Note: This page contains sample records for the topic sua importancia socio-ambiental from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

In Aspergillus nidulans the Suppressors suaA and suaC Code for Release Factors eRF1 and eRF3 and suaD Codes for a Glutamine tRNA  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus nidulans, after extensive mutagenesis, a collection of mutants was obtained and four suppressor loci were identified genetically that could suppress mutations in putative chain termination mutations in different genes. Suppressor mutations in suaB and suaD have a similar restricted spectrum of suppression and suaB111 was previously shown to be an alteration in the anticodon of a gln tRNA. We have shown that like suaB, a suaD suppressor has a mutation in the anticodon of another gln tRNA allowing suppression of UAG mutations. Mutations in suaA and suaC had a broad spectrum of suppression. Four suaA mutations result in alterations in the coding region of the eukaryotic release factor, eRF1, and another suaA mutation has a mutation in the upstream region of eRF1 that prevents splicing of the first intron within the 5?UTR. Epitope tagging of eRF1 in this mutant results in 20% of the level of eRF1 compared to the wild-type. Two mutations in suaC result in alterations in the eukaryotic release factor, eRF3. This is the first description in Aspergillus nidulans of an alteration in eRF3 leading to suppression of chain termination mutations.

Liu, Wen; Mellado, Laura; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Sealy-Lewis, Heather M.



Lectura socio-ambiental de la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, perspectiva desde indicadores de desarrollo sustentable: presión–estado–respuesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the methodology proposed by the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the model pressure-state-response (PSR), and make an interpretation about social, economical and environmental in a relatively simple interpretation. The PSR framework is based in the logic of causality: the human activities exert pressures (pressure) on the environment and change the quality and quantity of

Carlos Francisco Ortiz Paniagua; Alberto Francisco Gómez Tagle Rojas



La Importancia de la Comunidad Hispana en el Conjunto Cultural de Nueva Orleans: Una Futuro Profesional Examina su Cultura y Lenguaje  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación examina la importancia de la comunidad hispánica en Nueva Orleans con énfasis en su lengua y cultura. La investigación es probar cómo es importa tener hispánicos en Nueva Orleans y cómo es beneficio poder comunicar con ellos en español. La investigación incluye la influencia de hispánicos en Nueva Orleans en el pasado, el presente y el futuro, información

Amber Kelly



Assessment of alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity in Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-dependent and molecular-based culture-independent methods were used to assess alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity at Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana. Isolates belonging to the genera Natrialba, Natronococcus and Natronorubrum were recovered from brine samples by enrichment and identified through a series of biochemical tests as well as sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments. In addition, an environmental 16S rRNA library was constructed

Ashant Pravin Gareeb; Mathabatha Evodia Setati



Business opportunities generated by the Serowe Coal and Sua Pan Brine Projects. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study is to identify local and international business opportunities generated by the Sua Pan Brine/Soda Ash Project and the Serowe/Kgaswe Coal project. Specific tasks included: Identification of the equipment, materials and supplies, and manpower requirements for the two projects during construction and operation; Review of the capacity of local industries and businesses to supply the goods and services required; Identification of local business opportunities generated by the two projects; Brief descriptions of the relevant opportunities for local businesses, as well as of equipment and services that could be provided by external suppliers; Institutional arrangements to encourage the development of local businesses are also suggested.

Not Available



Wind characteristics over Sua Pan, Botswana: Observations from DO4Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust Observations for Models (DO4Models) is a project designed to gather data from source regions at a scale appropriate to climate model grid box resolution. During the southern winter of 2011 and 2012 an array of automatic weather stations and dust monitoring instruments were deployed across Sua Pan in Botswana. Surface characteristics were also quantified in detail. This paper evaluates the characteristics of the measured wind-field across the pan. The seasonal evolution of the wind and its diurnal signature are analysed. The extent to which synoptic forcing is responsible for key deflation events is analysed and the characteristics of the winds during these events is determined.

Washington, Richard; Wiggs, Giles; King, James; Thomas, David; Haustein, Kasten; Moorhouse, Harriet




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Pretendeu-se identificar as percepções de professores de 1ºCEB, sobre as suas dificuldades sobre a educação sexual e analisar alguns factores individuais com influência nestas concepções. Os dados recolhidos por um questionário construído para o efeito foram tratados estatisticamente no programa SPSS. Os resultados sugerem maiores dificuldades na área de expressões da sexualidade e menores na de relações interpessoais. Como



The universal YrdC/Sua5 family is required for the formation of threonylcarbamoyladenosine in tRNA  

PubMed Central

Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universal modification found at position 37 of ANN decoding tRNAs, which imparts a unique structure to the anticodon loop enhancing its binding to ribosomes in vitro. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genetic, structural and biochemical approaches, the universal protein family YrdC/Sua5 (COG0009) was shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of this hypermodified base. Contradictory reports on the essentiality of both the yrdC wild-type gene of Escherichia coli and the SUA5 wild-type gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae led us to reconstruct null alleles for both genes and prove that yrdC is essential in E. coli, whereas SUA5 is dispensable in yeast but results in severe growth phenotypes. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed that the E. coli YrdC protein binds ATP and preferentially binds RNAThr lacking only the t6A modification. This work lays the foundation for elucidating the function of a protein family found in every sequenced genome to date and understanding the role of t6A in vivo.

El Yacoubi, Basma; Lyons, Benjamin; Cruz, Yulien; Reddy, Robert; Nordin, Brian; Agnelli, Fabio; Williamson, James R.; Schimmel, Paul; Swairjo, Manal A.; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie



Local procurement generated by the Kgaswe Coal and Sua Pan Brine/Soda Ash Projects. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study is to identify local and international business opportunities generated by: (1) the Sua Pan Brine/Soda Ash Project; and (2) the Kgaswe Coal project. The scope of work included: Determine the requirements for equipment, infrastructure, manpower, materials, and supplies generated by the two projects during construction and operation; Review the capacity of local industries and businesses to supply goods and services required; Identify opportunities for the development of downstream industries as well as for the expansion of local businesses; and Describe opportunities for local businesses, for sales of equipment, goods and services by external suppliers and identify institutional changes which will assist the development of local businesses.

Not Available



Event-based measurement of boundary-layer winds and topographic effects with a small unmanned aircraft system (sUas)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models are invaluable tools for developing and testing hypotheses about interactions and feedbacks between wind and topography. However, field-based measurements are equally important for building and enhancing confidence in model output. Several field methods are available, including conventional approaches using tall masts equipped with an array of anemometers, as well as weather balloons, but few methods are able to match the level of detail available in model simulations of topographically-modified windflow. Here we propose an alternative method that may enhance numerical models. The method involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUas) equipped with a meteorological sensor payload. The sUas is a two blade helicopter that weighs 5.5 kg, and has a length of 1.32 m. We designed a simple measurement and control system using an Arduino micro-controller, which acquired measurements at pre-defined coordinates autonomously. The entire survey was pre-configured and uploaded to the aircraft, effectively avoiding the need for manual aircraft operation and data collection. We collected raw measurements at each waypoint, yielding a point cloud of windspeed data. During test flights the sUas was able to maintain a stable position (± 0.6 m vertical and horizontal) in wind speeds up to 50 km/h. We used the raw data to map the wind speed-up ratio relative to a reference anemometer. Although it would be preferable to acquire continuous measurements at each waypoint, the sUas method only provides a snapshot of wind at each location. However, despite this limitation, the sUas does fill a void in terms of spatial measurements within the boundary layer. It may be possible to enhance this method in the future through deployment of sUas swarms that measure wind concurrently at many locations. Furthermore, other sensors can be deployed on sUas for measuring aeolian processes such as dust.

Riddell, K.; Hugenholtz, C.



O CLIMATÉRIO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A SAÚDE E O AMBIENTE DE TRABALHO The Climacterium and its relation to health and work environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O período do climatério é caracterizado por sinais e sintomas que podem repercutir de algum modo na vida de mulheres, tanto do ponto de vista familiar como profissional. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as interferências dos problemas vivenciados pela mulher no climatério e suas relações com a saúde e o ambiente de trabalho. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória-descritiva

Sandra Mar; Brasil Soares; Ana Maria Fontenelle Catri; Raimunda Magalhães da Silva; Mirna Albuquerque Frota


Religión y autonomía: la importancia del respeto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent way of interpreting religious feelings consists of getting away from superstitions and getting into the religion of solidarity between human beings. All religions share a common ground of values that make up the fundamentals upon which a solidarity ethic has to be established. Human beings must use their powers to promote good in the world, excluding nobody and,

Salvador Cabedo Manuel



Sua Pan Surface Bidirectional Reflectance: A Validation Experiment of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) During SAFARI 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) dry season campaign was carried out during August and September 2000 at the peak of biomass burning. The intensive ground field and airborne measurements planned for this campaign provided a unique opportunity to validate space sensors, such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), onboard NASA's EOS Terra platform. The MISR validation team participated with a suite of ground-based instruments, including the Portable Apparatus for Rapid Acquisition of Bidirectional Observations of Land and Atmosphere (PARABOLA III) and sun radiometers, to measure the surface bidirectional reflectance and atmospheric aerosol. Another participating air-sensor was the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) flown onboard the University of Washington CV-580. In the absence of clouds, CAR observations permit the evaluation of the surface bidirectional reflectance. This paper present the first validation study of MISR surface products by comparing MISR retrieval of the surface BRF, at Sua Pan, Botswana, with those evaluated on the ground and from the air, using the PARABOLA and CAR observations, respectively. Two different data sets are used in this study; one was collected under clear atmospheric conditions on August 27, and the other, on September 3, exhibiting hazy conditions from a wildfire started on a previous day near Sua Pan. Beside validating MISR surface products, the presence of haze and smoke on September 3 provided a case study to evaluate MISR aerosol retrieval.

Abdou, W. A.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Diner, D. J.; Conel, J. E.; Pilorz, S. H.; Martonchik, J. V.; Kahn, R. A.; Gatebe, C.; King, M.



Provenance analysis and thermo-dynamic studies of multi-type Holocene duricrusts (1700 BC) in the Sua Salt Pan, NE Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-type duricrusts, composed of silcretes, calcretes, halcretes and sulcretes developed during the Holocene at the northern rim of the Sua Salt Pan, NE Botswana. They were investigated for their light (quartz/chalcedony, feldspar, analcime, clinoptilolite, calcite, kaolinite/halloysite, illite-smectite mixed-layers, halite) and heavy minerals (baryte, clinozoisite-epidote s.s.s., amphibole, corundum, tourmaline, ilmenite, rutile, sphene, kyanite, andalusite, staurolite, garnet, zircon, apatite, monazite, cassiterite, garnet, biotite) using petrographic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analyses, radio-carbon dating, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an EDX-system, cation exchange capacity and infrared spectroscopy. Detrital minerals predominantly derived from the erosion of rocks belonging to the Archaean Basement Complex, the Stormberg Volcanites and the Kalahari sediments. Of particular interest to exploration geologists, geikielite-enriched ilmenite fragments are a hint to kimberlitic pipes. Biodetritus was derived from invertebrates and from vertebrates (fish bones?). A man-made impact on the heavy mineral suite has to be invoked from small fragments of cassiterite fragments that derived from processing of sulfidic and pegmatitic Sn-bearing ore. In the salt-pan-derived duricrusts mainly the aeolian and to a lesser degree fluvial inputs were responsible for the concentration of clasts in these multi-type duricrusts. Moreover, their variegated mineralogy enables us to constrain the physical-chemical regime, prevalently as to the pH and the chemical composition of the major constituents. All duricrusts developed in a self-sufficient chemically closed system where quartz and feldspar provided the elements Si, Na, K, Ca, and Ba to produce the encrustations. The spatial and temporal trend in the Sua Salt Pan rim encrustations may be described as follows: (1) sulcrete-silcretes, (2) silcretes with kaolinite-group minerals towards more recent stages at the rim and smectite-illite mixed-layers and clinoptilolite towards the basin center, (3) calcretes with analcite towards the basin center, (4) halcretes (and soda ash at a more central position). In the sulcrete-silcrete facies the pH decreases from pH 14 down to 4. In the calcretes and halcretes it increases from pH 8 to pH > 13. marking a chemical hiatus between stages 1 plus 2 and stages 3 plus 4. Mineral assemblages forming more basinward tend to have derived from more alkaline fluids than those near the edge of the salt pan.

Dill, Harald G.; Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.; Techmer, A.



La Importancia de la Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje  

NASA Video Gallery

Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la Oficina de Exploración de Marte de la NASA, y conozca todas la nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas dentro del nuevo Laboratorio Científico ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multivariate direct ordination approach, Partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis, we investigated in semidesert grasslands of northeastern Jalisco the relationship of annual variation in community compositional patterns to weather dynamics, once the soil, management and time influences fitted. Temporal floristic variation patterns were mainly influenced by summer precipitation and summer



Importancia pronóstica de la autoinmunidad durante el tratamiento del melanoma con interferón  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADJUVANT THERAPY WITH INTERFERON alfa-2b (after surgery for deep primary or regionally metastatic melanoma) has clinically significant benefits for patients with melanoma who are at high risk for relapse or death. Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIB, IIC, or III melanoma have risks of relapse and death exceeding 40 percent at five years and are candidates

Helen Gogas; John Ioannovich; Urania Dafni




Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotany is the branch of human knowledge that studies the relationship between plants and human. In Mexico, angiosperms have been mostly studied. However, there are seedless plants such as the genus Equisetum that has an important cultural value as evidenced in several communities, mainly due to its biochemical properties. In this paper we presented a review of bibliographical information supplemented

Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez; María de Lourdes Esparza-Aguilar; Armando Gómez-Campos


Saco y pseudosaco. Su importancia en el diagnóstico diferencial ecográfico de la gestación ectópica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a pregnant woman who presented to the emergency department with slight vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. The the differential diagnosis between eutopic, heterotopic and tubal ectopic pregnancy was hampered by the presence of an intrauterine pseudosac. The clinical course was complicated by spontaneous rupture of a tubal ectopic pregnancy, which required curettage

A. Carballo; J. J. Hijona; F. J. Frutos; J. C. Presa; J. L. Alcázar; J. M. Torres


La Importancia de la Evolución para la Sociedad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The thought provoking interview shows readers how evolution influences everyones life every day. Examples are decisions you make about conservation and the environment, choices in the medications you need, such as antibiotics, ensuring an adequate food supply, and learning skills to work in biotechnology or software development.

Massimo Pigliucci (State University of New York at Stony Brook;)



Identificación de Virus Fitopatógenos en Cultivos Hortícolas de Importancia Económica en el Estado de Guanajuato, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) was used to identify the causal agents of virus diseases on potato, zucchini, melon, watermelon, cucumber, tomato, pepper, garlic, asparagus, and strawberry in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. For potato, the viruses PVA, PVM, PVS, PVX, PVY, and PLRV, were found in all the foliage samples analyzed. PVS, PVA, and PVM had a greater

Luis Pérez-Moreno; Esteban Rico-Jaramillo; José Trinidad Ascencio-Ibáñez; Raúl Díaz-Plaza



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a synthesis of contributions to the project of implantation of Competitive Intelligence Nuclei in Santa Catarina, Brazil. These Nuclei will be coordinated by UFSC, UDESC and UNISUL universities, as an integrated project linking the academic research to the social-economic reality. The projects of the Nucleus will focuse the Strategic Management of Knowledge area, particularly in the Competitive

Edson Pinheiro de Lima; Sandra Leandro Pereira; Antonio Carlos Souza; Zaira Ramos Benitez


Crianças surdas e suas famílias: um panorama geral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the importance of the family to child development, especially to children who have some disability, this paper analysed some aspects of family interactions and relationships developed between such children and their families. We emphasised family interactions because of their influence on the development of the children's relationships in the future, particularly in relation to the deaf child. Thus, the

Angela Maria Waked de Brito; Maria Auxiliadora Dessen




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo ? Toda inovação tecnológica em educação precisa se basear em um contexto epistemológico bem definido. Ao se conceber um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem - AVA, deve haver com uma adequada fundamentação teórica. Assim, torna-se possível desenvolver ferramentas de aprendizagem adequadas. Neste artigo, são analisadas as possibilidades pedagógicas de ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem. Essas possibilidades são baseadas no Construtivismo, teoria

Luciano Andreatta; Carvalho da Costa; Sérgio Roberto; Kieling Franco



Microsoft Academic Search

La participación es un elemento indispensable que hace posible poner a prueba y desarrollar las capacidades humanas y estructuras, para desde la comunidad producir cultura para esta. Así se convierte en el elemento que posibilita un verdadero desarrollo endógeno en tanto proceso de cambio y transformación. Al proporcionar cauces de participación sociocultural, se estimula el desarrollo de determinadas relaciones y

Ana Margarita Gómez Aguilera; Rafaela Macías Reyes



Importancia de los deslizamientos en el Parque Nacional Podocarpus, Loja, Ecuador Importance of landslides in Podocarpus National Park, Loja, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary data on the pioneer vegetation found on natural and man-made landslides in the Parque Nacional de Podocarpus (PNP). The natural landslides selected were distributed between 2100 and 3200 m (216 study sites), while the man-made landslides were situated between 1900 and 2800 m above sea- level (216 study sites). Sampling followed Blanquet (1979) and the altitudinal gradient

Pablo Lozano; Rainer Bussmann



Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this research has been to analyse the importance attributed by the foreign tourists to the information about places and attractions to visit once these tourists arrive in the chosen destination. The results of the enquiry undertaken with tourists from United Kingdom, Germany, France and USA show that the tourists from these four countries give great importance

Enrique Ortega Martínez; Beatriz Rodríguez Herráez


A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

Garcia-Rissmann, A.



Composição do leite de tanques de rebanhos brasileiros distribuídos segundo sua contagem de células somáticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the somatic cell count (SCC), fat, protein, lactose and total solids percentages on bulk tank milk samples, from December 1996to July 1998, was used to characterize the milk composition as determined by SCC. Data of 4785 from the database were classified according to the SCC, in four groups (Group 1, SCC < 500 thousand cells\\/ mL; Group

Paulo Fernando Machado; Alfredo Ribeiro Pereira; Gabriel Adrian Sarríes



Uso da maconha e suas representações sociais: estudo comparativo entre universitários  

Microsoft Academic Search

¶ ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to compare the social representations of university students who are getting their degree in the technological, health and law areas, on the use of marijuana. Sixty (60) university students took part in this re search, both sexes, aged from 22 to 30 years old. Semi-structured interviews were used and the collected material

Maria da Penha de L. Coutinho; Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo; Bernard Gontiès



O contexto de exclusão social e de vulnerabilidades de jovens infratores e de suas famílias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The context of social exclusion and vulnerabilities in delinquent youths and their families. Social exclusion and juvenile delinquency have got much attention in the media and in academic discussions. The idea of exclusion includes many forms of segregation and discrimination, which results into difficult obstacles to overcome. This paper aims at drawing the vulnerabilities of the delinquent and his family,

Maria Cristina Feijó; Simone Gonçalves de Assis



Equacoes de Kohn-Laplace no grupo de Heisenberg I: Calculo de suas simetrias  

Microsoft Academic Search

No final do seculo XIX, Sophus Lie introduziu a nocao de grupos cont´õnuos, atualmente con- hecidos por grupos de Lie, com o objetivo de unificar e estender varios metodos de se obter solucoes de equacoes diferenciais ordinarias e parciais, que culminou com o surgimeto de uma nova vertente em Matematica: a Teoria de Lie. O resultado do trabalho de Lie

Yuri D. Bozhkov; Igor L. Freire



Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the basics concepts of Total Productive Maintenance from an critical view point. It shows the most important relations between Total Productive Maintenance and the Toyota Production System.

José Antônio; Valle Antunes


El uso de las simulaciones educativas en la ensenanza de conceptos de ciencias y su importancia desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes candidatos a maestros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was aimed at establishing the differences, if any, between traditional direct teaching and constructive teaching through the use of computer simulations and their effect on pre-service teachers. It's also intended to gain feedback on the users of these simulations as providers of constructive teaching and learning experiences. The experimental framework used a quantitative method with a descriptive focus. The research was guided by two hypothesis and five inquiries. The data was obtained from a group composed of twenty-nine students from a private Metropolitan University in Puerto Rico and elementary school pre-service teachers. They were divided into two sub-groups: experimental and control. Two means were used to collect data: tests and surveys. Quantitative data was analyzed through test "t" for paired samples and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The results of the pre and post tests do not provide enough evidence to conclude that using the simulations as learning tools was more effective than traditional teaching. However, the quantitative results obtained were not enough to reject or dismiss the hypothesis Ho1. On the other hand, an overall positive attitude towards these simulations was obtained from the surveys. The importance of including hands-on activities in daily lesson planning was proven and well recognized among practice teachers. After participating and working with these simulations, the practice teachers expressed being convinced that they would definitely use them as teaching tools in the classroom. Due to these results, hypothesis Ho2 was rejected. Evidence also proved that practice teachers need further professional development to improve their skills in the application of these simulations in the classroom environment. The majority of these practice teachers showed concern about not being instructed on important aspects of the use of simulation as part of their college education curriculum towards becoming teachers.

Crespo Ramos, Edwin O.


Insectos en Hogares y Bodegas de Alimentos, de Importancia para la Salud Publica (Household and Stored-Food Insects of Public Health Importance and Their Control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of drawings to help identify a variety of insects. Short descriptions review insect habitat and chemical control methods. The insects covered include: silverfish, cockroaches, earwigs, ants, moths, chiggers, beetles, grubs and weevils. A bibliog...



A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.



76 FR 45300 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License SUA-1597 and Record of Decision for Uranerz Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Document Access and Management System (ADAMS...In-Situ Recovery Project, January 2011. 9...Ron C. Linton, Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery...Division of Waste Management and Environmental...



78 FR 17450 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License Renewal, Operating License SUA-1341, Uranium One USA, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Christensen Ranch Projects (Willow Creek Project) Wyoming, July...Creek ML13015A366 Project, March 2013...Deputy Director, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery...Division of Waste Management and...



Importancia de los Caprinos en el Ecosistema y en la Economia Campesina del Despoblado de Piura (Importance of Goats in the Ecosystem and Rural Economy of the Piura Desert).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goat population has diminished in recent years while cattle is raising. Goat effects on the ecosystem are stereotyped, because the disturbances caused by other livestock were alike to those related to goats. It is stressed that Piura deserts are character...

H. Cordova Aguilar N. Bermex de Falen




Microsoft Academic Search

Non-physical barriers had been tested in US and Canada as a system to avoid fish entrance in harmful areas at power plants or in canals for water delivery and irrigation. Among these barriers we tested strobe light's effect on delta smelt, a small osmerid endemic to the San Francisco Estuary. The results of the tests conducted at the USBR Hydraulic

Luiz Gustavo; M. SILVA


Nacao e Cidadania: A Constituicao de 1824 e Suas Implicacoes Politicas (Nation and Citizenship: The Constitution of 1824 and Its Political Implications).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brings a different reading of 1824's Brazilian Imperial Political Constitution. Discusses some historical and political circumstances of the document's construction. Investigates practices, conceptions, and supports that could have clarified some principles stressed by the document, especially those related to citizenship matters. (PA)

Oliveira, Cecilia Helena Lorenzini de Salles



Abordagem do tema hipertensão arterial e suas relações com o tabagismo e a obesidade como forma de avaliação da aquisição e socialização de conhecimentos em Feiras de Ciências  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho apresenta a experiência vivenciada por um professor do Ensino Fundamental de Escola Pública do Paraná, na orientação de uma equipe de alunos de 8ª série, em 2008, visando o desenvolvimento de trabalhos em Feiras de Ciências. A temática da equipe enfoca a hipertensão arterial e seus fatores de risco, tabagismo e obesidade, no município de Floresta. Escolheu-se

Eduardo de Almeida Grenier; Celso Ivam Conegero



Sua Pan surface bidirectional reflectance: a validation experiment of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during SAFARI 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) dray deason campaign was carried out during August and September 2000 at the peak of biomass burning. The intensive ground-based and airborne measurements in this campaign provided a unique opportunity to validate space sensors, such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), onboard NASA's EOS Terra platform.

Abdou, Wedad A.; Pilorz, Stuart H.; Helmlinger, Mark C.; Diner, David J.; Conel, James E.; Martonchik, John V.; Gatebe, Charles K.; King, Michael D.; Hobbs, Peter V.



Uma abordagem realistica da nao-localidade quantica e suas consequencias experimentais. (A realistic approach of the quantum non-locality and their experimental consequences).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A realistic approach to quantum nonlocality is proposed, and four experiments that can be used to test this approach, using pairs of correlated photons are discussed. The first experiment proposed would allow us to investigate the role of the interaction ...

L. C. B. Ryff



Quantitative Eolian Transport of Evaporite Salts from the Makgadikgadi Depression (Ntwetwe and Sua Pans) in Northeastern Botswana: Implications for Regional Ground-Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eolian salts from the evaporite-covered Makgadikgadi Depression in Botswana were observed in the soil as far as 150 km downwind\\u000a from the depression. Over three million metric tons of chloride, sodium, and bicarbonate are transported each year from the\\u000a basin to the adjacent land. Infiltering soil water mobilizes and transports these soluble salts to the ground water, where\\u000a they degrade

Warren W. Wood; Frank D. Eckardt; Thomas F. Kraemer; Ken Eng



Microsoft Academic Search

GEOLOGY AND GEOCHRONOLOGY OF ARCHEAN GRANITOIDS OF THE XINGUARA REGION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE RIO MARIA GRANITE-GREENSTONE TERRANE, AMAZONIAN CRATON The Xinguara area, located in the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain - Pará, is composed of several Archaean granitoids. Structures and fa bric elements visible at outcrop and microscopic scales, and zircon Pb-Pb ages suggest that these granitoids were



Evolução recente do Ensino Secundário em Portugal e suas implicações nos currículos de Geologia; a perspectiva da Associação Portuguesa de Geólogos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being aware of the Science Education\\/Training significance, the APG followed with concern the successive cur - ricular reorganizations experienced by the Portuguese Secondary School level in the last few years. The general structure of the current learning programmes is not completely unfavourable to Geology, recognising its educa- tional and cultural value. There are, however, various problems that must be solved

Edite Bolacha; António Mateus; D. Dinis; Rua Manuel Teixeira Gomes



The Standard Ellipse and Its Relationship to the Rigidity Coefficient a Elipse Padrao E Sua Relacao COM O Coeficiente de Rigidez.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of geodedic triangulation permit the use of various techniques to minimize errors of all types. The existing connection between two instruments using these techniques was presented as well as their relationship to a relative standard ellipse with ...

H. U. Pilchowski




Microsoft Academic Search

The presented paper aims to analyze the perception on 3 dimensions of business associateship (management skill, business relationship and representativeness) by young entrepreneurs, besides putting in context the associativity movement in Brasil. In order to do so, the article presents a brief theoretical review, a few data on the entrepreneurial context in Brasil and finally a quantitative survey research introduces



EFEITO DA CELULASE SOBRE A DECOMPOSIÇÃO DO PERGAMINHO E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA VELOCIDADE E PORCENTAGEM DE GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE CAFEEIRO 1 Effect of the cellulase about the decomposition of the parchment and speed of germination of coffee seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 em tampão citrato de potássio 0,05 mol.L -1 . Observou-se que a quantidade de açúcar liberado in vitro foi diretamente relacionada com a concentração de enzima, e que houve aumento expressivo e linear na quantidade de açúcares redutores liberados nas duas concentrações (1,6 e 3,2 g.L -1 ) à medida que se aumentou o tempo de incubação das amostras

Juliana de Fátima Sales; Amauri Alves de Alvarenga; João Almir de Oliveira; Francisco Dias Nogueira; Fabiano Guimarães Silva; André Dely Veiga


Sobrepeso e obesidade e sua relação com a prática de atividade física e o consumo dietético entre adolescentes Overweight and obesity and their relation to physical activity and diet among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Obesity in teenagers has been studied in many countries. It has been associated to eating habits and physical inactivity. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the frequency of overweight and obesity as related to physical activity and eating habits among adolescents. Methods: A sample of randomly selected 285 subjects of both sexes with ages ranging from 10 to 19

Luciano Meireles de Pontes


Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Usina Hidreletrica da Santa Rita (MG): estrategica tecnica para sua elaboracao. (Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant (Minas Gerais State - Brazil): technical strategic for its elaboration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The steps for developing the technical strategies used on the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant, Minas Gerais State, are described, including the influence area, technical requirements, impact identificat...

J. A. Souza F. P. Marques Neto




Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the Unified Health System in Brazil, it has been inadequate for the resolution of health problems of the community. Thus, former graduates could provide subsides for a better understanding of the relationship between education and practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of former students of the State University of Londrina about their

Márcia Hiromi Sakai; Luiz Cordoni Junior


Diferentes tipos de hidratação durante o exercício prolongado e sua influência sobre o sódio plasmático Different types of hydration during a lenghened exercise and their influence on plasmatic sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at identifying alterations in plasmatic sodium concentration, concerning four hydration procedures: a) water ad libitum; b) scheduled water; c) sport drink of type1 (SD-T1); d) and sport drink of type 2 (SD-T2). An intragroup (intranalysis) and an intergroup (interanalysis) were performed on hydration procedures during a physical work with a duration of 120 minutes and an intensity

Salvador Zamora Navarro


Pesquisa de anticorpos contra o vírus da hepatite C em pool de 5 soros: sua utilização em inquéritos soroepidemiológicos Detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus in a 5 sera pool testing: its use in seroepidemiological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the reduction in the cost of testing for antibodies against hepatitis C (EIA) by the pool method, we tested serum samples from a rural population and from patients in a hemodialysis program. Two thirds of the high risk groups were positive. Pooling reduced the reagent use by 80% in the rural population and by 13% in

Kikumi Suzete Ozaki; Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes; Hildenete Monteiro Fortes; Francisco José Dutra Souto


La visión global de la utilidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resu men En el presente documento se aborda el concepto y teorías de la Utilidad, en él, se consideran los desarrollos que han tenido a través de la historia, las diferentes visiones según las disciplinas del conocimiento; pero reviste especial importancia los aportes hechos por la filosofía, la economía y las matemáticas. En su análisis es de vital importancia la

José Zacarías Mayorga Sánchez



AvAliAção dA forçA de preensão pAlmAr em idosAs diAbéticAs e não diAbéticAs e suA correlAção com o sinAl dA prece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluat IOn Of hand g RIP st REngth In d IabEt IC and n Ond IabEt IC EldERly w OMEn and Its CORRElatIOn wIth thE PRayER sIgn Introduction . Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disturbance that may cause musculoskeletal disorders. Objective. To access the hand grip strength in elderly diabetic and nondiabetic and to correlate it with the pre- sence

Erika Baptista GomEs



Dispersao geoquimica dos elementos Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Na, K, Cu e Zn nos solos e sua aplicacao na caracterizacao de areas geoquimicamente homogeneas. (Geochemical dispersion of Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Na, K, Cu and Zn elements in soils and their use for characterization areas geochemically homogeneous).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variations in the chemical composition of soils are used to characterize sub-areas geochemically - homogenous. The application of this methodology in a tropical humid region of accentuated topography constitute the principal objective of the present resea...

W. R. L. Silva



o sup 14C como tracador do fluxo do carbono assimilado pelas plantas (milho, cana-de-acucar, feijao) e sua liberacao ao solo. ((14)C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of (sup 14)V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the iso...

B. J. F. Paula Eduardo



Study of the Relation Between Soil Use, Vegetation Coverage, and the Discharge of Sediments from Artificial Reservoirs Using MSS/LANDSAT Images. Example: The Tres Marias Reservoir and Its Supply Basin (Estudo DA Relacao Entre USO Do Solo, Cobertura Vegetal E Descarga de Sedimentos de Reservatorios Artificiais, Atraves E Imagens MSS/LANDSAT. Exemplo: Reservatorio de Tres Marias E Sua Bacia Abastecedora (Mg)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The land use and types of vegetation in the region of the upper Sao Francisco River, Brazil, are identified. This region comprises the supply basin of the Tres Marias reservoir. Imagery from channels 5 and 7 of the LANDSAT multispectral band scanner durin...

N. Dejesusparada T. M. Sausen



Modelo de Petrov-Galerkin combinado com esquemas auto-adaptativos e sua aplicacao na resolucao numerica de problemas com camada limite. (Combined Petrov-Galerkin method with auto-adapting schemes and its applications in numerical resolution of problems with limit layer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper a new finite element model is constructed combining an r- refinement scheme with the CCAU method. The new formulation gives better approximation for boundary and internal layers compared to the standard CCAU, without increasing computer code...

R. S. Silva A. C. Galeao E. G. D. Carmo



Efeito das radiacoes gama e ultra-violeta em isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch). Sorokin, 1883 e sua utilizacao visando o controle da Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794). (Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization against Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.). (Atomindex citation 22:003496)

L. C. Almeida



El cáncer

Información para mejorar sus conocimientos sobre el cáncer, que incluye las formas de prevenir el cáncer, la importancia de visitar al médico regularmente y hacerse exámenes de detección, y las diferentes opciones de tratamiento disponibles.


75 FR 43168 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aging (SUA), Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) and Local Service Providers (LSP...questionnaire followed by interviews with AAA directors and their staff and focus groups...the SUA to represent a maximum range of AAA and service provider network...




Microsoft Academic Search

As ciências sociais buscam compreender a forma pela qual a sociedade se organiza e assim viabiliza e condiciona a vida dos seus membros. Seu objeto, portanto, é a vida humana enquanto vida social, é o sistema social, sua estrutura, sua cultura, suas instituições. O objetivo do estudo das ciências sociais é o de fornecer elementos que orientem a ação individual

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira


Making the Case for New Research to Support the Integration of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the current state of sUAS regulation, their technical capabilities and the latest technologies that will allow for sUAS NAS integration. The research that is needed to demonstrate sUAS NAS integration capability is identified, and recommendations for conducting this necessary research are suggested.

McAdaragh, Raymon M.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.



Bench-to-bedside review: Antidotal treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia with octreotide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major potential adverse effect of use of sulfonylurea agents (SUAs) is a hyperinsulinaemic state that causes hypoglycaemia.\\u000a It may be observed during chronic therapeutic dosing, even with very low doses of a SUA, and especially in older patients.\\u000a It may also result from accidental or intentional poisoning in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The traditional approach\\u000a to SUA-induced hypoglycaemia

Philippe ER Lheureux; Soheil Zahir; Andrea Penaloza; Mireille Gris



The Diets of Sula dactylatra, Sula sula, and Fregata minor on Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

T he diets of the Blue-faced Booby (Su\\/a dacty\\/atra), the Red-footed Boob y (Su\\/a su\\/a), and the G reat Frigatebird (Fregata minor) were studied by analyses of reg urgitation samples. Flying fish and squid comp osed the majority of the diets, but the Frigatebirds also consumed numerous Sooty T ern (Sterna fuscata) pulli. T hese data allow comparison with similar



The frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with uric acid concentration based on data from genome-wide association studies in the Korean population.  


We aimed, first, to investigate the minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum uric acid (SUA) level in the Korean population and compare these with data from other ethnic groups and, second, to investigate whether the SNPs are associated with altered SUA levels. We examined the frequencies of risk alleles, investigated the MAFs of 40 previously described SNPs associated with SUA level in the Korean population (a total of 1,957 subjects), and compared results with data for other ethnic groups. We also analyzed associations with SUA concentrations based on data from genome-wide association studies in the Korean population (a total of 402 rheumatoid arthritis subjects) and tested whether polymorphism of any of the 40 SNPs associated with SUA identified previously was associated with SUA levels. The MAFs of SNPs associated with SUA level in the Korean population were quite similar to those among Japanese, but not in populations of European descent. SNP rs12734001 (PPP1R12B) proved to have the most probable association with SUA concentrations (P_trend = 2.29 × 10(-9)). We also analyzed 13 SNPs shown previously by meta-analysis to be associated with SUA, and SNP rs3741414 (INHBC) was found to have probable association with SUA level observed in the present study (P_trend = 0.01). The pattern of variants controlling SUA levels in the Korean population is not similar to that in European population. SNP rs12734001 (PPP1R12B) is significantly associated with SUA level among Koreans. PMID:24408252

Son, Chang-Nam; Bang, So-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Jun, Jae-Bum



Valoración de impactos socio- ambientales del arbolado urbano: una aplicación a la ciudad de Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago de Chile es tercero en la lista de ciudades más contaminadas de Latinoamérica, después de Ciudad de México y Sao Paulo, por lo cual la valoración ambiental y social del arbolado urbano en este contexto es de vital importancia. Los proyectos de arbolado urbano ya sea en calles, plazas, parques u otras áreas verdes tienen como propósito, por una

Carmen L. De la Maz; Claudia L. Cerd




Microsoft Academic Search

En este escrito de reflexión vamos a explicar la importancia que tiene el dinero para la economía, aquí nos daremos cuenta que éste es un elemento imprescindible para el sistema económico; explicaremos también lo que significa la capacidad que tiene el dinero de representar el valor y el precio, conocimiento éste que nos permite entender por qué el dinero al

Rafael Gómez Henao



Polimorfismos genéticos de aislamientos del género Malassezia obtenidos en Colombia de pacientes con lesión dermatológica y sin ella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. Las especies del género Malassezia se consideran levaduras oportunistas emergentes de gran importancia. Han sido asociadas a diferentes patologías dermatológicas y sistémicas de las cuales se aislan una o más especies de este género. El papel de estas levaduras en las enfermedades dermatológicas no se ha aclarado completamente, ya que la Malassezia spp. pertenece a la flora normal de

Adriana M. Celis; Maria Caridad Cepero de García


OBTENCIÓN DE OLEORRESINAS A PARTIR DE 3 ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM sp. CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con

L. Rodríguez; J. Arango; F. Urrego



Microsoft Academic Search

Con la generalización del perfeccionamiento empresarial cada una de nuestras empresas esta llamada al aumento de los niveles de organización, dirección y control de su gestión económica, fundamentado en la necesidad e importancia que reviste para la recuperación de la economía, el control de los recursos materiales, financieros y humanos, aplicando sistemas de registro y control que permitan obtener resultados

Caridad Darromán Savigne; Reynerio Velázquez Leyva




Microsoft Academic Search

Los derechos humanos de los niños son los mas atrasados en que las organizaciones mundiales han prestado atención y son los de mas importancia si lo que buscamos es una sociedad donde se preste atención y se respeten los derechos humanos, el primer lugar donde debemos comenzar es con los niños ya que han crecido generaciones completas de personas en

Gerardo Mauricio Olivares Ramírez; Antonio Castelan Valdivia



Hacia el Enlace entre la Estrategia Empresarial Mediante Modelos de Valor y el Software Mediante Modelos de Negocio: un Enfoque MDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uno de los objetivos del modelado de negocio es compren- der el funcionamiento de las empresas con el fin de aportar soluciones software de alto valor anadido. Estos modelos de negocio se ubican en diferentes perspec- tivas, desde aquellas mas cercanas a la estrategia del negocio, hasta las mas cercanas al software. A pesar de la importancia del modelado de

José Bocanegra; Antonio Ruiz-Cortés


Planificación urbana versus autoregulación: la ciudad de Fortaleza (Brasil) como tablero de juego de diferentes agentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortaleza es una ciudad relativamente jóven en cuanto a su importancia como metrópoli regional, caracterizándose sobre todo en las últimas décadas por una muy fuerte dinámica demográfica, económica y política. En este contexto el espacio urbano se ha convertido en una mercancía de alto costo, disputada entre los intereses contradictorios de compañías influentes, especuladores inmobiliarios, políticos y el resto de

Waltraud Rosner; Ulli Vilsmaier



Mecanismos de fallo de aceros estructurales durante la galvanización en caliente  

Microsoft Academic Search

La galvanización en caliente de perfiles de acero estructural produce, en ocasiones, grietas de considerable tamaño debido a fenómenos de corrosión bajo tensión, no siempre fáciles de detectar. Dada la importancia de las estructuras afectadas se han desarrollado numerosos proyectos de investigación en los últimos 25 años en todo el mundo con el fin de evitar la fisuración de sus

J. Carpio; J. A. Casado; J. A. Álvarez; D. Méndez; F. Gutiérrez-Solana



Mass Mortality of Fishes in Lake Titicaca (Peru–Bolivia) Associated with the Protozoan Parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis  

Microsoft Academic Search

En deciembre de 1981, una epidemia causada per el parásite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis mató un estimado de 18 millones de “killifish” del género Orestias en el Lago Titicaca (Perú–Bolivia), un sistema tropical de altura. Adultos de O. agassii, especie de importancia comercial, y abundante en la zona litoral, representaron el 93% de los peces muertos colectados. Juveniles de Orestias spp., especies

Wayne A. Wurstbaugh; Rene Alfaro Tapia



El seguro de depósito y su incidencia en la disciplina de mercado en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El concepto de disciplina de mercado es de gran importancia en el análisis del sistema financiero de un país. La disciplina de mercado se define como la reacción de los acreedores bancarios frente al riesgo financiero y la subsiguiente reacción de los bancos ante las acciones de sus acreedores. Este trabajo busca probar si la disciplina de mercado es típica

Julián Márquez A



Contratos de alta dirección en empresas familiares  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presencia de la empresa familiar en el panorama empresarial español configura la realidad empresarial de nuestro país y su importancia es capital para el desarrollo de la economía española. Uno de los problemas más recurrentes en la bibliografía sobre empresa familiar es el tipo de contrato que vincula la empresa familiar con los miembros familiares que trabajan en ella.

Ignacio Contreras; Sandalio Gomez; Josep Tapies



Transferencias entre gobiernos y representación política: elementos empíricos de juicio de Argentina, Brasil y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En los países en desarrollo, las transferencias entre gobiernos desde el nivel central son una fuente importante de ingresos para la mayoría de los gobiernos subnacionales. Y es probable que su importancia aumente aún más, si se toman en cuenta las iniciativas de descentralización en América Latina y otras regiones. En este trabajo se investiga

Moritz Kraemer



La dependencia financiera de los gobiernos locales en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

La distribución de los recursos y potestades tributarias entre los diferentes niveles de gobierno tiene suma importancia para la organización de las tareas económicas del Estado. La eficiencia económica y la función de estabilización macroeconómica requieren de una mayor centralización de ingresos; mientras que, en México, la autonomía de ingresos de los gobiernos locales (estados y municipios), contribuye a que

José Alfredo Tijerina Guajardo; Antonio Medellín Ruiz



Nuevas Actividades Exportadoras en Brasil: Ventaja Comparativa, Políticas o Auto-Descubrimiento?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento examina los hallazgos de Brasil en la exportación de aviones, teléfonos celulares y carne de cerdo. Todos los casos confirman la importancia que tienen el aumento de la eficacia y los costos irrecuperables en la expansión de las exportaciones y llevan a las siguientes conclusiones: la política económica y la ventaja comparativa desempeñaron un papel importante en la

Armando Castelar Pinneiro; Regis Bonelli




Microsoft Academic Search

La importancia que tienen los grupos de trabajo académicos para alcanzar objetivos que propicien la realización de investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en el Sistema Nacional de Institutos Tecnológicos hace imperativo su buen funcionamiento; de esto depende el poder alcanzar los objetivos o desviarse hacia actividades triviales. En ocasiones se realizan juntas pero no son productivas, con planeación defectuosa de las

Gloria Pérez Garmendia; Francisco Gerardo Barroso Tanoira; Concepción Mánica Zuccolotto



La historia de los servicios públicos en las ciudades gallegas: un programa de investigación  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo expone los objetivos y los resultados de un programa de investigación desarrollado desde hace una década en el seno de la Universidade da Coruña, en el que se analiza la implantación y desarrollo de los principales servicios públicos en las ciudades gallegas, desde una perspectiva histórica. Se parte de la constatación de la creciente importancia atribuida a las

Alberte Martínez López; Jesús Mirás Araujo



Radiografía del sector servicios en España  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pesar de la enorme y creciente importancia de las ramas de actividad de servicios en las economías desarrolladas, hasta fechas recientes los recursos destinados a su análisis han sido muy inferiores a los dirigidos a las ramas industriales. Las mejoras en lo que se refiere a la disponibilidad de información, que anteriormente era muy limitada, permiten abordar el análisis

Esther Gordo; Javier Jareño; Alberto Urtasun




Microsoft Academic Search

La supervivencia de la especie humana es inconcebible sin aquello que aporta el medio ambiente. Pese a ello los seres humanos hemos tendido, con el paso del tiempo, a despreciar su importancia, realizando nuestras actividades sin considerar nuestro impacto sobre él. La configuración de un sistema energético basado en la mala gestión de los recursos naturales, muchas veces utilizados a

Leonardo Granato; Nahuel Oddone; Adolfo Carballo Penela




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen En este capítulo mostraremos que, tanto el clima mediterráneo como la estructura y funcionamiento de los ecosistemas mediterráneos, han estado en constante cambio durante los últimos millones de años. Veremos la importancia de incluir la interven- ción humana para comprender los procesos que han dado lugar a los ecosistemas que ahora tenemos. Repasaremos las principales amenazas actuales que se




Gestión de los costos medioambientales, en un marco de mejora continua  

Microsoft Academic Search

El mundo necesita que se proteja el medio ambiente. Diferentes empresas y organizaciones destinan grandes recursos financieros y humanos, para este fin. El desarrollo sostenible es la aspiración máxima para cualquier país u organización. Se hace, entonces, imprescindible determinar cuánta importancia le confieren las entidades al medio ambiente, teniendo en cuenta que éstas tienen un contrato implícito con la sociedad

Keitel Becerra Suárez; Reynier Reyes Hernández; Grisel Pérez Falco; Elizabeth Gómez Alfonso




Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo documenta la existencia en la Biblioteca del Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid de varias obras manuscritas de L. Boccherini, copiadas en los siglos XVIII y XIX, y desconocidas hasta ahora para la investigación. Asimismo, mediante el estudio de once de ellas, datadas hacia 1782 y muy próximas al compositor, se ofrece una valoración de la importancia

Carlos José Gosálvez Lara; Germán Labrador López de Azcona



Encefalopatia Hepática - Atualização T Encefalopatia Hepática - Atualização T Encefalopatia Hepática - Atualização T Encefalopatia Hepática - Atualização T Encefalopatia Hepática - Atualização Terapêutica erapêutica erapêutica erapêutica erapêutica Hepatic Encephalopathy - Therapeutic Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A encefalopatia hepática (EH) é potencialmente reversível. Os principais fatores precipitantes são hemorragia digestiva e infecções bacterianas. O tratamento dos fatores precipitantes pode reverter o quadro. Antibióticos visam reduzir a absorção da amônia e aumentar sua eliminação. A lactulose, lactitol e outros dissacarídeos não degradáveis produzem acidificação dos colons, diminuindo produção e absorção de amônia. Sua eficácia vem sendo questionada

Edna Strauss



Alcohol and Cigarette Free: Examining Social Influences on Substance Use Abstinence among Black Non-Latina and Latina Urban Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in substance use prevalence among girls, as well as a lack of research conducted with urban girls of color, highlight the importance of understanding both predictors and outcomes of substance use abstinence (SUA) within this population. This study addresses gaps in SUA research through a longitudinal investigation conducted with urban…

Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.



AvAliAção de pulpotomiAs utilizAndo Formocresol, Hidróxido de cálcio e AgregAdo trióxido minerAl (mtA) em molAres decíduos Eval Uati On Of PUlPOt Omy in PRimaRy m OlaRS USing fORmOCRESOl, CalCiUm Hyd ROxid E and minERal tRiO xidE aggREgatE (mta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumo Introdução: A técnica de pulpotomia envolve a amputação da porção coronária da polpa dentária infectada, preservando-se a vitalidade e função do remanescente pulpar radicular. Quando corretamente indicada, mantém o dente decíduo até a sua época natural de esfoliação, preservando suas funções. Métodos: Este estudo avalia através de observações clínicas e radiográficas, a resposta pulpar de dentes decíduos humanos submetidos

Ana Beatriz; Silveira Moretti; Vivien Thiemy Sakai; Thais Marchini Oliveira; Marina Lourdes; Calvo Fracasso; Adriano Hoshi; Maria Aparecida; Moreira Machado; Ruy Cesar; Camargo Abdo


Survey of State Unit on Aging Elder Rights System Development Activities, 2003. Progress in Elder Rights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a survey of State Units on Aging (SUAs) conducted by the National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA) for the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA). The study entailed a survey of 57 SUAs and was conducted in th...



MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DA AROEIRA (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All) é uma Anacardiaceae lenhosa que tem sido usada de forma predatória pela qualidade de sua madeira e pelo uso med i- cinal de sua casca desprovida de súber, por meio da qual se fabrica antiinflamatório. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o e s- tabelecimento \\




Microsoft Academic Search

Ciro dos Anjos Abdias and A menina do sobrado O presente trabalho apresenta um breve estudo sobre os direitos fundamentais da mulher, fazendo um retrocesso de sua posição na sociedade, desde os tempos bíblicos, quando surgiu o mito de que fora responsável pela queda do homem, iniciando-se sua discriminação. Foi feito um levantamento da situação da mulher em diversos países,



Sobrevivência ou Colapso? B. F. Skinner, J. M. Diamond e o Destino das Culturas Survival or Collapse? B. F. Skinner, J. M. Diamond and the Fate of Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Um dos aspectos mais interessantes e polêmicos da obra de B. F. Skinner é sua interpretação sobre a evolução das culturas. De acordo com o autor, as conseqüências de práticas culturais retroagem sobre as culturas, no sentido de aumentar ou diminuir suas chances de sobrevivência. O livro \\

Alexandre Dittrich


Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: Recent developments, and where do they leave us?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and cardiovascular disease has been controversial. Here we review recent literature assessing whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Studies from the past 6 years evaluating the association of SUA with cardiovascular disease were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches, bibliography cross-referencing, and review articles. Twenty-one cohort

Joshua F. Baker; Eswar Krishnan; Lan Chen; H. Ralph Schumacher



The role of serum uric acid as an antioxidant protecting against cancer: prospective study in more than 28 000 older Austrian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has been hypothesized that serum uric acid (SUA), via its antioxidant properties may protect against carcinogenesis. However, few epidemiological investigations have addressed this association and previous findings are inconsistent. Patients and methods: We prospectively investigated the relation of SUA levels to subsequent cancer mortality in a large cohort of 28613 elderly Austrian women with a median follow-up of

A. M. Strasak; K. Rapp; W. Hilbe; W. Oberaigner; E. Ruttmann; H. Concin; G. Diem; K. P. Pfeiffer; H. Ulmer



Synergistic Effects of Serum Uric Acid and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors on Early Stage Atherosclerosis: The Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To comprehensively examine the associations of serum uric acid (SUA) with central and peripheral arterial stiffness in Chinese adults, and particularly assess the interactions between SUA and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods The study included 3,772 Chinese men and women with carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and SUA measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of SUA were significantly associated with increasing trend of cfPWV, crPWV and cdPWV (P for trend <0.0001). Further adjustment for heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and lipids attenuated the associations with crPWV and cdPWV to be non-significant (P?=?0.1, P?=?0.099 respectively), but the association between SUV and cfPWV remained significant (P?=?0.004). We found significant interactions between SUA and HR or BP in relation to cfPWV (P for interaction?=?0.03, 0.003 respectively). The associations between SUA and cfPWV were more evident among individuals with higher HR or normal BP than those with lower HR or hypertension. Conclusions SUA was associated with elevated aortic arterial stiffness in Chinese adults, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. BP and HR might modify the deleterious effects of SUA.

Teng, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zou, Caiyan; Qi, Lu



The Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Spirometric Values in Participants in a Health Check: The Takahata Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Tissue hypoxia induces the degradation of adenosine triphosphate, resulting in the production of uric acid (UA). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported to have high serum levels of UA (sUA), compared with control subjects. However, the relationship between sUA levels and spirometric measures has not been investigated in detail in a general population. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years or older (n = 2,917), who had participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, in 2004 and 2005, were enrolled in the study. These subjects performed spirometry, their blood pressure was measured, and a blood sample was taken. Results: sUA levels were significantly higher in males than in females. Percent predicted forced vital capacity [FVC %predicted] (r = -0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 %predicted] (r = -0.118) were inversely correlated with sUA levels in females but not in males. Univariate regression analysis indicated that age, body mass index (BMI), ethanol intake, mean blood pressure (BP), and serum creatinine (sCr) were significantly associated with sUA levels in males. In females, age, BMI, mean BP, hemoglobin A1c, sCr, FVC %predicted, and FEV1 %predicted were significantly associated with sUA levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both genders, FVC %predicted and FEV1 %predicted were predictive for sUA levels, independently of the other clinical parameters. Subjects with lung restriction had higher sUA levels than subjects without lung restriction. In addition, subjects with moderate and severe airflow limitation had higher sUA levels than subjects without airflow limitation or those with mild airflow limitation. Conclusion: FVC %predicted and FEV1 %predicted were significantly associated with sUA levels in a general population.

Aida, Yasuko; Shibata, Yoko; Osaka, Daisuke; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Fukuzaki, Koji; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Nemoto, Takako; Nunomiya, Keiko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masamichi; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Kawata, Sumio; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao



Effects of irbesartan on serum uric acid levels in patients with hypertension and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperuricemia has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Since diabetes is often complicated by hypertension and hyperuricemia, efficient therapeutic strategy against these two complications is very important in diabetic treatment. It has been reported that the antihypertensive drug, irbesartan, inhibits the renal uric acid reabsorptive transporters, URAT1 and GLUT9; this result suggests that irbesartan decreases serum uric acid level (SUA). Subjects and methods A retrospective study of 107 patients with hypertension and diabetes was performed to analyze the effects of irbesartan on blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and SUA. The follow-up period was 6–12 months. Seventy percent of the patients were diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy stage II–IV. We excluded patients treated with drugs that influenced SUA. The multiple logistic regression analysis was introduced to identify the relative factors for SUA decline. The time-dependent SUA changes were examined in a mixed-linear model. Results Irbesartan reduced blood pressure significantly after 1, 6, and 12 months’ treatment. No subject showed significant change in eGFR from baseline level throughout the period. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that SUA baseline significantly influenced SUA decline after 6–12 months. In patients whose SUA baseline was ?5.9 mg/dL, the SUA was significantly decreased from 6.6±0.16 mg/dL to 6.2±0.16 mg/dL (P=0.010), after 12 months’ irbesartan treatment. In the SUA baseline <5.9 mg/dL group, the SUA did not show significant change over the monitoring period. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that irbesartan reduces the risk of hyperuricemia. No decline in renal function was observed after the initiation of irbesartan treatment. The present report determines the criteria of SUA baseline for introducing an antihyperuricemic effect using irbesartan. Its antihypertensive effect coupled with SUA decline would be effective for the treatment of hypertension complicated by hyperuricemia.

Nakamura, Makiko; Sasai, Nobuo; Hisatome, Ichiro; Ichida, Kimiyoshi



Serum uric acid shows a J-shaped trend with coronary mortality in non-insulin-dependent diabetic elderly people. The CArdiovascular STudy in the ELderly (CASTEL).  


The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality remains controversial, particularly in diabetic subjects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether SUA independently predicts CHD mortality in non-insulin-dependent elderly people from the general population and to investigate the interactions between SUA and other risk factors. Five hundred and eighty-one subjects aged >/=65 years with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively studied in the frame of the CArdiovascular STudy in the ELderly (CASTEL). Historical and clinical data, blood tests and 12-year fatal events were recorded. SUA as a continuous item was divided into tertiles and, for each tertile, adjusted relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was derived from multivariate Cox analysis. CHD mortality was predicted by SUA in a J-shaped manner. Mortality rate was 7.9% (RR 1.28, CI 1.05-1.72), 6.0% (reference tertile) and 12.1% (RR 1.76, CI 1.18-2.27) in the increasing tertiles of SUA, respectively, without any difference between genders. In diabetic elderly subjects, SUA independently predicts the risk of CHD mortality in a J-shaped manner. PMID:17721747

Mazza, A; Zamboni, S; Rizzato, E; Pessina, A C; Tikhonoff, V; Schiavon, L; Casiglia, E



Serum Uric Acid and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Children with Primary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia is associated with primary hypertension (HTN) in adults and children. Furthermore, uric acid levels during childhood are associated with blood pressure (BP) levels in adulthood. We measured 24-h ambulatory BP and serum uric acid (SUA) in 104 children referred for possible hypertension. Mean age was 13.7 ± 2.6 y (range 7-18y) with 67 males and 37 females; 74 were African-American, 29 Caucasian and one Asian. SUA was associated with age (r=0.38, P=0.0001) and BMI Z-score (r=0.23, P=0.021). SUA was significantly associated with mean ambulatory systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP. Mean ambulatory BP was normalized to gender- and height-specific reference standards using BP index. SUA was significantly associated with 24-h DBP index and nocturnal DBP index after adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI Z-score and urinary sodium excretion. SUA was also significantly associated with 24-h DBP load and nocturnal DBP load. Uric acid was significantly associated with increased likelihood for diastolic HTN (OR 2.1, CI 1.2, 3.7; P=0.0063) after adjusting for other co-variables. Among children at risk for HTN, the likelihood for diastolic HTN (as defined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) increases significantly as SUA increases. SUA may be associated with increased severity of HTN during youth.

Jones, Deborah P.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Alpert, Bruce S.; Li, Rongling



Use of Penalized Splines in Extended Cox-Type Additive Hazard Regression to Flexibly Estimate the Effect of Time-varying Serum Uric Acid on Risk of Cancer Incidence: A Prospective, Population-Based Study in 78,850 Men  

PubMed Central

Purpose We sough to investigate the effect of serum uric acid (SUA) levels on risk of cancer incidence in men and to flexibly determine the shape of this association by using a novel analytical approach. Methods A population-based cohort of 78,850 Austrian men who received 264,347 serial SUA measurements was prospectively followed-up for a median of 12.4 years. Data were collected between 1985 and 2003. Penalized splines (P-splines) in extended Cox-type additive hazard regression were used to flexibly model the association between SUA, as a time-dependent covariate, and risk of overall and site-specific cancer incidence and to calculate adjusted hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results During follow-up 5189 incident cancers were observed. Restricted maximum-likelihood optimizing P-spline models revealed a moderately J-shaped effect of SUA on risk of overall cancer incidence, with statistically significantly increased hazard ratios in the upper third of the SUA distribution. Increased SUA (?8.00 mg/dL) further significantly increased risk for several site-specific malignancies, with P-spline analyses providing detailed insight about the shape of the association with these outcomes. Conclusions Our study is the first to demonstrate a dose–response association between SUA and cancer incidence in men, simultaneously reporting on the usefulness of a novel methodological framework in epidemiologic research.

Strasak, Alexander M.; Lang, Stefan; Kneib, Thomas; Brant, Larry J.; Klenk, Jochen; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Oberaigner, Willi; Ruttmann, Elfriede; Kaltenbach, Lalit; Concin, Hans; Diem, Gunter; Pfeiffer, Karl P.; Ulmer, Hanno



Suppression of the acuH13 and acuH31 nonsense mutations in the carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (acuH) gene of Aspergillus nidulans by the G265S substitution in the domain 2 of the release factor eRF1.  


A search for suppressors of the carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency in Aspergillus nidulans permitted the identification of the suaE7 mutation, mapping at a new translational suppressor (suaE) gene. The suaE gene is essential in A. nidulans and encodes the eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1). The suaE7 mutation suppresses two acuH alleles (acuH13 and acuH31), both carrying nonsense mutations in the CACT encoding gene that involve the replacement of a CAG (Gln) codon with a premature TAG stop codon. In contrast, the suaE7 gene does not suppress the acuH20 amber nonsense mutation involving a TGG-->TAG change. The phenotype associated to the suaE7 mutation strictly resembles that of mutants at the suaA and suaC genes, two translational suppressor genes previously identified, suggesting that their gene products might functionally interact in translation termination. Sequencing of the suaE7 gene allowed the identification of a mutation in the domain 2 of the omnipotent class-1 eukaryotic release factor involving the Gly265Ser substitution in the A. nidulans eRF1. This mutation creates a structural context unfavourable for normal eRF binding that allows the misreading of stop codons by natural suppressor tRNAs, such as the tRNAs(Gln). Structural analysis using molecular modelling of A. nidulans eRF1 domain 2 bearing the G265S substitution and computer simulation results suggest that this mutation might impair the necessary conformational changes in the eRF1 to optimally recognize the stop codon and simultaneously interact with the peptidyl transferase centre of the 60S ribosomal subunit. PMID:16971148

Martínez, Oscar; Marco, Esther; Gago, Federico; Laborda, Fernando; Ramón De Lucas, J



Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Chinese Men  

PubMed Central

Increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels may be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in men presenting with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and/or insulin resistance. We aimed to determine the independent relationship between SUA and NAFLD in non-diabetic Chinese male population, and to explore the determinants of SUA levels among indexes of adiposity, lipid, and genotypes pertaining to triglycerides metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and SUA concentrations. A total of 1440 men, classified depending on the presence of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD, underwent a complete healthy checkup program. Genotypes were extracted from our previously established genome-wide association study database. After adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and components of metabolic syndrome, the odds ratio for NAFLD, comparing the highest with the lowest SUA quartile, was 2.81 (95% confidence interval 1.66–4.76). A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis (R2?=?0.238, P<0.001) retained age, waist circumference, serum creatinine, triglycerides, the Q141K variant in ABCG2 (rs2231142) and NAFLD as significant predictors of SUA levels (all P<0.001). Besides, ALT and Met196Arg variant in TNFRSF1B (rs1061622) additionally associated with SUA among individuls with NAFLD. Our data suggest that in Chinese men, elevated SUA is significantly associated with NAFLD, independent of insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders, such as central obesity or hypertriglyceridemia. Meanwhile, among subjects with NAFLD, index of liver damage, such as elevated ALT combined with genetic susceptibility to inflammation associated with increased SUA levels.

Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Zhang, Haiying; Yang, Xiaobo; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Chunlei; Liao, Ming; Sun, Yu; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Li, Li; Peng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Yang, Xiaoli; Mo, Zengnan



Associations of Serum Uric Acid and SLC2A9 Variant with Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information exists regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and psychiatric disorders. We explored the relationship between SUA and subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and specific anxiety disorders. Additionally, we examined the association of SLC2A9 rs6855911 variant with anxiety disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on 3,716 individuals aged 35–66 years previously selected for the population-based CoLaus survey and who agreed to undergo further psychiatric evaluation. SUA was measured using uricase-PAP method. The French translation of the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was used to establish lifetime and current diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Men reported significantly higher levels of SUA compared to women (357±74 µmol/L vs. 263±64 µmol/L). The prevalence of lifetime and current MDD was 44% and 18% respectively while the corresponding estimates for any anxiety disorders were 18% and 10% respectively. A quadratic hockey-stick shaped curve explained the relationship between SUA and social phobia better than a linear trend. However, with regards to the other specific anxiety disorders and other subtypes of MDD, there was no consistent pattern of association. Further analyses using SLC2A9 rs6855911 variant, known to be strongly associated with SUA, supported the quadratic relationship observed between SUA phenotype and social phobia. Conclusions A quadratic relationship between SUA and social phobia was observed consistent with a protective effect of moderately elevated SUA on social phobia, which disappears at higher concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations.

Lyngdoh, Tanica; Bochud, Murielle; Glaus, Jennifer; Castelao, Enrique; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin



Serum Uric Acid Levels and the Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose: A Prospective Study in Adults of North China  

PubMed Central

Objective To prospectively investigate the association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in adult Chinese. Methods We evaluated 13,328 women and 41,350 men without diabetes and IFG. The participants were classified into quintile according to baseline level of SUA. Data were analyzed to examine the association between SUA levels and the incidence of IFG. We used Cox regression models to estimate the relative risk of IFG after adjusting for known risk factors. Results For men, the second quintile of SUA has the lowest cumulative incidence of IFG (29.9%); the fifth quintile of SUA has the highest cumulative incidence of IFG (35.6%). After corrected with Cox regression, the first quartile and the fourth quartile have higher cumulative incidence of IFG than the second quintile, with the HR of 1.11(1.05-1.17) and 1.07(1.01-1.13), respectively. For women, the first quartile of SUA has the lowest cumulative incidence of IFG (20.7%), while the fifth quintile of SUA has the highest cumulative incidence of IFG (30.0%). However, there is no significant difference in IFG between different quintile after adjusted with Cox regression. Conclusions The results of this prospective study suggest that there is a higher risk of developing IFG in association with low or high SUA concentrations for men. These relationships were independent of other known risk factors. There is no significant correlation in the risk of developing IFG in association with SUA concentrations for women. Analyses excluding participants with hypertension or with hyperlipidemia and analyses with participants stratified by age reached similar conclusion.

Liu, Yeqiang; Jin, Cheng; Xing, Aijun; Liu, Xiurong; Chen, Shuohua; Li, Dongqing; Feng, Ping; Liu, Jinquan; Li, Zhiguo; Wu, Shouling




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Se describen y caracterizan dos nuevos sintáxones correspondientes a co- munidades rupícolas silicícolas bilbilitanas: Centaureo pinnatae-Dianthetum lusitani ass. nov. (con óptimo en bioclima mesomediterráneo seco-subhúmedo) y Hieracio schmidtii- Dianthetum lusitani biscutelletosum bilbilitanae subass. nov. (con óptimo en bioclima su- pra-oromediterráneo seco-subhúmedo). Se discuten sus afinidades sintaxonómicas y se aportan datos referentes a su importancia como refugio de endemismos de

Manuel B. CRESPO; José Luis SOLANAS; Elena CAMUÑAS



78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works, Honeywell International, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Source Materials License SUA-526 issued to Honeywell International, Inc. (Honeywell) for its...



78 FR 25484 - License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...40-8452; NRC-2012-0095] License Amendment for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Bear Creek Facility, Converse County, Source Materials License SUA- 1310 issued to Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (APC or the licensee) to authorize...



8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appeal to the Administrative Appeals Office (AAO), with the required fee specified...Examinations, Administrative Appeals Office (AAO), who is the appellate authority designated...decision sua sponte. When an appeal to the AAO has been filed, the director may...



8 CFR 245a.20 - Decisions, appeals, motions, and certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appeal to the Administrative Appeals Office (AAO), with the required fee specified...Examinations, Administrative Appeals Office (AAO), who is the appellate authority designated...decision sua sponte. When an appeal to the AAO has been filed, the director may...



Modeling Small Unmanned Aerial System Mishaps Using Logistic Regression and Artificial Neural Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dataset of 854 small unmanned aerial system (SUAS) flight experiments from 2005-2009 is analyzed to determine significant factors that contribute to mishaps. The data from 29 airframes of different designs and technology readiness levels were aggregated...

S. E. Wolf



Uric Acid as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Overweight/Obese Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The predictive value of serum uric acid (SUA) for adverse cardiovascular events among obese and overweight patients is not known, but potentially important because of the relation between hyperuricaemia and obesity. Methods The relationship between SUA and risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality, respectively, was evaluated in a post-hoc analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial. Participants enrolled in SCOUT were obese or overweight with pre-existing diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cox models were used to assess the role of SUA as an independent risk factor. Results 9742 subjects were included in the study; 83.6% had diabetes, and 75.1% had CVD. During an average follow-up time of 4.2 years, 1043 subjects had a primary outcome (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke, or cardiovascular death), and 816 died. In a univariate Cox model, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes compared with the lowest SUA quartile in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–2.10). In multivariate analyses, adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors the increased risk for the highest SUA quartile was no longer statistically significant among women (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.72–1.36) nor was it among men. Analyses of all-cause mortality found an interaction between sex and SUA. In a multivariate Cox model including women only, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk in all-cause mortality compared to the lowest SUA quartile (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08–2.12). No relationship was observed in men (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.82–1.36). Conclusion SUA was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and death in these high-risk overweight/obese people. However, our results suggested that SUA was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in women.

Skak-Nielsen, Helle; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Finer, Nick; Caterson, Ian D.; Van Gaal, Luc; James, W. Philip T; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Sharma, Arya M.; Coutinho, Walmir; Andersson, Charlotte



Avaliação das áreas verdes em espaços públicos no município de Guarapuava\\/PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apresenta-se neste artigo uma proposta metodológica para se avaliar o desempenho das áreas verdes públicas do Município de Guarapuava\\/PR, mais especificamente sua arborização de acompanhamento viário de sua área central. Guarapuava é uma cidade que conta com aproximadamente 160 mil habitantes, situada na região centro-sul do Estado. A proposta metodológica que ora se apresenta, aplicada em parcela do município, foi

Carlos Roberto Loboda; Bruno Luiz Domingos de Angelis; Generoso de Angelis Neto; Eraldo Schunk da Silva



Crosslinking of cotton cellulose with succinic acid in the presence of titanium dioxide nano-catalyst under UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanometer titanium dioxide (TiO2), succinic acid (SUA), and the mixture of nano- TiO2 and SUA were dispersed or dissolved in pure water, then irradiated with UV at the wavelength of 254 nm under stirring for\\u000a different time periods respectively. The pH and conductivity values and UV-vis spectra of those solutions were recorded immediately.\\u000a The powders obtained from the filtrated and

Cheng-Chi Chen; Chyung-Chyung Wang



Serum Uric Acid and Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality: A Prospective Long-Term Study of 83 683 Austrian Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of serum uric acid (SUA) as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)remainscontroversial,andlittleisknownabout its prognostic importance for mortality from conges- tiveheartfailure(CHF)andstroke.Fewlarge-scaleep- idemiologic studies with sufficient follow-up have ad- dressed the association of SUA and CVD mortality in apparently healthy men across a wide age range. METHODS: Acohortof83 683Austrianmen(meanage, 41.6 years) was prospectively followed for a median

Alexander Strasak; Elfriede Ruttmann; Larry Brant; Cecily Kelleher; Jochen Klenk; Hans Concin; Gunter Diem; Karl Pfeiffer; Hanno Ulmer


Surf zone characterization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the issues and methods for estimating nearshore bathymetry based on wave celerity measurements obtained using\\u000a time series imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS). In contrast to time series imagery from fixed cameras or\\u000a from larger aircraft, SUAS data are usually short, gappy in time, and unsteady in aim in high frequency ways that are not\\u000a reflected by

Rob A. Holman; K. Todd Holland; Dave M. Lalejini; Steven D. Spansel


Hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome: associations with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome on chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain controversial. This study\\u000a grouped subjects according to a combination of their uric acid and metabolic syndrome status and investigated the association\\u000a between these groups and CKD to clarify the relationships of SUA and metabolic syndrome to CKD. This survey analyzed data\\u000a from 81,799 adults

Lai-Chu See; Chang-Fu Kuo; Fang-Hsiu Chuang; Yu-Ming Shen; Yu-Shien Ko; Yu-Ming Chen; Kuang-Hui Yu



Serum Uric Acid and Cardiovascular Events in Successfully Treated Hypertensive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether pretreatment and\\/or in-treatment serum uric acid (SUA) is independently and specifically associated with cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients, we examined the 20-year experience of 7978 mild-to-moderate hypertensive participants in a systematic worksite treatment program. Clinical evaluation and treatment were protocol-directed. SUA was measured at entry and annually thereafter. Subjects were stratified according to gender-specific quartile of baseline

Michael H. Alderman; Hillel Cohen; Shantha Madhavan; Salah Kivlighn


Serum Uric Acid and Renal Prognosis in Patients with IgA Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This study was designed to elucidate the clinical significance of serum uric acid (SUA) and the relationship between hyperuricemia and renal prognosis in IgA nepropathy. Methods: The correlation between SUA and other clinical parameters were examined in 748 IgA nephropathy patients (432 males and 316 females). Among these patients, 226 (144 males and 82 females) who were followed for

Iwao Ohno; Tatsuo Hosoya; Hideho Gomi; Kimiyoshi Ichida; Hideaki Okabe; Miho Hikita



Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Levels, Metabolic Syndrome, and Arterial Stiffness in Korean  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Associations have been reported between the serum uric acid (SUA) level, metabolic syndrome (MS), and atherosclerosis. We have determined the relationship between the SUA level, MS, and arterial stiffness in Korean. Subjects and Methods Cross-sectional data from 1,276 adults who underwent routine laboratory tests and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements during a health check-up were analyzed in a gender-specific manner. None of the participants had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal disease, or systemic disease, or were under treatment which would affect SUA levels, or taking medications for hypertension or dyslipidemia. Results After adjustment for age, smoking status, total cholesterol (TC), and creatinine, the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence interval) of gender-specific quartiles of SUA for MS were 1.0, 1.28 (0.66-2.47), 1.46 (0.76-2.82), and 2.21 (1.15-4.26) in females, and 1.0, 1.33 (0.82-2.17), 1.60 (0.96-2.66), and 2.03 (1.21-3.40) in males. However, after adjustment for waist circumference, there were no significant differences in the ORs among the SUA quartile groups in females and males (both, p=NS). The Pearson's correlation coefficients for the relationship between SUA levels and heart-femoral (hf) PWVs or brachial-ankle (ba) PWVs were not significant in females and males (r=0.054 and r=0.015, respectively, in females; r=-0.036 and r=-0.015, respectively, in males; all, p=NS). Conclusion An elevated SUA level is associated with abdominal obesity among the MS components, but the SUA level is not associated with PWV in females or males.

Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Yong-Seok; Na, Sang-Hoon; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Lee, Myoung-Mook



The Association between Serum Uric Acid and Residual ?-Cell Function in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum uric acid (sUA) with residual ?-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on 1021 type 2 diabetes patients. The ratio of area under curve of insulin to glucose during 0 to 30?min and 0 to 120?min of the OGTT was calculated as indices of insulin secretion function. The products of insulin secretion indices multiplied by Matsuda insulin sensitivity index were used as disposition indices. After correlation and multiple linear regression analysis, sUA was significantly associated with insulin secretion and disposition indices in male, female, and total groups adjusted for confounding factors (including metabolic indicators like sex, age, course of the disease, blood glucose, blood pressure, serum lipids, and so on). Superficially steeper time-dependent decline of insulin secretion function was found in patients with sUA above the median than those below it. In conclusion, our results suggest an independent positive association between sUA and residual ?-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Patients with higher sUA have greater insulin secretion ability than those with lower sUA at the early stage of disease, but their residual ?-cell function seems to decay more rapidly.

Tang, Wei; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xuan; Qian, Li; Shan, Shan; Yang, Tao



Replication of the effect of SLC2A9 genetic variation on serum uric acid levels in American Indians.  


Increased serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia, a risk factor for gout, renal and cardiovascular diseases, is caused by either increased production or decreased excretion of uric acid or a mix of both. The solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) gene encodes a transporter that mediates urate flux across the renal proximal tubule. Genome-wide association studies have consistently shown the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene with SUA in majority populations. American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Family Study, belonging to multigenerational families, have high prevalence of hyperuricemia. We conducted measured genotype analyses, based on variance components decomposition method and accounting for family relationships, to assess whether the association between SUA and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms generalized to American Indians (n=3604) of this study. Seven polymorphisms were selected for genotyping based on their association with SUA levels in other populations. A strong association was found between SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms and SUA in all centers combined (P-values: 1.3 × 10(-31)-5.1 × 10(-23)) and also when stratified by recruitment center; P-values: 1.2 × 10(-14)-1.0 × 10(-5). These polymorphisms were also associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine but not albumin-creatinine ratio. In summary, the association of polymorphisms in the uric acid transporter gene with SUA levels extends to a new population of American Indians. PMID:24301058

Voruganti, V Saroja; Franceschini, Nora; Haack, Karin; Laston, Sandra; MacCluer, Jean W; Umans, Jason G; Comuzzie, Anthony G; North, Kari E; Cole, Shelley A



Correlation of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and serum uric acid levels with arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus without clinically evident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.  


The objective of this article was to evaluate whether serum uric acid (SUA) correlates with arterial stiffness and inflammation markers in a cohort of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, who attended a community hospital. One hundred and two women with SLE were assessed as part of this cross-sectional study. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured using an automatic device (Complior). C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine levels as well as other metabolic results were recorded. Duration and activity of SLE, damage accrual and treatments were recorded. SLE women were categorized as having or not having hyperuricaemia (HU) according to SUA levels (greater than or up to 6.2 mg/dl, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the independent link between SUA levels and other variables. Women with SLE and HU (n = 15, 15%) had a worse cardiovascular risk profile that included ageing, hypertension, obesity, higher total cholesterol levels, renal failure and presence of metabolic syndrome. Also, the duration of SLE was increased and damage accrual was greater. In the unadjusted analysis, SUA levels correlated with PWV, CRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine. However, in a multivariate linear regression analysis, SUA levels independently correlated with the duration of SLE, creatinine, total cholesterol and homocysteine levels but did not correlate with PWV. In conclusion, SUA was associated with arterial stiffness, but not independently of age and homocysteine levels. Nevertheless, SUA might be an ancillary indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE women without clinically evident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:20179170

Sabio, J M; Vargas-Hitos, J A; Mediavilla, J D; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Zamora-Posadas, M; Pérez-Vicente, S; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Díaz-Chamorro, A; Jáimez, L; Jiménez-Alonso, J



Association of Maximum Weight with Hyperuricemia Risk: A Retrospective Study of 21,414 Chinese People  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with increased serum uric acid (SUA); however, little is known regarding the relationship between maximum weight, or maximum weight fluctuation, and uric acid concentration. Through retrospective means, we determined the association of maximum weight with SUA risk. Methods Data of 21,414 participants (8,630 males and 12,784 females) from the 2007-8 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study were analyzed for parameters including lifestyle habits, biochemical blood analysis and self-reported maximum weight. Results Elevated SUA subjects shared a cluster of demographic features. After adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, drinking, physical activity, WHR, height, eGFR(evaluate glomerular filtration rate), and diuretic usage, multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated maximum weight was associated with increased risk of elevated SUA level (P<0.001). Duration of maximum weight was related with decreased risk of elevated SUA level (P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between time of weight loss and risk of increased SUA level reduction (P<0.001). Furthermore, our data indicated that the degree of weight loss from maximum weight was another important factor for the risk of increased SUA level reduction (P<0.001). Finally, ROC curve analysis revealed area under the curve was 0.661 (95% CI, 0.647-0.674), statistically significant for maximum weight association with hyperuricemia (P<0.001). Conclusions Maximum weight is a strong risk factor for increased uric acid level in the Chinese population, which might serve as a novel clinical indicator suggesting hyperuricemia. Controlling maximum weight, keeping weight to the appropriate range, and maintaining the stable weight may be conducive for decreasing risk of hyperuricemia.

Zhang, Yaping; Chen, Fei; Lau, Wayne B.; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Nanyan; Xing, Ying; Wang, Li; Fu, Jianfang; Li, Xiaomiao; Jia, Hongxia; Zhao, Xin; Ji, Qiuhe



Nesterenkonia suensis sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic actinobacterium isolated from a salt pan.  


A Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming actinobacterium designated strain Sua-BAC020(T) was isolated from brine from Sua salt pan in Botswana. The strain was alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic, displaying optimal growth at 35-37 °C, pH 9 and 2.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Sua-BAC020(T) belonged to the genus Nesterenkonia, sharing 96.2-99.0 % sequence similarity with the type strains of recognized species within this genus. DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strains of species that showed the closest phylogenetic affiliation, Nesterenkonia xinjiangensis (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 98.9 %), Nesterenkonia aethiopica (99.0 %), Nesterenkonia halophila (97.5 %), Nesterenkonia flava (97.4 %) and Nesterenkonia halobia (97.2 %), gave relatedness values of 10-45 %. The peptidoglycan type of strain Sua-BAC020(T) was A4?, L-Lys-Gly-D-Asp. Cells of the isolate contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified glycolipids as major polar lipids, MK-8, MK-9 and MK-7 were the predominant menaquinones, and the major fatty acids (>10 %) were anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain Sua-BAC020(T) was 64.8 mol%. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical tests, strain Sua-BAC020(T) is distinct from all recognized Nesterenkonia species, suggesting that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Nesterenkonia suensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Sua-BAC020(T) (= DSM 22748(T)=NCCB 100309(T)). PMID:22328610

Govender, Lucretia; Naidoo, Lureshini; Setati, Mathabatha Evodia



Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and Serum Uric Acid in Men with Essential Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial stress and SUA in the management of hypertension seem scanty. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of continuous training program on SUA and psychosocial status of black African (Nigerian) population with hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Age-matched randomized controlled trial was used; subjects with diagnosis of hypertension attending the hypertensive clinic of Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria form the population for the study. Two hundred and seventeen subjects with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and180 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 109 mmHg) essential hypertension were grouped into continuous (112) and control groups (105). The continuous group involved in an 8 weeks continuous training (60%-79% HR max) of between 45 and 60 min, 3 times per week, while the controls group remain sedentary. SBP, DBP, SUA, VO2 max and psychosocial status were assessed. Student t-test and Pearson correlation test were used in data analysis. Results: The study revealed significant beneficial effect of continuous training programs on VO2 max, SBP, DBP, SUA, and psychosocial status (P < 0.05). Psychosocial status and SUA was significantly and positively and negatively correlated respectively with VO2 max at P < 0.01. Conclusions: This study concludes and supports the recommendations of moderate intensity (continuous) training program in blood pressure reduction, SUA and psychosocial stress management in hypertension.

Lamina, S; Okoye, GC



Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ?468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ?328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women.

Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Shanying; Shao, Xiaofei; Guo, Jia; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Aiqun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthofer, Harry; Zou, Hequn



[Induction of heat resistance in wheat coleoptiles by salicylic and succinic acids: connection of the effect with the generation and neutralization of active oxygen forms].  


The influence of salicylic (SaA) and succinic (SuA) acids on the generation of active oxygen forms (AOFs) and the heat resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles has been studied. The treatment of coleoptiles with 10 microM SaA or SuA results in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and enhanced formation of a superoxide anion radical. This effect is partially suppressed by both alpha-naphthol (the NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and salicylhydroxamic acid (peroxidase inhibitor). SaA and SuA cause an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and soluble peroxidase, and improve the heat resistance ofcoleoptiles. Antioxidant ionol and compounds, which inhibit the NADPH oxidase and peroxidase, significantly reduce the positive influence of SaA and SuA on the heat resistance of wheat coleoptiles. AOFs are considered to be intermediates for heat resistance induction in coleoptiles, treated with SaA and SuA; enhanced AOF generation can be caused by an increased activity of the NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. PMID:23101394

Kolupaev, Iu E; Iastreb, T O; Shvidenko, N V; Karpets, Iu V



Cis- and Trans-Acting Suppressors of a Translation Initiation Defect at the Cyc1 Locus of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The cyc1-362 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is deficient in iso-1-cytochrome c as a consequence of an aberrant ATG codon that initiates a short open reading frame (uORF) in the cyc1 transcribed leader region. We have isolated and characterized functional revertants of cyc1-362 in an effort to define cis- and trans-acting factors that can suppress the effect of the uORF. Genetic and DNA sequence analyses have defined three classes of revertants: (i) those that acquired point mutations in the upstream ATG (uATG), restoring iso-1-cytochrome c to its normal level; (ii) substitution of the normal A residue at position -1 relative to the uATG by either C or T, enhancing iso-1-cytochrome c production from &2% to 6% (C) or 10% (T) of normal, indicating that the nucleotide immediately preceding the initiator codon can affect the efficiency of AUG start codon recognition and that purines are preferred over pyrimidines at this site; and (iii) extragenic suppressors that enhance iso-1-cytochrome c expression to 10-40% of normal while retaining the uATG. These suppressors are represented by five different genes, designated sua1-sua4 and sua6. In contrast to the previously described sua7 and sua8 suppressors, they do not compensate for the uATG by affecting cyc1 transcription start site selection. Potential suppressor mechanisms are discussed.

Pinto, I.; Na, J. G.; Sherman, F.; Hampsey, M.



Captura de satélites durante a formação de Júpiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande número de satélites irregulares. As características das órbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos não teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes são de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma região distante do planeta e sua evolução dinâmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos não produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estágio de formação do planeta. Realizamos simulações numéricas para os casos de satélites prógrados e retrógrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e então, evoluimos a integração voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma redução em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satélites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estágio de formação de Jupiter aquele hipotético satélite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satélites retrógrados são capturados assim que entram na região delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satélites prógrados só são capturados quando entram numa região bem mais próxima ao planeta, uma fração da esfera de Hill.

Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.



Association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk among university workers from the State of Mexico: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that serum uric acid (SUA) can be an inexpensive and easy-to-obtain indicator of cardiovascular risk (CR). This is especially important in developing countries with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between SUA levels and 10-year global CR among university workers from the State of Mexico, Mexico. Methods A case–control study nested within a cohort was conducted between 2004 and 2006. Anthropometric measures, lifestyle variables, family background and CR factors were assessed. The analysis estimated odds ratios using conditional logistic regression. Results The study included 319 cases with CR and 638 controls. Subjects in the upper tertile of SUA had 48.0% higher odds of having an elevated CR than those in the lower tertile (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI: 1.04 - 2.10) in the crude analysis, but the association was non-significant when adjusting for other covariates. Among physically inactive individuals, being in the third tertile of SUA doubled the odds of high CR, compared with those who perform physical activity three or more hours per week being in the first tertile of SUA (OR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.24 - 4.45). Conclusion Serum concentration of uric acid is associated with 10-year global CR among individuals with high levels of physical inactivity.



Modelización de escenarios de cambio potencial en la vegetación y el uso de suelo en la Sierra Madre Oriental de San Luis Potosí, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenResumen Se realizó la modelación de la dinámica de cambio en el uso de suelo y la vegetación en la región de la Sierra Madre Oriental del estado de San Luis Potosí, considerado un sitio de importancia para la conservación en México por su alta biodiversidad. Para determinar la variación espacial se analizaron imágenes de satélite en un período de

Francisco Javier Sahagún-Sánchez; José Luis Flores Flores; Leonardo Chapa Vargas; Humberto Reyes-Hernández



Modelización de escenarios de cambio potencial en la vegetación y el uso de suelo en la Sierra Madre Oriental de San Luis Potosí, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen:Se realizó la modelación de la dinámica de cambio en el uso de suelo y la vegetación en la región de la Sierra Madre Oriental del estado de San Luis Potosí, considerado un sitio de importancia para la conservación en México por su alta biodiversidad. Para determinar la variación espacial se analizaron imágenes de satélite en un período de 16

Francisco Javier Sahagún-Sánchez; José Luis Flores Flores; Leonardo Chapa Vargas; Humberto Reyes-Hernández



Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada.

Lazareff, Jorge



Cranes and Drones: strange airfellows?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Once USGS scientist Leanne Hanson became a certified pilot for a small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) called the Raven A, she worked with the USGS Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office to develop a pilot study using the drone to count Sandhill Cranes. In March 2011, in partnership with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the UAS-FORT team flew the Raven A over Sandhill Cranes migrating through the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Colorado. This feature describes what happened and how the sUAS performed in its first test flight for a natural resources application. Included is a narrated video showing how the Raven-A sUAS works and the views it captures.

Wilson, Juliette; Hanson, Leanne



Urate-lowering therapy for gout: focus on febuxostat.  


Gout is a common, painful, and often debilitating rheumatologic disorder that remains one of the few arthritic conditions that can be diagnosed with certainty and cured with appropriate therapy. Allopurinol is the most frequently prescribed agent for gout in the United States. Unfortunately, most patients treated with allopurinol do not achieve target serum uric acid (sUA) levels, possibly due to a perceived intolerability to allopurinol in doses above 300 mg and the need for reduced doses in patients with renal insufficiency. Febuxostat, an orally administered, nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administration for chronic management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout. Patients treated with febuxostat achieve rapid and substantial reductions in sUA levels. Compared with allopurinol-treated patients, patients receiving febuxostat 80 mg/day were more likely to achieve sUA concentrations less than 6 mg/dl. In long-term studies (up to 5 yrs), febuxostat demonstrated sustained reductions in sUA levels, nearly complete elimination of gout flares, and a frequency of adverse effects comparable to allopurinol. The most commonly reported adverse effects were liver function abnormalities, rash, nausea, and arthralgias. The recommended starting dose of febuxostat is 40 mg/day, which may be increased to 80 mg/day after 2 weeks if patients do not achieve sUA levels less than 6 mg/dl. Dosage adjustment in mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency is unnecessary; however, data are lacking on the safety of febuxostat in patients with severe renal impairment. Although more costly than allopurinol, febuxostat appears to be an acceptable alternative for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia, and may be advantageous in patients with renal impairment, intolerance to allopurinol, or the inability to attain sUA levels less than 6 mg/dl despite adequate therapy with available agents. PMID:20500048

Love, Bryan L; Barrons, Robert; Veverka, Angie; Snider, K Matthew



Beneficial effect of switching from a combination of angiotensin II receptor blockers other than losartan and thiazides to a fixed dose of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide on uric acid metabolism in hypertensive patients.  


Among the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), losartan (LOS) has uricosuric action. The clinical benefits of LOS compared with those of other ARBs may be apparent when it is combined with diuretics, which have an unfavorable influence on serum uric acid (SUA). The effects of switching from combinations of ARBs other than LOS and thiazides to a fixed-dose combination comprising 50 mg LOS and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure (BP), SUA, percent fractional excretion of UA (FEUA), and urine pH were assessed in 57 hypertensive outpatients. A significant reduction in BP was observed after 6 months (P < .01). The switching therapy significantly decreased SUA level (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P < .01), which was accompanied by increases in FEUA (P < .01) and urine pH (P < .01). The change in SUA was negatively correlated with the changes in FEUA (P < .004) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P < .05). The change in FEUA was positively correlated with the changes in urine pH (P < .05) but not with BP or estimated glomerular filtration rate. In a separate group of patients treated with ARBs other than LOS (n = 82), a significant BP reduction was observed, but no change in SUA or FEUA was observed. In conclusion, switching therapy decreased SUA level, which was accompanied by an increase in FEUA. This result may depend on the balance between LOS-induced inhibitory action of urate transporter 1 and hydrochlorothiazide-induced plasma volume reduction. The increase in urine pH plays a role in UA urinary excretion. PMID:21958001

Ohshiro, Katsuhiko; Sakima, Atsushi; Nakada, Seigo; Kohagura, Kentaro; Yamazato, Masanobu; Tana, Takeshi; Ohya, Yusuke



Study of the correlation between serum ferritin levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to explore the correlation between serum ferritin (SF) levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients. A total of 2,600 patients were enrolled in the study. Various parameters, including blood pressure (BP), height, weight, lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), serum uric acid (SUA), the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and SF levels were measured. A homeostatic model was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?). The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and disposition index (DI) were calculated. The QUICKI and DI decreased significantly and other parameters increased significantly when the number of metabolic disorders increased. Patients with high triglycerides (TG), high total cholesterol (TC), high SUA and obesity demonstrated higher SF levels than those with normal TG, normal TC, normal SUA and normal weight, respectively (P<0.01). Male patients with metabolic disorders (high TG, high TC, high BP, high SUA and obesity) had higher SF levels than female patients with the corresponding disorders (P<0.01). BG, FINS, BMI, TC, TG, SUA, HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were positively correlated with SF, while DI and QUICKI were negatively correlated with SF (P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, BMI, TC, TG and SUA were risk factors for elevated SF levels. In conclusion, the SF levels in non-diabetic, elderly individuals with metabolic disorders may be significantly related to the clustering of the metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia, obesity, disorders of purine metabolism and insulin resistance may be important risk factors for higher SF levels in the elderly.




Serum Uric Acid Is More Strongly Associated with Impaired Fasting Glucose in Women than in Men from a Community-Dwelling Population  

PubMed Central

Serum uric acid (SUA) levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19–89) years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19–89) years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level {normal fasting glucose (NFG), <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ?126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00–1.50) and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03–1.72) following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P?=?0.005). SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kusunoki, Tomo; Abe, Masanori; Miki, Tetsuro



Squamous cell peritonitis associated with hydrometrocolpos in a multimalformed newborn.  


We present the case of a 1 day-old newborn with extensive squamous cell peritonitis resulting from vaginal atresia with hydrometrocolpos and squamous cell reflux through the genital system, a combination rarely recognized in the literature. Delivery was preceded by ultrasound diagnosis of oligohydramnios and "large bladder," the latter representing the dilated proximal vagina. Additional findings included paraesophageal hiatus hernia containing squames, urethral atresia, absence of vulva, lung hypoplasia, mild hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and short umbilical cord with single umbilical artery (SUA). The possible relationship of the SUA with the constellation of infradiaphragmatic malformations is discussed. PMID:16338878

Drut, Ricardo



Clasificación de los herbicidas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Esta lección se enfoca en entender el sistema de clasificación en el cual están organizados los herbicidas. Terminología como clasificación, jerarquía de clasificación, ejemplos de clasificación y un breve resumen de los ocho modos de acción, se discuten en esta lección. Una vez que esto se entiende, es mucho más fácil comprender herbicidas similares y saber por qué estos pueden exhibir ciertos síntomas en malezas y cultivos. Objetivos:Entender la forma en que se clasifican los herbicidas y su importancia en el manejo de la resistencia herbicidaEntender la importancia de la clasificación de los herbicidas por modo de acción, en vez de familiasSer capaz de entender la diferencia entre modo de acción y sitio de acciónSer capaz de diferenciar entre familias de herbicidas, modos de acción, y sitios de acciónEntender nombre común, nombres comerciales y sitios de absorción


Interseções entre cultura midiática, cibercultura e gamecultura: o Ragnarök como processo sociocomunicacional e mediador da conscientização ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os games on-line são estudados na atualidade como mídias interativas complexas. Neste artigo compreendemos os games on-line como resultados das relações entre a cultura midiática, cibercultura e gamecultura. Propomos demonstrar que sua finalidade está na socialização dos jogadores, nos \\

Igor Ramady; Lira de SOUSA; Henrique Paiva de MAGALHÃES



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Na área de empréstimo da Ilha da Madeira (13 m de decapeamento) são desenvolvidos um conjunto de medidas conservacionistas desde 1993. Os resultados visuais são lentos e, como estratégia de agilizá-los, desenvolvemos um manejo paisagístico das bordaduras, onde o cinturão vegetal é composto por espécies arbustivas e arbóreas selecionadas em função de sua rusticidade, características plásticas individuais e

Magna Cunha; Ricardo VALCARCEL


Hyperuricaemia and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with

Anthonia O Ogbera; Alfred O Azenabor



Another city is possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este texto visa a alertar para a urgência de se projetar outra organização da cidade moderna. Da forma como a cidade se estruturou na modernidade, tornou-se inviável para a convivência humana. Em função de sua opção pelo mercado e pelo consumismo numa sociedade de desiguais, de incluídos-excluídos, a cidade morre todos os dias um pouco como espaço de convivência,

Euclides Redin; Rosane Romanini


Avaliação do índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade e desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação criados em sistemas em camas sobrepostas em condições de verão  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Um estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o sistema de criação em camas sobrepostas de maravalha e de casca de arroz, em comparação ao piso tradicional de concreto e sua influência no desempenho dos animais com base no ITGU (Índice de Temperatura de Globo negro e Umidade), no ganho de peso, no consumo de ração, na

Ilda de Fátima Ferreira Tinôco; Cecília de Fátima Souza; Paulo Armando Victoria de Oliveira; Robson Mendes de Paulo; Josiane Aparecida Campos; Cinara da Cunha Siqueira Carvalho; Marcelo Bastos Cordeiro



Influência do veículo na eficácia da reposição de potássio em ratos hipocalêmicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: Pacientes após cirurgia cardíaca são comumente tratados com diuréticos para controle de volume plasmático. A preocupação de distúrbios hipocalêmicos em adultos antes, durante ou após a cirurgia já foi ressaltada anteriormente, visto o risco de arritmias cardíacas. Clinicamente, a diluição da solução de potássio (K+) para administração por via intravenosa, em situações que requerem a sua reposição é

Márcio Petenusso; Vitor Engrácia Valenti; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Eduardo Colombari; Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca; Monica Akemi Sato



Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.



Doação de órgãos e tecidos no Brasil: podemos evoluir? Organ and tissues donation in Brazil: can we evolve? Donación de órganos y de tejidos en el Brasil: ¿podemos desarrollarnos?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumO: Desde 1997, quando da aprovação da chamada Lei dos transplantes, até os dias de hoje, tivemos várias oportunidades de esclarecimentos à população acerca da doação de órgãos e tecidos no Brasil. Adicionalmente, também tivemos um importante avanço nessa área, possibilitando aos profis- sionais mudanças e melhorias em suas práticas assistenciais. Mas ainda buscamos não somente entender o significado da

Bartira De Aguiar Roza; Ben-Hur Ferraz Neto; Tadeu Thomé; Janine Schirmer


Gender and age impacts on the correlations between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in Chinese.  


Prevalence of both metabolic syndrome (MS) and hyperuricemia are increasing. However, findings regarding their relationships are inconsistent. We aimed to explore correlations between MS and hyperuricemia in a large Chinese population, emphasizing the impacts from gender and age. Data analyses were performed in 17,762 subjects randomly recruited from Tianjin municipality in China. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid (SUA) >420 ?mol/L for men, >360 ?mol/L for women. MS was diagnosed by the consensus criterion released in 2009 from a joint collaboration between American Heart Association and other organizations. MS was also diagnosed by Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criterion. Total hyperuricemic prevalence was 12.16%, with male significantly higher than female. Total MS prevalence by consensus criterion was much higher than by CDS criterion (25.56% versus 14.09%). Correlation coefficients were much greater in women than in men. SUA was significantly positively related with body mass index and waist circumference. Generally, binary logistic regression models disclosed females with high SUA were twice likely to suffer from MS than males. Young females (?44 years old) with hyperuricemia had the highest odd ratio of 7.857 by consensus criterion; and after further adjustment by body mass index, this odd ratio was 3.040. SUA and MS were much more closely related in females than in males. Young women with hyperuricemia had the highest risk of MS. PMID:21181218

Zhang, Qing; Lou, Shanshan; Meng, Zhaowei; Ren, Xiaojun



Modernização Agrícola Francesa: a construção de um modelo analítico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo investiga o processo de modernização agrícola na França por meio das interpretações dos economistas, dos sociólogos e dos cientistas políticos, envolvendo especialmente o debate da sociologia e da economia rural contemporâneas. O objetivo é compreender a sua dinâmica específica pelo cruzamento entre diferentes áreas das Ciências Sociais com o intuito de construir um modelo interpretativo para a análise

Angelica Massuquetti



Applications of Reinforced Glass and Polyethylene Fibers in Orthodontic Practice - Part I Uso de Fibras de Vidro e Polietileno Reforçados por Resina em Ortodontia - Parte I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este artigo aborda a utilização clínica de fibras de vidro e de polietileno em Ortodontia. Casos clínicos ilustram a sua utilização de modo tradicional e inovador o que vem mudar conceitos, a mecânica e a estética dos aparelhos fixos. Como vantagens são destaca - das a realização de tratamentos com menor utilização de braquetes, fios e bandas, maior conforto

Daniel Ianni



Mission, strategie e valutazione delle performance delle aziende nonprofit in un approccio di stakeholder management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le aziende non profit (anp) sono particolari organizzazioni che hanno come obiettivo istituzionale non la creazione di profitto in senso economico ma la massimizzazione del valore sociale prodotto a vantaggio della collettività di riferimento. Tale valore è di natura intangibile e la sua definizione e misurazione dipendono in maniera fondamentale dalla percezione dei diversi stakeholder da esso a vario titolo

Ericka Costa; Tommaso Ramus



Economic Decline in Historical Perspective: Some Theoretical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non ragioniamo con naturalezza di declino economico, per motivi inerenti alla nostra formazione culturale. La nostra teoria della storia è l'interpretazione Whig, che vede la storia come progresso. Nella sua versione originale vedeva una forte accelerazione del progresso alla fine del Medio Evo; nella versione oggi ortodossa tale accelerazione è anticipata alla fine dell'era antica, ma la visione sottostante è

Fenoaltea Stefano



Forma e funzioni delle reti di imprese: evidenze da una ricerca nel settore vitivinicolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il tema delle reti di imprese, già da tempo studiato, si presenta ora in tutta la sua rilevanza. La rete, infatti, costituisce uno strumento per incrementare la competitività delle imprese e per decretare il successo delle strategie da queste adottate. Il recente intervento che ha introdotto il contratto di rete testimonia anche il vivo interesse del legislatore. L’attuazione dello strumento

Federica Casarosa; Marco Gobbato



78 FR 48622 - Connect America Fund  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CY-A257, 445 12th Street SW., Washington, DC 20554. Or at the following Internet address: I. Introduction 1. In the Order on Reconsideration, the Commission sua...




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO 1. INTRODUÇÃO Na Sociedade do Conhecimento, as organizações precisam aprender a administrar sua inteligência empresarial. Esta pode representar um importante diferencial em relação aos concorrentes, e, dessa forma, não deve ser desprezada ou subestimada. No mundo atual, altamente competitivo, as organizações precisam estar atentas à concorrência, sob pena de perder espaço no mercado. Desse modo, fica cada vez mais

Simone Bastos Paiva; Edward de Bono



DESENVOLVIMENTO DE INSTRUMENTO DE COLETA DE DADOS DE ENFERMAGEM PARA PACIENTES COM CÂNCER DE PULMÃO EM QUIMIOTERAPIA AMBULATORIAL Developing a Nursing Data Colleting Instrument to Patients with Lung Cancer Treated by Chemotherapy in Ambulatory Desarrollo de Instrumento de Recogida de Datos de Enfermería para Pacientes con Cáncer de Pulmón en Quimioterapia Ambulatoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen O câncer é um grave problema de saúde pública, e, dentre suas variedades, há o câncer de pulmão, que vem crescendo na população brasileira e mundial. A principal causa do câncer de pulmão é o tabagismo. Há três formas de tratamento: cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia; para essa patologia a mais utilizada é a terceira. A enfermeira deve estar apta

Salvadori AM; Lamas JLT; Anita Moda Salvadori; José Luiz Tatagiba Lamas; Cláudia Zanon


Elevated Uric Acid Increases the Risk for Acute Kidney Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUric acid has been proposed to play a role in acute kidney injury. We therefore investigated the potential influence of preoperative serum uric acid (SUA) on acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiovascular (CV) surgery. The primary aims were to investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury, peak serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations, hospital length of stay and days on mechanical

Vijay Lapsia; Richard J. Johnson; Bhagwan Dass; Michiko Shimada; Ganesh Kambhampati; Noel I. Ejaz; Amir A. Arif; A. Ahsan Ejaz



Microsoft Academic Search

A study to investigate the effect of sowing bruchid-damaged bean seeds on germination, plant development and grain yield was conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) in Morogoro between November 1999 and April 2000. Undamaged seed and seeds damaged by bruchids with one to four holes were planted in plastic pots and placed in the glasshouse. Germination, plant development, and

M. S. Chipungahelo; R. N. Misangu; S. O. W. M. Reuben


Medicina Baseada em Evidências: a arte de aplicar o conhecimento científico na prática clínica  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este artigo foi escrito com o objetivo de descrever o conceito de Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE) e as competências necessárias para a sua prática. MBE deve ser vista como a integração da experiência clínica com a capacida- de de analisar e aplicar racionalmente a informa- ção científica ao cuidar de pacientes. A aplicação de métodos e estratégias

A. A. Lopes




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: As influências da música no corpo foram objeto deste estudo conduzido junto a um grupo de enfermeiros participantes de uma disciplina de Pós-Graduação. Além de descrever essas influências, o estudo objetivou analisar a aplicabilidade da dinâmica de criatividade e sensibilidade (DCS) Corpo- Musical como forma de sensibilização do enfermeiro quanto ao uso da música na sua prática de cuidar-

Bergold LB; Alvim NAT; Cabral IE; Leila Brito Bergold; Neide Aparecida; Titonelli Alvim; Ivone Evangelista Cabral


The missing umbilical artery  

PubMed Central

In a consecutive series of nearly 20,000 freshly delivered placentas, 2 vessels instead of the normal 3 were found in the umbilical cords of 143 (0·72%) infants, 83 females and 60 males. 4 infants were twins: in each instance the co-twin had 3 vessels. The incidence of single umbilical artery (SUA) in multiple pregnancies was slightly less than in singletons. 2 infants with SUA were sibs. There was an increased incidence of major malformations (17·5%), of prematurity (16·5%), and of smallness for dates (34%) among infants with SUA. 25 (17·5%) infants, of whom 19 had a major malformation, died in the perinatal period; of these, 2 had a persistent vitelline artery. (A follow-up study has been carried out on the surviving infants—results to be published.) This investigation into the incidence and significance of SUA is based on what is so far the largest prospective and unselected series collected in a single maternity unit. All placental examinations and necropsies were carried out by one pathologist, all follow-up examinations by one paediatrician.

Bryan, Elizabeth M.; Kohler, H. G.



Bench-to-bedside review: Antidotal treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia with octreotide  

PubMed Central

The major potential adverse effect of use of sulfonylurea agents (SUAs) is a hyperinsulinaemic state that causes hypoglycaemia. It may be observed during chronic therapeutic dosing, even with very low doses of a SUA, and especially in older patients. It may also result from accidental or intentional poisoning in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The traditional approach to SUA-induced hypoglycaemia includes administration of glucose, and glucagon or diazoxide in those who remain hypoglycaemic despite repeated or continuous glucose supplementation. However, these antidotal approaches are associated with several shortcomings, including further exacerbation of insulin release by glucose and glucagon, leading only to a temporary beneficial effect and later relapse into hypoglycaemia, as well as the adverse effects of both glucagon and diazoxide. Octreotide inhibits the secretion of several neuropeptides, including insulin, and has successfully been used to control life-threatening hypoglycaemia caused by insulinoma or persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy. Therefore, this agent should in theory also be useful to decrease glucose requirements and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with SUA-induced hypoglycaemia. This has apparently been confirmed by experimental data, one retrospective study based on chart review, and several anecdotal case reports. There is thus a need for further prospective studies, which should be adequately powered, randomized and controlled, to confirm the probable beneficial effect of octreotide in this setting.

Lheureux, Philippe ER; Zahir, Soheil; Penaloza, Andrea; Gris, Mireille



Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de

Alan Kardec Elias Martins; Carlos Ernesto G. R. Schaefer; Elias Silva; Vicente Paulo Soares; Guilherme Resende Corrêa; Bruno Araújo Furtado de Mendonça



ORIGENS DA FORMAÇÃO AGRÁRIA SUL RIO-GRANDENSE NO CONTEXTO BRASILEIRO Apresentação Oral-Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica do s Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Partindo-se do pressuposto que a dinâmica do desenvolvimento rural de uma região é historicamente orientada, impõe-se a neces sidade de um aprofundado conhecimento acerca dos processos que contribuíram para a sua formação agrária. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo inci tar a uma reflexão sobre a questão agrária e como ela tem condicionado a dinâmica do desenvolvimento




Microsoft Academic Search

resUMo Introdução: Os cirurgiões dentistas, no exercício de suas atividades clínica e particular, recebem de seus clientes, em troca da prestação de serviços odontológicos, honorários profissionais. O propósito do presente estudo é verificar, junto aos cirurgiões dentistas do Município de Araçatuba, se a fixação de seus honorários é estabelecida de acordo com os critérios previstos no Código de Ética Odontológico,

Artênio José Isper Garbin; Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin; Tânia Adas Saliba; Nelly Foster Ferreira; Marcos Tadeu; Adas Saliba


Astroblema Domo de Vargeão, SC Registro de Impacto Meteorítico sobre Rochas Vulcânicas da Bacia do Paraná  

Microsoft Academic Search

O Domo de Vargeão é um dos raros exemplos de astroblemas em território brasileiro. Localizada na região oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, esta notável depressão circular possui aproximadamente 12 quilômetros de diâmetro e exibe desníveis abruptos de até 150 m entre suas bordas e as porções internas. A feição circular hoje existente nesse local representa o remanescente erosivo de

Alvaro Penteado Crósta; César Kazzuo-Vieira; Asit Choudhuri; Alfonso Schrank


Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC.) e exóticas (Lotus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas). Este trabalho teve o obj etivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS) e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A.

Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso; Aino Victor Avila Jacques; Miguel Dall'Agnol; João Riboldi; Stela Maris Jesuz Castro



Nutrizione e occhio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a L'occhio è un organo di estrema importanza e deve funzionare sempre al meglio delle sue possibilità; anch'esso, come ogni\\u000a altra struttura dell'organismo, e forse più di ogni altra, necessita di ricevere i giusti nutrimenti, nella dose corretta,\\u000a per svolgere adeguatamente la sua funzione.

Nazareno Marabottini


Fiducia e assiduità sono gli ingredienti delle cure più efficaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

8 Il placebo tende un agguato alla farmacopea ufficiale e le reazioni dei medici sono ancora di incredulità davanti a conclusioni concettuali che ribaltano le prospettive. La scrupolosità con cui Osvaldo si prende cu- ra della sua ipertrofia prostatica potrebbe ga- rantirgli la guarigione, indipendentemente dall'efficacia (e innocuità) della compressa vi- taminica acquistata in erboristeria; al contra- rio,la trascuratezza con

Roberta Villa; Occhio Clinico



a Biopirataria: a pilhagem da natureza e do conhecimento , de Vandana Shiva (Petrópolis, Vozes, 2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversidade, proteção do meio ambiente, agricultura sustentável, agribusiness e alimentos geneticamente modificados - tais são os temas que cada vez mais ocupam o centro das controvérsias atuais sobre a agricultura, no mundo inteiro. O Brasil não é exceção, e entre os movimentos que dão a eles maior destaque encontra-se o MST. Imbuído de forte consciência ecológica desde sua fundação, e

Hugh Lacey; Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira



Mobilidade e Vulnerabilidade nos Espaços de Vida de Campinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A vida nas metrópoles brasileiras tem sofrido alterações significativas nos últimos 30 anos, produzindo novos padrões espaciais e sociodemográficos que incidem diretamente na qualidade e no padrão de vida das pessoas. Dois traços desta nova forma metropolitana são especialmente relevantes para compreender estas transformações e suas implicações: a mobilidade e a vulnerabilidade. Nos dois casos, a problemática ambiental está

Eduardo Marandola Jr


Os determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil: Luta de classes ou heterogeneidade educacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho considera a questão: quais os principais determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil? Após lembrar a importância da questão para a nossa economia, o artigo sugere um arcabouço genérico para categorizar os determinantes da distribuição de renda, baseado em cinco grupos de fatores: caraterísticas natas dos indivíduos; suas características adquiridas; o papel do mercado de trabalho; o papel

Francisco de Hollanda Guimarães Ferreira




Microsoft Academic Search

1 - INTRODUÇÃO A densidade da madeira é uma característica complexa resultante da combinação de diversos fatôres. Existem inúmeros trabalhos mostrando sua relação com as dimensões das fibras, particularmente espessura da parede, volume dos vasos e parênquimas, proporção entre madeira primaveril e outonal, e arranjo dos elementos anatômicos. Êste assunto tem sido intensivamente estudado para as coníferas, porém para as

Celso Edmundo; Bochetti Foelkel; Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil; Luiz Ernesto; George Barrichelo



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A região cacaueira da Bahia vem enfrentando uma crise sem precedente em sua história com a redução continuada da renda e emprego em virtude de problemas enfrentados pela cultura do cacau. O crescimento do parque agroindustrial de polpa de frutas na região poderá contribuir na diversificação da economia regional ao criar uma opção de mercado para a produção

Antônio Carlos de Araújo; Lúcia Maria Ramos Silva; Ahmad Saeed Khan; José B. V. Leite; Aurélio F. Macedo



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Propomos uma análise do discurso didático expositivo escrito, em textos do ensino fundamental, focalizando dois aspectos principais. Em primeiro lugar, consideramos o funcionamento cognitivo desse tipo de discurso, com base nas perspectivas de Bruner (1998; 2001) e Bronckart (1999). Em segundo lugar, examinamos algumas de suas principais estruturas semânticas, a partir da abordagem da lingüística cognitiva (Langacker. 1987; 1991;

Luís Passeggi


On Language, Mathematical Concepts and the Scientific Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Os conceitos matemáticos, fundamentais em todo processo de interação da Matemática com outras ciências, como a Física, a Filosofia, a Lógica e as Ciências Econômicas, guardam as chaves para a compreensão de suas estruturas e teorias, bem como para a compreensão do discurso matemático e, de modo mais amplo, para a compreensão do discurso científico. Neste trabalho refletimos sobre

Tadeu Fernandes de Carvalho


A Salafiya marroquina e a questão feminina: leitura de l'Autocritique de Allal el-Fassi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Falar do longo processo de mobilização nacional pela reforma do código da família no Marrocos exige que se preste homenagem aos primeiros militantes, homens e mulheres, pela emancipação das mulheres. Desde os anos quarenta, esses pioneiros colocavam entre suas reivindicações a abolição da poligamia, o estabelecimento do divórcio judiciário e os direitos iguais para as mulheres no interior da

Fatima Harrak




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Procura o presente estudo traçar um breve panorama da situação da mulher no que concerne à proteção da sua dignidade. Em primeiro lugar, faz-se um breve histórico sobre o estabelecimento de convenções e outros instrumentos internacionais de proteção à dignidade da mulher. Em segundo lugar, apontam-se os grandes desafios enfrentados na atualidade para a efetiva proteção dos direitos da

Juliana Oliveira Domingues; Santa Marcelina



Microsoft Academic Search

Na generalidade dos países desenvolvidos, os sistemas públicos de pensionamento têm-se confron- tado com o aumento da longevidade e com o decréscimo da natalidade das suas populações. Quase invariavelmente, a reacção dos decisores políticos traduziu-se no aumento da idade legal da reforma, isto é, da idade em que os trabalhadores são investidos no direito a receber uma pensão completa; na

Pedro Martins; Álvaro Novo; Pedro Portugal




Microsoft Academic Search

O caminho percorrido para que as questões do género e do desenvolvimento e em especial a sua interligação sejam assuntos importantes e alvo de atenção tanto académica como política, foi longo. Várias áreas do conhecimento, como a sociologia, a antropologia e a economia, contribuem para a construção do conhecimento neste domínio, a par de outras mais recentes como os estudos

Vanda Margarida De Jesus Dos Santos Narciso; Pedro Damiao de Sousa Henriques



Pregadoras murshidat como agentes de mudança no Marrocos: uma perspectiva comparativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo As feministas marroquinas tem como objetivo promover posições de poder para as mulheres através da educação, da auto- consciência e do conhecimento de novos direitos legais; e também disseminando informações a respeito do novo código da família e do novo código trabalhista por meio de suas ONGs e grupos comunitários. O ativismo das mulheres contribuiu de maneira significativa para

Moha Ennaji



Práticas naturalistas e feministas. Debate educacional e a construção da carreira de Bertha Lutz na comunidade científica e política das décadas de 1920 e 30  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Analisamos a trajetória da naturalista do Museu Nacional, Bertha Lutz nos anos iniciais de sua carreira, buscando compreender em que medida seu ingresso e atuação na instituição estão relacionados com o contexto de profissionalização e especialização científica no Brasil, e como participou em meio às culturas científicas - também políticas - e formas de sociabilidade. Este movimento, permeado pelo

Lia Gomes; Pinto de Sousa


Acesso ao casamento no Brasil: uma questão de cidadania sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo esumo esumo esumo esumo: A instituição do casamento deve estar acessível a todos os cidadãos, independen- temente de sua orientação sexual, sob pena de discriminação vedada na Constituição Federal. Contribui para essa conclusão a jurisprudência que, utilizando-se da analogia, tem reconhecido uniões estáveis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo sem que para isso seja obstáculo o

Roberto Arriada Lorea



Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias

T. Mothé Diniz; F. V. Roig



Ensino médico e espiritualidade Medical education and spirituality Educación médica y espiritualidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Espiritualidade é uma característica do ser humano que busca desenvolver sua parte espiritual em oposição à parte material. Propõe buscar um sentido fundamental da existência, na convicção da imortalidade do espírito e na existência de entidades divinas supe- riores, que desempenham papéis como criadores, mantenedores e interventores em todos os processos cosmológicos. A crença em verdades metafísicas, intuitivas ou

Venâncio Pereira Dantas Filho; Flávio César de Sá


77 FR 20637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; OAA Title III-C...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on Aging (SUA), Area Agency on Aging (AAA), and Local Service Provider (LSP...survey that covers a variety of topics. The AAA process component includes a short faxable...faxable survey that is comparable to the AAA faxable survey and a web-based...



Are There Any Promising Biochemical Correlates of Achievement Behavior and Motivation? The Evidence for Serum Uric Acid and Serum Cholesterol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the available evidence in support of the argument that serum uric acid (SUA) possesses considerable promise as an indicator of one type of biochemical influence on achievement behavior. The evidence arguing for further research into the role of serum cholesterol in achievement behavior is also examined. (Author/JR)

Kasl, Stanislav V.



A emergência da categoria “agricultor familiar” como sujeito de direitos na trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras raízes ainda na constituição da legislação trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergência dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na

Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto



Respeito às Normas e Crescimento Econômico: Como Promotores Públicos Garantem o Cumprimento das Leis e Promovem o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta pesquisa examina como os membros do Ministério Público (MP) brasileiro conseguem que empresas instaladas em território nacional cumpram com a legislação trabalhista e ambiental sem perder a competitividade. Nos casos analisados, promotores e procuradores percebem que os gargalos que dificultam o cumprimento da lei estão freqüentemente fora das empresas infratoras e de suas respectivas cadeias de valor, e que,

Salo Vinocur Coslovsky



As implicações do trabalho em cooperativas de trabalhadores rurais  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperativa de trabalho é um meio pelo qual os trabalhadores rurais se organizam e gerenciam suas forças com maior poder de barganha no mercado, para alcançar melhores condições de trabalho, particularmente em situações em que se encontram desprovidos total ou parcialmente de direitos trabalhistas. Enquanto trabalhadores autônomos, por meio da assistência social da cooperativa, os associados podem melhor adequar

Geraldo Magela Braga; Leonardo Pinheiro Deboçã; José Mauro Ferraz Andrade; Rosiane Maria Lima Gonçalves




Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução O turismo tem crescido em ritmo intenso em todo o Brasil. No litoral norte de São Paulo, em virtude, principalmente, da proximidade com a capital do estado - maior fluxo emissivo de turistas - esse crescimento é bastante acentuado. Ilhabela detém belezas naturais e cenários geográficos que estimulam os turistas e veranistas a escolherem esse destino para suas férias

Claudia Maria Astorino


Gerenciamento de riscos na prática ortodôntica: como se proteger de eventuais problemas legais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução: A relação profissional-paciente na área de Ortodontia e Ortopedia facial é bas- tante desgastante face à longa duração dos tratamentos e, por causa disso, muitas vezes essa relação pode se deteriorar trazendo prejuízos a ambas as partes. Objetivo: Este trabalho visa informar o leitor, em linguagem acessível, sobre os principais problemas jurídicos que podem envolver o ortodontista em sua

Ricardo Machado Cruz; Carla Pádua



Half-cell potentials of semiconductive simple binary sulphides in aqueous solution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Theoretical consideration of the charge-transfer mechanism operative in cells with an electrode of a semiconductive binary compound leads to the conclusion that the half-cell potential of such a compound is not only a function of ionic activities in the electrolytic solution, but also a function of the activities of the component elements in the compound phase. The most general form of the electrode equation derived for such a compound with a formula MiXj which dissociates into Mj+ and Xi- ions in aqueous solution is. EMiXj = EMiXj0 + R T 2 ij ln [ (sua Mj+)aqi ?? (suaX)jMiXj/ (suaXi-)aqj ?? (suaM)iMiXj],. where. EMiXj0 = 1 2(EM,Mj+0 + EXi-,X). The equation can be modified to other forms. When applied to semiconductive simple binary sulphides, these equations appear to give better descriptions of the observed electrode potentials of such sulphides than any other proposed equations. ?? 1966.

Sato, M.



O ADOECIMENTO DO PORTADOR DE ESCLEROSE MÚLTIPLA: PERCEPÇÕES E VIVÊNCIAS A PARTIR DA NARRATIVA DE DOIS CASOS CLÍNICOS The process of becoming ill for the bearer of Multiple Sclerosis: perceptions and life experiences as from the report of two clinical cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A Esclerose Múltipla (EM) é considerada a principal doença neurológica inflamatória crônica no grupo das doenças desmielinizantes, caracterizada por episódios repetidos de disfunção neurológica com remissão variável. Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender as percepções e vivências dos portadores de EM, mostrando esta doença sob a visão daqueles que sofrem e suas representações subjetivas da doença. Tratou-se de um

Cíntia Carla; Juliana Lima Fonteles; Liana Rocha Praça; Ângela Cardoso Andrade



Microsoft Academic Search

Face à importância da informação para o atual contexto social, em especial para a gestão empresarial, analisa-se a informação como um ativo a ser gerenciado, uma vez que é infinitamente reutilizável, não deteriorável e nem tampouco depreciável. A gestão da informação transforma valores e cultura organizacionais. Sua efetivação contribui para o alcance dos atuais desafios das empresas: qualidade, produtividade e

Andreina Alves de Sousa


Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus), é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado), e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por

Eduardo Gianini Abimorad; Dalton José Carneiro



Effects of Strenuous Physical Training on Serum Uric Acid Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study a fall in serum uric acid (SUA) concentration was associated with the intensive physical exercise over a period of 12 weeks. It was concluded that the chronic effects of a physical training program do not necessarily mimic the temporary effe...

L. H. Cronau P. J. Rasch J. W. Hamby H. J. Burns



Characterisation of Genome-Wide Association Epistasis Signals for Serum Uric Acid in Human Population Isolates  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a number of loci underlying variation in human serum uric acid (SUA) levels with the SLC2A9 gene having the largest effect identified so far. Gene-gene interactions (epistasis) are largely unexplored in these GWA studies. We performed a full pair-wise genome scan in the Italian MICROS population (n?=?1201) to characterise epistasis signals in SUA levels. In the resultant epistasis profile, no SNP pairs reached the Bonferroni adjusted threshold for the pair-wise genome-wide significance. However, SLC2A9 was found interacting with multiple loci across the genome, with NFIA - SLC2A9 and SLC2A9 - ESRRAP2 being significant based on a threshold derived for interactions between GWA significant SNPs and the genome and jointly explaining 8.0% of the phenotypic variance in SUA levels (3.4% by interaction components). Epistasis signal replication in a CROATIAN population (n?=?1772) was limited at the SNP level but improved dramatically at the gene ontology level. In addition, gene ontology terms enriched by the epistasis signals in each population support links between SUA levels and neurological disorders. We conclude that GWA epistasis analysis is useful despite relatively low power in small isolated populations.

Wei, Wenhua; Hemani, Gibran; Hicks, Andrew A.; Vitart, Veronique; Cabrera-Cardenas, Claudia; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Knott, Sara A.; Rudan, Igor; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Hastie, Nicholas; Wright, Alan F.; Haley, Chris S.



Achieving serum urate goal: a comparative effectiveness study Between allopurinol and febuxostat.  


Background: Febuxostat is recommended as 1 of 2 first-line urate-lowering therapies (ULT) for treating gout in the 2012 American College of Rheumatology Guidelines. Several efficacy trials have compared febuxostat with allopurinol treatment, but real-world comparative data are limited. Methods: We compared effectiveness of the 2 agents in reaching serum urate (sUA) level goal (< 6 mg/dL) within 6 months (main endpoint), factors impacting the likelihood of reaching goal, and outcomes in allopurinol patients who were switched to febuxostat therapy after failing to reach sUA level goal. Data from the General Electric Electronic Medical Record database on adult patients with newly diagnosed gout, who had started treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat in 2009 or thereafter were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and logistic regressions were used. Results: Allopurinol (n = 17 199) and febuxostat (n = 1190) patients had a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 63.7 (± 13.37) years; most patients were men and white. Average daily medication doses (mg) in the first 6 months were 184.9 ± 96.7 and 48.4 ± 15.8 for allopurinol- and febuxostat-treated patients, respectively; 4.8% of allopurinol-treated patients switched to febuxostat, whereas 25.7% of febuxostat-treated patients switched to allopurinol. Febuxostat patients had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, more diabetes mellitus, or tophi at baseline (P < 0.05) and 29.2% and 42.2% of patients in the allopurinol and febuxostat groups achieved goal sUA levels (P < 0.0001). Febuxostat was significantly more effective in patients reaching sUA goal (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.48-2.01). Older patients and women had greater likelihood of reaching sUA goal level; however, patients with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, blacks, or those with estimated glomerular filtration rates between 15 to ? 60 mL/min had reduced likelihood of attaining goal (P < 0.05). Among allopurinol-treated patients who were switched to febuxostat after failing to reach goal, 244 (48.3%) reached goal on febuxostat (median = 62.5 days), with an average 39% sUA level reduction achieved within 6 months. Patients who did not reach goal had a 14.3% sUA level reduction. Conclusions: The real-life data support the effectiveness of febuxostat in managing patients with gout. PMID:24685969

Hatoum, Hind; Khanna, Dinesh; Lin, Swu-Jane; Akhras, Kasem S; Shiozawa, Aki; Khanna, Puja



Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257, and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9) were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p < 1.3 × 10?7). The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2, 36.2, and 38.2%, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3–7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight, and waist circumference (p < 1.4 × 10?3) and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status (TAS). The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p < 1.9 × 10?6) for joint linkage/association (JLA) was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6) on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.

Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Kent, Jack W.; Debnath, Subrata; Cole, Shelley A.; Haack, Karin; Goring, Harald H. H.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Moses, Eric K.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G.



Hyperuricemia beyond 1 year after kidney transplantation in pediatric patients: Prevalence and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia is frequent among adult renal transplant recipients; however, data among pediatric kidney recipients are scarce. This study is designed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of late post-transplant hyperuricemia in pediatric recipients. A retrospective observational multicenter study on 179 pediatric renal recipients (5–18 years) was conducted between April 2008 and January 2011 from five kidney transplant centers of Tehran, Iran. All recipients were followed up for more than 1 year (5.9 ±3.3 years) after transplantation. A total of 17686 blood samples were obtained for serum uric acid (SUA). The normal range of SUA was defined as SUA 1.86–5.93 mg/dl for children between 2 and 15 years in both genders; 2.40–5.70 mg/dl for girls aged >15 years; 3.40–7.0 mg/dl for boys aged >15 and more than 6 and 7 mg/dl in boys and girls older than 15 years old. The median age of the children was 13 years. Male recipients were more popular than female (male/female 59/41%). Hyperuricemia was detected in 50.2% of patients. Mean SUA concentration was 5.9±1.7 mg/dl and mean SUA concentration in hyperuricemic patients was 7.7±1.2 mg/dl. While at multivariate logistic regression elevated serum creatinine concentration (P<0.001) and the time span after renal transplantation (P=0.02) had impact on late post-transplant hyperuricemia. High cyclosporine level (C0 and C2) was not risk factor for huperuricemia. Late post-transplant hyperuricemia was found in about half of pediatric renal recipients, and was associated with impaired renal allograft function.

Einollahi, B.; Einollahi, H.; Rostami, Z.



Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes.

Kark, Jeremy D.



The structure of the yrdC gene product from Escherichia coli reveals a new fold and suggests a role in RNA binding.  

PubMed Central

The yrdC family of genes codes for proteins that occur both independently and as a domain in proteins that have been implicated in regulation. An example for the latter case is the sua5 gene from yeast. SuaS was identified as a suppressor of a translation initiation defect in cytochrome c and is required for normal growth in yeast (Na JG, Pinto I, Hampsey M, 1992, Genetics 11:791-801). However, the function of the Sua5 protein remains unknown; Sua5 could act either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional levels to compensate for an aberrant translation start codon in the cyc gene. To potentially learn more about the function of YrdC and proteins featuring this domain, the crystal structure of the YrdC protein from Escherichia coli was determined at a resolution of 2.0 A. YrdC adopts a new fold with no obvious similarity to those of other proteins with known three-dimensional (3D) structure. The protein features a large concave surface on one side that exhibits a positive electrostatic potential. The dimensions of this depression, its curvature, and the fact that conserved basic amino acids are located at its floor suggest that YrdC may be a nucleic acid binding protein. An investigation of YrdC's binding affinities for single- and double-stranded RNA and DNA fragments as well as tRNAs demonstrates that YrdC binds preferentially to double-stranded RNA. Our work provides evidence that 3D structures of functionally uncharacterized gene products with unique sequences can yield novel folds and functional insights.

Teplova, M.; Tereshko, V.; Sanishvili, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Bushueva, T.; Anderson, W. F.; Egli, M.



Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

Roa, A. F. C.


La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.


Movimiento regular y caótico en cúmulos globulares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los cúmulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las órbitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energía ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos caóticos. Como paso preliminar de una investigación más extensa, presentamos aquí los resultados de un estudio de órbitas estelares en un cúmulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una órbita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las órbitas se investigan utilizando dos métodos: 1) La clasificación por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de órbitas de las estrellas del cúmulo. Confirmamos la presencia de órbitas caóticas, particularmente en las zonas externas del cúmulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del cúmulo.

Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.


Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Per?: un estudio cualitativo  

PubMed Central

El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado.

Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Diez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andres G.



Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento "Manejo del Dolor" en la Documentaci?n de Enfermer?a en el Expediente Electr?nico  

PubMed Central

Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones.

Monsivais, Maria Guadalupe Moreno; Guzman, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vazquez



Relationship between Inflammatory Cytokines and Uric Acid Levels with Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background So far it is unclear whether the association between serum uric acid (SUA), inflammatory cytokines and risk of atherosclerosis is causal or an epiphenomenon. The aim of the project is to investigate the independent prognostic relationship of inflammatory markers and SUA levels with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a patient population with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods SUA, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured at baseline in a cohort of 1,056 patients aged 30–70 years with CHD. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic value of these markers on a combined CVD endpoint during eight year follow-up after adjustment for covariates. Results For 1,056 patients with stable coronary heart disease aged 30–70 years (mean age 58.9 years, SD 8.0) follow-up information and serum measurements were complete and n?=?151 patients (incidence 21.1 per 1000 patients years) experienced a fatal or non-fatal CVD event during follow-up (p-value?=?0.05 for quartiles of SUA, p?=?0.002 for quartiles of CRP, p?=?0.13 for quartiles of IL-6 in Kaplan-Meier analysis). After adjustment for age, gender and hospital site the hazard ratio (HR) for SUA increased from 1.37 to 1.65 and 2.27 in the second, third, and top quartile, when compared to the bottom one (p for trend <0.0005). The HR for CRP increased from 0.85 to 0.98 and 1.64 in the respective quartiles (p for trend 0.02). After further adjustment for covariates SUA still showed a clear statistically significant relationship with the outcome (p for trend 0.045), whereas CRP did not (p for trend 0.10). Conclusion The data suggest that compared to inflammatory markers such as CRP and IL-6 serum uric acid levels may predict future CVD risk in patients with stable CHD with a risk increase even at levels considered normal.

Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Kleiner, Andrea; Koenig, Wolfgang; Primatesta, Paola; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann



Association of Serum Uric Acid with 2-Hour Postload Glucose in Chinese with Impaired Fasting Plasma Glucose and/or HbA1c  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with 2-hour postload glucose (2-h PG) in Chinese with impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and/or HbA1c (IA1C). Research Design and Methods Anthropometric and biochemical examinations, such as SUA concentration, were performed in 3763 individuals from all the villages in Baqiao County, China. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in 1197 Chinese with prediabetes as having IFG (110? fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <126 mg/dl and HbA1c <6.5%), IA1C (5.7% ? HbA1c <6.5% and FPG <126 mg/dl), or both. Results The present study included 1197 participants with IFG and/or IA1C (mean age 56.5±10.3 years; 50.6% men). In multivariate linear regression, after adjustment for gender, age, smoking and drinking, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), lipid profiles, logarithmic transformed C-reactive protein (log-CRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR), FPG and HbA1c, with a 1-mg/dl increment of SUA, 2-h PG increased by 5.04±0.72 (P<0.001), 3.06±1.08 (P?=?0.001), 5.40±1.26 (P<0.001), and 2.34±2.16 mg/dl (P?=?0.056) in all participants, in participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and with 2-h newly diagnosed diabetes (2-h NDM, with 2-h PG ?200 mg/dl), respectively. In both men and women, 2-h PG increased progressively and significantly from the lower to the upper SUA tertiles (P<0.001). Moreover, in multivariate logistic regression, 1-standard deviation (SD; 1.53 mg/dl) increment of SUA was significantly associated with a 36% higher risk for 2-h NDM (Odds ratio [CI 95%]: 1.36 [1.09–1.99]; P?=?0.03). Conclusions SUA is significantly associated with 2-h PG in Chinese with IFG and/or IA1C.

Wang, Su-Juan; Qin, Yue-Hua; Fu, Qi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Min; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tao



Análise do STR-F13A01 e MPSs do mtDNA para fins de identificação humana: comparação de três métodos de extração de DNA de dentes submetidos ao calor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Nos casos de carbonização humana, usualmente, há uma limitação do emprego dos remanescentes bio- lógicos para estudo. Nesses casos, têm-se usado por eleição dentes para análises forenses, já que sua cons- tituição anatômica proporciona proteção ao material genético. No presente estudo, avaliou-se a amplifica- ção por PCR do DNA obtido de dentes submetidos a calor (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC e



ABCG2 is a High-Capacity Urate Transporter and its Genetic Impairment Increases Serum Uric Acid Levels in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2\\/BCRP) gene encodes a well-known transporter, which exports various substrates including nucleotide analogs such as 3?-azido-3?-deoxythymidine (AZT). ABCG2 is also located in a gout-susceptibility locus (MIM 138900) on chromosome 4q, and has recently been identified by genome-wide association studies to relate to serum uric acid (SUA) and gout. Becuase urate is structurally similar

Akiyoshi Nakayama; Hirotaka Matsuo; Tappei Takada; Kimiyoshi Ichida; Takahiro Nakamura; Yuki Ikebuchi; Kousei Ito; Tatsuo Hosoya; Yoshikatsu Kanai; Hiroshi Suzuki; Nariyoshi Shinomiya



Pegloticase immunogenicity: the relationship between efficacy and antibody development in patients treated for refractory chronic gout  

PubMed Central

Introduction The efficacy of pegloticase, a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated mammalian recombinant uricase, approved for chronic refractory gout, can be limited by the development of antibodies (Ab). Analyses from 2 replicate, 6-month, randomized controlled trials were performed to characterize Ab responses to pegloticase. Methods Anti-pegloticase, anti-PEG, and anti-uricase Ab were determined by validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ab titers were analyzed for possible relationships with serum pegloticase concentrations, serum uric acid (sUA) lowering, and risk of infusion reactions (IRs). Results Sixty-nine (41%) of 169 patients receiving pegloticase developed high titer anti-pegloticase Ab (> 1:2430) and 40% (67/169) developed anti-PEG Ab; 1 patient receiving placebo developed high titer anti-pegloticase Ab. Only 14% (24/169) of patients developed anti-uricase Ab, usually at low titer. In responders, patients showing sustained UA lowering, mean anti-pegloticase titers at week 25 (1:837?±?1687 with biweekly and 1:2025?±?4506 with monthly dosing) were markedly lower than in nonresponders (1:34,528?±?42,228 and 1:89,658?±?297,797, respectively). Nonresponder status was associated with reduced serum pegloticase concentrations. Baseline anti-pegloticase Ab, evident in 15% (31/212) of patients, did not predict subsequent loss of urate-lowering response. Loss of sUA response preceded IRs in 44 of 56 (79%) pegloticase-treated patients. Conclusions Loss of responsiveness to pegloticase is associated with the development of high titer anti-pegloticase Ab that increase clearance of pegloticase and are associated with a loss of the sUA lowering effect and increased IR risk. Pre-infusion sUA can be used as a surrogate for the presence of deleterious anti-pegloticase Ab. Trial registration NCT00325195. Registered 10 May 2006, NCT01356498. Registered 27 October 2008.



Tophi and frequent gout flares are associated with impairments to quality of life, productivity, and increased healthcare resource use: Results from a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of gout is increasing, and most research on the associated burden has focused on serum urate (sUA) levels. The present study quantifies the impact of the presence of tophi and frequency of acute gout attacks on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Methods Patients with self-reported gout (n?=?620; 338 in US and 282 across France, Germany, and UK) were contacted based on inclusion in the 2010 US and EU National Health and Wellness Surveys (Kantar Health) and the Lightspeed Research ailment panel. Respondents were categorized into mutually-exclusive groups based on number of gout flares experienced in the past 12 months (0/don’t recall, 1–2, 3, 4–5, 6+), current presence of tophi (none, 1+, or not sure), and sUA level awareness (yes, no). HRQOL (SF-12v2), healthcare provider visits in the last 6 months, and work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) were compared across groups. Results Most patients were males, mean age of 61 years, who reported experiencing at least one acute gout flare in the past 12 months, and 12.3% (n?=?76) reported presence of tophi. Among the 27.7% (n?=?172) of patients who were aware of their sUA levels, higher sUA was associated with more flares and tophi. Decreased HRQOL was associated with more frequent flares and presence of tophi. In multivariable models predicting outcomes based on presence of tophi and number of flares, both flares (?4) and tophi (?1) were associated with HRQOL decrements on physical and mental component summary scores and health utilities (all p?



Effect of statins versus untreated dyslipidemia on serum uric acid levels in patients with coronary heart disease: a subgroup analysis of the greek atorvastatin and coronary-heart-disease evaluation (GREACE) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the effect of dyslipidemia on serum uric acid (SUA) levels, and less is known about the effect of statin treatment on them. The GREek Atorvastatin and Coronary-heart-disease Evaluation study suggested that a mean atorvastatin dose of 24 mg\\/d achieves the National Cholesterol Educational Program treatment goals and significantly reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with

Vasilios G. Athyros; Moses Elisaf; Athanasios A. Papageorgiou; Athanasios N. Symeonidis; Anthimos N. Pehlivanidis; Vasilios I. Bouloukos; Haralambos J. Milionis; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis



Paraganglioma RetroPeritoneal: Um diagnóstico raro mas importante  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os paragangliomas, tal como os feocromocitomas, sªo tumores das cØlulas cromafins do sistema neuroendÛcrino, secretores de catecolaminas. Diferem dos segundos pela sua localizaÁªo extra-adrenal. TŒm uma rara incidŒncia com cerca de 1 a 2\\/1.000.000. Os autores apresentam o caso de um jovem do sexo masculino, de 20 anos de idade, com crises hipertensivas paroxisticas com 2 anos de evoluÁªo, em

Manuel Castanheira de Oliveira; Gomes da Silva; Rui Machado; Olinda Lima; Ricardo Ramires; Filinto Marcelo


Atividade anti-retroviral e propriedades farmacocinéticas da associação entre lamivudina e zidovudina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lamivudina (3TC) e a zidovudina (ZDV) são agentes anti- retrovirais indicados para o tratamento de infecção pelo HIV. Eles são análogos nucleosídeos, que passam por reações intracelulares de fosforilação e atuam inibindo a enzima transcriptase reversa. Os compostos trifosforilados formados se ligam à cadeia de DNA pró-viral impedindo sua replicação. A terapêutica anti-retroviral utilizando apenas um fármaco ocasiona, freqüentemente,

Jacqueline de Souza; Sílvia Storpirtis



Caracterização do rotator de instrumentos do telescópio de 1,60m.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Na base do tubo do telescópio de 1,60m do Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD) encontra-se o flange de rotação de instrumentos “Rotator”. Neste flange são fixados todos os instrumentos científicos tais como câmeras, espectrógrafos e fotômetros, utilizados nas missões observacionais. Nesta nota técnica são relatados a utilização e o ganho de tempo obtido na operação de posicionamento do rotator, após sua automatização.

Rodrigues, F.; Nishida, K.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Campos, R. P.



Bactérias transportadas em mutucas (Diptera: Tabanidae) no nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil Bacteria transported by horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the northeast of Pará State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Os insetos da família Tabanidae (Diptera), conhecidos vulgarmente como mutucas, são considerados potenciais pragas ao homem e animais domésticos pelo comportamento hematófago de suas fêmeas. São capazes de transportar mecanicamente vírus, bactérias e helmintos, pelo fato desses patógenos aderirem-se à estrutura da probóscide. As coletas dos insetos foram realizadas em áreas peri-urbanas e florestadas, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise e cavalos

Willy Cristiano Luz-Alves; Inocêncio de Sousa Gorayeb; José Caetano Lima Silva; Edvaldo Carlos; Brito Loureiro


Compactação do solo na cultura do feijoeiro. Compactação do solo na cultura do feijoeiro. Compactação do solo na cultura do feijoeiro. Compactação do solo na cultura do feijoeiro. Compactação do solo na cultura do feijoeiro. I: efeitos nas propriedades físico-hídricas do solo I: efeitos nas propriedades físico-hídricas do solo I: efeitos nas propriedades físico-hídricas do solo  

Microsoft Academic Search

-3 . As propriedades de transmissão de água foram determinadas com infiltrômetros de tensão, para as cargas de pressão de -0,5; -2,0 e -6,0 cm de água. O aumento da densidade do solo aumentou sua resistência à penetração e reduziu linearmente a porosidade total e a macroporosidade. Houve ainda, redução no tamanho dos poros para o fluxo de água, reduzindo

Luís F. Stone; Cleber M. Guimarães; José A. A. Moreira


Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Síndrome Metabólica caracteriza-se pela associação de fatores de risco cardiovascular, como obesidade, resistência à insulina, dislipidemia e hipertensão arterial. Sua prevalência geral em crianças e adolescentes norte-americanos é de 3-4%, mas atinge 28,7% naqueles com Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC) = percentil 95. Observa-se que os fatores predisponentes à síndrome se manifestam desde a vida intra-uterina. Apesar de bem

Cristhine L. Chagas; Diego G. Figuerôa; Ênio H. Rios; Gérson Carvalho; Gustavo Mascarenhas; Ives D. Barbosa; João M. Braghiroli; João N. Tupiná; Mariana F. Miranda; Naiara A. Fraga; Luis F. Adan



Design principles for noninvasive brain-machine interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of sophisticated prosthetic limbs, the challenge is now to develop and demonstrate optimal closed-loop control of the these limbs using neural measurements from single\\/multiple unit activity (SUA\\/MUA), electrocorticography (ECoG), local field potentials (LFP), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) or even electromyography (EMG) after targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) in subjects with upper limb disarticulation. In this paper we propose design

Jose L. Contreras-Vidal; Trent J. Bradberry



Satisfação booleana: algoritmos, aplicações, implementações  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Trabalho financiado com a bolsa da FCT-PRAXIS XXI\\/BD\\/21353\\/99 Resumo - Neste artigo considera-se em detalhe o problema de satisfação booleana (SAT) e descrevem-se os algoritmos discretos completos que são normalmente utilizados para a sua solução. É mostrado que SAT tem inúmeras aplicações práticas. Portanto, o desenvolvimento e a implementação de algoritmos eficientes assumem actualmente grande importância. Finalmente, são analizadas

Iouliia Skliarova; António B. Ferrari



Diverticolo di Meckel  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Il diverticolo di Meckel rappresenta una malformazione dell’intestino tenue presente, molto spesso in forma asintomatica,\\u000a nel 2–4% circa dalla popolazione. La sua esistenza è legata a un difetto di obliterazione del dotto onfalo-mesenterico ed\\u000a è per questo allocato sul margine antimesenterico dell’ileo a una distanza dalla valvola ileocecale che varia, in media, dai\\u000a 40 ai 100 cm. Nella maggior parte

L. Montinaro


Detailed study of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) oil micro-compounds: phospholipids, tocopherols and sterols  

Microsoft Academic Search

O óleo da castanha-do-pará (Bertholletia excelsa) foi estudado por causa da sua composição em ácidos graxos, tocoferóis, esteróis e fosfolipídios. A composição de ácidos graxos nos fosfolipídeos também foi estudada. Os resultados foram comparados com os do girassol, da castanha, amêndoa, noz, soja e azeites. O seu alto teor em ácidos graxos insaturados, em b-tocoferol e em b-sitosterol confere à

Thavarith Chunhieng; Abdel Hafidi; Daniel Pioch; José Brochier; Didier Montet



The urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of the hyperuricemia of gout: the CONFIRMS trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare urate-lowering (UL) efficacy and safety of daily febuxostat and allopurinol in subjects with gout and serum urate (sUA) ? 8.0 mg/dL in a six-month trial. Methods Subjects (n = 2,269) were randomized to febuxostat 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol 300 mg (200 mg in moderate renal impairment). Endpoints included the proportion of all subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL and the proportion of subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment and sUA <6.0 mg/dL. Safety assessments included blinded adjudication of each cardiovascular (CV) adverse event (AE) and death. Results Comorbidities included: renal impairment (65%); obesity (64%); hyperlipidemia (42%); and hypertension (53%). In febuxostat 40 mg, febuxostat 80 mg, and allopurinol groups, primary endpoint was achieved in 45%, 67%, and 42%, respectively. Febuxostat 40 mg UL was statistically non-inferior to allopurinol, but febuxostat 80 mg was superior to both (P < 0.001). Achievement of target sUA in subjects with renal impairment was also superior with febuxostat 80 mg (72%; P < 0.001) compared with febuxostat 40 mg (50%) or allopurinol (42%), but febuxostat 40 mg showed greater efficacy than allopurinol (P = 0.021). Rates of AEs did not differ across treatment groups. Adjudicated (APTC) CV event rates were 0.0% for febuxostat 40 mg and 0.4% for both febuxostat 80 mg and allopurinol. One death occurred in each febuxostat group and three in the allopurinol group. Conclusions Urate-lowering efficacy of febuxostat 80 mg exceeded that of febuxostat 40 mg and allopurinol (300/200 mg), which were comparable. In subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment, both febuxostat doses were more efficacious than allopurinol and equally safe. At the doses tested, safety of febuxostat and allopurinol was comparable. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00430248



Terapia ocupacional e farmacodependência: categorização e atualização das publicações nacionais Occupational therapy and pharmacodependence: categorization and update of national publications Terapia ocupacional y farmacodependencia: clasificación y actualización de publicaciones nacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumO: Esta pesquisa tem por finalidade atualizar e sistematizar as publicações sobre dependência química e terapia ocupacional. Realizou-se um embasamento histórico, conceitual e epidemiológico da farmacodependência, assim como suas abordagens terapêuticas. O objetivo desta atualização é organizar e descrever categorias temáticas derivadas dos artigos nacionais publicados sobre esta problemática e correlacionar com os apontamentos teóricos e procedimentais encontrados na literatura

Daniela Carraro Antoniassi; Juliana Aureana Leal; Solange Aparecida Tedesco


Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.



MISR Images Northeastern Botswana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.

The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

For more information:



Physical properties of the crosslinked cellulose catalyzed with nanotitanium dioxide under UV irradiation and electronic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different carboxylic acids (1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), maleic acid (MA), succinic acid (SUA), and citric acid (CA)) were used as crosslinking agents for finished cotton fabrics in the presence of nanometer titanium dioxide catalyst under the irradiation of ultraviolet (UV) light and\\/or an electronic field (EF). We find that the dry crease recovery angle, wet crease recovery angle, and

Chyung-Chyung Wang; Cheng-Chi Chen




Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização dos aspectos e impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais da monocultura da cana-de-açúcar. Isso servirá para que posteriormente se possa fazer um estudo sobre os impactos que a monocultura da cana acarretará a região de Tupã\\/SP. Em sua confecção foram consultados sites governamentais, teses e dissertações como também bibliografia pertinente ao tema. Os

Rafael Pazeto Alvarenga; Timoteo Ramos Queiroz



Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.



“Sou Doméstica:” Construções de Identidade e Saúde das Trabalhadoras Domésticas Salvador, Bahia Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

O mundo do trabalho doméstico é um mundo invisível de discriminação, desvalorização e exploração. No Brasil, existem milhões de trabalhadoras domésticas, na sua maioria mulheres, negras e que vêm de histórias pobres. Essas trabalhadoras domésticas enfrentam uma agressão profunda contra a dignidade, direitos, saúde, e identidade delas.\\u000aNesta pesquisa, perguntamos sobre a relação entre identidade e saúde. Como é que

Jenny Fauci



Serum uric acid and risk for development of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose or Type II diabetes in Japanese male office workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association of serum uric acid (SUA) with development of hypertension (blood pressure = 140\\/90 mmHg and\\/or medication for hypertension) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (a fasting plasma glucose level 6.1–6.9 mmol\\/l) or Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (a fasting plasma glucose level = 7.0 mmol\\/l and\\/or medication for diabetes) over a 6-year follow-up among 2310 Japanese male office

N. Nakanishi; M. Okamoto; H. Yoshida; Y. Matsuo; K. Suzuki; K. Tatara



Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its work- ing groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Internet-Draft describes Correlation Id and Heartbeat procedures to support lossless fail-ove rb etween SCTP (SCTP) associations for SS7 (Q.700) Signalling User Adaptation Protocols (M2UA), (M3UA), (SUA), (ISUA), (TUA) supporting the concept of a Routing Context or Interface Identifier .T hese procedures permit lossless fail-ove rb etween Application Server Processes (ASPs) at a Signalling Gatewa y( SG) and fail-ove rb

Brian Bidulock



Ion Exchange Reversibility of Some Radionuclides on Zirconium Tungstosuccinate and Zirconium Tungstosalicylate at their Solid-Liquid Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium tungstosuccinate (ZWSu) and zirconium tungstosalicylate (ZWSa) composites were synthesized by anchoring moieties of succinic acid (SuA) and salicylic acid (SaA) onto zirconium tungstate (ZW), respectively. The produced exchange composites were unambiguously characterized by TGA, DTA, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy. Thermally stable, amorphous, highly active, and multifunctional inorganic-organic exchangers were produced. The sorption behavior of the hybrid materials for removal

B. El-Gammal; K. F. Allan



Ambiental Policies in Romania – Tendencies and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

La globalizazzione trasforma il mondo postmoderno ed attenua i confini, non solo per l'internazionalizzazione commerciale, per le nuove tecnologie nel campo delle telecomunicazioni e per la liberalizzazione del cambio e dei mercati finanziari, ma, al contempo, per “l’importazione-esportazione” di crisi ambientali di grande portata geografica. La Romania dimostra la sua preoccupazione per queste variabili con le quali sarà presto chiamata

Fabrizio Luciani; Marilena Mironiuc



Casebook consults: improving outcomes in gout (multimedia activity).  


Gout is a chronic, potentially debilitating condition characterized by an inflammatory process in the joints or periarticular tissues that results from the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment can lead to the development of tophi and chronic arthropathy. A presumptive diagnosis of gout can be made on the basis of the clinical presentation as well as risk factors such as metabolic syndrome. Key conditions to rule out in the differential diagnosis are septic arthritis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout), fracture, and rheumatoid arthritis. Acute flares of gout should be managed with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. With a diagnosis of gout, if urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is required, prophylaxis should be considered with low-dose colchicine or an NSAID, followed by the addition of ULT. The goal of ULT is to reach a serum uric acid (SUA) level ?6.0 mg/dL. Measurements of SUA should be obtained after resolution of an acute attack, then periodically to facilitate titration of the ULT dose to achieve the target SUA level. Studies have confirmed significant reductions in gout attacks among patients who have attained SUA levels ?6.0 mg/dL with ULT. Patient education concerning the disease and its treatment is essential to ensure close adherence with recommended therapies. Patients should also understand that ULT is intended as long-term, and for most patients, lifelong therapy to maximize the prospects for control of the disease. Clinicians should feel confident in making a presumptive diagnosis and choosing a therapeutic regimen for gout while effectively communicating with and educating patients about their disease. PMID:22840678

Doghramji, Paul P; Mandell, Brian F; Pope, Richard S



ABCG2 Dysfunction Increases Serum Uric Acid by Decreased Intestinal Urate Excretion.  


ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), also known as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is identified as a high-capacity urate exporter and its dysfunction has an association with serum uric acid (SUA) levels and gout/hyperuricemia risk. However, pathophysiologically important pathway(s) responsible for the ABCG2-mediated urate excretion were unknown. In this study, we investigated how ABCG2 dysfunction affected the urate excretion pathways. First, we revealed that mouse Abcg2 mediates urate transport using the membrane vesicle system. The export process by mouse Abcg2 was ATP-dependent and not saturable under the physiological concentration of urate. Then, we characterized the excretion of urate into urine, bile, and intestinal lumen using in vivo mouse model. SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice was significantly higher than that of control mice. Under this condition, the renal urate excretion was increased in Abcg2-knockout mice, whereas the urate excretion from the intestine was decreased to less than a half. Biliary urate excretion showed no significant difference regardless of Abcg2 genotype. From these results, we estimated the relative contribution of each pathway to total urate excretion; in wild-type mice, the renal excretion pathway contributes approximately two-thirds, the intestinal excretion pathway contributes one-third of the total urate excretion, and the urate excretion into bile is minor. Decreased intestinal excretion could account for the increased SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice. Thus, ABCG2 is suggested to have an important role in extra-renal urate excretion, especially in intestinal excretion. Accordingly, increased SUA in patients with ABCG2 dysfunction could be explained by the decreased excretion of urate from the intestine. PMID:24940679

Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Murakami, Keizo; Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Kasuga, Hiroshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi




Microsoft Academic Search

O sistema de duração da jornada laboral foi objeto de preocupação do legislador Constituinte nos incisos XIII a XVII do art. 7º, sendo complementado pelos comandos dispostos no art. 57 e seguintes da Consolidação das Leis Trabalhistas. Pretende-se, nessa pequena investigação, discorrer inicialmente sobre a evolução histórica da jornada de trabalho e sua regulamentação pelos Estados Modernos, incluindo-se o Brasil.

Marcelo Nunes Apolinário



[Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on formation of active oxygen forms in wheat coleoptiles].  


The comparative study of influence of exogenous salicylic (SaA) and succinic (SuA) acids on the production of reactive oxygen species by isolated wheat coleoptiles has been provided. Under the action of both acids the increase of generation of superoxide anion-radical (O2(.-)) was observed. This increase was partially suppressed by treatment of coleoptiles with inhibitors of peroxidase (salicylhydroxamic acid) and NADP H-oxidase (imidazole and alpha-naphthol). The increase of hydrogen peroxide content, activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was registered under the influence of SaA and SuA; catalase activity did not change essentially. The treatment of coleoptiles with the indicated acids resulted in the increase of their resistance to abiotic stress (damaging heating, 43 +/- 0,1 degrees C, 10 min). The conclusion is made, that the increase of O2(.-) generation in wheat coleoptiles under the action of SaA and SuA is related, probably, to the increase of apoplast peroxidase and NADP.H-oxidase activity, and the rise of H2O2 content is related to the growth of SOD activity. These enzymatic systems are involved in the induction of plant cells protective reactions to the hyperthermia. PMID:22276431

Kolupaiev, Iu Ie; Iastreb, T O; Shvidenko, M V; Karpets', Iu V



Prediction of Imagined Single-Joint Movements in a Person with High Level Tetraplegia  

PubMed Central

Cortical neuroprostheses for movement restoration require developing models for relating neural activity to desired movement. Previous studies have focused on correlating single-unit activities (SUA) in primary motor cortex to volitional arm movements in able-bodied primates. The extent of the cortical information relevant to arm movements remaining in severely paralyzed individuals is largely unknown. We record intracortical signals using a microelectrode array chronically implanted in the precentral gyrus of a person with tetraplegia, and estimate positions of imagined single-joint arm movements. Using visually guided motor imagery, the participant imagined performing eight distinct single-joint arm movements while SUA, multi-spike trains (MSP), multi-unit activity (MUA), and local field potential time (LFPrms) and frequency signals (LFPstft) were recorded. Using linear system identification, imagined joint trajectories were estimated with 20 – 60% variance explained, with wrist flexion/extension predicted the best and pronation/supination the poorest. Statistically, decoding of MSP and LFPstft yielded estimates that equaled those of SUA. Including multiple signal types in a decoder increased prediction accuracy in all cases. We conclude that signals recorded from a single restricted region of the precentral gyrus in this person with tetraplegia contained useful information regarding the intended movements of upper extremity joints.

Simeral, John D.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.



Distribution and infection frequency of `Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Maryland populations of the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and culture in an Anopheles gambiae mosquito cell line  

PubMed Central

Amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) is a broadly distributed tick that transmits multiple pathogens of humans and domestic animals. `Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted-fever group rickettsial species that is potentially associated with human disease. In 2008 and 2009, we assayed over 500 unfed adult ticks from 19 Maryland populations for the presence of `Candidatus R. amblyommii'. Infection frequencies ranged from 33% to 100%, with an average infection rate of 60% in 2008 and 69% in 2009. Infection frequencies did not differ statistically between sexes. To develop a system in which to study `Candidatus R. amblyommii' in the laboratory, we used a cell line developed from Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Sua5B) to isolate and culture `Candidatus R. amblyommii' from field-collected A. americanum ticks from 2 localities in Maryland. After infection, Sua5B cells were infected for more than 40 passages. Infection was confirmed by Rickettsia-specific PCR, gene sequencing, and Rickettsia-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These data show that `Candidatus R. amblyommii' is widespread in Maryland A. americanum populations and that Sua5B cells are a useful tool for culturing Rickettsia infections from wild ticks.

Zhang, Xing; Ren, Xiaoxia; Norris, Douglas E.; Rasgon, Jason L.



Common variants of a urate-associated gene LRP2 are not associated with gout susceptibility.  


A recent genome-wide association study revealed that there is an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and rs2544390, a common variant in low-density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (LRP2/Megalin) gene. Two other variants of LRP2, rs2229268 and rs3755166, are also found to have associations with dyslipidemia and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, which also could have a relationship with SUA in human. Although no studies report that LRP2 transports urate, LRP2 is a multi-ligand receptor and expresses in many tissues including kidney, suggesting a direct and/or indirect relationship with gout. In the present study, we investigated the association between gout and these variants of LRP2 with 741 clinically diagnosed male gout patients and 1,302 controls. As a result, the three common LRP2 variants, rs2544390, rs2229268 and rs3755166, showed no association with gout (P = 0.76, 0.55, and 0.22, respectively). Our study is the first to reveal that an SUA-related gene LRP2 is not involved in gout susceptibility. PMID:24366390

Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Toru; Takada, Yuzo; Nakamura, Takahiro; Shimizu, Seiko; Chiba, Toshinori; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Naito, Mariko; Morita, Emi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi



A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.



A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção.

Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, Joao Renato



Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Thermodynamic Advantage of Organic Acids in Facilitating Formation of Bisulfate Ion Clusters: Atmospheric Implications  

SciTech Connect

Recent lab and field measurements have indicated critical roles of organic acids in enhancing new atmospheric aerosol formation. Such findings have stimulated theoretical studies with the aim of understanding interaction of organic acids with common aerosol nucleation precursors like bisulfate (HSO4-). In this Letter, we report a combined negative ion photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of molecular clusters formed by HSO4- with succinic acid (SUA, HO2C(CH2)2CO2H), HSO4-(SUA)n (n = 0-2), along with HSO4-(H2O)n and HSO4-(H2SO4)n. It is found that one SUA molecule can stabilize HSO4- by ca. 39 kcal/mol, triple the corresponding value that one water molecule is capable of (ca. 13 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal the most plausible structures of these clusters and attribute the stability of these clusters due to formation of strong hydrogen bonds. This work provides direct experimental evidence showing significant thermodynamic advantage by involving organic acid molecules to promote formation and growth in bisulfate clusters and aerosols.

Hou, Gao-Lei; Lin, Wei; Deng, Shihu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Weijun; Paesani, Francesco; Wang, Xue B.



[Representation and readout of object information in macaque higher visual cortex].  


Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is an electrophysiological brain activity recording technique that has been widely revisited in recent years, not only for clinical monitoring, but also for prosthetic applications. However, the extent and limitations of the technique are poorly understood. Higher areas of human and macaque ventral visual cortices are known to have functional domain structures that are selective to certain categories, and population vectors that have been derived from visually evoked single-unit activity (SUA) recording in this region have been shown to form category clusters. How can visually evoked potentials recorded with ECoG from the same region be exploited to extract category information? To answer this question, the development of a simultaneous ECoG and SUA recording device by the modification of a previously reported flexible mesh ECoG probe with a microelectromechanical system has been promising (Toda et al., 2011). Indeed, Toda et al. conducted simultaneous recordings and reported that mesh ECoG signals exhibited comparable or better signal variabilities compared to conventional methods in the rat visual cortex. With this approach, we conducted intensive simultaneous ECoG and SUA recordings from the macaque anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. We compared how basic visual category and fine information is decoded from different recording modalities. Our preliminary results indicated that ECoG signals from the IT cortex may be a useful source for reading out certain levels of category information from visual input. PMID:23735526

Miyakawa, Naohisa; Hasegawa, Isao



A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.  


A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato



Common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2 have stronger impact on hyperuricemia progression than typical environmental risk factors.  


Gout/hyperuricemia is a common multifactorial disease having typical environmental risks. Recently, common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, a urate exporter gene also known as BCRP, are revealed to be a major cause of gout/hyperuricemia. Here, we compared the influence of ABCG2 dysfunction on serum uric acid (SUA) levels with other typical risk factors in a cohort of 5,005 Japanese participants. ABCG2 dysfunction was observed in 53.3% of the population investigated, and its population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) for hyperuricemia was 29.2%, much higher than those of the other typical environmental risks, i.e. overweight/obesity (BMI ? 25.0; PAR% = 18.7%), heavy drinking (>196?g/week (male) or >98?g/week (female) of pure alcohol; PAR% = 15.4%), and aging (?60 years old; PAR% = 5.74%). SUA significantly increased as the ABCG2 function decreased (P = 5.99 × 10(-19)). A regression analysis revealed that ABCG2 dysfunction had a stronger effect than other factors; a 25% decrease in ABCG2 function was equivalent to "an increase of BMI by 1.97-point" or "552.1?g/week alcohol intake as pure ethanol" in terms of ability to increase SUA. Therefore, ABCG2 dysfunction originating from common genetic variants has a much stronger impact on the progression of hyperuricemia than other familiar risks. Our study provides a better understanding of common genetic factors for common diseases. PMID:24909660

Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Oikawa, Yuji; Takada, Tappei; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shimizu, Seiko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Chiba, Toshinori; Abe, Junko; Wakai, Kenji; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Tamura, Takashi; Shichijo, Yuka; Akashi, Airi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Sakurai, Yutaka; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi



Relationship of oxygen uptake capacity, serum uric acid and glucose tolerance in males and females, age 10-69.  


Age 10-69, 793 males and 80 females were tested on the treadmill as they walked at 4.83 km per hour (3.27 km per hour in subjects 60 years and older). Every three minutes, the grade was increased 3%. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max.) and related measurements were recorded during the third minute at each grade. Subjects age 10-39 exercised to exhaustion and VO2max. was measured. In subjects age 40-69, VO2max. was estimated from sub-maximal VO2 and heart rate. The sum of four skinfolds, serum uric acid (SUA) and one-hour glucose tolerance were also measured on these subjects. Body fatness was positively correlated with SUA and blood glucose and negatively correlated with VO2max. Age was negatively correlated with VO2max. and positively correlated with blood glucose. After removing the effects of age, weight and fatness, the correlation of VO2max. and SUA was low. Similarly, there was little or no correlation between VO2max. and blood glucose after the effects of age, weight and fatness were removed. PMID:727197

Montoye, H J; Mikkelsen, W M; Block, W D; Gayle, R



The Independent Association of Serum Retinol and ?-Carotene Levels with Hyperuricemia - A National Population Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Use of synthetic vitamin A derivatives (e.g. isotretinoin used for severe acne) and high doses of preformed vitamin A have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout, whereas a trial reported that ?-carotene may lower serum uric acid (SUA) levels. We evaluated the potential population impact of these factors on SUA in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Using data from 14,349 participants aged 20 years and older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), we examined the relation between serum retinol, ?-carotene, and uric acid levels using weighted linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relation with hyperuricemia using weighted logistic regression. Results SUA levels increased linearly with increasing serum retinol levels, whereas SUA levels decreased with increasing serum ?-carotene levels. After adjusting for age, sex, dietary factors, and other potential confounders, the SUA level differences from the bottom (referent) to top quintiles of serum retinol levels were 0, 0.16, 0.31, 0.43, 0.71mg/dL (P for trend < 0.001) and for ?-carotene were 0, ?0.15, ?0.29, ?0.27, ?0.40 mg/dL (P for trend < 0.001). Similarly, the multivariate odds ratios of hyperuricemia from the bottom (referent) to top quintiles of serum retinol levels were 1.00, 1.30, 1.83, 2.09, and 3.22 (P for trend <0.001) and for ?-carotene were 1.00, 0.85, 0.68, 0.73, and 0.54 (P for trend <0.001). The graded associations persisted across subgroups according to cross-classification by both serum retinol and ?-carotene levels. Conclusions These nationally representative data raise concerns that vitamin A supplementation and food fortification may contribute to the high frequency of hyperuricemia in the US population, whereas ?-carotene intake may be beneficial against hyperuricemia. The use of ?-carotene as a novel preventive treatment for gout deserves further investigation.

Choi, Woo-Joo; Ford, Earl S.; Curhan, Gary; I.Rankin, James; Choi, Hyon K.



Associations of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and traditional blood lipid profiles with hyperuricemia among middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: a community-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Increased serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with dyslipidemia. However, there are conflicting data about the role of single lipid species including non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in promoting SUA accumulation. Here, we aimed to compare non-HDL-C with other traditional blood lipid profiles in relation to hyperuricemia in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Methods Data was collected from 9580 participants undergoing routine physical examinations in Xiangcheng district of Suzhou. SUA, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were examined for all participants. Non-HDL-C was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from TC. The associations of blood lipid profiles with hyperuricemia were examined in men and women, respectively. The areas under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves (AUCs) were compared to assess the discriminatory value of blood lipid parameters for predicting hyperuricemia. Results All blood lipid parameters significantly correlated with SUA (all P values <0.001). The correlation coefficient between SUA and TG was the highest in both genders. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C was higher than HDL-C in males and was higher than TC and LDL-C but followed HDL-C in females. In male group, AUC of TG (0.659) was greater than that of non-HDL-C (0.595) (P values <0.001). The AUC values of HDL-C, TC and LDL-C were lower; respectively 0.581, 0.559 and 0.552. In female group, AUC was highest for TG (0.678) followed by HDL-C (0.616), non-HDL-C (0.610), LDL-C (0.559) and TC (0.557) (all P values?



Adherence to treatment guidelines in two primary care populations with gout.  


Published guidelines for the treatment of gout aim to improve the evidenced-based management of this disorder. Unfortunately, several studies suggest that these guidelines are not routinely followed in clinical practice. Limited data exist comparing different groups of primary care providers regarding compliance with published gout guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study comparing two different general internal medicine (IM) practices and evaluated compliance with these guidelines. All patients with a billing code for gout seen in two large IM clinics (Clinic A, an inner-city urban clinic, and Clinic B, a suburban clinic) between January 2004 and December 2007 were selected for chart review. Patients referred to a rheumatologist for management of gout were excluded. The care received by these patients for gout was compared to recommendations from published guidelines, with the primary outcome assessing the percentage of patients who received at least yearly monitoring of serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In both clinics, yearly monitoring of SUA levels occurred in approximately one quarter of the patients with gout (Clinic A 27.5% vs. Clinic B 28.9%, P = 0.87). Compared to SUA, renal function was monitored more frequently in each of the groups. Listed indications for antihyperuricemic therapy were similar between groups, although gouty flares were reported more frequently in clinic B (P = 0.005). In this retrospective review of gout management in two IM clinics, general care for patients with this condition did not differ significantly. However, overall compliance with recommendations from published guidelines was low. PMID:19590874

Wall, Geoffrey C; Koenigsfeld, Carrie F; Hegge, Karly A; Bottenberg, Michelle M



Long-term decoding stability of local field potentials from silicon arrays in primate motor cortex during a 2D center out task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Many serious concerns exist in the long-term stability of brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) based on spike signals (single unit activity, SUA; multi unit activity, MUA). Some studies showed local field potentials (LFPs) could offer a stable decoding performance. However, the decoding stability of LFPs was examined only when high quality spike signals were recorded. Here we aim to examine the long-term decoding stability of LFPs over a larger time scale when the quality of spike signals was from good to poor or even no spike was recorded. Approach. Neural signals were collected from motor cortex of three monkeys via silicon arrays over 230, 290 and 690 days post-implantation when they performed 2D center out task. To compare long-term stability between LFPs and spike signals, we examined them in neural signals characteristics, directional tuning properties and offline decoding performance, respectively. Main results. We observed slow decreasing trends in the number of LFP channels recorded and mean LFP power in different frequency bands when spike signals quality decayed over time. The number of significantly directional tuning LFP channels decreased more slowly than that of tuning SUA and MUA. The variable preferred directions for the same signal features across sessions indicated non-stationarity of neural activity. We also found that LFPs achieved better decoding performance than SUA and MUA in retrained decoder when the quality of spike signals seriously decayed. Especially, when no spike was recorded in one monkey after 671 days post-implantation, LFPs still provided some kinematic information. In addition, LFPs outperformed MUA in long-term decoding stability in a static decoder. Significance. Our results suggested that LFPs were more durable and could provide better decoding performance when spike signals quality seriously decayed. It might be due to their resistance to recording degradation and their high redundancy among channels.

Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Li, Yue; Wang, Yiwen; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang



Stars with Extended Atmospheres. Homage to Cees de Jager.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA: Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the talks presented on 3 May, 2001 as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Kees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

Sterken, C.



Cost-effectiveness of febuxostat in chronic gout.  


Our objective was to evaluate data on the cost-effectiveness of febuxostat compared with standard clinical practice with allopurinol in patients with gout that was presented to the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) in 2010. A Markov health-state model estimated the direct health-related costs and clinical benefits expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Adults with chronic gout and established hyperuricaemia received treatment sequences of daily doses of allopurinol 300 mg alone or allopurinol 300 mg followed by febuxostat 80 mg/120 mg. The proportion of patients achieving the target serum uric acid (sUA) level of less than 6 mg/dl (0.36 mmol/l) was linked to the utility per sUA level to generate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Second-line therapy with febuxostat 80 mg/120 mg versus with allopurinol alone resulted in an ICER of £3,578 per QALY over a 5-year time horizon. Additional univariate analyses showed that ICER values were robust and ranged from £2,550 to £7,165 per QALY when different parameters (e.g., low- and high-dose allopurinol titrations and variations in treatment-induced flare rates) were varied. Febuxostat reduces sUA below the European League Against Rheumatism target of 0.36 mmol/l (6 mg/dl) in significantly more patients with gout than allopurinol in its most frequently prescribed dose of 300 mg per day. The SMC accepted febuxostat as cost-effective as a suitable second-line option for urate-lowering therapy for the treatment of patients with chronic hyperuricaemia in conditions where urate deposition has already occurred (including a history or presence of tophus and/or gouty arthritis) when treatment with allopurinol was inadequate, not tolerated, or contraindicated. PMID:23719971

Beard, Stephen M; von Scheele, Birgitta G; Nuki, George; Pearson, Isobel V



Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.



Association of serum uric acid with ischemic stroke.  


The present study has examined the association between ischemic stroke and hyperuricemia in Bangladeshi population. This age and sex matched case control study was carried out in the Department of Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of January 2007 to December 2008. A total of 120 subjects were included in this study, among them 60 were cases and another 60 were controls. Data were collected purposively. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify the risk factors for ischemic stroke. In this study 68.3% were male and 31.7% were female in both the groups. Male and female ratio of stroke patients was 2.16:1. Mean±SD of serum uric acid level of case and control group was 4.94±1.76 and 3.72±1.09 respectively. Among the case group 76.7% had normal and 23.3% had abnormal serum uric acid level. On the other hand, 93.3% respondents of control group had normal and 6.7% had abnormal serum uric acid (SUA) level. Significant differences was found between case and control group in term of SUA level (p<0.05). Since SUA level is a quantitative numerical variable, an increase in 1mg/dl has a 47.0% (95% CI 1.0% to 2.16%) increase in odds ratio (OR) of having ischemic stroke. This 47.0% is obtained by taking OR for uric acid-1. Elevated serum uric acid level is not significant for ischemic stroke among the Bangladeshi population. PMID:23715356

Khalil, M I; Islam, M J; Ullah, M A; Khan, R K; Munira, S; Haque, M A; Mamun, M A; Islam, M T; Khan, M H



Long-term decoding stability of local field potentials from silicon arrays in primate motor cortex during a 2D center out task.  


Objective. Many serious concerns exist in the long-term stability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) based on spike signals (single unit activity, SUA; multi unit activity, MUA). Some studies showed local field potentials (LFPs) could offer a stable decoding performance. However, the decoding stability of LFPs was examined only when high quality spike signals were recorded. Here we aim to examine the long-term decoding stability of LFPs over a larger time scale when the quality of spike signals was from good to poor or even no spike was recorded. Approach. Neural signals were collected from motor cortex of three monkeys via silicon arrays over 230, 290 and 690 days post-implantation when they performed 2D center out task. To compare long-term stability between LFPs and spike signals, we examined them in neural signals characteristics, directional tuning properties and offline decoding performance, respectively. Main results. We observed slow decreasing trends in the number of LFP channels recorded and mean LFP power in different frequency bands when spike signals quality decayed over time. The number of significantly directional tuning LFP channels decreased more slowly than that of tuning SUA and MUA. The variable preferred directions for the same signal features across sessions indicated non-stationarity of neural activity. We also found that LFPs achieved better decoding performance than SUA and MUA in retrained decoder when the quality of spike signals seriously decayed. Especially, when no spike was recorded in one monkey after 671 days post-implantation, LFPs still provided some kinematic information. In addition, LFPs outperformed MUA in long-term decoding stability in a static decoder. Significance. Our results suggested that LFPs were more durable and could provide better decoding performance when spike signals quality seriously decayed. It might be due to their resistance to recording degradation and their high redundancy among channels. PMID:24809544

Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Li, Yue; Wang, Yiwen; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang



Surf zone characterization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the issues and methods for estimating nearshore bathymetry based on wave celerity measurements obtained using time series imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS). In contrast to time series imagery from fixed cameras or from larger aircraft, SUAS data are usually short, gappy in time, and unsteady in aim in high frequency ways that are not reflected by the filtered navigation metadata. These issues were first investigated using fixed camera proxy data that have been intentionally degraded to mimic these problems. It has been found that records as short as 50 s or less can yield good bathymetry results. Gaps in records associated with inadvertent look-away during unsteady flight would normally prevent use of the required standard Fast Fourier Transform methods. However, we found that a full Fourier Transform could be implemented on the remaining valid record segments and was effective if at least 50% of total record length remained intact. Errors in image geo-navigation were stabilized based on fixed ground fiducials within a required land portion of the image. The elements of a future method that could remove this requirement were then outlined. Two test SUAS data runs were analyzed and compared to survey ground truth data. A 54-s data run at Eglin Air Force Base on the Gulf of Mexico yielded a good bathymetry product that compared well with survey data (standard deviation of 0.51 m in depths ranging from 0 to 4 m). A shorter (30.5 s) record from Silver Strand Beach (near Coronado) on the US west coast provided a good approximation of the surveyed bathymetry but was excessively deep offshore and had larger errors (1.19 m for true depths ranging from 0 to 6 m), consistent with the short record length. Seventy-three percent of the bathymetry estimates lay within 1 m of the truth for most of the nearshore.

Holman, Rob A.; Holland, K. Todd; Lalejini, Dave M.; Spansel, Steven D.



Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.



Hyperuricemia and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline. Methods This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)???15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for?>?1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of???7.0 mg/dL in male and???6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed. Results Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (?6.3% per year vs. ?0.9% per year, p?=?0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: ?5.3?±?8. 2 vs. 0.2?±?6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p?=?0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency.



Study of supramolecular frameworks having aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, N,N?-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine and N,N?-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of bases (L1 and L2) (where L1 = N,N?-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine, L2 = N,N?-bis(salicyl)butylenediamine) with dicarboxylic acids [adipic acid (1,6-Hexanedioic acid, AA), pimelic acid (1,7-Heptanedioic acid, PA) and suberic acid (1,8-Octanedioic acid, SUA] yielded the corresponding six new ionic salts viz., [1/2L1H+?1/2AA-?1/2AA] (1), [2 × 1/2L1H+?PA2-?CHCl3] (2) [1/2L1H+?1/2SUA-] (3), [1/2L2H+?1/2AA-?2CH3OH] (4), [1/2L2H+?1/2PA-] (5) and [1/2L2H+?1/2SUA-] (6), respectively. Theses salts were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and theoretically by means of Gaussian 09. The X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that the proton transfer occurred from acid to base. It also demonstrated that different type of hydrogen bond interactions between cations and anions were responsible for the supramolecular frameworks. The optimized structures of these salts were calculated in terms of the density functional theory. The curve fitting analysis between experimental and simulated data of structural parameters was done, and found statistically close. The orientation of molecules was remained same in both the gas and solid phases. The thermal studies of these salts were investigated by TG-DTG.

Goel, Nidhi; Kumar, Naresh



U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (<20 lbs.). The USGS is dedicated to expanding the use of sUAS technology in support of scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is currently being used by USGS and our partners to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Our ultimate goal is to support informed decision making by creating the opportunity, via UAS technology, to gain access to an increased level of persistent monitoring of earth surface processes (forest health conditions, wildfires, earthquake zones, invasive species, etc.) in areas that have been logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

Hutt, M. E.



Design principles for noninvasive brain-machine interfaces.  


With the advent of sophisticated prosthetic limbs, the challenge is now to develop and demonstrate optimal closed-loop control of the these limbs using neural measurements from single/multiple unit activity (SUA/MUA), electrocorticography (ECoG), local field potentials (LFP), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) or even electromyography (EMG) after targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) in subjects with upper limb disarticulation. In this paper we propose design principles for developing a noninvasive EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI) for dexterous control of a high degree-of-freedom, biologically realistic limb. PMID:22255271

Contreras-Vidal, José L; Bradberry, Trent J



The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients >=65 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of gout rises with increasing age. Management of elderly (?65 years) gout patients can be challenging due to high rates of comorbidities, such as renal impairment and cardiovascular disease, and concomitant medication use. However, there is little data specifically addressing the efficacy and safety of available urate-lowering therapies (ULT) in the elderly. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in a subset of elderly subjects enrolled in the CONFIRMS trial. Methods Hyperuricemic (serum urate [sUA] levels ? 8.0 mg/dL) gout subjects were enrolled in the 6-month, double-blind, randomized, comparative CONFIRMS trial and randomized, 1:1:1, to receive febuxostat, 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg based on renal function) once daily. Flare prophylaxis was provided throughout the study duration. Study endpoints were the percent of elderly subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL at the final visit, overall and by renal function status, percent change in sUA from baseline to final visit, flare rates, and rates of adverse events (AEs). Results Of 2,269 subjects enrolled, 374 were elderly. Febuxostat 80 mg was significantly more efficacious (82.0%) than febuxostat 40 mg (61.7%; p < 0.001) or allopurinol (47.3%; p < 0.001) for achieving the primary efficacy endpoint. Febuxostat 40 mg was also superior to allopurinol in this population (p = 0.029). In subjects with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, significantly greater ULT efficacy was observed with febuxostat 40 mg (61.6%; p = 0.028) and febuxostat 80 mg (82.5%; p < 0.001) compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg (46.9%). Compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg, the mean percent change in sUA from baseline was significantly greater for both febuxostat 80 mg (p < 0.001) and febuxostat 40 mg (p = 0.011) groups. Flare rates declined steadily in all treatment groups. Rates of AEs were low and comparable across treatments. Conclusions These data suggest that either dose of febuxostat is superior to commonly prescribed fixed doses of allopurinol (200/300 mg) in subjects ?65 years of age with high rates of renal dysfunction. In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated. Trial registration NCT#00430248



Estudio ab initio del mecanismo de la reacción HSO + O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista experimental debido a la importancia que tiene el radical HSO en la oxidación de los compuestos de azufre reductores y a que puede contribuir a la producción de H2SO4 [1-4]. Se realizaron diversos estudios teóricos sobre la cinética de la reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono. La reacción del HSO con el ozono presenta tres canales diferentes : HSO + O3 &rightarrow &HSO2 + O2 &rightarrow &HS + 2 O2 &rightarrow &SO + OH + O2 La controversia existente entre los grupos experimentales sobre cuál de las tres vías es la predominante, se ha resuelto mediante un estudio teórico de todas ellas utilizando métodos ab initio. La estructura de todos los reactivos, productos, intermedios y estados de transición ha sido optimizada a nivel ab initio utilizando los métodos UMP2 /6-31G** y QCISD/6-31G**.

Nebot Gil, I.


Mechanism of Start Site Selection by RNA Polymerase II  

PubMed Central

TFIIB is essential for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. TFIIB also cross-links to terminator regions and is required for gene loops that juxtapose promoter-terminator elements in a transcription-dependent manner. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua7-1 mutation encodes an altered form of TFIIB (E62K) that is defective for both start site selection and gene looping. Here we report the isolation of an ssl2 mutant, encoding an altered form of TFIIH, as a suppressor of the cold-sensitive growth defect of the sua7-1 mutation. Ssl2 (Rad25) is orthologous to human XPB and is a member of the SF2 family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. The ssl2 suppressor allele encodes an arginine replacement of the conserved histidine residue (H508R) located within the DEVH-containing helicase domain. In addition to suppressing the TFIIB E62K growth defect, Ssl2 H508R partially restores both normal start site selection and gene looping. Moreover, Ssl2, like TFIIB, associates with promoter and terminator regions, and the diminished association of TFIIB E62K with the PMA1 terminator is restored by the Ssl2 H508R suppressor. These results define a novel, functional interaction between TFIIB and Ssl2 that affects start site selection and gene looping.

Goel, Shivani; Krishnamurthy, Shankarling; Hampsey, Michael



Binary and Ternary Heterometallic (La3+, Gd3+, Y3+)-Eu3+ Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoporous Hybrids: Chemically Bonded Assembly and Photoluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel kind of organic-inorganic monomer SUASi has been achieved by modifying 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SUA) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS), subsequently binary and ternary Eu3+ mesoporous hybrid materials with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SUA)-functionalized SBA-15 and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) are synthesized by co-condensation of SUASi and TEOS in the presence of Eu3+ complex and Pluronic P123 as a template. Finally, luminescent hybrid mesoporous materials consisting of active rare earth ions (Eu3+)—inert rare earth ions (Y3+, La3+, Gd3+) complex covalently bonded to the mesoporous materials network have been obtained via this sol-gel approach. The physical characterization and photoluminescence of all these resulting materials are studied in detail. Especially the luminescent behavior has been studied with the different ratios of Eu3+-(Y3+, La3+, Gd3+), which suggests that the existence of inert rare earth ions can enhance the luminescence intensity of Eu3+. This may be due to the intramolecular energy transfer between Y3+, La3+, Gd3+, and Eu3+ through the covalently bonded mesoporous framework.

Yan, Bing; Kong, Li-Li



Problem Definition and Solution Concept for En Route Constrained Airspace Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's AATT Program is investigating potential ground-based decision support tool (DST) development for en route controllers and managers. NASA's previous work in en route DST development has focused on Transition airspace, where aircraft are impacted by constraints associated with the transition of aircraft from en route to terminal airspace. This paper investigates the problems associated with aircraft in non-transitional en route airspace, termed Constrained Airspace. A literature search was performed to catalog previously identified constrained airspace problems. The results of this search were investigated with industry representatives to validate these problems were significant in constrained airspace. Three general problem areas were identified. The first problem area involves negative impacts caused by a loss of airspace (e.g., activation of Special Use Airspace (SUA), weather cell formation, and overloaded sectors). The second problem area is the lack of identifying and taking advantage of gained airspace (e.g., SUA deactivation, weather dissipation, and sector loading reductions). The third problem area is unforeseen negative impacts caused by the acceptance of user routing requests (e.g., a route change into an area of congestion that negated the users intended benefit). Based upon the problems identified, an operational concept was developed for a DST to help handle these problems efficiently. The goal is to strategically identify constrained airspace problems and to provide functionality to support ARTCC TMUs in resolving the identified impacts. The capability lends itself well to TMU and Airline Operations Center (AOC) collaboration.

Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert



Mechanism of start site selection by RNA polymerase II: interplay between TFIIB and Ssl2/XPB helicase subunit of TFIIH.  


TFIIB is essential for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. TFIIB also cross-links to terminator regions and is required for gene loops that juxtapose promoter-terminator elements in a transcription-dependent manner. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua7-1 mutation encodes an altered form of TFIIB (E62K) that is defective for both start site selection and gene looping. Here we report the isolation of an ssl2 mutant, encoding an altered form of TFIIH, as a suppressor of the cold-sensitive growth defect of the sua7-1 mutation. Ssl2 (Rad25) is orthologous to human XPB and is a member of the SF2 family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. The ssl2 suppressor allele encodes an arginine replacement of the conserved histidine residue (H508R) located within the DEVH-containing helicase domain. In addition to suppressing the TFIIB E62K growth defect, Ssl2 H508R partially restores both normal start site selection and gene looping. Moreover, Ssl2, like TFIIB, associates with promoter and terminator regions, and the diminished association of TFIIB E62K with the PMA1 terminator is restored by the Ssl2 H508R suppressor. These results define a novel, functional interaction between TFIIB and Ssl2 that affects start site selection and gene looping. PMID:22081613

Goel, Shivani; Krishnamurthy, Shankarling; Hampsey, Michael



Ganglioneuroblastoma: Case report and review of the literature.  


Neuroblastoma are among the most important tumors of extracranial origin in pediatric patients. They arise from embryonal cells involved in the development of the sympathetic nervous system, whose differentiation has been arrested [1,2]. They are the tumors most frequently diagnosed during the first decade of life. Their evolution is unpredictable, ranging from progression to spontaneous regression or maturation, and their location and metastatic potential vary. Little is known about the cause of these tumors and the risk factors associated with their development. This article describes a typical case of ganglioneuroblastoma and provides a review of the literature on this type of tumor.Sommario Il neuroblastoma è uno dei più importanti tumori pediatrici di derivazione extracranica; esso origina dalle cellule embrionali coinvolte nello sviluppo del sistema nervoso simpatico a causa di un blocco nel loro processo di differenziamento [1,2]. È la più frequente neoplasia della prima decade di vita; la sua progressione biologica è imprevedibile, regressione spontanea, maturazione a ganglioneuroma, localizzazione e metastatizzazione variabili. Poco è noto a riguardo dei fattori di rischio e della sua eziopatogenesi. Viene presentato un caso tipico di ganglioneuroblastoma e riesaminata la letteratura su questa neoplasia. PMID:23396255

Alessi, S; Grignani, M; Carone, L



Hyperuricemia in the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

Annual medical examinations are conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a population of Marshallese who were accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954, for a comparison population, and for all inhabitants of the atolls of Rongelap and Utirik. Disease surveillance includes analysis of serum samples. Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels are common along Pacific populations, and modifying environmental factors have been investigated as a cause for this finding. The authors have studied SUA levels of people living in the Marshall Islands, and have found elevated values similar to those reported for other Micronesian populations. The nearly Gaussian distribution of individual serum uric acid values for men, and for women less than or equal to45 years of age, indicates that the elevation is due to a regularized increase in serum uric acid rather than to a subpopulation that has pathologic hyperuricemia. The higher serum uric acid levels appear, therefore, to be normal for the Marshallese, a conclusion supported by the infrequency of clinical gout in the population tested.

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Jamner, A.H.



Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD) retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5%) and normal protein diet (18%), respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA), creatinine (SCr) and 24?h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE), creatintine (UCr), urea nitrogen (UUN), and uric acid (UUA). LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-? in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Ma, Jing; Liu, Yan; Tan, Rongshao; Liu, Houqiang; Lao, Gancheng



Prevention of comorbidity and acute attack of gout by uric acid lowering therapy.  


The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of uric acid lowering therapy in reducing the new development of comorbidities and the frequency of acute attacks in gout patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed to have gout with at least 3 yr of follow up. They were divided into 2 groups; 53 patients with mean serum uric acid level (sUA)<6 mg/dL and 147 patients with mean sUA?6 mg/dL. Comorbidities of gout such as hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and urolithiasis were compared in each group at baseline and at last follow-up visit. Frequency of acute gout attacks were also compared between the groups. During the mean follow up period of 7.6 yr, the yearly rate of acute attack and the new development of HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis was lower in the adequately treated group compared to the inadequately treated group. Tight control of uric acid decreases the incidence of acute gout attacks and comorbidities of gout such as HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis. PMID:24851021

Joo, Kowoon; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Lim, Mie-Jin; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Joo, Hoyeon; Park, Won



The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers.  


Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P < 0.07) G:F. The main effect of Gly was not significant for ADG, ADFI, or G:F; however, G:F was increased by Gly in broilers fed 0.72 but not in those fed 0.76 TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.03). In experiment 2, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.51, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.76. Glycine addition did not affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F; however, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F and the response was quadratic for ADG and G:F. Experiment 3 was similar to experiment 2 except the total dietary Lys level was 1.35%. Glycine addition increased (P < 0.03) G:F and decreased (P < 0.04) serum uric acid (SUA) and serum urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA. PMID:19531711

Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L



Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes) y de comparaciones



Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.


Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de los efectos NLTE.

Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.


Composite endpoints in clinical trials.  


Composite endpoints are often used in clinical trials, especially in the cardiovascular area. Decreases in sample size requirements, ability to assess the net effect of an intervention and to avoid bias in presence of competing risks are the most cited advantages for their use. However, there is a risk of misinterpretation when heterogeneity among components with respect to either importance, number of events, or magnitude of treatment effect exist. In the following review we present a conceptual discussion about the rationale and interpretation of such variables. Also, a user's friendly guide to interpret the results of clinical trials based on composite endpoints is presented. We also present an empirical study that provides evidence of the use of misleading composite endpoints in cardiovascular clinical trials. Las variables de resultado combinadas en los ensayos clinicos son un recurso metodologico usado con frecuencia, especialmente en los estudios cardiovasculares. Las motivaciones más importantes para su utilizacion son aumentar la potencia estadística del estudio, valorar el beneficio neto de una intervencion y evitar una interpretacion errónea del resultado en presencia de riesgos competitivos. Sin embargo, su interpretación puede ser problemática si hay heterogeneidad entre los componentes en cuanto a su importancia, la frecuencia de eventos o el efecto de la intervencion. En la discusión que sigue se presenta un revisión conceptual de los problemas del uso y la interpretación de las variables de resultado combinadas en ensayos clinicos, especialmente los cardiovasculares. Se presenta además una sencilla guia de interpretacion de los resultados de los estudios que utilizan variables de resultado combinadas a partir de la cual se puede valorar nuestra confianza en dichos resultados. Finalmente, se presenta un estudio empírico sobre cuál ha sido el uso real de variables de resultado combinadas potencialmente problemáticas en ensayos clinicos cardiovasculares. PMID:24775785

Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Solà, Ivan; Pacheco-Huergo, Valeria; Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Alonso, Jordi; Montori, Víctor; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietá



Respostas religiosas ? aids no Brasil: impress?es de pesquisa1  

PubMed Central

Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Goncalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luis Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano



Respostas religiosas ? aids no Brasil: impress?es de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Cat?lica1  

PubMed Central

O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Goncalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luis Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano



Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site ( Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.



Discriminação de núcleos primários no Observatório Auger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A identidade das partículas, com energias E > 10EeV, que geram chuveiros atmosféricos extensivos (CAE) na atmosfera terrestre é um incógnita. Existem diferenças sutis, mas apreciáveis entre chuveiros gerados por fótons e por núcleos, como temos demonstrado em trabalho recente. Porém entre os núcleos, as diferenças são tão sutis, que a baixa estatística e incertezas experimentais têm limitado fortemente sua diferenciação até o presente. Tal discriminação precede qualquer aplicação astrofísica mas sofisticada de raios cósmicos de ultra-alta energia. Apresentamos aqui os resultados do desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico para a análise de CAEs com aplicação específica ao Experimento Pierre Auger. Redes neurais, combinadas com simulações numéricas detalhadas de CAEs e dos dois tipos diferentes de detectores (Cherenkov em água e de fluorescência atmosférica) presentes no experimento são empregados na análise. Mostraremos a capacidade dos métodos de diagnóstico desenvolvidos, para a discriminação de diversas distribuições hipotéticas de massa-anergia.

Tiba, A. K. O.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Sciutto, S. J.



Two male siblings with hereditary renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced ARF.  


Familial renal hypouricemia with exercise-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is rare. A 45-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and oliguria after severe exercise. The diagnosis was ARF based on high serum creatinine (SCr) level (5.1 mg/dL [451 micromol/L]). Renal function recovered completely within 2 weeks of conservative treatment (creatinine clearance [Ccr], 100.4 mL/min [1.67 mL/s]). After remission, laboratory results showed serum urate (SUA) of 0.8 mg/dL (48 micromol/L), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FE(UA)) of 46%. The final diagnosis was ARF associated with idiopathic renal hypouricemia. Other diseases that could increase the excretion of urate were excluded. Because only mild responses were observed both in pyradinamide and benzbromarone loading tests, he was considered to be a presecretory reabsorption disorder type. The younger brother (42 years old) also had episodes of low and middle back pain after severe exercise and experienced similar attacks at least 5 times since the age of 29. SCr level was elevated in every attack. Hypouricemia (SUA, 1.0 mg/dL [59 micromol/L]) and high urinary urate excretion (FE(UA), 65.7%) also were detected. Renal function recovered almost completely without any specific treatment. Radiologic examination of the 2 cases showed bilateral urolithiasis probably caused by the high urinary urate excretion. Sequence analysis of a urate anion exchanger known to regulate blood urate level (URAT1 gene) in both brothers showed homozygous mutation in exon 4 (W258Stop), resulting in a premature truncated URAT1 protein. Both their parents and their children showed heterozygous mutation of the URAT1 gene. This is the first report of the 2 male siblings of familial renal hypouricemia complicated with exercise-induced ARF, with definite demonstration of genetic abnormality in the responsible gene (URAT1). PMID:14655203

Tanaka, Motoko; Itoh, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazunori; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Wakita, Naoki; Adachi, Masataka; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Endou, Hitoshi; Tomita, Kimio



Reconstitution and characterization of eukaryotic N6-threonylcarbamoylation of tRNA using a minimal enzyme system.  


The universally conserved Kae1/Qri7/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC protein families have been implicated in growth, telomere homeostasis, transcription and the N6-threonylcarbamoylation (t(6)A) of tRNA, an essential modification required for translational fidelity by the ribosome. In bacteria, YgjD orthologues operate in concert with the bacterial-specific proteins YeaZ and YjeE, whereas in archaeal and eukaryotic systems, Kae1 operates as part of a larger macromolecular assembly called KEOPS with Bud32, Cgi121, Gon7 and Pcc1 subunits. Qri7 orthologues function in the mitochondria and may represent the most primitive member of the Kae1/Qri7/YgjD protein family. In accordance with previous findings, we confirm that Qri7 complements Kae1 function and uncover that Qri7 complements the function of all KEOPS subunits in growth, t(6)A biosynthesis and, to a partial degree, telomere maintenance. These observations suggest that Kae1 provides a core essential function that other subunits within KEOPS have evolved to support. Consistent with this inference, Qri7 alone is sufficient for t(6)A biosynthesis with Sua5 in vitro. In addition, the 2.9 Å crystal structure of Qri7 reveals a simple homodimer arrangement that is supplanted by the heterodimerization of YgjD with YeaZ in bacteria and heterodimerization of Kae1 with Pcc1 in KEOPS. The partial complementation of telomere maintenance by Qri7 hints that KEOPS has evolved novel functions in higher organisms. PMID:23620299

Wan, Leo C K; Mao, Daniel Y L; Neculai, Dante; Strecker, Jonathan; Chiovitti, David; Kurinov, Igor; Poda, Gennadiy; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Yuan, Fang; Szilard, Rachel K; Lissina, Elena; Nislow, Corey; Caudy, Amy A; Durocher, Daniel; Sicheri, Frank



Reconstitution and characterization of eukaryotic N6-threonylcarbamoylation of tRNA using a minimal enzyme system  

PubMed Central

The universally conserved Kae1/Qri7/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC protein families have been implicated in growth, telomere homeostasis, transcription and the N6-threonylcarbamoylation (t6A) of tRNA, an essential modification required for translational fidelity by the ribosome. In bacteria, YgjD orthologues operate in concert with the bacterial-specific proteins YeaZ and YjeE, whereas in archaeal and eukaryotic systems, Kae1 operates as part of a larger macromolecular assembly called KEOPS with Bud32, Cgi121, Gon7 and Pcc1 subunits. Qri7 orthologues function in the mitochondria and may represent the most primitive member of the Kae1/Qri7/YgjD protein family. In accordance with previous findings, we confirm that Qri7 complements Kae1 function and uncover that Qri7 complements the function of all KEOPS subunits in growth, t6A biosynthesis and, to a partial degree, telomere maintenance. These observations suggest that Kae1 provides a core essential function that other subunits within KEOPS have evolved to support. Consistent with this inference, Qri7 alone is sufficient for t6A biosynthesis with Sua5 in vitro. In addition, the 2.9 Å crystal structure of Qri7 reveals a simple homodimer arrangement that is supplanted by the heterodimerization of YgjD with YeaZ in bacteria and heterodimerization of Kae1 with Pcc1 in KEOPS. The partial complementation of telomere maintenance by Qri7 hints that KEOPS has evolved novel functions in higher organisms.

Wan, Leo C. K.; Mao, Daniel Y. L.; Neculai, Dante; Strecker, Jonathan; Chiovitti, David; Kurinov, Igor; Poda, Gennadiy; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Yuan, Fang; Szilard, Rachel K.; Lissina, Elena; Nislow, Corey; Caudy, Amy A.; Durocher, Daniel; Sicheri, Frank



Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.



Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.



Moléculas orgánicas no-rígidas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se destaca la importancia del estudio espectroscópico ab initio de una serie de moléculas no-rígidas detectadas en el medio interestelar (acetona, dimetil-eter, etanol, metanol, metilamina, ldots), así como los últimos avances del desarrollo de la metodología para el tratamiento teórico de estas especies. Se describe, a modo de ejemplo, el análisis del espectro roto-torsional de la molécula de glicoaldehido que ha sido recientemente detectada en el centro Galáctico Sagitario B2 (N) [1]. Esta especie presenta dos movimientos de gran amplitud que interaccionan, descansan en el Infrarrojo Lejano y le confiere propiedades no-rígidas. La molécula puede existir en posiciones cis y trans y presenta cinco confórmeros estables, tres de simetría Cs (I, II y IV) y un doble mínimo trans de simetría C1 (III) . La conformación favorita, I, presenta simetría Cs y se estabiliza por la formación de un puente de hidrógeno entre los grupos OH y C=O. Los mínimos secundarios II, III, y IV se han determinado a 1278.2 cm-1 (trans, Cs), 1298.8 cm-1 (trans, C1) y 1865.2 cm-1 (cis, Cs) con cálculos MP4/cc-pVQZ que incluyen sustituciones triples. Para determinar que vibraciones interaccionan con las torsiones, se ha realizado un análisis armónico en los mínimos. Las frecuencias fundamentales armónicas correspondientes al mínimo I se han calculado en 213.4 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 425.7 cm-1 (torsión OH). Es de esperar que tan sólo dos vibraciones, la flexión del grupo C-C-O y el aleteo del hidrógeno del grupo aldehídico puedan desplazar el espectro torsional de la molécula aislada. Para determinar el espectro torsional, se ha determinado la superficie de potencial en dos dimensiones mediante el cálculo ab initio de las geometrías y energías de 74 conformaciones seleccionadas. Estas últimas se han ajustado a un doble serie de Fourier. A partir de la PES y de los parámetros cinéticos del Hamiltoniano vibracional se han obtenido frecuencias e intensidades. Las frecuencias fundamentales se han calculado en 208.0 cm-1 (torsión C-C) y 349.9 cm-1 (torsión OH). Se discute el método de cálculo que se ha empleado para la clasificación de los niveles. Los niveles rotacionales se han determinado empleando el método desarrollado para el estudio del ácido acético [2]. Se emplean la base de funciones rotacionales de [3]. A partir de los niveles se han determinado las constantes rotacionales y las constantes de distorsión centrífuga que se comparan con las experimentales de Herbst et al [3].

Senent Díez, M. L.


Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas, especialmente en los climas más áridos. A pesar de ello, dicho componente todavía es una consecuencia secundaria (o incluso accidental) de diversas prácticas asociadas con la manipulación de las aguas residuales y con la reutilitzación de aguas depuradas. Este tema se revisa mediante referencias a ciertas áreas en las que existen investigación detallada de campo, identificando enfoques pragmáticos con el fin de reducir el riesgo de contaminación de las aguas subterráneas por tales prácticas, a la vez tratando de conservar los beneficios para los recursos del acuífero. Dado que los efluentes de aguas residuales urbanas son probablemente la única `fuente natural' cuya disponibilidad global se halla en del aumento, la importancia socioeconómica de este tema será evidente para los centros urbanos de rápido desarrollo en Asia, Latinoamérica y Oriente Medio.

Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.


Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided additional conflicts, whereas, those making tactical maneuvers often caused additional conflicts. Many of these second-generation conflicts could be avoided by improved conflict prevention tools that clearly present to the pilot which maneuver choices will result in a conflict-free path. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard



Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description  

PubMed Central

Background Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2?months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600?hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC), outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC). Results A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%), followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68%) and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%). An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent) of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60%) versus inside structures. Significantly (P?Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector control management programs in Thailand.



BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.



Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

Steiner, João



Propriedades físicas de condensações densas no Escorpião  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O conhecimento das propriedade físicas das condensações das nuvens escuras e sua relação com a dinâmica das núvens é um dos caminhos para o entendimento dos mecanismos de formação de estrelas de massas pequenas. Nesse trabalho, 8 condensações da nuvem escura do Escorpião foram observadas através de transições das moléculas de 13CO, C18O e NH3, utilizando-se os radiotelescopios de 15 m do SEST e 64 m de PARKES. Embora localizadas na superfície de uma bolha com velocidade de expansão entre 12 km/s e 15 km/s (Vilas-Boas et al), as linhas de monóxido de carbono apresentaram características típicas daquelas observadas em nuvens escuras. Em apenas uma condensação, contendo um objeto Pre-Sequência Principal (PMS), foi detectada emissão da molécula de amônia. A comparação direta entre as propriedades dessas condensações densas (núcleos) e aquelas identificadas na Musca, que se caracteriza por ser uma núvem de baixa atividade de formação estelar, mostra que elas têm propriedades idênticas e que as eficiências de formação estelar nos núcleos de ambas as nuvens são similares.

Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Barbosa, P. R., Jr.; Hickel, G. R.



Genetic interactions of DST1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest a role of TFIIS in the initiation-elongation transition.  

PubMed Central

TFIIS promotes the intrinsic ability of RNA polymerase II to cleave the 3'-end of the newly synthesized RNA. This stimulatory activity of TFIIS, which is dependent upon Rpb9, facilitates the resumption of transcription elongation when the polymerase stalls or arrests. While TFIIS has a pronounced effect on transcription elongation in vitro, the deletion of DST1 has no major effect on cell viability. In this work we used a genetic approach to increase our knowledge of the role of TFIIS in vivo. We showed that: (1) dst1 and rpb9 mutants have a synthetic growth defective phenotype when combined with fyv4, gim5, htz1, yal011w, ybr231c, soh1, vps71, and vps72 mutants that is exacerbated during germination or at high salt concentrations; (2) TFIIS and Rpb9 are essential when the cells are challenged with microtubule-destabilizing drugs; (3) among the SDO (synthetic with Dst one), SOH1 shows the strongest genetic interaction with DST1; (4) the presence of multiple copies of TAF14, SUA7, GAL11, RTS1, and TYS1 alleviate the growth phenotype of dst1 soh1 mutants; and (5) SRB5 and SIN4 genetically interact with DST1. We propose that TFIIS is required under stress conditions and that TFIIS is important for the transition between initiation and elongation in vivo.

Malagon, Francisco; Tong, Amy H; Shafer, Brenda K; Strathern, Jeffrey N



Neural decoding of treadmill walking from noninvasive electroencephalographic signals.  


Chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons in primary motor and somatosensory areas in rhesus macaques provide accurate information about bipedal locomotion (Fitzsimmons NA, Lebedev MA, Peikon ID, Nicolelis MA. Front Integr Neurosci 3: 3, 2009). Here we show that the linear and angular kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during both normal and precision (attentive) human treadmill walking can be inferred from noninvasive scalp electroencephalography (EEG) with decoding accuracies comparable to those from neural decoders based on multiple single-unit activities (SUAs) recorded in nonhuman primates. Six healthy adults were recorded. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed while receiving visual feedback of their lower limbs (i.e., precision walking), to repeatedly avoid stepping on a strip drawn on the treadmill belt. Angular and linear kinematics of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints and EEG were recorded, and neural decoders were designed and optimized with cross-validation procedures. Of note, the optimal set of electrodes of these decoders were also used to accurately infer gait trajectories in a normal walking task that did not require subjects to control and monitor their foot placement. Our results indicate a high involvement of a fronto-posterior cortical network in the control of both precision and normal walking and suggest that EEG signals can be used to study in real time the cortical dynamics of walking and to develop brain-machine interfaces aimed at restoring human gait function. PMID:21768121

Presacco, Alessandro; Goodman, Ronald; Forrester, Larry; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis



Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satélites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elíptico e precessionando, as perturbações seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.



Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.



Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

Oliveira, A. L. S.



Interaction of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscU with the Hsc66/Hsc20 molecular chaperone system of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The iscU gene in bacteria is located in a gene cluster encoding proteins implicated in iron–sulfur cluster assembly and an hsc70-type (heat shock cognate) molecular chaperone system, iscSUA-hscBA. To investigate possible interactions between these systems, we have overproduced and purified the IscU protein from Escherichia coli and have studied its interactions with the hscA and hscB gene products Hsc66 and Hsc20. IscU and its iron–sulfur complex (IscU–Fe/S) stimulated the basal steady-state ATPase activity of Hsc66 weakly in the absence of Hsc20 but, in the presence of Hsc20, increased the ATPase activity up to 480-fold. Hsc20 also decreased the apparent Km for IscU stimulation of Hsc66 ATPase activity, and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that Hsc20 enhances binding of IscU to Hsc66. Surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry further showed that IscU and Hsc20 form a complex, and Hsc20 may thereby aid in the targeting of IscU to Hsc66. These results establish a direct and specific role for the Hsc66/Hsc20 chaperone system in functioning with isc gene components for the assembly of iron–sulfur cluster proteins.

Hoff, Kevin G.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Vickery, Larry E.



Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.



Promoter-Specific Shifts in Transcription Initiation Conferred by Yeast TFIIB Mutations Are Determined by the Sequence in the Immediate Vicinity of the Start Sites  

PubMed Central

The general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is required for transcription of class II genes by RNA polymerase II. Previous studies demonstrated that mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUA7 gene, which encodes TFIIB, can alter transcription initiation patterns in vivo. To further delineate the functional domain and residues of TFIIB involved in transcription start site utilization, a genetic selection was used to isolate S. cerevisiae TFIIB mutants exhibiting downstream shifts in transcription initiation in vivo. Both dominant and recessive mutations conferring downstream shifts were identified at multiple positions within a highly conserved homology block in the N-terminal region of the protein. The TFIIB mutations conferred downstream shifts in transcription initiation at the ADH1 and CYC1 promoters, whereas no significant shifts were observed at the HIS3 promoter. Analysis of a series of ADH1-HIS3 hybrid promoters and variant ADH1 and HIS3 promoters containing insertions, deletions, or site-directed base substitutions revealed that the feature that renders a promoter sensitive to TFIIB mutations is the sequence in the immediate vicinity of the normal start sites. We discuss these results in light of possible models for the mechanism of start site utilization by S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase II and the role played by TFIIB.

Faitar, Silviu L.; Brodie, Seth A.; Ponticelli, Alfred S.



Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.



Neural decoding of treadmill walking from noninvasive electroencephalographic signals  

PubMed Central

Chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons in primary motor and somatosensory areas in rhesus macaques provide accurate information about bipedal locomotion (Fitzsimmons NA, Lebedev MA, Peikon ID, Nicolelis MA. Front Integr Neurosci 3: 3, 2009). Here we show that the linear and angular kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during both normal and precision (attentive) human treadmill walking can be inferred from noninvasive scalp electroencephalography (EEG) with decoding accuracies comparable to those from neural decoders based on multiple single-unit activities (SUAs) recorded in nonhuman primates. Six healthy adults were recorded. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill at their self-selected comfortable speed while receiving visual feedback of their lower limbs (i.e., precision walking), to repeatedly avoid stepping on a strip drawn on the treadmill belt. Angular and linear kinematics of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints and EEG were recorded, and neural decoders were designed and optimized with cross-validation procedures. Of note, the optimal set of electrodes of these decoders were also used to accurately infer gait trajectories in a normal walking task that did not require subjects to control and monitor their foot placement. Our results indicate a high involvement of a fronto-posterior cortical network in the control of both precision and normal walking and suggest that EEG signals can be used to study in real time the cortical dynamics of walking and to develop brain-machine interfaces aimed at restoring human gait function.

Presacco, Alessandro; Goodman, Ronald; Forrester, Larry



Mixed axion/neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter production in the SUSY DFSZ axion model where an axion superfield couples to Higgs superfields. We calculate a wide array of axino and saxion decay modes along with their decay temperatures, and thermal and non-thermal production rates. For a SUSY benchmark model with a standard underabundance (SUA) of Higgsino-like dark matter (DM), we find for the PQ scale falesssim1012 GeV that the DM abundance is mainly comprised of axions as the saxion/axino decay occurs before the standard neutralino freeze-out and thus its abundance remains suppressed. For 1012lesssimfalesssim1014 GeV, the saxion/axino decays occur after neutralino freeze-out so that the neutralino abundance is enhanced by the production via decay and subsequent re-annihilation. For fagtrsim1014 GeV, both neutralino dark matter and dark radiation are typically overproduced. For judicious parameter choices, these can be suppressed and the combined neutralino/axion abundance brought into accord with measured values. A SUSY benchmark model with a standard overabundance (SOA) of bino DM is also examined and typically remains excluded due at least to too great a neutralino DM abundance for falesssim1015 GeV. For fagtrsim1015 GeV and lower saxion masses, large entropy production from saxion decay can dilute all relics and the SOA model can be allowed by all constraints.

Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Chun, Eung Jin



Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.



Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard



Functional assignment of KEOPS/EKC complex subunits in the biosynthesis of the universal t6A tRNA modification  

PubMed Central

N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universal tRNA modification essential for normal cell growth and accurate translation. In Archaea and Eukarya, the universal protein Sua5 and the conserved KEOPS/EKC complex together catalyze t6A biosynthesis. The KEOPS/EKC complex is composed of Kae1, a universal metalloprotein belonging to the ASHKA superfamily of ATPases; Bud32, an atypical protein kinase and two small proteins, Cgi121 and Pcc1. In this study, we investigated the requirement and functional role of KEOPS/EKC subunits for biosynthesis of t6A. We demonstrated that Pcc1, Kae1 and Bud32 form a minimal functional unit, whereas Cgi121 acts as an allosteric regulator. We confirmed that Pcc1 promotes dimerization of the KEOPS/EKC complex and uncovered that together with Kae1, it forms the tRNA binding core of the complex. Kae1 binds l-threonyl-carbamoyl-AMP intermediate in a metal-dependent fashion and transfers the l-threonyl-carbamoyl moiety to substrate tRNA. Surprisingly, we found that Bud32 is regulated by Kae1 and does not function as a protein kinase but as a P-loop ATPase possibly involved in tRNA dissociation. Overall, our data support a mechanistic model in which the final step in the biosynthesis of t6A relies on a strictly catalytic component, Kae1, and three partner proteins necessary for dimerization, tRNA binding and regulation.

Perrochia, Ludovic; Guetta, Dorian; Hecker, Arnaud; Forterre, Patrick; Basta, Tamara



Comparison of inflammatory markers in non-dipper hypertension vs. dipper hypertension and in normotensive individuals: uric acid, C-reactive protein and red blood cell distribution width readings  

PubMed Central

Aim In this study, we investigated the relationship of increased inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein – CRP), oxidative stress markers (serum uric acid – SUA) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) with non-dipper hypertension (NDHT). Material and methods Among the individuals who presented to the cardiology clinic, 40 patients (32.5% male, 67.5% female; mean age: 54.4 ±7.1) who had hypertension and were diagnosed with NDHT through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 40 age- and sex-matched dipper hypertension (DHT) patients (25% male, 75% female, mean age: 54.2 ±7.0), and 40 normotensive individuals (42.5% male, 57.5% female, mean age: 51.9 ±9.0) were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from all the patients in order to evaluate the hematological and biochemical parameters. All the assessed parameters were compared among the groups. Results The CRP, RDW and uric acid levels were observed to be significantly higher in the non-dipper hypertension group in comparison to the dipper hypertension patients and the normotensive population (p < 0.05). These parameters were also significantly higher in the dipper HT group compared to the normotensive population (p < 0.05). Conclusions We found in our study that increased CRP, uric acid and RDW levels, which are indicators of increased inflammation and oxidative stress, are significantly higher in the non-dipper HT patients in comparison to the dipper HT patients and control group.

Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Selcuk, Murat; Kaya, Yuksel; Akyol, Aytac; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Tenekecioglu, Erhan



Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

Barnes, B. [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J. [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)



Caracterización espectroscópica de hielos de interés atmosférico y astrofísico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En años recientes se ha incrementado el estudio de procesos físicos y químicos que tienen lugar en la superficie o el interior de hielos, tanto en medios astrofísicos como en la atmósfera terrestre y en otros cuerpos del sistema solar. Se ha comprobado que las partículas heladas actúan como catalizadores de reacciones químicas, que no ocurrirían en su ausencia. En la atmósfera terrestre, es bien conocida la importancia de partículas de hidratos de ácido nítrico, formando las llamadas nubes estratosféricas polares, en los procesos de destrucción de ozono estratosférico. En hielos astrofísicos, átomos como H, C, N y O pueden adherirse o introducirse en la estructura cristalina o amorfa del hielo, y dar lugar a reacciones de formación de moléculas evitando su barrera de activación. Existen partículas heladas en el medio interestelar formando parte de las llamadas nubes moleculares densas y frías, con valores del orden de 106 átomos de H por cm3 y temperaturas entre 3 y 90 K. Alrededor de protoestrellas, pueden formarse hielos de distinta composición, polares o apolares, en las zonas de alejamiento y temperatura decreciente a partir del núcleo caliente. Por su parte, los cometas están formados por un núcleo de hielo y rocas, sobre el que se encuentran adheridas moléculas gaseosas, y una cola, formada por los gases liberados por efecto del calentamiento debido a la radiación solar incidente. En nuestro sistema solar, los polos de La Tierra y de Marte están cubiertos de hielo, así como la mayoría de los cuerpos externos. Los satélites de Júpiter han sido estudiados detalladamente, y se han encontrado en ellos, y en Tritón (satélite de Neptuno), hielos de moléculas como SON2, CO2, N2, CH4 y otros. Para la caracterización espectroscópica de estos hielos se precisan medidas en el laboratorio, aún conociendo la imposibilidad intrínseca de reproducir exactamente las condiciones en que se formaron y se encuentran en los medios astrofísicos. El montaje experimental requiere un sistema que permita alcanzar bajas presiones y temperaturas, formado usualmente por una cámara en cuyo interior se forman películas de hielo de la composición deseada, depositadas sobre un sustrato inerte. Las películas pueden ser a continuación tratadas por diversas técnicas, tales como irradiación UV, bombardeo con electrones o iones, calentamiento y enfriamiento, etc. Habitualmente todos los procesos se controlan por espectroscopía de infrarrojo. La radiación proveniente de un espectrómetro se hace incidir sobre la muestra y se extrae de la cámara mediante ventanas, y se enfoca posteriormente sobre el detector. En el laboratorio de Física Molecular del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia disponemos de un montaje experimental diseñado para el estudio de partículas de hielo similares a las formadas en las nubes estratosféricas polares de nuestra atmósfera. El montaje es similar al descrito anteriormente, excepto en lo que se refiere a las condiciones de presión y temperatura, que son menos estrictas en nuestros experimentos. La extensión de estas condiciones de trabajo a las requeridas en medios astrofísicos es una posibilidad a discutir. Por otra parte, disponemos de un método de cálculo de estructuras periódicas, basado en el programa SIESTA (acrónimo de Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations of Thousands of Atoms), que ha proporcionado excelentes resultados en lo relativo a la determinación de estructuras cristalinas y predicción de su espectro infrarrojo, en los sistemas estudiados hasta la fecha, es decir, los hidratos de ácido nítrico de interés atmosféricos. Su aplicación para el estudio de hielos de relevancia astrofísica podría ser del máximo interés.

Escribano, R.


Functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb2 subunit of RNA polymerase II: implications for the mechanism of transcription initiation.  


The general transcription factor TFIIB is required for accurate initiation, although the mechanism by which RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) identifies initiation sites is not well understood. Here we describe results from genetic and biochemical analyses of an altered form of yeast TFIIB containing an arginine-78 --> cysteine (R78C) replacement in the "B-finger" domain. TFIIB R78C shifts start site selection downstream of normal and confers a cold-sensitive growth defect (Csm(-)). Suppression of the R78C Csm(-) phenotype identified a functional interaction between TFIIB and the Rpb2 subunit of RNAP II and defined a novel role for Rpb2 in start site selection. The rpb2 suppressor encodes a glycine-369 --> serine (G369S) replacement, located in the "lobe" domain of Rpb2 and near the Rpb9 subunit, which was identified previously as an effector of start site selection. The Rpb2-Rpb9 "lobe-jaw" region of RNAP II is downstream of the catalytic center and distal to the site of RNAP II-TFIIB interaction. A TFIIB R78C mutant extract was defective for promoter-specific run-on transcription but yielded an altered pattern of abortive initiation products, indicating that the R78C defect does not preclude initiation. The sua7-3 rpb2-101 double mutant was sensitive to 6-azauracil in vivo and to nucleoside triphosphate substrate depletion in vitro. In the context of the recent X-ray structure of the yeast RNAP II-TFIIB complex, these results define a functional interaction between the B-finger domain of TFIIB and the distal lobe-jaw region of RNAP II and provide insight into the mechanism of start site selection. PMID:15082791

Chen, Bo-Shiun; Hampsey, Michael



Quantifying small-scale temporal surface change on glaciers and salt pans using terrestrial laser scanning: implications for modelling ablation and dust emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical surface roughness is important in glacial and desert environments as it influences aerodynamic roughness, which in turn determines the ability of the wind to contribute to the turbulent heat flux component of the energy balance for glacial ice ablation or the likelihood of a surface emitting dust. Surface microtopography has traditionally been quantified by single 2D transects, but little is known about how these surfaces vary over time and the feedback between surface properties and other geomorphic processes. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is the perfect tool to examine geomorphic microtopography over large spatial areas relatively quickly with the opportunity for repeat temporal measurements. Here we present examples of daily and weekly surface change measured on the Sua Pan, Botswana and the Svínafellsjökull, Iceland with mm accuracy using TLS. For the first time it is possible to quantify salt crust plucking and extrusion events and elucidate links between surface and wind shear interactions, as well as possible changes in aerodynamic roughness over time as surfaces evolve. Clear patterning is evident, with crust expansion limited to topographic highs. Likewise, we illustrate examples of measured daily ablation rates and patterns, and allude to implications for energy balance modelling by improving estimates of aerodynamic roughness. Specific ice patterning includes melt water eroding channels, the unique interactions of surface debris (volcanic ash from the 21 - 30 May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn) melting out from the glacier and surface water forming a diverse microtopography of debris cones, cryoconite holes and perched blocks. However, whilst TLS represents a step-change in our ability to move from small transect derived roughness measurements to complete 3D surface change, detecting change on mobile surfaces through time is challenging, and linking surface properties to other point-based process measurements can be problematic.

Nield, J. M.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; King, J.; Eckardt, F. D.; Chiverrell, R. C.; Vircavs, L. H.; Jacobs, B.



Dust emission dynamics and source area variability: field measurements for climate modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models must account for aeolian dust in order to avoid large radiative and dynamical errors. The simulation of the dust cycle depends on a wide range of earth system components but begins with the realistic representation of source areas. However, there are very few measured data from dust source regions and none of emission processes operating at model grid-box resolution. This paper presents field results from the Do4 Models (Dust Observations for Models) project that aims to understand the variability in dust emission processes at relevant scales for climate modelling. Specifically, the project aims to evaluate the value added to predictions of aeolian dust emission with the measurement of erosivity and erodibility parameters at differing spatial and temporal scales within source areas. Data are presented from a field campaign across a 12 km x 12 km grid cell in Sua Pan, Botswana. 11 meteorological stations were deployed consisting of anemometer arrays, sediment transport detectors, high-frequency dust monitors, soil moisture meters, and shallow well networks. Further data were gathered across the grid on the dynamics of surface characteristics and erodibility parameters that impact upon erosion thresholds. Our data show for the first time the substantial variability in erodibility of an apparently homogenous surface in both time and space as a result of changing moisture and crustal characteristics, coupled with irregularity in erosivity due to variations in surface roughness. Such variability results in the identification of temporally inconsistent dust emission 'hot-spots' even within the area of a single regional climate model grid cell. This dataset provides a starting point from which to construct and test new dust emission schemes at scales relevant for climate modelling that incorporate the sensitivity of erosion thresholds to small changes in surface and atmospheric conditions.

Wiggs, G.; King, J.; Thomas, D. S.; Washington, R.; Eckardt, F. D.; Bryant, R. G.; Nield, J. M.; Vickery, K.



Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.



Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.



Genetic analysis of the isc operon in Escherichia coli involved in the biogenesis of cellular iron-sulfur proteins.  


The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster, the nonheme-iron cofactor essential for the activity of many proteins, is incorporated into target proteins with the aid of complex machinery. In bacteria, several proteins encoded by the iscRSUA-hscBA-fdx-ORF3 cluster (isc operon) have been proposed to execute crucial tasks in the assembly of Fe-S clusters. To elucidate the in vivo function, we have undertaken a systematic mutational analysis of the genes in the Escherichia coli isc operon. In all functional tests, i.e. growth rate, nutritional requirements and activities of Fe-S enzymes, the inactivation of the iscS gene elicited the most drastic alteration. Strains with mutations in the iscU, hscB, hscA, and fdx genes also exhibited conspicuous phenotypical consequences almost identical to one another. The effect of the inactivation of iscA was small but appreciable on Fe-S enzymes. In contrast, mutants with inactivated iscR or ORF3 showed virtually no differences from wild-type cells. The requirement of iscSUA-hscBA-fdx for the assembly of Fe-S clusters was further confirmed by complementation experiments using a mutant strain in which the entire isc operon was deleted. Our findings support the conclusion that IscS, via cysteine desulfurase activity, provides the sulfur that is subsequently incorporated into Fe-S clusters by assembler machinery comprising of the iscUA-hscBA-fdx gene products. The results presented here indicate crucial roles for IscU, HscB, HscA, and Fdx as central components of the assembler machinery and also provide evidence for interactions among them. PMID:11432781

Tokumoto, U; Takahashi, Y



Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.



[Il ruolo del cervelletto nella depressione unipolare e bipolare: una rassegna delle principali evidenze neurobiologiche].  


riassunto. Evidenze derivanti da numerosi studi condotti sia su pazienti affetti da patologie cerebellari sia su soggetti sani suggeriscono che il cervelletto eserciti, oltre a un ruolo ormai ben definito nel controllo e nella regolazione delle funzioni motorie, una significativa attività di modulatore del tono dell'umore, del comportamento e delle funzioni cognitive. In questo lavoro di revisione abbiamo passato in rassegna tutti quegli studi di neuroimaging volti a indagare la presenza di alterazioni cerebellari sia morfologiche sia funzionali in pazienti affetti da disturbo bipolare (DB) e disturbo depressivo maggiore (DDM), ipotizzando l'esistenza di un meccanismo fisiopatologico alla base di questi disturbi, che coinvolga, almeno in parte, il cervelletto. Allo stesso scopo, sono stati esaminati anche quegli studi post mortem che indagavano la presenza di alterazioni cellulari e molecolari a partire da campioni di tessuto cerebellare, per esempio alterazioni delle proteine mitocondriali, della tirosin-chinasi B e del brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), del fattore di trascrizione SP4, della proteina fibrillare acida della glia (GFAP). In totale sono stati esaminati 28 studi, 12 inerenti le alterazioni morfologiche e funzionali del cervelletto nel DB, 13 inerenti le alterazioni morfologiche e funzionali del cervelletto nel DDM e 4 inerenti le alterazioni cerebellari post mortem in entrambi i disturbi. Dal nostro lavoro di revisione, in linea con quanto presente nella letteratura internazionale, emerge l'interessante ipotesi che il cervelletto funzioni come un "pacemaker emotivo" e che quindi una sua lesione potrebbe tradursi nell'incapacità dell'individuo di rimanere in equilibrio sulla sottile linea dell'eutimia, giustificando in questo modo la comparsa di profonde oscillazioni emotive sia sul versante depressivo sia su quello maniacale. PMID:25000888

Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Trabucchi, Guido; Albano, Gabriella; Primavera, Martina; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo





O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend



Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.



Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.



Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedagógico para as indicações dos objetos e experimentos que serão expostos, procurando formas de construir, expor e apresen! tá-los d e maneira mais eficiente em termos de uma aprendizagem significativa. (Apoio: Fundação Vitae, CNPq)

Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.



Uracil Salvage Pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum: Transcription and Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

The uracil salvage pathway in Lactobacillus plantarum was demonstrated to be dependent on the upp-pyrP gene cluster. PyrP was the only high-affinity uracil transporter since a pyrP mutant no longer incorporated low concentrations of radioactively labeled uracil and had increased resistance to the toxic uracil analogue 5-fluorouracil. The upp gene encoded a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzyme catalyzing the conversion of uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl-?-1-pyrophosphate to UMP and pyrophosphate. Analysis of mutants revealed that UPRT is a major cell supplier of UMP synthesized from uracil provided by preformed nucleic acid degradation. In a mutant selection study, seven independent upp mutants were isolated and all were found to excrete low amounts of pyrimidines to the growth medium. Pyrimidine-dependent transcription regulation of the biosynthetic pyrimidine pyrR1-B-C-Aa1-Ab1-D-F-E operon was impaired in the upp mutants. Despite the fact that upp and pyrP are positioned next to each other on the chromosome, they are not cotranscribed. Whereas pyrP is expressed as a monocistronic message, the upp gene is part of the lp_2376-glyA-upp operon. The lp_2376 gene encodes a putative protein that belongs to the conserved protein family of translation modulators such as Sua5, YciO, and YrdC. The glyA gene encodes a putative hydroxymethyltransferase involved in C1 unit charging of tetrahydrofolate, which is required in the biosynthesis of thymidylate, pantothenate, and purines. Unlike upp transcription, pyrP transcription is regulated by exogenous pyrimidine availability, most likely by the same mechanism of transcription attenuation as that of the pyr operon.

Arsene-Ploetze, Florence; Nicoloff, Herve; Kammerer, Benoit; Martinussen, Jan; Bringel, Francoise



Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em estudar o tema Astronom! ia entre os educandos.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.



Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.



Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.



Questões mais freqüentes na área de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite otimizar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. Nesse intuito, nosso trabalho busca mapear que assuntos da Astronomia despertam mais a atenção e o interesse das pessoas e o quanto disso é estimulado pela mídia, que freqüentemente aproveita-se desse interesse de forma sensacionalista, trazendo contribuições positivas e negativas. Para esta avaliação, utilizamos as pesquisas específicas e de caracterização do público que freqüentou o MAst nos anos de 2001 a 2003, pesquisa das matérias de Astronomia veiculadas na mídia escrita da cidade do Rio de Janeiro no mesmo período, além da base de dados do programa Pergunte a um astrônomo, realizado no Observatório Nacional nos anos de 1997 a 1999. Para a análise dos dados, dividimos as perguntas em dez categorias, cada uma com suas subcategorias, tomando como referência as divisões, comissões e grupos de trabalho da IAU. Apresentamos neste trabalho os resultados dessa pesquisa, que incluem, entre outros, a predominância de questões nas categorias Observação do Céu e Sistemas Planetários enquanto nos jornais dominam as notícias de Sistemas Planetários e Espaço & Astronáutica. Outro resultado interessante indicou que as dúvidas de crianças do ensino fundamental se concentram em algumas categorias enquanto as questões de adultos são mais distribuídas por todas as categorias. Os resultados dessa pesquisa serão aplicados diretamente no aperfeiçoamento das atividades do Programa de Observação de Céu, bem como na elaboração de novos projetos e eventos realizados no MAst.

Segundo, H. A. S.; Garcia, G. C.; Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.



YrdC exhibits properties expected of a subunit for a tRNA threonylcarbamoyl transferase  

PubMed Central

The post-transcriptional nucleoside modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain form the loop structure and dynamics required for effective and accurate recognition of synonymous codons. The N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine modification at position 37 (t6A37), 3?-adjacent to the anticodon, of many tRNA species in all organisms ensures the accurate recognition of ANN codons by increasing codon affinity, enhancing ribosome binding, and maintaining the reading frame. However, biosynthesis of this complex modification is only partially understood. The synthesis requires ATP, free threonine, a single carbon source for the carbamoyl, and an enzyme yet to be identified. Recently, the universal protein family Sua5/YciO/YrdC was associated with t6A37 biosynthesis. To further investigate the role of YrdC in t6A37 biosynthesis, the interaction of the Escherichia coli YrdC with a heptadecamer anticodon stem and loop of lysine tRNA (ASLLysUUU) was examined. YrdC bound the unmodified ASLLysUUU with high affinity compared with the t6A37-modified ASLLysUUU (Kd = 0.27 ± 0.20 ?M and 1.36 ± 0.39 ?M, respectively). YrdC also demonstrated specificity toward the unmodified versus modified anticodon pentamer UUUUA and toward threonine and ATP. The protein did not significantly alter the ASL architecture, nor was it able to base flip A37, as determined by NMR, circular dichroism, and fluorescence of 2-aminopuine at position 37. Thus, current data support the hypothesis that YrdC, with many of the properties of a putative threonylcarbamoyl transferase, most likely functions as a component of a heteromultimeric protein complex for t6A37 biosynthesis.

Harris, Kimberly A.; Jones, Victoria; Bilbille, Yann; Swairjo, Manal A.; Agris, Paul F.



In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.



Net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI/NAPI) and riverine nutrient fluxes in the watersheds of the US and Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

Hong, B.; Swaney, D. P.; Howarth, R. W.; Humborg, C.



Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.



Controls of dust emission fluxes and wind erosion threshold on a wet playa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of dust emissions from crusted surfaces is both highly variable and difficult to measure directly. Seasonal changes in moisture availability, temperature, evaporation, surface roughness, and sediment supply result in a highly complex surface condition that remains to be fully described in the context of wind erosion potential. A highly intensive project on Sua Pan, Botswana using the PI-SWERL (portable wind tunnel) combined with surface measurements of crust and soil properties has led to a new understanding of the controls on wind erosion from these surfaces. The PI-SWERL is a highly portable wind tunnel that applies a wind shear to the surface using a motor-controlled rotating annular blade and measures resulting dust emissions with a DustTrak dust monitor. We undertook a sequence of tests with the PI-SWERL to obtain both the wind erosion threshold (using a slowly increasing shear velocity) and a dust emission flux (using a constant shear velocity) across a 12 km by 12 km grid across the pan surface. A total of just under 1000 wind tunnel tests and 2000 correlated measurements of a variety of surface properties including crust thickness, surface and subsurface soil moisture, shearing strength (shear vane), normal stress resistance (penetrometer), and surface roughness were conducted in August 2011. These results show that wind erosion potential is best described by measurements of normal stress resistance rather than shearing strength at low dust emission fluxes, but despite their frequent use in wind erosion studies of crusted surfaces neither metric provided a good explanation of higher dust emission fluxes. Surface soil moisture explained the most variation in both dust emissions and wind erosion threshold although much variation remains unexplained. Our results suggested that combining measurements of surface roughness, soil moisture, and crust thickness provided a reasonable explanation of wind erosion potential on the salt pan surface. As pan surfaces can exhibit a range of aerodynamic roughness lengths over three orders of magnitude the small-scale partition of wind stress could be considered. Surface soil moisture also had a very large range in which a relatively sharp threshold was found to increase dust emissions when combined with other surface factors. Although the role of surface moisture in dust emissions is understood it remains a very difficult (yet critical) parameter to measure and a call for more precise estimations of this metric is highly encouraged.

Wiggs, G.; King, J.; Thomas, D. S.; Washington, R.



Linking playa surface dust emission potential to feedbacks between surface moisture and salt crust expansion through high resolution terrestrial laser scanning measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dust emissivity of salt pans (or playas) can be significant but is controlled by interactions between wind erosivity, surface moisture, salt chemistry and crust morphology. These surface properties influence the aeolian transport threshold and can be highly variable over both short temporal and spatial scales. In the past, field studies have been hampered by practical difficulties in accurately measuring properties controlling sediment availability at the surface in high resolution. Studies typically therefore, have investigated large scale monthly or seasonal change using remote sensing and assume a homogeneous surface when predicting dust emissivity. Here we present the first high resolution measurements (sub-cm) of salt crust expansion related to changes in diurnal moisture over daily and weekly time periods using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, ground-based LiDAR) on Sua Pan, Botswana. The TLS measures both elevation and relative surface moisture change simultaneously, without disturbing the surface. Measurement sequences enable the variability in aeolian sediment availability to be quantified along with temporal feedbacks associated with crust degradation. On crusts with well-developed polygon ridges (high aerodynamic and surface roughness), daily surface expansion was greater than 30mm. The greatest surface change occurred overnight on the upper, exposed sections of the ridges, particularly when surface temperatures dropping below 10°C. These areas also experienced the greatest moisture variation and became increasingly moist overnight in response to an increase in relative humidity. In contrast, during daylight hours, the ridge areas were drier than the lower lying inter-ridge areas. Positive feedbacks between surface topography and moisture reinforced the maximum diurnal moisture variation at ridge peaks, encouraging crust thrusting due to overnight salt hydration, further enhancing the surface, and therefore, aerodynamic roughness. These feedbacks between surface roughness and moisture have implications for dust emissivity because crust expansion increases fluff production which is one of the main dust source materials. Further, increased roughness can locally increase wind erosivity and the potential evaporation of ridge areas. Crust thrusting also weakens the ridge peaks, developing cracked surfaces and exposing the sediment supply source below. These fast acting processes can have a major influence on wind erosion variability and dust emissivity from key dust source regions.; a-d) Elevation change overnight. e-f) Elevation change over 6 days.

Nield, J. M.; King, J.; Wiggs, G.



The role of roughness in predicting transport thresholds on desert surfaces: temporal and spatial variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust emission schemes in climate models are relatively simple and tuned to represent observed background aerosol concentrations. A key component of the dust emission scheme is the sediment transport threshold, which is a function of soil size distribution, soil moisture, air and soil particle density, and surface roughness. For a particular region or landform that is not vegetated the variable that controls the transport threshold is soil moisture. This is because it is assumed that the other components vary little (air and soil particle densities) or are kept constant (soil size distribution and surface roughness). This in turn puts the emphasis very heavily on soil moisture and wind stress as the key drivers of dust emission for specific landforms and dust emission schemes. This highlights the necessity for current models to tune their model parameters to observations. Observations of dust emission were undertaken in 2011 and 2012 on Sua Pan in Botswana, a large, flat, unvegetated salt pan, as part of the Dust Observation for Models (DO4 Models) campaign. The observations consisted of eleven meteorological stations placed within a 144 km2 region recording wind velocity, soil moisture, soil and air temperature, horizontal transport, vertical transport, and radiative properties. Out of the measured and calculated erodibility parameters responsible for predicting transport threshold within current schemes, surface soil moisture and aerodynamic roughness length varied the most over the duration of the project and spatially across the pan. In some cases, the aerodynamic roughness length of the bare soil increased by three orders of magnitude within a three month period. This increase in roughness would almost double the modelled threshold shear velocity required for this surface to be emissive. The temporal and spatial variability of the calculated transport threshold is explored with observed data and compared with the modelled transport threshold for this region for the campaign duration. These results suggest that for dry saline lakes and other evaporite and unvegetated emissive surfaces a more detailed aerodynamic roughness dataset is required to accurately resolve dust production within this landform classification.

King, James; Haustein, Karsten; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Eckardt, Frank; Thomas, David S. G.; Washington, Richard



Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Serão discutidas as implicações desse resultado nos modelos de afterglows de ECRGs.

Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.



Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre ou tras coi sas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no Ensino Médio não tem contribuído de forma significativa para uma maior compreensão dos fenòmenos e conceitos.

de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.



Simplificando a luneta com lente de óculos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal ferramenta de trabalho do astrônomo é o telescópio. O manuseio do mesmo é sempre motivo de enorme curiosidade por parte de alunos do ensino fundamental ou médio e até mesmo dos respectivos professores. Visando propiciar o acesso de alunos e professores ou interessados em geral a uma luneta de fácil construção, com materiais alternativos, de fácil localização no comércio, de baixo custo, resistente ao manuseio de alunos, simplificamos a montagem de uma luneta construída com lente de óculos, de 1 ou 2 graus positivos, e monóculo de fotografia, publicado por este autor no CCEF, vol.11(3), 212, 1994. Esta luneta, a qual permite ver as crateras lunares, apresentava como maior dificuldade de construção o tripé e o local de formação da imagem. Substituímos o tripé de madeira por uma simples garrafa PET de 2 litros cheia d'água. No lugar da ocular usamos a lente do monóculo de fotografia (ou visor de fotografia) encaixado dentro de uma bucha de redução curta, de 40 x 32 mm, e esta não mais dentro de uma luva (conexão hidráulica) de 40 mm de diâmetro, mas sim encostada no próprio tubo de PVC móvel (o qual permite o ajuste do foco) de 40 mm de diâmetro e presa a este por outro tubo de 40 mm de diâmetro e 10 cm de comprimento, serrado ao longo do seu comprimento. Com isto podemos ajustar a posição deste tubo de 10 cm também para que uma das suas extremidades coincida com o local de formação da imagem. Desta forma o observador saberá o local exato da formação da imagem, o que não era evidente na montagem anterior e causava uma dificuldade inicial até se descobrir a posição exata em que se deveria colocar o olho. Deste maneira, a montagem inicial que já era simples ficou ainda mais simples, mais barata e mais confortável para o uso. Um exemplar da mesma será exposto durante a XXIX Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira para inspeção e uso dos participantes.

Canalle, J. B. G.; de Souza, A. C. F.



Demonstration of Technologies for Remote and in Situ Sensing of Atmospheric Methane Abundances - a Controlled Release Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is critical to constrain both natural and anthropogenic sources of methane to better predict the impact on global climate change. Critical technologies for this assessment include those that can detect methane point and concentrated diffuse sources over large spatial scales. Airborne spectrometers can potentially fill this gap for large scale remote sensing of methane while in situ sensors, both ground-based and mounted on aerial platforms, can monitor and quantify at small to medium spatial scales. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborators recently conducted a field test located near Casper, WY, at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (RMOTC). These tests were focused on demonstrating the performance of remote and in situ sensors for quantification of point-sourced methane. A series of three controlled release points were setup at RMOTC and over the course of six experiment days, the point source flux rates were varied from 50 LPM to 2400 LPM (liters per minute). During these releases, in situ sensors measured real-time methane concentration from field towers (downwind from the release point) and using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) to characterize spatiotemporal variability of the plume structure. Concurrent with these methane point source controlled releases, airborne sensor overflights were conducted using three aircraft. The NASA Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) participated with a payload consisting of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and an in situ methane sensor. Two imaging spectrometers provided assessment of optical and thermal infrared detection of methane plumes. The AVIRIS-next generation (AVIRIS-ng) sensor has been demonstrated for detection of atmospheric methane in the short wave infrared region, specifically using the absorption features at ~2.3 ?m. Detection of methane in the thermal infrared region was evaluated by flying the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES), retrievals which interrogate spectral features in the 7.5 to 8.5 ?m region. Here we discuss preliminary results from the JPL activities during the RMOTC controlled release experiment, including capabilities of airborne sensors for total columnar atmospheric methane detection and comparison to results from ground measurements and dispersion models. Potential application areas for these remote sensing technologies include assessment of anthropogenic and natural methane sources over wide spatial scales that represent significant unconstrained factors to the global methane budget.

Aubrey, A. D.; Thorpe, A. K.; Christensen, L. E.; Dinardo, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Rahn, T. A.; Dubey, M.



A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.



Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open question in geomagnetism whether induction by the slowly changing main field in conductive structures in the lithosphere is a measurable part of what is observed as secular variation at and above the Earth's surface. In our study we test different time-scale periods and different order polynomials to create the most appropriate prediction model and to estimate our results. We find that linear models which are used to determine the annual declination variation in cartography provide enough accurate information for the declination map's users.

Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan



Do4Models: Performance of current climate model dust emission schemes from a 1D box model perspective using field campaign data to constrain the simulated dust emission flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust emission schemes in climate models are relatively simple and are often tuned to represent observed background aerosol concentrations many of which are thousands of kilometres from source regions. Parameterisations of dust emission in numerical models were developed from idealised experiments such as those conducted in wind tunnels. Improvement of current model dust emission schemes has been difficult to achieve because of the paucity of observations from key dust sources. The Dust Observations for Models project (DO4Models) aims to gather data from source regions at a scale appropriate to climate model grid box resolution. Here we present the results of 1D box model simulations in which three commonly used parameterisations for the horizontal and vertical dust emission flux (Marticorena and Bergametti 1995, Alfaro and Gomez 2001, Shao et al. 2004) are applied and compared with Do4Models field campaign data retrieved over a typical salt pan dust source (Sua Pan, Botswana). The sensitivity of the schemes to input parameters such as soil moisture content, aerodynamic surface roughness length, shear velocity, soil texture class, and particle size is tested with particular regard to the representation of horizontal-to-vertical-mass-flux ratio. The effects of spatial averaging over 11 field sites is evaluated as is the average dust emission flux of a typical 12x12km model grid box. It is analysed whether the full range of surface processes (temporal changes in roughness, moisture, and soil conditions) is represented sufficiently well after averaging yet. Furthermore, the application of the dispersed soil size distribution on the performance of the emission schemes compared to the typically used undisturbed soil size distribution provided from soil databases is examined. Preliminary results suggest that the current schemes do not describe the observed emission process well. The scheme after Shao et al. (2004) provides the most accurate horizontal flux estimate so far. However, as our observed horizontal-to-vertical-dust-flux ratio is fairly variable compared to other field sites (e.g. Owens Lake), an accurate representation of the saltating flux does not assure a good simulation of the vertical emission flux. The simpler scheme after Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) can therefore compete in terms of total vertical dust flux despite its deficiencies in representing the full range of physics involved. We show that the moisture correction strongly affects the simulated dust flux and that the drag partition correction after Marticorena and Bergametti (1997) needs a little revision to be applicable to the whole range of observed roughness lengths. The dispersed soil texture data allow for a better representation of the deflatable dust fraction which controls the horizontal flux. It is more consistently constrained with regard to the measured saltating flux.

Haustein, Karsten; King, James; Wiggs, Giles; Washington, Richard



Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.