanogénesis). En algunos casos, estas reacciones se producen en la región cercana al acuitardo, ya que los dadores de electrones se mueven desde éste hacia el acuífero, el cual está enriquecido en aceptores de electrones o en microorganismos. Así, la interfaz acuífero/acuitardo constituye una zona de mezcla que es capaz de sustentar una actividad microbiana mayor que cualquier unidad hidrogeológica por sí misma. El alcance de las reacciones biogeoquímicas en la zona de mezcla y el ancho de esta zona de mezcla depende de varios factores, como la abundancia y la solubilidad de los aceptores y dadores de electrones en ambas caras de la interfaz y la velocidad a la que los aceptores y dadores de electrones reaccionan y se mueven a través de la interfaz. Las reacciones biogeoquímicas cerca de la interfaz acuífero/acuitardo pueden tener una influencia substancial en la hidroquímica de los acuíferos y en la química de los sedimentos cerca de la superficie.

  4. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se enfocan más en los conductores del comportamiento humano y en las implicaciones de varias fuentes de incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones de manejo. La cacería de trofeos ha sido sugerida como una herramienta de conservación porque le otorga valor económico a la vida silvestre, pero ejemplos recientes muestran que la sobrecolecta es un problema sustancial y que las limitaciones de datos son abundantes. Usamos el estudio de caso de la cacería de trofeos de un antílope en peligro, el nyala de las montañas (Tragelaphus buxtoni), para explorar como las incertidumbres generadas por el monitoreo de poblaciones y el tráfico de especies interactúan con la toma de decisiones de 2 actores clave: las compañías de safari y el gobierno. Construimos un modelo de evaluación de estrategia de manejo que incluye la dinámica poblacional del nyala de las montañas, un modelo de monitoreo y un modelo de toma de decisiones de una compañía. Investigamos escenarios de inversión en el combate del tráfico de especies y el monitoreo por el gobierno y las compañías de safari. La estrategia de colecta fue robusta hacia la incertidumbre en los estimados de población obtenidos del monitoreo, pero el tráfico de especies tuvo un efecto más fuerte sobre la cuota y la sustentabilidad; por esto, reducir el tráfico de especies está dentro de los intereses de compañías que desean incrementar la rentabilidad de las empresas, por ejemplo al hacer participar a los miembros de la comunidad como guías de caza. Hay un nivel umbral de incertidumbre en los estimados de población más allá del cual la variación anual en la cuota de trofeos previene la planeación por parte de las compañías de safari. Esto sugiere un papel para el gobierno asegurando que un nivel base de monitoreo de población se lleve a cabo para que este nivel no sea excedido. Nuestros resultados ilustran la importancia de considerar los incentivos de partes interesadas múltiples al designar marcos de trabajo para el uso de recursos y que al designar marcos de trabajo de manejo dirigirse a las fuentes particulares de incertidumbre que afecten más al sistema de sustentabilidad. PMID:24001054

  5. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l'eau souterraine. Dans la région étudiée, les fractures N35°-55°E ont été identifiées comme étant en extension, et les fractures N35°-55°W comme étant à la fois en extension et en cisaillement. Ces fractures sont apparemment les fractures ouvertes les plus jeunes. Partout où la densité des fractures N35°-55°E et N35°-55°W est élevée, la zone altérée est plus épaisse, les fluctuations de la nappe sont faibles et les rendements des puits sont forts. Des zones à potentiel en eau souterraine ont ainsi été délimitées et classées en excellent, bon à très bon, assez bon et médiocre. Resumen. Las zonas de fracturación y de meteorización son las que condicionan el flujo de agua subterránea en rocas duras, debido a la falta de porosidad primaria en la matriz rocosa. Se utilizaron cinco conjuntos de datos fotográficos del satélite Landsat con el fin de preparar un mapa integrado hidrogeomorfológico de la cuenca del río Niva, al sur del estado Andhra Pradesh (India). El objetivo era estudiar el potencial de aguas subterráneas en esta región, que es propensa a períodos de sequía, en la que predominan las rocas duras. Se aplicó el modelo de deformación integrado de Larsson a la identificación de los sistemas de fracturación. El propósito era, por un lado, identificar los conjuntos de fracturas de tracción más jóvenes, que desempeñan un papel principal como reservorios de aguas subterráneas. Por otro lado, se quería comprender la importancia de la densidad de fracturación en el desarrollo de las aguas subterráneas. Se identificó una familia de fracturas de tracción con orientación N35°-55°E y otra familia N35°-55°W que contenía tanto bandas de cizalla como fracturas de tracción. Aparentemente, se trataba de las fracturas abiertas más recientes. El espesor de la zona de meteorización es grande cuando la densidad de fracturas de estas dos familias es elevada, hecho que está asociado a fluctuaciones pequeñas del nivel freático y a caudales elevados. Se estableció una clasificación de las aguas subterráneas como zona muy buena, buena-muy buena, moderadamente buena, y regular.

  6. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la qualité de l'eau vers une absence de fluctuations, de polluées vers non polluées, d'acides vers basiques, d'oxygénées vers anoxiques et méthanogènes, depuis des échanges de base inexistants vers des échanges significatifs, de l'eau douce vers l'eau saumâtre. Ceci est montré pour une nappe d'eau douce dans une dune côtière des Pays-Bas. Dans "l'hydrosome", on montre que la disparition du carbonate de calcium par lessivage à plus de 15m et celle de cations adsorbés d'origine marine (Na+, K+ et Mg2+) à plus de 2500m vers l'aval-gradient correspond à environ 5000 ans d'écoulement, depuis que la barrière de la plage avec les dunes s'est mise en place. Les zones d'alimentation ponctuelle dans les dunes sont mises en évidence par l'eau souterraine montrant une plus faible évolution prograde de sa qualité que l'eau souterraine de la dune alentour. L'eau du Rhin utilisée pour la réalimentation artificielle dans les dunes a fourni des types hydrochimiques distincts, qui marquent l'écoulement, le mélange et les âges de l'eau souterraine. Resumen El flujo subterráneo tiene una gran importancia sobre la hidroquímica de un sistema ya que reduce la mezcla por difusión, transporta las huellas químicas y biológicas de las acciones antrópicas en la zona de recarga y drena el sistema acuífero. Las tendencias globales vienen regidas por las diferencias en el flujo de agua meteórica que atraviesa el subsuelo. En un hidrosoma individual (cuerpo de agua de un origen específico), se suele desarrollar la siguiente línea de evolución (secuencia de facies) en la dirección del flujo: de gran a nula fluctuación en la calidad del agua, de agua contaminada a no contaminada, de ácida a básica, de óxica a anóxica-metanogénica, de nulo a importante cambio de base y de agua dulce a salobre. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las aguas dulces presentes en las dunas costeras de Holanda. En este hidrosoma, el lixiviado de carbonato cálcico, hasta 15m, y de cationes de adsorción marina (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), hasta 2500m en la dirección del flujo corresponde a unos 5000 años de lavado desde que se desarrolló la barrera de dunas. Áreas de recarga concentrada en las dunas se evidencian porque el agua subterránea muestra un bajo estado de evolución dentro de la línea de evolución antes presentada, si se compara con el agua circundante. La recarga artificial en las dunas con agua del Río Rin proporciona características hidroquímicas diferenciadas, lo que permite caracterizar el flujo subterráneo, la mezcla y las edades de las aguas.

  7. Long-term immigrant adaptation: eight-year follow-up study among immigrants from Russia and Estonia living in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2008-02-01

    This study was a longitudinal investigation of the three different dimensions of long-term immigrant adaptation (i.e., psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic adaptation) and the relationships between them in an 8-year follow-up with panel data. The 282 respondents were immigrants in Finland, born between 1961 and 1976, coming from the former Soviet Union. The results suggest that the adaptation of these immigrants has developed favourably. In 8 years, the respondents had improved their Finnish language skills and their position in the labour market. No differences were observed in their levels of psychological well-being between the two assessments. Of the three adaptation dimensions assessed, sociocultural adaptation, measured as proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Finnish, turned out to be the most significant predictor of the two other long-term outcomes of immigrant adaptation (i.e., socioeconomic and psychological). In particular, the better the initial command of the Finnish language, the better were their socioeconomic and psychological adaptation outcomes after 8 years of residence. These results demonstrate the importance of parallel and longitudinal assessments of the different outcomes of immigrant adaptation in order to address which particular dimensions of adaptation are most critical in the beginning of acculturation in terms of determining positive development and long-term immigrant adaptation. This study was supported by City of Helsinki Urban Facts. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Anniina Lahtinen and Riku Perhoniemi in the data collection, and in addition, Riku Perhoniemi for the preliminary data analysis, and advice on the Amos analyses. Cette étude longitudinale a examiné trois différentes dimensions de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré (i.e., adaptation psychologique, socio-culturelle et socio-économique) et de la relation entre elles dans un suivi de 8 ans avec des données de panel. Les 282 répondants étaient des immigrés en Finland provenant de l'ancienne Union Soviétique nés entre 1961 et 1976. Les résultats suggèrent que l'adaptation de ces immigrants s'est développée favorablement. En huit ans, les répondants avaient amélioré leurs habiletés en finlandais sur le marché de travail. Aucune différence n'a été observée dans leurs niveaux de bien-être psychologique entre les deux évaluations. Parmi les trois dimensions de l'adaptation évaluées, l'adaptation socio-culturelle telle que mesurée par la capacité de comprendre, de parler, de lire et d'écrire le finlandais s'est avérée être le prédicteur le plus significatif des deux autres résultats à long-terme de l'adaptation de l'immigré (i.e., socio-économique et psychologique). Particulièrement, meilleure avait été la connaissance initiale du finlandais, meilleurs étaient leurs résultats de l'adaptation socio-économiques et psychologiques après 8 ans de résidence. Ces résultats démontrent l'importance des évaluations parallèles et longitudinales de différents résultats de l'adaptation de l'immigré pour mieux étudier quelles dimensions particulières de l'adaptation sont les plus critiques au début de l'acculturation en matière de la détermination du développement positif et de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré. El estudio consistió en una investigación longitudinal sobre tres diferentes dimensiones de adaptación de inmigrantes a largo plazo (i.e. adaptación psicológica, sociocultural, socioeconómica) y la relación entre ellas en 8 años de seguimiento con los datos de grupo. Los 282 encuestados fueron inmigrantes en Finlandia procedentes de los países de la antigua Union Sovietica, nacidos entre 1961 y 1976. Los resultados sugieren que la adaptación de estos inmigrantes se desarrolló favorablemente. En ocho años, los encuestados han mejorado sus conocimientos del idioma finlandes y su posición en el mercado laboral. No se observó ningunas diferencias en su nivel del bienestar psicológico entre las dos evaluaciones. Entre las tres dimesiones de adaptación que fueron evaluadas, adaptación sociocultural, medida como aptitud de comprensión, habla, lectura y escritura en finlandes fue el predictor más significante de los resultados en otras dimensiones de adaptación de los inmigrantes a largo plazo (i.e. socioeconómica y psicológica). Particularmente, cuando mejor era el dominio inicial del idioma finlandes, mejores eran los resultados de adaptación socioeconómica y psicológica después de 8 años de residencia. Estos estudios demuestran la importancia de la evaluación en paralelo y longitudinal de diferentes resultados de adaptación de los inmigrantes para saber cuáles particulares dimensiónes de adaptación son las más críticas en el principio de aculturación para determinar el desarrollo. PMID:22023496

  8. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conteúdos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino Médio, as propostas curriculares do Paraná e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conteúdo Gravitação Universal, na primeira série do Ensino Médio, já a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequência que é proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em questão, porém, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, não há um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conteúdos. O detalhamento facilita a prática pedagógica, pois, conteúdos simples como as Estações do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer são citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado é que os conteúdos de um modo geral não trazem uma sequência e não primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedagógico, pois, por ser uma região com características culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais próximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transferências dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conteúdos, clareza, sequência dos conteúdos e propostas de trabalho é proposto uma sequência de conteúdos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), é necessário fornecer além da informação, do conteúdo, o como fazer. Tal proposta não visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua prática pedagógica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. Análise de conteúdo. Tradução Luís Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. São Paulo: Edições 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educação formal, informal, não-formal e divulgação científica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, v. 31, n. 4, p. 4402-1 a 4402-11, 2009.

  9. Teaching of Astronomy: Scenarios of Teaching Practice in Elementary Schools. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía: Semblanzas de la Práctica Docente en Educación Primaria.) Ensino de Astronomia: Cenários da Prática Docente no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi Gonzatti, Sônia Elisa; Spessatto De Maman, Andréia; Fernandes Borragini, Eliana; Kerber, Júlia Cristina; Haetinger, Werner

    2013-12-01

    The present work presents the main results of a research carried out within the Astronomy Education field with Elementary School teachers from two regions of Rio Grande do Sul. The study aimed to show the regional panorama of teaching Astronomy compared to the national panorama already discussed in several studies in the area. It was divided into three main issues: identifying the main topics of Astronomy developed in class, verifying which were the methodological strategies used, and which were the difficulties teachers faced when developing their practice. Regarding the contents, it was found a wide range of covered topics although Earth motion and astronomical phenomena were cited by most participants. Concerning the strategies used in class, two-dimensional resources such as movies, texts, maps and web searching were mainly used. The most relevant difficulties were the lack of specific education related to Astronomy contents and abstraction level, which complicated the understanding for both students and teachers. In general, the indicators met the results already found in other studies that investigated Astronomy teaching practice, in which the teacher's original education deficiency - or even the lack of it - hampers the proper development of Astronomy contents in class. En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de una investigación hecha en el campo de la Educación en Astronomía, con profesores de la Enseñanza Fundamental de dos regiones de Rio Grande do Sul. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar el panorama regional de la enseñanza de Astronomía, estableciendo una comparación con el panorama nacional ya presentado en trabajos de referencia en el área. Ese estudio abordó tres cuestiones: identificar los principales temas de astronomía trabajados, las estrategias metodológicas y cuáles fueron las dificultades sufridas por los profesores al presentar su práctica. Con relación a los contenidos, se encontró una atomización de los asuntos, aunque temas como movimientos de la Tierra y fenómenos astronómicos hayan sido citados por la mayoría de los participantes. En cuanto a las estrategias, se verifico que se emplean principalmente clases con el apoyo de recursos bidimensionales, como películas, textos, mapas y búsqueda en internet. Las principales dificultades fueron la falta de formación específica con respecto a los contenidos de Astronomía, y el nivel de abstracción exigido por los contenidos. De modo general, esos indicadores convergen para los resultados ya encontrados en otros estudios, en el que las deficiencias de la formación inicial de los profesores, o incluso su ausencia, dificulta el adecuado abordaje de la Astronomía en las clases. Neste trabalho são apresentados os principais resultados de uma investigação realizada no campo da Educação em Astronomia, com professores do ensino fundamental de duas regiões do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar o cenário regional do ensino de Astronomia, estabelecendo um comparativo com o cenário nacional. Esse estudo abordou três questões: identificar os principais temas de astronomia trabalhados em sala de aula, as estratégias metodológicas e quais as dificuldades apresentadas pelos professores ao desenvolver sua prática. Quanto aos conteúdos, encontrouse uma pulverização dos assuntos abordados, embora temas como movimentos da Terra e fenômenos astronômicos tenham sido citados pela maioria dos participantes. Sobre estratégias, são utilizadas principalmente aulas com apoio de recursos bidimensionais, como filmes, textos, mapas e pesquisa na internet. As principais dificuldades foram: falta de formação específica em relação a conteúdos de Astronomia; nível de abstração dos conteúdos, que dificultam sua compreensão, tanto pelos alunos quanto pelos próprios professores. De maneira geral, esses indicadores convergem para resultados já encontrados em outros estudos que investigam a prática docente em Astronomia, em que as deficiências da formação inicial dos professores, ou mesmo a falta dela, dificulta a adequada abordagem da Astronomia em sala de aula.

  10. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor compreensão sobre as concepções alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  11. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  12. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedagógico para as indicações dos objetos e experimentos que serão expostos, procurando formas de construir, expor e apresen! tá-los d e maneira mais eficiente em termos de uma aprendizagem significativa. (Apoio: Fundação Vitae, CNPq)

  13. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

  14. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

  15. The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. (Spanish Title: Las Fases de la Luna en Una Caja de Cartón.) As Fases da Lua Numa Caixa de Papelão

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima O. Saraiva, Maria; Amador, Cláudio B.; Kemper, Érico; Goulart, Paulo; Muller, Angela

    2007-12-01

    We present a very simple concrete model to demonstrate the concept of phases of an illuminated body. The main objective of our model is to help the understanding of the Moon phases as viewed from the perspective of an observer on Earth. The material allows the visualization of two important effects: (1st) even though all the time half Moon is illuminated by the Sun, we see different fractions of the illuminated Moon surface, depending on our angle of sight; (2nd) the orientation of the convex part of the Moon in the crescent and waning phases on the sky also depends on our perspective from Earth. The use of a closed box allows one to see the contrast among the different phases with no need of a dark room. We also present a text on the Moon phases, emphasizing the dependence of the aspect of the bright part on the angle of sight. En este trabajo proponemos la construcción de material didáctico de bajo costo para demostración del concepto de fases de un cuerpo iluminado. El principal objetivo de nuestro material es facilitar la comprensión de las fases de la Luna desde la perspectiva de un observador en la Tierra. El material ayuda la visualización de dos efectos importantes: (1º) a pesar de tener siempre la mitad de la Luna (representada por una bolita de espuma plástica o de ping-pong), iluminada por el Sol ( representado por una fuente de luz natural o artificial), vemos diferentes fracciones de su superficie iluminada, dependiendo del ángulo por el cual la vemos; (2º) la orientación del borde convexo de la Luna en las fases Creciente y Menguante también depende de la perspectiva por la cual la miramos desde la Tierra. El uso de una caja cerrada permite observar el contraste entre las diferentes fases sin necesidad de estar en un recinto oscuro. Presentamos también un texto explicativo sobre las fases de la Luna, enfatizando la dependencia de la apariencia de la parte iluminada con el ángulo de visión. Neste trabalho propomos a construção de material didático de baixo custo para demonstração do conceito de fases de um corpo iluminado. O principal objetivo de nosso material é facilitar a compreensão das fases da Lua da perspectiva de um observador na Terra. O material ajuda na visualização de dois efeitos importantes: (1º) mesmo tendo sempre a metade da "Lua" (representada por uma bolinha de isopor ou de ping-pong) iluminada pelo "Sol" (representado por uma fonte de luz natural ou artificial), nós vemos diferentes frações de sua superfície iluminada, dependendo do ângulo pelo qual a olhamos; (2º) a orientação da borda convexa da Lua nas fases Crescente e Minguante também depende da perspectiva pela qual a olhamos da Terra. O uso de uma caixa fechada permite observar o contraste entre as diferentes fases sem necessidade de estar em uma sala escurecida. Apresentamos também um texto explicativo sobre fases da Lua, enfatizando a dependência da aparência da parte iluminada com o ângulo de visada.

  16. Chronology of the 2014 volcanic eruption on the island of Fogo, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Alfama, Vera; Cabral, Jeremias; Semedo, Helio; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Melián, Gladys V.; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima

    2015-04-01

    Twenty seven historical eruptions have ocurred at Fogo Island since its discovery and settlement (Ribeiro, 1960; Torres et al., 1997). This summary covers the events of the 27th eruption, which started on November 23, 2014, in Cha das Caldeiras, Fogo Island, along a NNE-SSW fissure on the east flank of the 1995 Pico Novo vent with the appearance of four eruptive vents and emissions of gases, pyroclastic rocks and lava. The eruptive column reached an estimated altitude of 6000 m, with aa lavas spilled over and ash fall in Cha das Caldeiras and other locations in the islands of Fogo and Brava (which lies 17km from Fogo). The Hawaiian style fissural stage originated about seven craters with gas and lava emission, that formed two lava flows of aa and pahoehoe style who started the destruction of Portela village, with average speeds of 1-3 meters/hour to 8-10 meters/hour with faster paces up to 1 meter/3 minutes, with thicknesses ranging between 1.5 meters to 10 meters, and temperatures of around 800 ° C. The Strombolian stage, gave rise to a main crater (from the coalescence of small craters) and three small craters or emmision vents, which released aa lava flows with development of lava fronts from one or two lava tubes at the base of the volcanic cone which also reached maximum lengths of 300 to 500 meters at estimated speeds of 20-30 meters/minute to 8-10 meters/minute, that destroyed the Portela and Bangaeira villages. Loud explosions and strong rumbling was also heard at the eruption site. A pahoehoe lava flow developed to the Ilhéu de Losna site, at an average speed of 1 meter/2minutes and a width of about 3 m which was divided into two fronts (north and south of this location) having buried all crop fields (vineyards and other crops) and some houses. The eruption is ongoing in the main vent, with the emission of gases and ash (dark color fumaroles), scorias, spatter and ballistics up to 30-40 feet high, forming eruptive columns with height of 200-1000 meters. Day, S. J., Heleno da Silva, S. I. N., and Fonseca, J. F. B. D.: A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 94, 191-218, 1999. Foeken, J., Day, S., and Stuart, F.: Cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of the Quaternary basalts from Fogo, Cape Verdes: Implications for rift zone and magmatic reorganisation, Quaternary Geochron., 4, 37-49, doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2008.07.002, 2009. Ribeiro, O.: A ilha do Fogo e as suas erupções, 12a edição, Memórias, Série Geográfica, J. Inv. Ultramar, 1960. Torres, P.C., Madeira, J., Silva, L.C., Silveira, A.B., Serralheiro, A. & Mota Gomes, A. (1997) - Carta geológica das erupções históricas da ilha do Fogo: revisão e actualização, in "A erupção vulcânica de 1995 na ilha do Fogo, Cabo Verde", Lisboa, 119-132.

  17. Patient and clinical characteristics associated with gout flares in an integrated healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Nazia; Levy, Gerald D; Wu, Yi-Lin; Zheng, Chengyi; Koblick, River; Cheetham, T Craig

    2015-11-01

    Gout flares have been challenging to identify in retrospective databases due to gout flares not being well documented by diagnosis codes, making it difficult to conduct accurate database studies. Previous studies have used different algorithms, and in this study, we used a computer-based method to identify gout flares. The objectives of this study were to identify gout flares in gout patients newly initiated on urate-lowering therapy and evaluate factors associated with a patient experiencing gout flares after starting drug treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study identifying gout patients newly initiated on a urate-lowering therapy (ULT) during the study time period of January 1, 2007-December 31, 2010. The index date was the first dispensed ULT prescription during the study time period. Patients had to be ≥18 years of age on index date, have no history of prior ULT prescription during 12 months before index date, and were required to have 12 months of continuous membership with drug benefit during pre-/post-index. Electronic chart notes were reviewed to identify gout flares; these reviews helped create a validated computer-based method to further identify patients with gout flares and were categorized into 0 gout flares, 1-2 gout flares, and ≥3 gout flares during the 12 months post-index period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine patient and clinical factors associated with gout flares during the 12-month follow-up period. There were 8905 patients identified as the final cohort and 68 % of these patients had one or more gout flares during the 12-month follow-up: 2797 patients (31 %) had 0 gout flares, 4836 (54 %) had 1-2 gout flares, and 1272 patients (14 %) had ≥3 gout flares. Using a multivariate regression analyses, factors independently associated with 1-2 gout flares and ≥3 gout flares versus no gout flares were similar, however, with slight differences, such as younger patients were more likely to have 1-2 gout flares and patients ≥65 years of age had ≥3 gout flares. Factors such as male gender, not attaining sUA goal, having ≥3 comorbidities, diuretics use, no changes in initial ULT dose, and not adhering to ULT all were associated with gout flares versus no gout flares. Using a new method to identify gout flares, we had the opportunity to compare our findings with the previous studies. Our study findings echo other previous studies where older patients, male, diuretics, having a greater number of comorbidities, and non-adherence are more likely to have more gout flares during the first year of newly initiating ULT. There is an unmet need for patients with gout to be educated and managed more closely, especially during the first year. PMID:25991397

  18. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se deben trabajar en la enseñanza media y básica, en las asignaturas de Geografía y de Ciencias. Entre ellos, el de los husos horarios que es uno de los más importantes para correlacionar la rotación de la Tierra y sus implicaciones en las actividades diarias de los ciudadanos en escala local, regional y global, y en general, cuestiones que implican problemas de las diferencias horarias. Para la enseñanza de los husos horarios en las clases de Geografía, por ejemplo, hay representaciones bidimensionales de los mapas temáticos de husos horarios mundiales, en libros y atlas didácticos. Sin embargo, los profesores se enfrentan con algunas dificultades para hacer posible que sus alumnos tengan una visión tridimensional de este fenómeno astronómico, usando los materiales didácticos disponibles en las escuelas. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la construcción de dos propuestas de materiales de bajo costo, que hacen posible la elaboración de modelos tridimensionales para la enseñanza de los husos horarios.

  19. Simplificando a luneta com lente de óculos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalle, J. B. G.; de Souza, A. C. F.

    2003-08-01

    A principal ferramenta de trabalho do astrônomo é o telescópio. O manuseio do mesmo é sempre motivo de enorme curiosidade por parte de alunos do ensino fundamental ou médio e até mesmo dos respectivos professores. Visando propiciar o acesso de alunos e professores ou interessados em geral a uma luneta de fácil construção, com materiais alternativos, de fácil localização no comércio, de baixo custo, resistente ao manuseio de alunos, simplificamos a montagem de uma luneta construída com lente de óculos, de 1 ou 2 graus positivos, e monóculo de fotografia, publicado por este autor no CCEF, vol.11(3), 212, 1994. Esta luneta, a qual permite ver as crateras lunares, apresentava como maior dificuldade de construção o tripé e o local de formação da imagem. Substituímos o tripé de madeira por uma simples garrafa PET de 2 litros cheia d'água. No lugar da ocular usamos a lente do monóculo de fotografia (ou visor de fotografia) encaixado dentro de uma bucha de redução curta, de 40 x 32 mm, e esta não mais dentro de uma luva (conexão hidráulica) de 40 mm de diâmetro, mas sim encostada no próprio tubo de PVC móvel (o qual permite o ajuste do foco) de 40 mm de diâmetro e presa a este por outro tubo de 40 mm de diâmetro e 10 cm de comprimento, serrado ao longo do seu comprimento. Com isto podemos ajustar a posição deste tubo de 10 cm também para que uma das suas extremidades coincida com o local de formação da imagem. Desta forma o observador saberá o local exato da formação da imagem, o que não era evidente na montagem anterior e causava uma dificuldade inicial até se descobrir a posição exata em que se deveria colocar o olho. Deste maneira, a montagem inicial que já era simples ficou ainda mais simples, mais barata e mais confortável para o uso. Um exemplar da mesma será exposto durante a XXIX Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira para inspeção e uso dos participantes.

  20. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to present the results of a diagnostic evaluation, used as a tool for collecting data on prior knowledge of scientific concepts needed to understand the topic "Earth and Universe", from a group comprised of 47 students of 6th grade. The educational method of diagnosing the student's prior knowledge before teaching them is founded on the Meaningful Learning theory, proposed by David Ausubel. The diagnostic evaluation consisted of 25 questions; the answers were analyzed and categorized, making possible their interpretation, which allows us to understand the meanings assigned by the student to these concepts. It follows from the diagnostic evaluation, that the majority of students surveyed had difficulties in exposing scientific concepts on the topic "Earth and Universe" when starting the 6th grade. However, we identified relevant ideas and representations that contributed to the re-signification of scientific concepts proposed for the teaching of the subject in this grade. The results of diagnostic evaluation served as reference to the organization of the syllabus, making possible the learning process by matching the sequence of teaching to the students" characteristics and context of the classroom. It is expected that other researchers in this topic can also use the instrument presented in this paper. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de una evaluación diagnóstica, utilizada como una herramienta para recoger datos sobre el conocimiento previo de los conceptos científicos necesarios para comprender el tema "Tierra y Universo", de un grupo compuesto por 47 alumnos de 6º grado de la escuela primaria. La acción pedagógica del diagnóstico de los conocimientos previos del estudiante antes de enseñarles está justificada por la teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo, propuesta por David Ausubel. La evaluación de diagnóstico consistió en 25 preguntas, las respuestas fueron analizadas y clasificadas objetivando-se su interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos para o ensino do tema nessa série. Os resultados da avaliação diagnóstica serviram como referência para a organização do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequência didática às características dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. É esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado também por outros pesquisadores em investigações relacionadas ao tema.

  1. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo, al solsticio de junio, al equinoccio de septiembre y al solsticio de diciembre. Además, se dictaron clases teóricas en la sala de aula. Estos métodos buscaron construir conceptos en torno al movimiento aparente del Sol y la sucesión de las estaciones. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de las actividades se aplicó una evaluación cuyos datos demuestran la existencia de un aprendizaje deseado por los estudiantes en cuanto a: el reconocimiento de los puntos cardinales, la descripción del movimiento solar aparente y la aparición de las estaciones y su alternancia a partir de observaciones astronómicas visuales sin instrumentos. Muitas concepções alternativas são reconhecidas entre os diversos grupos de estudantes, em especial nos da educação básica. Dentre elas, o movimento aparente do Sol, por mais quotidiano que seja, proporciona variadas interpretações. Deste modo, observar e registrar o movimento dos astros na abóboda celeste é uma tarefa necessária ao ensino de Astronomia. O trabalho que ora se apresenta propõe a apresentação dos resultados da observação do movimento aparente do Sol por intermédio da marcação da sombra de um gnômon vertical por alunos de uma turma do sexto ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola do campo do Paraná. O projeto em si ocorreu em quatro etapas, em datas próximas do equinócio de março, do solstício de junho, do equinócio de setembro e do solstício de dezembro. Além disso, foram desenvolvidas aulas teóricas em sala de aula. Tais métodos buscaram construir conceitos em torno da movimentação aparente do Sol e da alternância das estações do ano. Diante dos resultados provenientes das atividades desenvolvidas foi aplicada uma avaliação e os dados demonstraram um aprendizado desejado dos alunos quanto: ao reconhecimento dos pontos cardeais; à descrição do movimento solar aparente e a ocorrência das estações do ano e sua alternância a partir de observações astronômicas a olho nu.

  2. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas associações alternativas, que são um conjunto de pré-concepções, onde não existe a idéia de um modelo científico completo mas, sim, fragmentos de observação do dia a dia das pessoas.

  3. The Danger from the Outer Space. (Breton Title: O Perigo que Vem do Espaço.) El Peligro que Viene del Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo

    2005-12-01

    Among the several risks to which the terrestrial life is subject, there is a remote possibility of collision with minor astronomical bodies such as comets and asteroids, which can potentially cause consequences ranging from minor damages to large cataclysms with reflections for the whole Earth. The frequency of the collisions is smaller whenever the external bodies are bigger and more massive. It is possible to conduct simulations taking into account these factors and the velocities and angles of the collisions to estimate their probabilities, the consequences for our planet and the frequency of such events. The results of the simulations are presented graphically to facilitate the final analysis. Finally, we point out that there are several research centers in the world working in the surveillance of the sky to identify possible "aggressive" bodies and evaluate the actual risks for the planet.

    Entre os muitos riscos que corre o ambiente terrestre, existe a possibilidade, ainda que remota, de choques com pequenos corpos celestes como cometas, asteróides e meteoróides que podem provocar desde pequenas colisões sem grandes conseqüências até cataclismos de enormes dimensões, com reflexos para toda a vida existente na Terra. A taxa das colisões, como era de se esperar, é tanto maior quanto menores forem as dimensões e a massa do corpo externo. É possível fazer simulações levando-se em conta o diâmetro médio do objeto celeste, sua densidade, a velocidade e o ângulo de colisão para estimar as conseqüências que trariam tais colisões. É possível também estimar ampère probabilidades dos choques e avaliar os reais riscos que nosso planeta corre e com que periodicidade podemos esperá-los. Os resultados dessas simulações aparecem em gráficos de modo a facilitar a analise final. Por fim, lembramos que existem centros de pesquisa em várias partes do mundo trabalhando no patrulhamento do céu na busca de possíveis "agressores" e na estimativa dos reais riscos que corremos. Entre los muchos riesgos que corre el ambiente terrestre existe la remota posibilidad de choques con pequeños cuerpos celestes como cometas y asteroides, y que pueden provocar desde pequeños daños sin mayores consecuencias hasta cataclismos de grandes dimensiones, con reflejos para toda la vida existente enla Tierra. Latasa de colisiones, como era de esperar, es mucho menor para cuerpos con masas y diámetros crecientes. Es posible realizar simulaciones considerando el diámetro, la masa, su velocidad y el ángulo de la colisión para estimar las probabilidades, las consecuencias para el planeta y con qué tasa temporal podemos esperarlas. Los resultados de estas simulaciones se presentan en gráficos para facilitar el análisis final. Finalmente señalamos que existen varios centros de investigación en el mundo trabajando en barreduras del cielo en busca de posibles "agresores" y en las estimaciones de los riesgos que corremos.

  4. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su línea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodológica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de información para los docentes.

  5. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  6. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  7. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  8. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  9. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  10. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  11. Chlorine-36 and the initial value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Stanley N.; Cecil, DeWayne; Zreda, Marek; Sharma, Pankaj

    Chlorine-36 is a radionuclide with a half-life of 3.01×105a. Most 36Cl in the hydrosphere originates from cosmic radiation interacting with atmospheric gases. Large amounts were also produced by testing thermonuclear devices during 1952-58. Because the monovalent anion, chloride, is the most common form of chlorine found in the hydrosphere and because it is extremely mobile in aqueous systems, analyses of both total Cl- as well as 36Cl have been important in numerous hydrologic studies. In almost all applications of 36Cl, a knowledge of the initial, or pre-anthropogenic, levels of 36Cl is useful, as well as essential in some cases. Standard approaches to the determination of initial values have been to: (a) calculate the theoretical cosmogenic production and fallout, which varies according to latitude; (b) measure 36Cl in present-day precipitation and assume that anthropogenic components can be neglected; (c) assume that shallow groundwater retains a record of the initial concentration; (d) extract 36Cl from vertical depth profiles in desert soils; (e) recover 36Cl from cores of glacial ice; and (f) calculate subsurface production of 36Cl for water that has been isolated from the atmosphere for more than one million years. The initial value from soil profiles and ice cores is taken as the value that occurs directly below the depth of the easily defined bomb peak. All six methods have serious weaknesses. Complicating factors include 36Cl concentrations not related to cosmogenic sources, changes in cosmogenic production with time, mixed sources of chloride in groundwater, melting and refreezing of water in glaciers, and seasonal groundwater recharge that does not contain average year-long concentrations of 36Cl. Résumé Le chlore-36 est un radionucléide de période 3.01×105a. Pour l'essentiel, le 36Cl dans l'hydrosphère provient des effets du rayonnement cosmique sur les gaz atmosphériques. De grandes quantités de 36Cl ont aussi été produites au cours des essais thermonucléaires entre 1952 et 1958. Du fait que l'anion chlorure est la forme la plus courante de chlore rencontrée dans l'hydrosphère et parce qu'il est extrêmement mobile en solution aqueuse, les analyses à la fois de Cl- total et de 36Cl ont montré leur intérêt dans de nombreuses études hydrologiques. Dans presque toutes les applications du 36Cl, une connaissance des teneurs initiales, ou "pré-anthropogéniques", en 36Cl est utile, sinon même nécessaire dans certains cas. Les approches classiques pour déterminer les teneurs initiales ont été: (a) le calcul de la production cosmique théorique et la retombée, variable en fonction de la latitude; (b) la mesure de 36Cl dans les précipitations actuelles et l'hypothèse que les composantes anthropogéniques peuvent être négligées (c) l'hypothèse que l'eau souterraine peu profonde est marquée par la concentration initiale; (d) l'extraction de 36Cl d'un profil vertical dans des sols de régions désertiques (e) l'extraction de 36Cl de carottes de glace; et (f) le calcul de la production souterraine de 36Cl pour de l'eau qui a été isolée de l'atmosphère pendant plus d'un million d'années. La valeur initiale tirée des profils de sol et de glace est prise comme la valeur qui apparaît immédiatement au-dessous du pic facilement identifiable des essais thermonucléaires. Ces six méthodes présentent toutes des défauts majeurs. Des facteurs de complication concernent des teneurs en 36Cl indépendantes de la production cosmique, des changements dans la production cosmique au cours du temps, des mélanges de chlorures d'origines différentes dans l'eau souterraine, la fonte et le regel de l'eau des glaciers, la recharge saisonnière des nappes dont la teneur en 36Cl est différente de la moyenne annuelle. Resumen El Cloro-36 es un radionúclido con una vida media de 3.01×105 años. La mayoría del 36Cl en la hidrosfera se origina por la interacción de la radiación cósmica con los gases atmosféricos. También se produjeron grandes cantidades en las pruebas termonucleares que tuvieron lugar entre 1952-58. Al tratarse de un anión monovalente, el cloruro es la forma más común en que se presenta el cloro en la hidrosfera, y al ser extremadamente móvil en sistemas acuosos, los análisis tanto de Cl- total como de 36Cl han tenido gran importancia en muchos estudios hidrológicos. En la mayoría de aplicaciones del 36Cl, el conocimiento de los niveles iniciales (pre-antropogénicos) de 36Cl es esencial. Los métodos tradicionales para la determinación de los valores iniciales han sido: (a) calcular la producción cosmogénica teórica y su aporte a la superficie de la Tierra, que varía en función de la latitud; (b) medir el 36Cl en las precipitaciones actuales, asumiendo que las contribuciones antropogénicas son despreciables; (c) asumir que las aguas subterráneas más superficiales mantienen la concentración inicial; (d) extraer los contenidos de 36Cl en perfiles verticales profundos en suelos desérticos (e) realizar la misma operación en muestras de hielo glaciar; y (f) calcular la producción subsuperficial de 36Cl para un agua que lleva sin contacto con la atmósfera durante más de un millón de años. El valor inicial de los perfiles de suelo y de las muestras de hielo se toma como el valor que se presenta directamente por debajo del punto que marca el pico producido por las bombas, y que es fácilmente identificable. Los seis métodos tienen sus puntos débiles. Entre los factores que complican la interpretación se incluyen las concentraciones de 36Cl no relacionadas con fuentes cosmogénicas, las variaciones temporales en la producción cosmogénica, la mezcla de fuentes de cloruro en las aguas subterráneas, el deshielo y recongelación del agua en los glaciares, y la recarga estacional que contiene concentraciones de 36Cl que no se corresponden con el promedio anual.

  12. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and ?-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-?, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-?) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l'efficacité clinique et la sécurité de l'application de cellules souches mésenchymateuses allogéniques en culture dérivées de moelle osseuse (MSCs) pour le traitement de plaies cutanées dans un modèle canin. Hypothèse La transplantation de MSC allogénique topique peut accélérer la fermeture en toute épaisseur de plaies cutanées expérimentales et atténuer l'inflammation locale. Sujets Des chiens beagles adultes sains (n = 10; 3–6 ans; 7.2–13.1 kg) ont été étudiés. Méthodes Des plaies cutanées en pleine épaisseur ont été crées sur la face dorsale des beagles sains et des MSCs allogènes ont été injectées par voie intradermique. Le taux de cicatrisation et le degré de production de collagène ont été analysés sur le plan histologique par colorations à l'hématoxyline et éosine et par trichrome. Le degré de prolifération cellulaire et d'angiogénèse ont été évalués par immunohistochimie à l'aide d'anticorps spécifiques d'antigène nucléaire de prolifération cellulaire, de vimentine et d'actine de muscle lisse ?. Les taux d'expression local d'ARNm d'interleukine-2, d'interféron-?, du facteur de croissance basique de fibroblaste et de métalloprotéinase-2 de matrice, ont été évalués par RT-PCR. Résultats Comparé avec les plaies traitées par excipient, les plaies traitées par les MSCs ont montré une plus rapide cicatrisation et une augmentation de synthèse de collagène, de prolifération cellulaire er d'angiogénèse. En outre, Les plaies traitées au MSC ont montré une expression diminuée de cytokines pro-inflammatoires (interleukine-2 et interféron-?) et des facteurs liés à la cicatrisation (facteur de croissance basique de fibroblaste et métalloprotéinase-2 de matrice). Conclusion et importance clinique La transplantation topique de MSCs résulte en des effets paracrines de prolifération cellulaire et d'angiogénèse ainsi qu'en une modulation de l'expression locale d'ARNm de plusieurs facteurs liés à la cicatrisation cutanée. Resumen Introducción Las células madre de adultos se han estudiado extensivamente en estrategias de bioingeniería para la reparación de tejidos. Hemos evaluado el valor clínico y la seguridad de la aplicación de células madre mesenquimales (MSCs) alogenéicas derivadas de la medula ósea para tratar las heridas de la piel en un modelo canino. Hipótesis El transplante tópico alogenéico de MSCs puede acelerar la cicatrización de heridas cutáneas experimentales de todo el grosor de la piel y disminuir la inflamación local. Animales Se estudiaron perros de raza Beagle sanos adultos (n=10; de 3-6 años de edad; 7,2-13,1 kg de peso). Métodos Se crearon heridas de todo el grosor de la piel en el dorso de perros Beagle sanos, y se inyectaron MSCs alogenéicas intradérmicamente. El ritmo de reparación de la herida y el grado de producción de colágeno se analizaron histológicamente utilizando tinciones de hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico. El grado de proliferación celular y la angiogenesis se evaluaron mediante inmunohistoquímica utilizando anticuerpos específicos para el antígeno de proliferación celular nuclear (PCNA), vimentina y ?-actina de músculo liso. La expresión local de mRNA para interleuquina-2 (IL-2), interferón- ? (IFN- ?), factor básico de crecimiento de fibroblastos (BFGF) y metaloproteinasa de matriz-2 se evaluaron mediante RT-PCR. Resultados comparado con las heridas tratadas solo con el vehículo, las heridas tratadas con MSCs mostraron una reparación más rápida y un aumento en la producción de colágeno, proliferación celular y angiogenesis. Además, las heridas tratadas con MSCs mostraron una expresión aumentada de citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-2 e IFN- ?) y factores relacionados con la reparación de la herida (BFGF y metaloproteinasa de matriz-2). Conclusión e importancia clínica El transplante tópico de MSCs resulta en efectos paracrinos en la proliferación celular y angiogenesis, así como en la modulación de la expresión de mRNA de diversos factores relacionados con la cicatrización de heridas. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Adulte Stammzellen sind für ihre biotechnologische Verwendung bei der Wiederherstellung von Geweben bereits weit reichend erforscht. Wir haben die klinische Bedeutung und Sicherheit der Applikation von kultivierten allogenen mesenchymalen Stammzellen (MSCs) aus dem Knochenmark zur Behandlung von Hautwunden in einem caninen Modell evaluiert. Hypothese Die topische allogene MSC Transplantation kann den Wundverschluss experimenteller Hautwunden (Brandwunden Grad III) beschleunigen und die lokale Entzündung mildern. Tiere Erwachsene gesunde Beagles (n=10; 3-6 Jahre alt; 7,2-13,1kg) wurden in der Studie verwendet. Methoden Es wurden Hautwunden 3. Grades am Rücken der gesunden Beagles verursacht und allogene MSCs intradermal injiziert. Die Schnelligkeit des Wundverschlusses und das Ausmaß der Kollagenproduktion wurden histologisch mittels Hämatoxylin und Eosin Färbung und Trichromfärbung untersucht. Das Ausmaß der zellulären Proliferation und der Angiogenese wurde mittels Immunzytochemie unter Verwendung von Proliferating-Cell-Nuclear-Antigen, Vimentin und Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin-spezifischen Antikörpern evaluiert. Die lokale Exprimierung von mRNA von Interleukin-2, Interferon-?, Basic Fibroblasten Wachstumsfaktor und Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 wurde mittels RT PCR evaluiert. Ergebnisse Im Vergleich zu den Wunden, die nur mit dem Trägermedium behandelt worden waren, zeigten die mit MSC-behandelten Wunden einen rascheren Verschluss und eine erhöhte Kollagensynthese, zelluläre Proliferation und Angiogenese. Darüber hinaus zeigten MSC-behandelte Wunden eine verminderte Exprimierung pro-entzündlicher Zytokine (Interleukin-2 und Interferon-?) und Wundheilungsfaktoren (Basic Fibroblasten Wachstumsfaktor und Matrix Metalloproteinase-2). Schlussfolgerung und klinische Bedeutung Die topische Transplantation von MSCs resultiert in parakrinen Effekten auf die zelluläre Proliferation und Angiogenese sowie die Modulierung lokaler mRNA Exprimierung verschiedener Faktoren, die mit der Wundheilung der Haut im Zusammenhang stehen. ?? ?? ????????????????????????????????????????????(MSCs)????????????,??????????????? ?? ?????MSC?????????????????,????????? ?? ?????????(n = 10;3–6 ?;7.2–13.1 kg)? ?? ?????????????????,???????MSCs??????????????????,?????????????????????????????????????????????-???????-????,????????????????RT PCR?????-2??-??????????????????????-2??mRNA????? ?? ??????????,MSC??????????????,??????????????????? ??,MSC?????????????(???-2??-???)??????????(???????????????????-2)????? ??????? ????MSCs???????????????????,????????????????????mRNA?????? ?? ?? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(MSCs)??????????????????????????????? ?? ????MSC??????????????????????????????????????? ???? ???????????(n = 10; 3–6 ??; 7.2–13.1 kg)????? ?? ?????????????????????????MSC??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2???????????????????????????????????????2?mRNA??????RT-PCR?????? ?? ?????????????????MSC??????????????????????????????????????????????MSC?????????????????(?????????2???????????)?????????(?????????????????????????????2)??????????? ?????????? MSC????????????????????????????????????????,???????????????????mRNA???????? PMID:23432413

  13. Fresh-water lenses and practical limitations of their three-dimensional simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, F.; Alam, K.; Howard, K. W. F.

    2000-08-01

    Fresh-water lenses are the major sources of water supply in many atoll islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, particularly in dry seasons. Several two- and three-dimensional models are currently available for the simulation of atoll-island aquifers; however, 2D models cannot include 3D spatial variability of material properties, they must simplify the boundary conditions, and they cannot correctly simulate pumping wells. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, a 3D model, SALTFLOW, was adopted for the simulation of Home Island in the Indian Ocean. This exercise required a discretisation on the order of a few metres and time steps of a few hours requiring significantly high CPU times. High CPU demand proved to be a difficult challenge but cannot be considered a serious practical limitation with today's advanced computers. The exhaustive data demands of the model (e.g., 3D distributions of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, dispersivities, and spatial and temporal variations of recharge and extraction rates) proved to be more problematical. Although the Home Island data set is unusually comprehensive by any standards, nonetheless the quality and quantity of the available data proved inadequate to meet the calibration needs of a highly karstic aquifer system. The Home Island modeling demonstrates the practical limitations of 3D models. It raises the concern that our ability to develop computer codes capable of simulating complex systems now exceeds our ability to supply the input data necessary for reliable calibration. Finally, the paper demonstrates the importance of the transient calibration in reliable simulation of various management options and emphasises that transient calibration should be considered as an integral part of any similar 2D or 3D modeling. Résumé. Les lentilles d'eau douce sont la source essentielle d'eau potable pour l'alimentation de nombreux atolls du Pacifique et de l'Océan Indien, notamment au cours des saisons sèches. Plusieurs modèles 2D et 3D sont habituellement utilisés pour simuler les aquifères des atolls. Cependant, les modèles 2D ne peuvent pas prendre en compte la variabilité spatiale des propriétés des matériaux ils doivent simplifier les conditions aux limites et ne peuvent pas simuler correctement les puits de pompage. Dans une tentative de dépasser ces difficultés, un modèle 3D, SALTFLOW, a été adopté pour la simulation de l'île de Home, dans l'Océan Indien. Cet exercice a nécessité une discrétisation de l'ordre de quelques mètres et des pas de temps de quelques heures, imposant des temps de calcul d'unité centrale (CPU) significativement importants. Une forte demande de CPU a certes été un défi difficile, mais elle ne peut pas être considérée comme une limitation pratique sérieuse compte tenu des ordinateurs performants actuels. Les exigences en données exhaustives du modèle, par exemple les distributions 3D de la conductivité hydraulique, de la porosité, des dispersivités et les variations temporelles et spatiales des flux de recharge et de pompage, sont bien plus problématiques. Bien que l'ensemble des données concernant l'île de Home soit exceptionnellement complet, en comparaison de ce qui est fait habituellement, la qualité et la quantité de données disponibles est apparue inadaptée aux besoins de calibration d'un système aquifère fortement karstifié. La modélisation de l'île de Home montre les limitations pratiques des modèles 3D. Elle met en avant le fait que notre capacité à développer des codes de calcul susceptibles de simuler des systèmes complexes dépasse actuellement notre capacité à obtenir les données d'entrée nécessaires à une calibration convenable. Finalement ce papier montre l'importance de la calibration transitoire dans une simulation correcte de choix de gestion variés il souligne également le fait que la calibration en transitoire doit être considérée comme une partie intégrante de toute modélisation 2D ou 3D comparable. Resumen. Los lentejones de agua dulce representan la fuente principal de abastecimiento en muchos atolones de los Océanos Pacífico e Índico, particularmente durante las estaciones secas. Actualmente, existen diversos modelos 2D y 3D capaces de simular acuíferos en atolones. Sin embargo, los modelos 2D no pueden incorporar la variabilidad espacial t3D de las propiedades materiales, por lo que se han de simplificar las condiciones de contorno; tampoco es posible simular correctamente los pozos de bombeo. Con el fin de superar estas limitaciones, se adoptó el modelo 3D, SALTFLOW, para simular la Isla de Home, en el Océano Índico. Este ejercicio requirió una discretización muy fina, con tamaños del orden de metros e incrementos temporales de unas pocas horas, hecho que acarrea tiempos de CPU elevados. La demanda de CPU fue un reto considerable, pero no es una limitación práctica insuperable con las herramientas informáticas actuales. En cambio, la necesidad de datos para alimentar el modelo (por ejemplo, distribuciones 3D de la conductividad hidráulica, porosidad, dispersividades, y variaciones espaciales y temporales de la recarga y tasas de extracción) resultó ser más problemática. Aunque el conjunto de datos existente sobre la Isla de Home es inusualmente completo, la calidad y cantidad de los mismos no eran las necesarias para calibrar el modelo en un sistema acuífero muy karstificado. La modelación de la Isla de Home demuestra las limitaciones prácticas de los modelos 3D y alimenta la preocupación de que nuestra capacidad para desarrollar programas de ordenador que simulan sistemas complejos excede hoy en día a nuestra capacidad de proporcionar los datos necesarios para obtener una calibración fiable. Finalmente, el artículo demuestra la importancia que tiene la calibración - en régimen transitorio - en la simulación de alternativas de gestión. La calibración en régimen transitorio debería ser considerada parte fundamental de cualquier modelo, tanto en dos como en 3D.

  14. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens atteints de FAD recevant de l'indoxacarb topique, un nouvel insecticide de la classe des oxadiazines. Sujets Vingt cinq chiens de propriétaires du Queensland, Australie, précédemment diagnostiqués allergiques aux puces à partir des signes cliniques, des tests intradermiques et des tests sérologiques. Méthodes Une étude ouverte, non contrôlée, dans laquelle tous les chiens ont été traités avec de l'indoxacarb topique à 4 semaines d'intervalles, trois fois sur 12 semaines. Résultats Vingt quatre chiens ont été inclus dans l'étude. Une résolution complète des signes cliniques de FAD a été observée pour 21 cas (87.5%), ave une résolution presque complète ou une amélioration marquée pour les trois autres cas. Les scores cliniques moyens (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) ont été réduits de 93.3% à la semaine 12. Les scores de prurit moyens ont été réduits de 88% à la semaine 12. Les comptages moyens de puce ont été réduits de 98.7% et 100% respectivement aux semaines 8 et 12. Conclusions et importance clinique Le traitement topique d'indoxacarb appliqué toutes les 4 semaines pendant 12 semaines, sans antiprurigineux ou ectoparasitaire concomitant, a complètement supprimé l'infestation de puces pour tous les chiens et les signes cliniques associés à la FAD pour une large proportion de cette population de chiens dans un environnement contenant des puces. Resumen Introducción la dermatitis alérgica a las pulgas en perros (FAD), es una respuesta de hipersensibilidad a material antigénico en la saliva de las pulgas que se alimentan en los perros. Ocurre a nivel mundial y aún permanece como una presentación común en los animales de compañía en las prácticas veterinarias, a pesar de la disponibilidad de efectivos tratamientos sistémicos y tópicos para el control de las pulgas. Hipótesis/Objetivos evaluar la respuesta clínica en perros con FAD tratados tópicamente con inoxacarb, novedoso insecticida de tipo oxadiacina. Animales 25 animales de propietarios particulares en Queensland, Australia, diagnosticados con FAD en base a los signos clínicos, y pruebas serológicas intradérmicas para el antígeno de las pulgas. Métodos se realizó un estudio abierto no controlado en el cual los perros fueron tratados con indoxacarb por vía tópica a intervalos de cuatro semanas, tres veces en el curso de 12 semanas. Resultados 24 perros completaron el estudio. La resolución completa de los signos clínicos de FAD fue observada en 21 casos (87,5%), con casi completa resolución o una marcada mejora en los restantes tres casos. El valor medio de evaluación clínica (índice de extensión y severidad de la dermatitis atópica canina-03) se redujo un 93,3% en la semana 12. Los valores medios de prurito evaluados por los propietarios se redujeron en un 88% en la semana 12 los recuentos medios de pulgas se redujeron un 98,7 y un 100% en las semanas 8 y 12, respectivamente. Conclusiones e importancia clínica el tratamiento tópico con indoxacarb aplicado cada cuatro semanas durante 12 semanas, sin tratamientos complementarios antipruriticos o terapia ectoparásiticida, alivian completamente la infestación por pulgas en todos los perros y los signos clínicos asociados con FAD en una alta proporción de esta población de perros en un ambiente con contacto con pulgas. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Die Flohspeichelallergie des Hundes (FAD), bei der es sich um eine Hypersensibilitätsreaktion auf das Antigenmaterial im Speichel von saugenden Flöhen handelt, kommt weltweit vor und stellt einen häufigen Vorstellungsgrund in der Kleintierpraxis dar, obwohl weltweit wirksame systemische und topische Flohkontrollprodukte verfügbar sind. Hypothese/Ziele Eine Evaluierung der klinischen Antwort von Hunden mit FAD, die topisch mit Indoxacarb, einem neuen Oxadiazin Insektizid, behandelt worden waren. Tiere Fünfundzwanzig private Hunde in Queensland, Australien, die mit bereits existierender FAD basierend auf klinischer Symptomatik, positiven Intradermaltests und positiver Serologie auf Flohallergen diagnostiziert worden waren. Methoden Eine offene, nicht kontrollierte Studie, in der alle Hunde mit topischem Indoxacarb in 4 wöchigen Intervallen, drei Mal über einen Zeitraum von 12 Wochen behandelt wurden. Ergebnisse Vierundzwanzig Hunde beendeten die Studie. Eine gänzliche Abheilung der klinischen Anzeichen von FAD wurde in 21 Fällen beobachtet (87,5%), bei nahezu völligem Verschwinden oder einer deutlichen Verbesserung in den restlichen drei Fällen. Die durchschnittlichen klinischen Werte (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) waren in der zwölften Woche um 93,3% reduziert. Die durchschnittlichen, von den BesitzerInnen beurteilten, Juckreizwerte waren in der zwölften Woche um 88% reduziert. Die durchschnittliche Anzahl an Flöhen war in den Wochen 8 und 12 um 97,7 bzw 100% reduziert. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Bedeutung Indoxacarb, welches topisch alle 4 Wochen 12 Wochen lang ohne begleitende juckreizstillende Behandlung oder einer Behandlung von Ektoparasiten verabreicht wurde, milderte die Flohinfestationen bei allen Hunden und die mit FAD auftretenden klinischen Symptome in einer großen Proportion dieser Hundepopulation, die in einer schwierigen Umgebung mit hohem Flohvorkommen, lebten. PMID:24797425

  15. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been