These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates may thus contribute not only to the mud-fraction of marine carbonates, but also to the fine sand fraction as intergrown particles, and to the fine to coarse sand fractions as intact and partially intact pellets. These experimental data indicate that hydrodynamic regimes local to sites of excretion will influence the generation of carbonates with different size fraction ranges. Rapid pellet disaggregation is more likely in high energy settings, hypothesised to result in redistribution of liberated mud-grade particles to lower energy platform-top settings and/or off-platform. In contrast, pellets excreted in lower energy settings are more likely to be preserved intact, and are thus proposed as a previously unrecognised source of pelletal and peloidal carbonate sediments.

Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

2014-12-01

2

Latitudinal variation in egg sizes of tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic shore fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  An increase of egg size with latitude has been documented for several taxa of marine organisms. Available data indicate, however,\\u000a that the magnitude of this relationship varies between families of North Atlantic, shallow water marine fishes. Evidence suggests\\u000a that small-bodied, demersal spawning fishes are more likely to exhibit a latitudinal cline in egg sizes than are larger-bodied,\\u000a pelagic spawning fishes.

Ronald E. Thresher

1988-01-01

3

Fishing Down the Marine Foodwebs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News addresses overfishing, an international problem with new and urgent consequences. The nine sites discussed provide information and opinions on overfishing. According to a recent study published in Science (Feb. 6, 1998; Vol. 279), the commercial fishing industry is fishing harder at the lower end of the food web as larger and more commercially valuable species disappear. "Fishing Down," or the catching of second-level creatures normally preyed upon by larger fish, is the fishing industry's response to the depletion of prized species such as tuna, cod, and swordfish. The results of fishing "lower," scientists warn, is impoverished, less-valuable ecosystems. A further, alarming prediction is that this downward trend could lead to a wholesale collapse of marine ecosystems. Author Daniel Pauly and colleagues argue that there is an urgent need for marine protected areas, where fishing is prohibited.

Payne, Laura X.

4

An overview of marine fish cytogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of cytogenetic studies of marine fish has increased in recent years. Fish groups, such as Perciformes, which comprises many of the extant marine teleosts of economic importance, show little divergence in chromosome number and most species display a diploid number of 48 acrocentric chromosomes. In the Serranidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae (Perciformes) and Mugilidae (Mugiliformes) small chromosome variations are restricted

P. M. Galetti Jr; C. T. Aguilar; W. F. Molina

2000-01-01

5

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

6

Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic

John D. Reynolds; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2005-01-01

7

The Future of Marine Fish Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce: overfishing, where fishermen take more fish than they need; destructive fishing practices, such as bottom trawling where fishermen catch other species in their nets by mistake; and ecosystem pollution from boats or from industrial and agricultural runoff.

J. Emmet Duffy (Collegy of William and Mary, Virginia Intitute of Marine Science; )

2009-12-11

8

SCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002  

E-print Network

SCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002 RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS IN CALIFORNIA DONNA M. SCHROEDER AND MILTON S. LOVE Marine@lifesci.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT We present and review information regarding recre- ational angling and exploited marine fish

Love, Milton

9

Collapse and recovery of marine fishes.  

PubMed

Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity. PMID:10972288

Hutchings, J A

2000-08-24

10

Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves  

PubMed Central

Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

2015-01-01

11

Do partial marine reserves protect reef fish assemblages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish assemblages in the Mimiwhangata Marine Park, an area closed to commercial fishing but open to most forms of recreational fishing, were compared with adjacent fished areas. Two survey methodologies were used; baited underwater video and underwater visual census. Snapper (Pagrus auratus), the most heavily targeted fish species in the region, showed no difference in abundance or size between the

C. M. Denny; R. C. Babcock

2004-01-01

12

Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000?km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2?t?ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45?t?ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

2013-01-01

13

Fish stings and other marine envenomations.  

PubMed

West Virginia, it would seem, is an unlikely place for physicians to encounter patients with poisonous marine envenomations. To the contrary, West Virginias who vacation at the beach may be envenomated and require further evaluation and treatment when they return home. Likewise, certain aquarium pets or even freshwater fish may envenomate those who have contact with them. Such underwater sea creatures can cause local and systemic toxic or allergic reactions which potentially can be serious. This article describes these possible toxic encounters as well as first aid and medical management. PMID:1926838

Bee, M

1991-07-01

14

Profile of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A market survey and review of government statistics were carried out to establish imports and exports of marine ornamental fishes into and out of Hong Kong, and to examine the local trade in terms of volume, value and species composition. Official government import figures for marine aquarium fishes were available from 1984 to 1991 and from 1997 and 1998. When

Thierry T. C. Chan; Yvonne Sadovy

2000-01-01

15

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

16

Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.  

PubMed

This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139

Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

2013-06-01

17

Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide decline in coral cover has serious implications for the health of coral reefs. But what is the future of reef fish assemblages? Marine reserves can protect fish from exploitation, but do they protect fish biodiversity in degrading environments? The answer appears to be no, as indicated by our 8-year study in Papua New Guinea. A devastating decline in

Geoffrey P. Jones; Mark I. McCormick; Maya Srinivasan; Janelle V. Eagle

2004-01-01

18

The Management of Inshore Marine Recreational Fishing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a long history and great popularity, marine recreational fishing in Japan is unmanaged above the local level. Although basic rules govern usage, there is neither exclusive authority nor a recreational fishing right, little monitoring, and weak sanctions. The institutional structure of recreational fishing management and its legal framework are examined, and the current status of management analyzed in terms

Kenneth Ruddle; Shio Segi

2006-01-01

19

Marine Habitat Enhancement and Urban Recreational Fishing in Washington  

E-print Network

Otms of fishery technology for improving ur ban recreational fishing in the Puget Sound region (Fig. J). Both fishing in Puget Sound. Fhl? enhanced areas were designed and sited to del'elnp hinlogi· calli proc"ss was b£lI'ed (In 28 west marine waters has been synony- mous with fishing for Pacific salmon

20

75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine...a)(2)(A) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish...a)(2)(A) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and on the types...

2010-07-01

21

75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...that incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the endangered...these stocks incidental to commercial fishing operations are at insignificant...

2010-11-09

22

78 FR 42653 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take...trip. Most notably, the black sea bass fishing season has not co-occurred with...

2013-07-16

23

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

PubMed Central

Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy. PMID:21632631

Rochet, M.-J.; Benoît, E.

2012-01-01

24

The sub-tropical convergence in New Zealand surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical configuration and hydrological character of the sub-tropical convergence, the boundary between waters of sub-tropical and sub-antarctic origin, in the vicinity of New Zealand are discussed. As a background to this discussion some data are given on the seasonal variation of surface temperature in New Zealand coastal waters. The convergence follows approximately the isotherms of 15° C in February

D. M. Garner

1959-01-01

25

Marine reserves: Fish life history and ecological traits matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data

Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Paolo Domenici; F. Badalamenti; M. Milazzo; J. M. Falcón; I. Bertocci; L. Benedetti-Cecchi; J. A. García-Charton; R. Goñi; J. A. Borg; A. Forcada; G. A. de Lucia; Á Pérez-Ruzafa; P. Afonso; A. Brito; I. Guala; L. Le Diréach; P. Sanchez-Jerez; P. J. Somerfield; S. Planes

2010-01-01

26

Nutritional Properties of Recreationally Caught Marine Fishes  

E-print Network

percent. The protein content of fish usually ranges from 18 to 20 percent, but may be as low as 13 percent. Fish have been classified into five cat egories based on the relative percentages of protein and oil With Other Flesh Foods Protein The amount of protein in fish flesh (usually about 18-20 percent for most

27

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming--a review.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) has, in recent decades, been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species. So far, it has been isolated from at least 48 fish species from the northern hemisphere, including North America, Asia and Europe, and fifteen different species including herring, sprat, cod, Norway pout and flatfish from northern European waters. The high number of VHSV isolations from the Baltic Sea, Kattegat, Skagerrak, the North Sea and waters around Scotland indicate that the virus is endemic in these waters. The VHSV isolates originating from wild marine fish show no to low pathogenicity to rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, although several are pathogenic for turbot. Marine VHSV isolates are so far serologically indistinguishable from freshwater isolates. Genotyping based on VHSV G- and N-genes reveals four groups indicating the geographical origin of the isolates, with one group representing traditional European freshwater isolates and isolates of north European marine origin, a second group of marine isolates from the Baltic Sea, a third group of isolates from the North Sea, and a group representing North American isolates. Examples of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture. PMID:16266325

Skall, H F; Olesen, N J; Mellergaard, S

2005-09-01

28

Control of bacterial pathogens, associated with fish diseases, by antagonistic marine actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinomycetes were isolated from different marine samples collected from various stations along the Tuticorin coast. About 133 cultures of actinomycetes were isolated from 129 marine samples. Of the 104 isolates of actinomycetes screened for their inhibitory activity against the bacterial pathogens associated with fish diseases viz. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria and Edwardsiella tarda, 77 isolates were found to be inhibitory

R Patil; G Jeyasekaran; S A Shanmugam; R Jeya Shakila

29

Survey of Anisakis larvae in marine fish of Taiwan.  

PubMed

A survey on the prevalence and intensity of larval anisakid infection in some species of marine fishes sold in the markets at Tan-shui in northern Taiwan was carried out from May to August 1980. The general infection rate was 37.7% with an average of 14.2 larvae per fish. A total of 13 species of examined fishes were found with Anisakis larvae, these were Argyrosomus argentatus, Caranx djeddaba, Diploprion bifasciatum, Evynnis cardinalis, Lethrinus haematopterus, Megalops cyprinoides, Nemipterus virgatus, Paraplagusia formosana, Plectorhinchus pictus, Rastrelliger chrysozonus, Saurida tumbil, Scolopsis vosmeri, and Trichiurus haumela. The highest intensity of Anisakis larvae was obtained in E. cardinalis with an average of 80.3 larvae per fish; the next was in N. virgatus (76.2 larvae/fish). The parasite could not be found in the other 20 species of fishes examined. PMID:3833830

Chao, D

1985-09-01

30

Polybrominated anisoles in marine fish, shellfish, and sediments in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of polybrominated anisoles (2,4-dibromoanisole, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole and pentabromoanisole) were determined in marine fish, shellfish, and sediments collected in Japan. 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole was found in fourteen of 24 fish and shellfish samples, with a range of 0.1–5.4 (?g\\/kg (ppb) on a wet weight basis. The concentrations of 2,4,6-tribromoanisole were similar to pentachloroanisole and hexachlorobenzene but about one-hundredth of those of polychlorinated

Isao Watanabe; Takashi Kashimoto; Ryo Tatsukawat

1983-01-01

31

Distribution of Epiphytic Diatoms in a Sub-Tropical Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within estuaries, seagrasses may represent an order of magnitude greater surface area relative to sediments for the colonization and growth of diatoms. Fossil diatom distributions have proven useful in inferring paleoenvironmental conditions. The strength of these inferences is dependent upon defining the environmental relationships of contempory diatom compositions. The present investigation characterized the modern epiphytic diatom flora on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at seven sites in the sub-tropical Florida Bay estuary and at one Atlantic Ocean site east of the upper Florida Keys. These sites were sampled six times between March 2000 and April 2001. Diatom species composition was related to water quality parameters using multivariate statistics. 338 diatom species were identified. The seven most abundant species from pooled samples were Cocconeis placentula, Brachysira aponina, Nitzschia liebetruthii, Hyalosynedra laevigata, Amphora cf. tenerrima, Mastogloia crucicula, and M. pusilla. These seven species collectively accounted for 51.7 percent of all valves counted and occurred in at least 85 percent of all samples. Analysis of similiarity and NMDS ordination of species relative abundances revealed four distinct diatom communities across the study region. The spatial variability of these communities was correlated with salinity and water-column nutrient availability. Summertime communities were significantly different from winter-spring communities, but these communities showed a gradual temporal progression with much overlap. The temporal variability was correlated with temperature. Indicator species analysis identified many species significantly influencing the four spatial groups. The Atlantic marine site was characterized by many different Mastogloia species and some epipsammic (sand-grain associated) diatoms (i.e., Cymatosira lorenziana, Dimerogramma dubium, and Neofragilaria nicobarica). Mastogloia pusilla, Rhopalodia pacifica, and Cocconeis woodii were strong indicators of the Gulf of Mexico marine site. Reimerothrix floridensis was particularly abundant in the western interior of Florida Bay (i.e., sites 2, 3, and 4) during summer months. The eastern interior of Florida Bay was characterized by high relative abundances of Brachysira aponina and Nitzschia liebetruthii. The optima and tolerance of these indicator species relative to individual water quality parameters were also determined.

Frankovich, T. A.; Gaiser, E. E.; Wachnicka, A.; Zieman, J. C.

2005-05-01

32

Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

33

Illegal shark fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n  

E-print Network

Illegal shark fishing in the Gala´pagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n , Adrian C. Stier c´pagos Shark fishing Marine reserves Conservation Enforcement Illegal a b s t r a c t Illegal shark fishing is thought to occur globally, including within so-called ``shark sanctuaries'', marine reserves and even

34

Contribution of Biology and Oceanography to Increased Harvest of Marine Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of marine fisheries, when compared to agriculture, is handicapped by the small amount of influence that can be exerted in any phase of fish production except the harvest. However, fishery science can contribute to increased fish catches in several ways. Although planting of hatchery-reared marine fish has been of little use, cultivation of marine animals, particularly of molluscs, can

C. P. Idyll

1958-01-01

35

HBOI, USDA/ARS BUILDING MARINE FISH HATCHERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of marine fish aquaculture in the US is challenged by a number of complex issues such as political and regulatory constraints, marketing and market competition, health management and biosecurity, and water quality and waste management. However, the most commonly cited constraint to ...

36

Reproductive Timing in Marine Fishes: Variability, Temporal Scales, and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marine fishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at

Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri; Konstantinos Ganias; Fran Saborido-Rey; Hilario Murua; John R. Hunter

2011-01-01

37

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF MARINE LARVAL AND JUVENILE FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1975, a cooperative research effort was initiated to evaluate a variety of diets and diet regimes for the laboratory culture of a marine larval fish. The Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia was chosen on the basis of its regional availability, ease of handling in the laborator...

38

77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction...permanently continuing medium mesh gillnet fishing restrictions in North Carolina coastal...expiration date to continue current nighttime fishing restrictions of medium mesh gillnets...

2012-04-12

39

75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Proposed Permit AGENCY...that incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback...et seq.) in the course of commercial fishing operations if NMFS determines...

2010-02-24

40

75 FR 7383 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction...seasonally close specific areas to gillnet fishing, should the specified target bycatch...areas will be closed annually to gillnet fishing from February through April. When...

2010-02-19

41

78 FR 61821 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction...gillnets due to fishery-wide changes in fishing practices. DATES: Effective September...Since the advent of sectors, the overall fishing effort generally remained the same...

2013-10-04

42

75 FR 29984 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Issuance of Permit AGENCY...humpback whales incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the CNP...1531 et seq.) incidental to commercial fishing operations if NMFS determines...

2010-05-28

43

77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nighttime medium mesh fishing restrictions...Carolina coastal state waters. Specifically...Society of the United States and the Whale...Marine Mammal Commission, the United States Fish and Wildlife...said nighttime fishing should not...

2012-07-31

44

Marine fishes new to continental United States waters, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the southeastern coast of the United States, hardground systems support a high diversity of sub-tropical and tropical fishes. Many of these hardgrounds occur in deep (ca. ??? 50 m) waters and their fauna is still poorly described; however, with concentrated sampling in these deeper areas, new records of fishes continue to emerge. In the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina, we used the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, remotely operated vehicles, trawling gear, and angling gear to sample deep reef systems (38-248 m). We document five records of fishes new to continental United States waters, including Liopropoma aberrans, Parasphyraenops incisus, Lipogramma regia, Apogon gouldi, and Prognathodes guyanensis. We also report range extensions for eleven species: Gymnothorax hubbsi, Gymnothorax vicinus, Lepophidium staurophor, Cypselurus comatus, Liopropoma mowbrayi, Serranus annularis, Rypticus saponaceus, Caranx lugubris, Prognathodes aculeatus, Centropyge argi, and Canthigaster jamestyleri.

Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Necaise, A.M.; Casazza, T.L.; Dennis, G.D.

2004-01-01

45

Marine Fish Population Collapses: Consequences for Recovery and Extinction Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is on the decline of marine fish. Rapid declines threaten the persistence of many marine fish. Data from more than 230 populations reveal a median reduction of 83% in breeding population size from known historic levels. Few populations recover rapidly; most exhibit little or no change in abundance up to 15 years after a collapse. Reductions in fishing pressure, although clearly necessary for population recovery, are often insufficient. Persistence and recovery are also influenced by life history, habitat alteration, changes to species assemblages, genetic responses to exploitation, and reductions in population growth attributable to the Allee effect, also known as depensation. Heightened extinction risks were highlighted recently when a Canadian population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was listed as endangered, on the basis of declines as high as 99.9% over 30 years. Unprecedented reductions in abundance and surprisingly low rates of recovery draw attention to scientists' limited understanding of how fish behavior, habitat, ecology, and evolution affect population growth at low abundance. Failure to prevent population collapses, and to take the conservation biology of marine fishes seriously, will ensure that many severely depleted species remain ecological and numerical shadows in the ecosystems that they once dominated.

JEFFREY A. HUTCHINGS and JOHN D. REYNOLDS (; )

2004-04-01

46

Residential indoor humidity control in tropics and sub-tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A\\/C) systems is widely seen in residential buildings in tropics and sub-tropics. However, most DX A\\/C systems are equipped with single-speed compressor and supply fan, relying on On—Off cycling as a low-cost approach to maintain only indoor dry-bulb temperature, whereas the indoor air humidity is not controlled directly. This also leads to

MY Chan; SM Deng; XG Xu

2009-01-01

47

Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12 Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine  

E-print Network

Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12 Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine habitats sidescan sonar marine habitats survey trial Page i Cefas Document Control Title: Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine habitats survey trial - A practical trial of undertaking seabed habitat mapping

48

Marine fish food in the United States and methylmercury risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a market-oriented approach to study potential exposure of methylmercury (MeHg) risk to human health from US domestic commercial ocean fish landings (consumption). Information is assembled on MeHg concentration levels of marine species. Landings were examined for 1995–2005. Confined to this seafood source, trends of landings indicating high concentration species (above 0.7 ppm, tilefish, shark, king mackerel and swordfish)

David Y. Chen; Vereda J. Williams

2009-01-01

49

Chitinolytic enzymes in the digestive system of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinase, exo-N-acetyl-ß-D-glycosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activities were assayed in the digestive tract of 6 species of marine fishes: Myxine glutinosa (cyclostome), Chimaera monstrosa (holocephalan), Squalus acanthias, Etmopterus spinax, Raja radiata (elasmobranchs) and Coryphaenoides rupestris (teleost). Strong chitinase activity was found in the gastric mucosa of the elasmobranchs (S. acanthias, E. spinax and R. radiata) and the teleost (Coryphaenoides rupestris). A

R. Fänge; G. Lundblad; J. Lind; K. Slettengren

1979-01-01

50

Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations  

PubMed Central

The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

2012-01-01

51

Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983 – 1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of fishing on the abundance and species richness of families of coral reef fish at two islands\\u000a (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. Natural fishing experiments occurred in marine reserves at each island,\\u000a where long term estimates of fishing intensity were available. Responses to fishing were interpreted in terms of life

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1998-01-01

52

Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.  

PubMed

Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior. PMID:20437967

Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

2010-04-01

53

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

54

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

55

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit to local  

E-print Network

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit, it is important to evaluate how different stressors associated with this type of fishing affect fish survival. What follows is a brief Q & A review on the effects of air exposure. How long can a fish live out

Watson, Craig A.

56

Epidemiology of marine fish-borne parasitic zoonoses.  

PubMed

Most parasites of marine animals are of little public health concern; however, some helminths are capable of infecting humans. Marine zoonotic infections in humans result from consumption of contaminated edible tissues or products of seafood or, to a lesser extent, from physical contact with contaminated seafood. Worldwide, over 50 species of helminth parasites from fishes, crabs, crayfishes, snails, and bivalves are known to produce human infections. Most helminth zoonoses are rare and invoke only slight to moderate injury; however, some are more prevalent and pose serious potential health hazards. Worldwide, the majority of seafood zoonoses occur along coastal regions where seafood products are commonly consumed. Continuing improvements in transportation, technology, and food handling, however, allow fresh seafood to be shipped throughout the world; thus, the potential for acquisition of parasitic infections from marine products is not limited to coastal populations. Although the number of documented cases continue to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans, changing dietary habits incorporating "natural" seafood dishes (eg, sushi and sashimi), and tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products, all increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. PMID:1822874

Deardorff, T L

1991-12-01

57

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

58

Marine fish food in the United States and methylmercury risk.  

PubMed

This paper takes a market-oriented approach to study potential exposure of methylmercury (MeHg) risk to human health from US domestic commercial ocean fish landings (consumption). Information is assembled on MeHg concentration levels of marine species. Landings were examined for 1995-2005. Confined to this seafood source, trends of landings indicating high concentration species (above 0.7 ppm, tilefish, shark, king mackerel and swordfish) were significantly decreased. People bought stable amount of medium MeHg level species (0.3-0.7 ppm, grouper, Spanish mackerel) but less amount of low concentration level species (below 0.3 ppm, catfish, tuna and southern flounder). Based on estimated prices of species and quantities taken it is found that consumers, one crucial link of the entire MeHg risk assessment process, had exhibited awareness of potential MeHg risk in fish and demonstrated in household fish consumption. Information assembled in this paper is insufficient to draw further inference on specific population cohorts more susceptible to potential exposure of MeHg risk. This inquiry may be extended to imported fish in the US for comparison. PMID:19370462

Chen, David Y; Williams, Vereda J

2009-04-01

59

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

60

`Whales eat fish'? Demystifying the myth in the Caribbean marine ecosystem  

E-print Network

`Whales eat fish'? Demystifying the myth in the Caribbean marine ecosystem Lyne Morissette1 Abstract There has been much recent discussion about the idea that large whales are potential competitors with fisheries for available marine resources. Based on this idea, often referred to as the `whales eat fish

Gerber, Leah R.

61

The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens, J. D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N. K., and Walker, P. A. 2000. The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 476-494. The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of

J. D. Stevens; R. Bonfil; N. K. Dulvy; P. A. Walker

2000-01-01

62

Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of e×tinction risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative criteria used to assign species to categories of extinction risk may seriously overestimate these risks for marine fishes. Contemporary perception is that marine fishes may be less vulnerable to extinction than other taxa, because of great natural variability in abundance, high fecundity, rapid population growth, and an intrinsically high capability of recovering from low population size. Contrary to perception,

Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2001-01-01

63

Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2  

E-print Network

Review Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2 to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond , Nicholas B. Goodwin3 and Jeffrey A. Hutchings4 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

Reynolds, John D.

64

Nitrogen pollution in mariculture: toxicity and excretion of nitrogenous compounds by marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The toxicological and environmental significance of N-containing effluents discharged to seawater from fish farms is difficult to establish. Environmental quality standards for N compounds in seawater are hard to derive in the context of aquaculture because the toxicity of NH3 and NO2- to marine fish is poorly understood. Furthermore, details of aquacultural effluents are not routinely reported. Marine teleosts

R. D. Handy; M. G. Poxton

1993-01-01

65

Marine reserves: long-term protection is required for full recovery of predatory fish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-take marine reserves are advocated widely as a potential solution to the loss of marine biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and to over-fishing. We assess the duration of protection required for unfished populations of large predatory reef fish to attain natural states. We have monitored two marine reserves at Sumilon and Apo Islands, Philippines, regularly for 17 years (1983–2000). The biomass

Garry R. Russ; Angel C. Alcala

2004-01-01

66

Digestive chitinolytic activity in marine fishes of Monterey Bay, California.  

PubMed

Chitinolytic activities, both chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) and minimum chitobiase (beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase; EC 3.2.1.30), were measured in stomach and intestinal tissues and their contents, from 13 fish species. Higher activities were found in the tissues than in the gut contents, and higher activities were seen in the stomachs than in the intestines. Demersal species exhibited chitobiase activities very close to their chitinase activities, suggesting that these fishes can degrade chitin completely to its soluble, absorbable monomer, N-acetyl-glucosamine. This suggests that these species may catabolize chitin not just to penetrate prey exoskeletons but also to derive nutrients from the chitin itself. In contrast, three mesopelagic species exhibited low chitobiase but high chitinase activities. This chitobiase limitation correlated strongly with gastrointestinal tract morphology, with the myctophids having the greatest chitobiase limitation and the shortest alimentary tracts. The high chitinase activities measured in the myctophids reflect their ability to rapidly disrupt prey exoskeletons ingested during their nightly feeding in surface waters. Their chitobiase activities are greatly reduced because with rapid meal evacuation through a short gut there is little time for processing and limited energetic advantage in the complete degradation of chitin. These results suggest multiple roles for chitinolytic enzymes in marine fishes and that feeding habits and frequency may have a bearing on the evolution of their digestive enzymes systems. PMID:15556391

Gutowska, Magdalena A; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Robison, Bruce H

2004-11-01

67

Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim In light of the current biodiversity crisis, there is a need to identify and protect species at greatest risk of extinction. Ecological theory and global-scale analyses of bird and mammal faunas suggest that small-bodied species are less vulnerable to extinction, yet this hypothesis remains untested for the largest group of vertebrates, fish. Here, we compare body-size distributions of freshwater

Julian D. Olden; Zeb S. Hogan; M. Jake Vander Zanden

2007-01-01

68

Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were corrected for total surface area of terrestrial and aquatic zones, annual catchment sequestration rates were more than 2 orders of magnitude higher compared with catchment and storage emissions. These data suggest subtropical forested catchments to be a major sink of greenhouse gas. Catchment sequestration was dominated by tree trunk growth rates and the major uncertainty associated in quantifying rates was initial tree size with larger size sequestering significantly higher amounts. Catchment and storage emissions were dominated by aquatic methane fluxes when expressed per unit area, however, when corrected for total surface area soil respiration exceeded aquatic methane fluxes by at least one order of magnitude. The major uncertainty associated with aquatic methane fluxes was in identification and intensity of ebullition zones where 2 to 7% of the aquatic surface area emitted over 97% of the total flux. The ebullition zones were consistently found in shallow depositional areas adjacent catchment inflows where substrates were dominated by forest litter. This audit greatly improves our understanding of both the drivers behind greenhouse gas cycling in sub-tropical freshwater storages and catchments as well as identifies the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying greenhouse cycling rates in these systems.

Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

2013-04-01

69

Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

page 251 Abstract Global climate change is impacting and will continue to impact marine and estuarine fish and fisheries. Data trends show global climate change effects ranging from increased oxygen consumption rates in fishes, to changes in foraging and migrational patterns in polar seas, to fish community changes in bleached tropical coral reefs. Projections of future conditions portend further impacts

Julie M. Roessig; Christa M. Woodley; Joseph J. Cech; Lara J. Hansen

2005-01-01

70

NOTE AND COMMENT Patterns and propensities in reproduction and growth of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of strong regularities characterize certain very basic biological parameters in marine fishes. For example, the ovulated eggs of fish usually measure approximately 1 mm in diameter. The small, relatively uniform size of the eggs means that almost all fish larvae experience environmental vari- ability at very similar scales, which itself establishes strong constraints for, and links between repro-

Philippe Cury; Daniel Paul

2000-01-01

71

Effects of the declaration of marine reserves on Tasmanian reef fishes, invertebrates and plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reef biota in four Tasmanian marine reserves and at associated unprotected reference sites was investigated over a 6-year period following protection from fishing. The largest reserve at Maria Island (7 km coastline length) proved the most effective at achieving species conservation and resource enhancement. The number of fish, invertebrate and algal species, the densities of large fishes (>325 mm

Graham J Edgar; Neville S Barrett

1999-01-01

72

Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that

L. Wantiez; P. Thollot; M. Kulbicki

1997-01-01

73

78 FR 26751 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Issuance of Permit AGENCY...that incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the endangered...States and those vessels which have valid fishing permits issued by the Secretary in...

2013-05-08

74

Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is impacting and will continue to impact marine and estuarine fish and fisheries. Data trends show global climate change effects ranging from increased oxygen consumption rates in fishes, to changes in foraging and migrational patterns in polar seas, to fish community changes in bleached tropical coral reefs. Projections of future conditions portend further impacts on the distribution

Julie M. Roessig; Christa M. Woodley; Lara J. Hansen

2004-01-01

75

Sensitivity of marine fishes to toxins from the red-tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax excavata and implications for fish kills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fishes (Atlantic herring, American pollock, winter flounder, Atlantic salmon, and cod) were dosed orally and intraperitoneally (i.p.) with “paralytic shellfish toxins” extracted from Bay of Fundy Gonyaulax excavata (tamarensis) cells. The toxins are lethal to these fishes in low oral doses, and in extremely low i.p. doses. Symptoms are the same among these fishes, both for oral and i.p.

A. W. White

1981-01-01

76

Species Identification of Marine Fishes in China with DNA Barcoding  

PubMed Central

DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742% among congeners and only 0.319% for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. PMID:21687792

Zhang, Junbin

2011-01-01

77

Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish.  

PubMed

There is a growing realization that the scale and degree of population connectivity are crucial to the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. For marine organisms with complex life cycles, experiences during larval life may influence phenotypic traits, performance, and the probability of postsettlement survival. For a Caribbean reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum) on an oceanic island, we used otolith (ear stone) elemental profiles of lead (Pb) to assign recent settlers to a group that developed in waters elevated in Pb concentrations throughout larval life (i.e., nearshore signature) and a group that developed in waters depleted in Pb (i.e., offshore signature), potentially dispersing from upstream sources across oceanic waters. Larval history influenced early life history traits: offshore developers initially grew slowly but compensated with fast growth upon entering nearshore waters and metamorphosed in better condition with higher energy reserves. As shown in previous studies, local production contributed heavily to settlement: at least 45% of settlers developed nearshore. However, only 23% of survivors after the first month displayed a nearshore otolith profile. Therefore, settlers with different larval histories suffered differential mortality. Importantly, selective mortality was mediated by larval history, in that the postsettlement intensity of selection was much greater for fish that developed nearshore, potentially because they had developed in a less selectively intense larval environment. Given the potential for asymmetrical postsettlement source-based survival, successful spatial management of marine populations may require knowledge of "realized connectivity" on ecological scales, which takes into account the postsettlement fitness of individuals from different sources. PMID:18230727

Hamilton, Scott L; Regetz, James; Warner, Robert R

2008-02-01

78

Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

There is a growing realization that the scale and degree of population connectivity are crucial to the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. For marine organisms with complex life cycles, experiences during larval life may influence phenotypic traits, performance, and the probability of postsettlement survival. For a Caribbean reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum) on an oceanic island, we used otolith (ear stone) elemental profiles of lead (Pb) to assign recent settlers to a group that developed in waters elevated in Pb concentrations throughout larval life (i.e., nearshore signature) and a group that developed in waters depleted in Pb (i.e., offshore signature), potentially dispersing from upstream sources across oceanic waters. Larval history influenced early life history traits: offshore developers initially grew slowly but compensated with fast growth upon entering nearshore waters and metamorphosed in better condition with higher energy reserves. As shown in previous studies, local production contributed heavily to settlement: at least 45% of settlers developed nearshore. However, only 23% of survivors after the first month displayed a nearshore otolith profile. Therefore, settlers with different larval histories suffered differential mortality. Importantly, selective mortality was mediated by larval history, in that the postsettlement intensity of selection was much greater for fish that developed nearshore, potentially because they had developed in a less selectively intense larval environment. Given the potential for asymmetrical postsettlement source-based survival, successful spatial management of marine populations may require knowledge of “realized connectivity” on ecological scales, which takes into account the postsettlement fitness of individuals from different sources. PMID:18230727

Hamilton, Scott L.; Regetz, James; Warner, Robert R.

2008-01-01

79

Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: community and trophic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of fishing on the density, biomass, species richness and overall structure of the reef fish\\u000a community at two islands (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. A series of natural fishing experiments over\\u000a this period involving marine reserves were monitored at each island, where estimates of fishing intensity and selectivity\\u000a were available.

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1998-01-01

80

Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates---fishes---remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record.

Matt Friedman

2009-01-01

81

Exposure assessment for mercury from consumption of marine fish in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of marine fish in the Persian Gulf and three species of marine fish in the Caspian Sea were collected from the local wholesale market in Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. High total Hg concentration was found in Anchovy sprat (2.04 ± 1.23 µg g) and Whitecheek shark (1.26

S. A. Moallem; G. Karimi; M. Hasanzadeh Khayyat; M. Bozorgi; A. Nili-Ahmadabadi; F. Nazari

2010-01-01

82

Marine macroalgae as foods for fishes: an evaluation of potential food quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  A revitalized view of feeding by herbivorous marine fishes is sought through two questions. First, What characteristics of\\u000a major taxa of algae identify them as predictably high or low quality foods? Second, are marine algae valuable foods for fishes\\u000a which do not mechanically disrupt cell walls and do not harbor specialized enzymes or microbes capable of lysing cell walls?\\u000a Energy,

W. Linn Montgomery; Shelby D. Gerking

1980-01-01

83

Microbial safety of tropical and sub-tropical fruit. in Volume 1 – General Physiology, Quality and Handling of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits, Postharvest Biology & Technology of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes past outbreaks, potential routes of contamination for specific, potential interventions, and operational procedures associated with tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Various pre-harvest sources can result in contamination of fruits; and survival and growth of pathogens on who...

84

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

2011-07-01

85

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

2013-07-01

86

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

2010-07-01

87

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

2012-07-01

88

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

2014-07-01

89

Development of the pituitary, thyroid and interrenal glands and applications of endocrinology to the improved rearing of marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key to success in the culture of marine fish is the mass production of high quality fry, a process largely dependent on successful first feeding and normal development and growth of fish larvae. In this regard it is important to examine the structural and functional development of the endocrine system during early ontogeny of marine fish. To characterize early

M. Tanaka; J. B. Tanangonan; M. Tagawa; E. G. de Jesus; H. Nishida; M. Isaka; R. Kimura; T. Hirano

1995-01-01

90

Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

2014-03-01

91

National Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife  

E-print Network

California Voluntary Drought Initiative Goals of the Voluntary Drought Initiative NOAA's National Marine salmon and steelhead populations in California during the 2014 drought, while Federal and State droughtNational Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife

92

Review Article Studying sperm motility in marine fish: an overview on the state of the art  

E-print Network

Review Article Studying sperm motility in marine fish: an overview on the state of the art By J of sperm cells of fish other species show original features well described: motility duration (Billard for rainbow trout and carp sperm, serving a

Villefranche sur mer

93

Kelp Forest Fish Populations in Marine Reserves and Adjacent Exploited Areas of Central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epi- benthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent ex- ploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Michelle J. Paddack; James A. Estes

2000-01-01

94

Some anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Japan and the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent collection of anisakid nematodes from marine fishes from Japan and the North Pacific Ocean comprised a total of seven species of two genera; six of them (Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti, 1941, Hysterothylacium aduncum aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), H. auctum (Rudolphi, 1802), H. cornutum (Stossich, 1904), H. marinum (Linnaeus, 1767) and H. physiculi sp. n.) parasitize fishes as adults, whereas one

F. Moravec; Kazuya Nagasawa

2000-01-01

95

Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

2014-01-01

96

BIOACCUMULATION OF DDT AND PCB IN TISSUES OF MARINE FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fishes of commercial importance were monitored in New England coastal waters in 1974 to determine whether synthetic organic residues in the fish were large enough to affect the utilization of such fish as food by man or to interfere with their ability to reproduce. About 700 fish...

97

Rotenone: An Essential but Demonized Tool for Assessing Marine Fish Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs, one of the most biologically diverse and important ecosystems on Earth, are experiencing unprecedented and increasing ecological decline, yet the fish faunas of such reefs and other tropical shoreline habitats remain poorly known in many areas. Rotenone, a natural substance traditionally used by subsistence fishers, is a uniquely efficient tool for sampling reef and other shore fishes for marine research. Unfortunately, such sampling is perceived as being highly destructive, and increasing prohibitions against using rotenone in many countries will soon cripple essential research on reef-fish biodiversity worldwide. In this article we dispel common misconceptions about the environmental effects of small-scale rotenone sampling in marine research.

D. Ross Robertson (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; )

2008-02-01

98

Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

2014-01-01

99

Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

2014-01-01

100

Sequestration of total and methyl mercury in different subcellular pools in marine caged fish.  

PubMed

Mercury contamination is an important issue in marine fish, and can cause toxicity to human by fish consumption. Many studies have measured the mercury concentrations in fish and estimated the threshold levels of its risk to human, but the mercury sequestration in different subcellular pools of fish is unclear. In this study, we investigated the concentration and distribution of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in different subcellular fractions in the farmed red seabream, red drum, and black seabream from Fujian marine fish farms, China. We found that both THg and MeHg were dominantly bound with the cellular debris, followed by metallothionein-like protein>metal-rich granule>heat-denatured protein>organelles pools. In general, Hg bound with the metal-sensitive fraction was small, indicating that Hg may have little toxicity to the fish (muscle). For the first time we showed that MTLP fraction had the highest % of total Hg as MeHg (88-91%) among all the subcellular fractions. Furthermore, the mercury concentration and subcellular distribution in the black seabream were both dependent on the fish size. Subcellular study may shed light on the detoxification of marine fish to Hg exposure and the potential bioavailability to humans due to fish consumption. PMID:22056886

Onsanit, Sarayut; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2011-12-30

101

Large Recovery of Fish Biomass in a No-Take Marine Reserve  

PubMed Central

No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha?1 on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha?1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha?1, or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R.; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

2011-01-01

102

Marine nutrient contributions to tidal creeks in Virginia: spawning marine fish as nutrient vectors to freshwater ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived from marine sources are 13C, 15N and 34S enriched relative to nutrients in freshwater. Here we examine sediment, particulate organic matter (POM), invertebrates and fish in two tidal freshwater tributaries of the James River USA. The d15N of POM became elevated (from 3.8 to 6.5%), coincident with the arrival of anadromous river herring (Alosa sp), indicating a pulse of marine nitrogen. However, the elevated 15N was not observed in sediment samples or among invertebrates, which did not experience a seasonal isotopic shift (there were significant differences however among the guilds of invertebrate). Anadromous Alosa aestivalis captured within the tidal freshwater were 13C and 34S enriched (-19.3 and 17.2%, respectively) relative to resident freshwater fishes (-26.4 and 3.6% respectively) captured within 2 weeks of the Alosa. Although it is likely that marine derived nitrogen was detected in the tidal freshwater, it was not in sufficient abundance to change the isotope signature of most ecosystem components.

Macavoy, S. E.; Garman, G. C.

2006-12-01

103

Supplemental Figures and Tables for Groundfish EFH Review Phase 1 Report "Federal and State Marine Protected Areas Type of Fishing Restriction"  

E-print Network

"Federal and State Marine Protected Areas ­ Type of Fishing Restriction" Author and state MPAs depicted in map figures, categorized by level of fishing restriction Fishing Restriction BEFORE AFTER Commercial and Recreational Fishing Prohibited

Goldfinger, Chris

104

Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

2012-01-01

105

Hyperoxia elevates adrenic Acid peroxidation in marine fish and is associated with reproductive pheromone mediators.  

PubMed

The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

2015-01-01

106

Faustulid trematodes (Digenea) from marine fishes of Australia.  

PubMed

Twelve species of faustulid trematode are described or redescribed from Australian marine fishes. Bacciger lesteri Bray, 1982 and B. sprenti Bray, 1982 are redescribed from Selenotoca multifasciata from Moreton Bay. It is suggested that the original host record for these species, Mugil sp., was incorrect. The genera Discogastroides, Odontocotyle and Pseudodiscogasteroides are synonymised with Paradiscogaster. The new combinations Paradiscogaster arabi (Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970), P. hainanensis (Shen, 1970), P. indicus (Srivastava, 1939), P. macrostomus (Shimazu & Kamegai, 1990), P. ostracii (Yamaguti, 1934) and P. pritchardae (Gupta & Ahmad, 1978) are proposed. Discogasteroides hawaiensis Hanson, 1955 is synonymised with P. ostracii. P. macrostomus and P. ostracii are redescribed from Ostracion meleagris and O. cubicus from the Great Barrier Reef. P. farooqii Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970 is redescribed from Monodactylus argenteus from Moreton Bay. The following new species are described: P. machidai n. sp. from Pomacanthus semicirculatus and P. sexstriatus from the Great Barrier Reef, P. dweorg n. sp. from Meuschenia galii, P. lobomyzon n. sp. from Tilodon sexfasciatus and P. habilis n. sp. from Pelates octolineatus, all from Western Australia. Antorchis pomacanthi (Hafeezullah & Siddiqi, 1970) Machida, 1975 is redescribed from Pomacanthus semicirculatus and P. sexstriatus from the Great Barrier Reef. The new combination Antorchis intermedius (Madhavi, 1975) is proposed for Parantorchis intermedius. Parayamagutia ostracionis is redescribed from O. cubicus from the Great Barrier Reef. Trigonocryptus conus is redescribed from Arothron hispidus from South-east Queensland and from A. nigropunctatus from the Great Barrier Reef. The new combination Trigonocryptus australiensis (Kurochkin, 1970) is proposed for Pseudodiscogasteroides australiensis. The Echinobrevicecinae is reduced to synonymy with the Faustulidae. PMID:10619080

Cribb, T H; Anderson, G R; Bray, R A

1999-10-01

107

Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

2014-09-15

108

Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of ?13C and ?15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean ?15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted ?15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

2015-01-01

109

Mercury content in several species of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to determine the total mercury content in fish available on the market or fished in the port of Genoa (Italy). Determinations were made with a variation of the flameless atomic absorption method. The tinned tuna showed high levels of mercury in Parathunnus obesus and Tunnus thynnus fished in the Mediterranean. Neothunnus macropterus and Katsuwonus pelamis had

F. Cugurra; G. Maura

1976-01-01

110

Marine Biofouling on Fish Farms and Its Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish farming industry suffers significantly from the effects of biofouling. The fouling of cages and netting, which is costly to remove, is detrimental to fish health and yield and can cause equipment failure. With rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, coupled with the tightening of legislation on the use of antifouling biocides, the problems of fish farm biofouling are

R. A. Braithwaite; L. A. McEvoy

2004-01-01

111

Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a,  

E-print Network

a ship and fired at regular intervals producing a high intensity, low frequency (20­500 Hz) noiseImpact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a, , R.D. Mc Keywords: Airgun Noise Fish Squid Behaviour a b s t r a c t In this study various species of captive marine

112

Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.  

PubMed

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S

2014-01-01

113

Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities  

PubMed Central

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S.

2014-01-01

114

Toward Pristine Biomass: Reef Fish Recovery in Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC

Tim R. McClanahan; Nicholas A. J. Graham; Jacqulyn M. Calnan; M. Aaron MacNeil

2007-01-01

115

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

and light manipulations supplemented with hormone injections (Hoff et al. 1972) . 6) They are not piscivorous except as very small fish. Successful polycultures have been accomplished with 10 striped mullet, spotted seatrout, CV no a ci on nehru cas...POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

1979-01-01

116

Water treatment of land-based fish farm effluents by outdoor culture of marine diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using fish farm effluents was evaluated as a source of inorganic nutrients for mass production of marine diatoms. Batch cultures were conducted from May to July 1995 in 16-L outdoor rectangular tanks, homogenized by gentle aeration (0.2 Lair L?1 h?1). The effluents from the two fish farms studied were both characterized by high concentrations of inorganic materials

S. Lefebvre; J. Hussenot; N. Brossard

1996-01-01

117

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

118

Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities  

PubMed Central

No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

2012-01-01

119

Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

120

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone  

E-print Network

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified in Xenopus and higher vertebrates, the protein does not accumulate in vertebra of non-osteocytic teleost fish Cartilage and Not Bone as the Primary Site of MGP Accumulation in Fish DC SIMES,1 MK WILLIAMSON,2 JB ORTIZ

Price, Paul A.

121

DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

122

Seychelles' marine protected areas: Comparative structure and status of reef fish communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of Seychelles' reef resources is essential because the conflicting demands of fishing, tourism and conservation must be reconciled if sustainable development and the protection of natural resources is to be assured. Marine protected areas play a key role in the existing management strategy and yet there is little quantitative understanding of the benefits they may provide. We compare

Simon Jennings; Suzanne S. Marshall; Nicholas V. C. Polunin

1996-01-01

123

CONSUMPTION RATES OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS MARINE FISH CAUGHT IN THE METROPOLITAN LOS ANGELES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a 1980 survey in the Los Angeles metropolitan area to assess the consumption rates of potentially hazardous marine fish and shellfish by local, non-professional fishermen; to identify population subgroups having a significantly large consumptio...

124

Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine

Richard K. F. Unsworth; Elizabeth Wylie; David J. Smith; James J. Bell

2007-01-01

125

Climate Change Affects Marine Fishes Through the Oxygen Limitation of Thermal Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to

Hans O. Pörtner; Rainer Knust

2007-01-01

126

Genetic variation in life-history reaction norms in a marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neither the scale of adaptive variation nor the genetic basis for differential population responses to the environment is known for broadcast-spawning marine fishes. Using a common-garden experimental protocol, we document how larval growth, survival and their norms of reaction differ genetically among four populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). These traits, and their plastic responses to food and temperature, differed

Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Douglas P. Swain; Sherrylynn Rowe; James D. Eddington; Velmurugu Puvanendran; Joseph A. Brown

2007-01-01

127

Global-Scale Relationships between Colonization Ability and Range Size in Marine and Freshwater Fish  

PubMed Central

Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

2012-01-01

128

Rise and fall of fishing and marine resource use in the Wadden Sea, southern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wadden Sea is the world's largest intertidal ecosystem and one of the most productive coastal areas worldwide. People have fished and hunted marine resources in the Wadden Sea since its origin ?7500 years ago, but have since depleted the majority of formerly important species and their supporting habitats. Most of these changes have been lost from memory. Here, I

Heike K. Lotze

2007-01-01

129

Amyloodinium Infections of Marine Fish1 Peggy Reed and Ruth Francis-Floyd2  

E-print Network

is called the trophont (see section on life cycle and Figure 2 ). The trophont (attached cell) is pear 1). Figure 1. Figure 2. LIFE CYCLE The life cycle of amyloodinium is complex compared with those of both marine and brackish water fishes. The organism may be more closely related to a toxic algae than

Watson, Craig A.

130

Artificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial reefs may provide a useful tool to enhance production of marine ornamentals and to divert detrimental harvesting activities from sensitive natural habitat. The efficacy of this strategy depends, in part, on the extent to which artificial reefs contribute to new production (vs. attract fishes from natural habitat) and therefore benefit harvested populations on a local and regional basis. Here

JACQUELINE WILSON; CRAIG W. OSENBERG; COLETTE M. S. T. MARY; CRAIG A. WATSON; WILLIAM J. LINDBERG

2001-01-01

131

Artificial Reefs, the Attraction-production Issue, and Density Dependence in Marine Ornamental Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial reefs may provide a useful tool to enhance production of marine ornamentals and to divert detrimental harvesting activities from sensitive natural habitat. The efficacy of this strategy depends, in part, on the extent to which artificial reefs contribute to new production (vs. attract fishes from natural habitat) and therefore benefit harvested populations on a local and regional basis. Here

Jacqueline Wilson; Craig W. Osenberg; Colette M. St. Mary; Craig A. Watson; William J. Lindberg

2001-01-01

132

Observations on five species of philometrid nematodes from marine fishes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of philometrid nematodes (subfamily Philometrinae) are redescribed on the basis of newly collected materials from marine fishes from Japan. The species Philometra sciaenae Yamaguti, 1941, considered by Rasheed (1963) a synonym of P. lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935), is re-established as a valid species and the male of this nematode, collected from the ovary of the type-host, Argyrosomus argentatus, is

František Moravec; Kazuya Nagasawa; Kazuo Ogawa

1998-01-01

133

SIMILASCAROPHIS N. GEN. N. SPP. (NEMATODA: CYSTIDICOLIDAE) PARASITIZING MARINE FISHES OFF THE CHILEAN COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus(Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott),

Gabriela Muñoz; María Teresa González; Mario George-Nascimento

2004-01-01

134

'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE FISH USEFUL IN CHRONIC MARINE BIOASSAYS OF HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for chronic marine bioassays exposing the cyprinodontid fish Rivulus marmoratus, to 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. Purpose of the study was to illustrate the value of R. marmoratus as a chronic bioassay animal. Results demonstrated the relative insensitivity of R...

135

A Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs  

E-print Network

Building for Coral Reef Management Project, Coral Disease Working Group June 30, 2006 #12;i TableA Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs of the Central Visayas Surveys #12;1 Introduction This survey was designed to test the hypothesis that coral reefs

Raymundo, Laurie

136

Neutral amino acid transport by marine fish intestine: role of the side chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was devoted to the study of the structure-affinity relationships in neutral amino acid transport by intestinal brush border of marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax). The effects of the length of the side chain on kinetics of glycine, alanine, methionine and amino isobutyric acid were investigated. In the presence of K+ two components were characterized: one is saturable by increased

C. Balocco; G. Bogé; H. Roche

1993-01-01

137

Microenvironmental variability and species diversity in treefall gaps in a sub-tropical broadleaved forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental variability and species diversity in gaps and forest understorey were studied to assess the role of treefall gaps in maintaining composition and patchy distribution in a broad-leaved sub-tropical climax forest, Mawphlang, Meghalaya, India. Photon flux density was higher in gaps than in the surrounding understorey. Relative humidity was low and the litter layer was relatively thin in gaps throughout

S. K. Barik; H. N. Pandey; R. S. Tripathi; P. Rao

1992-01-01

138

Wintertime observations of SubTropical Mode Water formation within the Gulf Stream  

E-print Network

of the Sargasso Sea 1 #12;1. Introduction The SubTropical Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean is called is found within the anticyclonic flow of the Gulf Stream (GS), in the extreme north of the Sargasso Sea using SeaSoar and ADCP reveal that while active mixing by gravitational instabilities is common, large

Joyce, Terrence M.

139

Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ?45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 ± 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 ± 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 ± 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 ± 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

2007-03-01

140

Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

141

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

142

Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

2013-01-01

143

Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.  

PubMed

1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

2013-11-01

144

Exploring Marine Conservation in the Classroom: Using Fish Population Data (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces teachers to the use of data on fish species diversity and relative abundance in the classroom. The data, from the Reef Environmental Educational Foundation (REEF), are collected by divers at sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and are used to address issues relating to fish population dynamics. Topics include relationships between habitats and populations; geographical variations in diversity and abundance; the use of population data in managing and planning aquaculture; and marine sanctuaries and conservation. Students will learn to interpret the data to understand diversity and abundance; understand the interpretation and use of parameters derived from population data, such as density and sighting frequency; and use the data to make and test predictions about relationships between habitats and species. Links are provided to access the data, to additional resources that use it, and to related websites on fish populations and marine conservation.

145

Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change  

PubMed Central

In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

2014-01-01

146

Association of Marine Archaea with the Digestive Tracts of Two Marine Fish Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge. In this study, we show, by using PCR-mediated screening in other marine eukaryotes, that marine archaea are also present in the

Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel; Rebekka R. E. Artz; René Haanstra; Larry J. Forney

1998-01-01

147

Metal concentrations of common freshwater and marine fish from the Pearl River Delta, south China.  

PubMed

Sediments and fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fish ponds in the Pearl River Delta (Tanzhou, Sanjiao, Guangzhou, Shipai, Changan, and Mai Po) for the analysis of metalloids and heavy metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)]. The pollution of As in pond sediments was great; however, As in the edible parts of pond fish were within the international permissible safety levels for human consumption. Axial muscles from 10 species each of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were also analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Freshwater fish contained 0.24 to 2.13 mg/kg As, 0.10 to 0.17 mg/kg Cd, 0.09 to 0.36 mg/kg Cr, 0.06 to 0.35 mg/kg Cu, 0.07 to 0.34 mg/kg Hg, 0.04 to 0.36 mg/kg Ni, 0.11 to 0.52 mg/kg Pb, and 2.67 to 19.1 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). Marine fish had higher Hg and lower Pb concentrations than freshwater fish. A few fish species had average concentrations greater than the international standards for Cd and Pb established by the European Union and the China National Standard Management Department. Total Hg concentrations in 10 of 20 market fish species were generally greater than those of the World Health Organization's recommended limit of 0.2 mg/kg for at-risk groups, such as children and pregnant women. Daily intake through fish consumption of these metals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. There appears to be potential threat to local people from Hg contamination because of the high marine fish consumption rate (142 g/d/person). PMID:18080794

Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Wong, M H

2008-05-01

148

First detection of piscine reovirus (PRV) in marine fish species.  

PubMed

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. several months after the fish have been transferred to seawater. Recently, a new virus called piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified in Atlantic salmon from an outbreak of HSMI and in experimentally challenged fish. PRV is associated with the development of HSMI, and has until now only been detected in Atlantic salmon. This study investigates whether the virus is also present in wild fish populations that may serve as vectors for the virus. The virus was found in few of the analyzed samples so there is probably a more complex relationship that involves several carriers and virus -reservoirs. PMID:22422096

Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Løvoll, Marie; Sandlund, Nina; Faller, Randi; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Bang Jensen, Britt

2012-01-24

149

Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

2015-02-01

150

Effects of habitat, wave exposure, and marine protected area status on coral reef fish assemblages in the Hawaiian archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between fish assemblages, their associated habitat, and degree of protection from fishing were evaluated over a broad spatial scale throughout the main Hawaiian islands. Most fish assemblage characteristics showed positive responses to protection whether it was physical (e.g. habitat complexity), biological (e.g. coral cover growth forms), or human-induced (e.g. marine reserves). Fish biomass was lowest in areas of

A. M. Friedlander; E. K. Brown; P. L. Jokiel; W. R. Smith; K. S. Rodgers

2003-01-01

151

1994 Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service  

E-print Network

Wildlife and Plants: Notice of Interagency Cooperative Policy for Peer Review in Endangered Species Act by the Services under authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, and associated of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ARLSQ 452, 18th and C Streets, NW., Washington, D

152

FISHING GEAR-RELATED INJURY IN CALIFORNIA MARINE WILDLIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study

Brynie Kaplan Dau; Kirsten V. K. Gilardi; Frances M. Gulland; Ali Higgins

2009-01-01

153

Production and use of copepods in marine fish larviculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and continuous cultures of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae have been run for numerous generations in the laboratory at the North Sea Centre and the harvested nauplii used as food in preliminary trials with first-feeding turbot (Psetta maxima syn. Scophthalmus maximus). The naupliar swimming behaviour in terms of vertical distribution in a typical fish larval tank and the use

J. G. Støttrup; N. H. Norsker

1997-01-01

154

Strontium and barium uptake in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved

GRETCHEN E. BATH; S IMON R. THORROLD; CYNTHIA M. JONES; STEVEN E. CAMPANA; JAMES W. MCLAREN; JOSEPH W. H. LAM

2000-01-01

155

Alien marine fishes deplete algal biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less 'barrens', we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to 'barrens' implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

2011-01-01

156

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.  

PubMed

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

2012-01-01

157

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

158

Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly envisaged as a tool to manage coastal ecosystems and fisheries. Assessment of their performance with respect to management objectives is therefore important. A number of MPAs provided conservation benefits for fished species. Observed benefits do not apply to all species at all times, and responses to protection are also highly variable among fish taxa.

J. Claudet; D. Pelletier; J.-Y. Jouvenel; F. Bachet; R. Galzin

2006-01-01

159

Population genomics of marine fishes: next-generation prospects and challenges.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, technological advances have facilitated giant leaps forward in our ability to generate genome-wide molecular data, offering exciting opportunities for gaining new insights into the ecology and evolution of species where genomic information is still limited. Marine fishes are valuable organisms for advancing our understanding of evolution on historical and contemporary time scales, and here we highlight areas in which research on these species is likely to be particularly important in the near future. These include possibilities for gaining insights into processes on ecological time scales, identifying genomic signatures associated with population divergence under gene flow, and determining the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We also consider future challenges pertaining to the implementation of genome-wide coverage through next-generation sequencing and genotyping methods in marine fishes. Complications associated with fast decay of linkage disequilibrium, as expected for species with large effective population sizes, and the possibility that adaptation is associated with both soft selective sweeps and polygenic selection, leaving complex genomic signatures in natural populations, are likely to challenge future studies. However, the combination of high genome coverage and new statistical developments offers promising solutions. Thus, the next generation of studies is likely to truly facilitate the transition from population genetics to population genomics in marine fishes. This transition will advance our understanding of basic evolutionary processes and will offer new possibilities for conservation and management of valuable marine resources. PMID:25411371

Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Pujolar, José Martin

2014-10-01

160

Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.  

PubMed

Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

2014-10-28

161

Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. PMID:24083999

Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

2014-01-21

162

Climate controls on marine ecosystems and fish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses large-scale climate variability for several marine ecosystems and suggests types of ecosystem responses to climate change. Our analysis of observations and model results for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans concludes that most climate variability is accounted for by the combination of intermittent 1–2 year duration events, e.g. the cumulative effect of monthly weather anomalies or the more organized

James E. Overland; Juergen Alheit; Andrew Bakun; James W. Hurrell; David L. Mackas; Arthur J. Miller

2010-01-01

163

Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

2014-01-01

164

Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

2000-09-01

165

DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and also highlight key areas of taxonomic uncertainty worthy of reappraisal. PMID:22174860

Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

2011-01-01

166

Climate Change and Marine Fish Distributions: Forecasting from Historical Analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967–present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl

S. A. Murawski

1993-01-01

167

Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl

S. A. MURAWSKI

1993-01-01

168

Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

2014-01-01

169

DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several fields, from fisheries and conservation programs to control of fish products authenticity. PMID:25222272

Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

2014-01-01

170

Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

2014-01-01

171

Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, Atlantic herring.  

PubMed

The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated genetic and life history (spawning season linked to spawning location) differentiation in an abundant and highly migratory pelagic fish, Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea (NS) and adjacent areas. The existence of genetically and phenotypically diverse stocks in this region despite intense seasonal mixing strongly implicates natal homing in this species. Based on information from genetic markers and otolith morphology, we estimate the proportional contribution by NS, Skagerrak (SKG) and Kattegat and western Baltic (WBS) fish to mixed aggregations targeted by the NS fishery. We use these estimates to identify spatial and temporal differences in life history (migratory behaviour) and habitat use among genetically differentiated migratory populations that mix seasonally. Our study suggests the existence of more complex patterns of intraspecific diversity than was previously recognized. Sustainability may be compromised if such complex patterns are reduced through generalized management (e.g. area closures) that overlooks population differences in spatial use throughout the life cycle. PMID:16777738

Ruzzante, Daniel E; Mariani, Stefano; Bekkevold, Dorte; André, Carl; Mosegaard, Henrik; Clausen, Lotte A W; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Hutchinson, William F; Hatfield, Emma M C; Torstensen, Else; Brigham, Jennifer; Simmonds, E John; Laikre, Linda; Larsson, Lena C; Stet, René J M; Ryman, Nils; Carvalho, Gary R

2006-06-22

172

Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.  

PubMed

In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

2014-12-01

173

Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish  

PubMed Central

As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

2013-01-01

174

Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

2000-01-01

175

Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus  

SciTech Connect

The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Graham, M. [Vancouver Public Aquarium, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

176

[Stoichiometry of cytochromes and oxygen tension in skeletal muscles of marine fish].  

PubMed

The character of oxygen tension distribution and peculiarities of cytochromes stoichiometry in skeletal muscles of bottom and pelagic species of marine fish were compared. It is shown, that the limitation of muscle activity increases the number of hypoxic zones in the muscle tissue. The mitochondrial electron-transporting chain then obtain the uncompensated type of organization, expressed in the increase of the share of the terminal complex aa3 on the background of general reduction of cytochromes content in the muscles. The reaction is of an adaptive character and can be implemented by pelagic fish species in conditions of experimental hypokinesia. PMID:24868912

Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

2014-01-01

177

Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

178

Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish  

SciTech Connect

Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

1986-09-01

179

Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).  

PubMed

Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish. PMID:24998438

Ogawa, K

2015-01-01

180

Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

2014-08-01

181

Genetic variation in life-history reaction norms in a marine fish.  

PubMed

Neither the scale of adaptive variation nor the genetic basis for differential population responses to the environment is known for broadcast-spawning marine fishes. Using a common-garden experimental protocol, we document how larval growth, survival and their norms of reaction differ genetically among four populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). These traits, and their plastic responses to food and temperature, differed across spatial scales at which microsatellite DNA failed to detect population structure. Divergent survival reaction norms indicate that warm-water populations are more sensitive to changes in food, whereas cold-water populations are more sensitive to changes in temperature. Our results suggest that neither the direction nor the magnitude of demographic responses to environmental change need be the same among populations. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, previously undocumented in marine fishes, can significantly influence the probability of recovery and persistence of collapsed populations by affecting their ability to respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental change. PMID:17490948

Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Swain, Douglas P; Rowe, Sherrylynn; Eddington, James D; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Brown, Joseph A

2007-07-22

182

Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy in cultured marine fishes. Comparative study in sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum).  

PubMed

Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy (CUD) also known as chronic erosive dermatopathy, hole-in-the-head, head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) and lateral line depigmentation (LLD) is a chronic disease of unknown aetiology that affects the lateral line canals of the head and the trunk of various fish species. It has been described only in freshwater species although there are reports that it also affects marine fish. Here, we describe the disease in cultured sharpsnout sea bream using histology and scanning electron microscopy and identify several marine species as CUD sensitive. The results of this study correlate the development of the disease with the use of borehole water, indicating that the aetiology is probably associated with water quality rather than nutritional imbalance or infectious agents. PMID:21545440

Katharios, P; Papadaki, M; Ternengo, S; Kantham, P K; Zeri, C; Petraki, P E; Divanach, P

2011-06-01

183

Biology of Moina mongolica (Moinidae, Cladocera) and perspective as live food for marine fish larvae: review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moina mongolica, 1.0-1.4 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, is an Old World euryhaline species. This paper reviewed the recent advances on its autecology, reproductive biology, feeding ecology and perspective as live food for marine fish larviculture. Salinity tolerance of this species ranges from 0.4-1.4‰ to 65.2-75.4‰. Within 2-50‰ salinity, Moina mongolica can complete its life cycle through parthenogenesis. The

Z. H. He; J. G. Qin; Y. Wang; H. Jiang; Z. Wen

2001-01-01

184

Biology of Moina mongolica (Moinidae, Cladocera) and perspective as live food for marine fish larvae: review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moina mongolica, 1.0-1.4 mm long and 0.8 mm wide, is an Old World euryhaline species. This paper reviewed the recent advances on its autecology, reproductive biology, feeding ecology and perspective as live food for marine fish larviculture. Salinity tolerance of this species ranges from 0.4–1.4‰ to 65.2–75.4‰. Within 2–50‰ salinity, Moina mongolica can complete its life cycle through parthenogenesis. The

Z. H. He; J. G. Qin; Y. Wang; H. Jiang; Z. Wen

2001-01-01

185

DNA barcoding is a useful tool for the identification of marine fishes from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 229 DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 158 marine fishes of Japan were employed to test the efficacy of species identification by DNA barcoding. The average genetic distance was 60-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 17.6% among congeners and only 0.3% among conspecifics. There

Jun-Bin Zhang; Robert Hanner

2011-01-01

186

Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography  

PubMed Central

Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

2005-01-01

187

Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May–June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

2014-01-01

188

Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source-sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May-June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

2014-01-01

189

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

190

Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities  

PubMed Central

Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

2014-01-01

191

Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.  

PubMed

Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

2014-02-01

192

Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

193

Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

194

Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

2014-06-16

195

Methylmercury and trace elements in the marine fish from coasts of East China.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is an important source of human exposure to heavy metals. To determine the health risks for metals by consumption of marine fish in China, three species of fish, namely large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were collected and analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (T-Hg), selenium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. The large yellow croakers had the highest concentrations of mercury, lead, nickel and zinc, and the levels of MeHg were positively correlated to T-Hg. The ratios of MeHg to T-Hg in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in silver pomfret, indicating differences in accumulation and magnification of MeHg in these two types of fish. The concentration of T-Hg was found to decrease as the Se level in fish tissues increased. Cadmium levels in 16% of the samples were higher than the criterion recommended by the European Commission Regulation. The concentrations of other metals were well below international standards. A human health risk assessment showed that the estimated daily intake of these metals did not exceed the reference dose established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The hazard quotients (HQs) were all less than 1, indicating a situation of no risk for consumption of these fish. PMID:23802158

Xia, Chonghuan; Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

2013-01-01

196

Interaction between marine populations and fishing activities: temporal patterns of landings of La Rochelle trawlers in the Bay of Biscay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine populations are distributed heterogeneously in space and time because of the diversity of habitats and the requirements of species life cycles. Human exploitation of these resources also varies as a function of space, time and the type of fishing activities performed. These three factors determine fishing strategy at different levels of integration. The purpose of this study was to

Jean-Charles Poulard; Jean-Pierre Léauté

2002-01-01

197

Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.  

PubMed

A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time.     The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District.     Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future.  PMID:25081275

Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

2014-01-01

198

Influence of Trophic Relations on Form and Behavior Among Fishes and Benthic Invertebrates in Some California Marine Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of interactions among fishes and benthic invertebrates off southern California's Santa Catalina Island showed the great extent to which taxa are defined by trophic relations. The dominant fishes there are acanthopterygian teleosts, with the serranine serranid Paralabrax clathratus morphologically nearest the evolutionary mainstream. Because mainstream species have morphologies similar to their progenitors, marine communities have a long history of

Edmund S. Hobson; James R. Chess

2001-01-01

199

Immunotoxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the marine fish Oryzias melastigma.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have both been reported to induce adverse effects including immunotoxicity. Despite the widespread presence of these two chemicals in estuaries and seawater, their health effects on marine fish have received little attention. Oryzias melastigma is a potential marine fish model for immunological studies. In the present study, immune-related genes in O. melastigma were enriched at the transcriptome level. Three-month-old fish were exposed to PFOS and DEHP (single or combined) for one week. The liver index-hepatosomatic index (HSI) of the fish was higher in the PFOS-exposed group and combined group than in the control group. This result indicates that PFOS might lead to liver toxicity. The mRNA level of interleukin-1 beta (IL1?) was upregulated after exposure. For catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), single exposure did not affect mRNA levels, but the combined exposure did significantly alter the expression of these genes. In all, our study provides a useful reference for immunotoxicological studies with O. melastigma; it also highlights the importance of assessing the combined effects of pollutant mixtures when determining the risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:25687394

Huang, Qiansheng; Chen, Yajie; Chi, Yulang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Huanteng; Fang, Chao; Dong, Sijun

2015-05-01

200

Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas  

PubMed Central

Networks of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for the conservation of marine biodiversity. But for MPA networks to be successful in protecting marine populations, individual MPAs must be self-sustaining or adequately connected to other MPAs via dispersal. For marine species with a dispersive larval stage, populations within MPAs require either the return of settlement-stage larvae to their natal reserve or connectivity among reserves at the spatial scales at which MPA networks are implemented. To date, larvae have not been tracked when dispersing from one MPA to another, and the relative magnitude of local retention and connectivity among MPAs remains unknown. Here we use DNA parentage analysis to provide the first direct estimates of connectivity of a marine fish, the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), in a proposed network of marine reserves in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Approximately 40% of A. percula larvae settling into anemones in an island MPA at 2 different times were derived from parents resident in the reserve. We also located juveniles spawned by Kimbe Island residents that had dispersed as far as 35 km to other proposed MPAs, the longest distance that marine larvae have been directly tracked. These dispersers accounted for up to 10% of the recruitment in the adjacent MPAs. Our findings suggest that MPA networks can function to sustain resident populations both by local replenishment and through larval dispersal from other reserves. More generally, DNA parentage analysis provides a direct method for measuring larval dispersal for other marine organisms. PMID:19307588

Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Thorrold, Simon R.

2009-01-01

201

The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2014-01-01

202

The role of biophysical parameters in the antilipopolysaccharide activities of antimicrobial peptides from marine fish.  

PubMed

Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2014-03-01

203

Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish samples, collected from Suruga-bay (located on Pacific coast in the middle of Honshu, Japan) showed 1E-10 to 7E-10, which was consistent with that of surface seawater.

Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

2014-05-01

204

A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2013-01-01

205

Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.  

PubMed

Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ?6/?3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality. PMID:24799210

Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

2014-10-01

206

Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

2011-01-01

207

Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Murawski, S.A. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

1993-09-01

208

Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

209

Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.  

PubMed

Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds (e.g. some groupers, emperors, snappers and jacks) or thousands of kilometres (e.g. some sharks and tuna). Larval dispersal distances tend to be <5-15 km, and self-recruitment is common. Synthesising this information allows us, for the first time, to provide species, specific advice on the size, spacing and location of marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management for a range of taxa. We recommend that: (i) marine reserves should be more than twice the size of the home range of focal species (in all directions), thus marine reserves of various sizes will be required depending on which species require protection, how far they move, and if other effective protection is in place outside reserves; (ii) reserve spacing should be <15 km, with smaller reserves spaced more closely; and (iii) marine reserves should include habitats that are critical to the life history of focal species (e.g. home ranges, nursery grounds, migration corridors and spawning aggregations), and be located to accommodate movement patterns among these. We also provide practical advice for practitioners on how to use this information to design, evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of marine reserve networks within broader ecological, socioeconomic and management contexts. PMID:25423947

Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

2014-11-25

210

Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration. PMID:24401080

2014-01-01

211

Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.  

PubMed

Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

2011-05-01

212

Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.  

PubMed

Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss. PMID:24507451

Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

2014-03-15

213

Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.  

PubMed

The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

2012-07-17

214

Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

215

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

216

Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

2014-08-01

217

75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designing and implementing fish harvesting plans. Following consultation...prohibition of imports of some fish or fish products. Possible...comment suggested that harvesting nations should be responsible...prior to landing fish at the nations'...

2010-04-30

218

A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work. PMID:22558244

Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

2012-01-01

219

Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.  

PubMed

A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters. PMID:17204649

Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

2007-01-01

220

Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study  

PubMed Central

As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

2014-01-01

221

Bioactive substances from marine fishes, shrimps, and algae and their functions: present and future.  

PubMed

Marine fishes, shrimps, and algae have many important bioactive substances, such as peptides, unsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, trace elements, and natural pigments. The introduction of these substances contributes to a significant improvement in developing them in final processed products. In fact, the knowledge of these bioactive substances has experienced a rapid increase in the past 20 years and prompted the relevant technological revolution with a decisive contribution to the final application. The purpose of this review was to introduce critically and comprehensively the present knowledge of these bioactive substances and pointed out their future developmental situation. PMID:24915345

Yu, Ping; Gu, Huifen

2015-07-01

222

Comparative analysis of the humoral immunity of skin mucus from several marine teleost fish.  

PubMed

Fish skin mucus contains several immune substances that provide the first line of defence against a broad spectrum of pathogens although they are poorly studied to date. Terminal carbohydrate composition and levels of total IgM antibodies, several immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, proteases and antiproteases) as well as the bactericidal activity (against fish pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio angillarum, Photobacterium damselae and non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shewanella putrefaciens) were identified and measured in the skin mucus of five marine teleosts: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa), common dentex (Dentex dentex) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). First, lectin binding results suggests that skin mucus contain, in order of abundance, N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and fucose residues. Second, results showed that while some immune activities were very similar in the studied fish (e.g. IgM and lysozyme activity) other such as protease, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase, esterase and peroxidase activities varied depending on the fish species. High levels of peroxidase and protease activity were found in U. cirrosa respect to the values obtained in the other species while E. marginatus and S. aurata showed the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities, respectively. Moreover, skin mucus of S. aurata revealed higher bactericidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, contrarily, to what happened with non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis). Thus, study of the variations in the carbohydrate profile and immune-related components of the fish skin mucus could help to understand the fish resistance as well as the presence and distribution of pathogens and magnitude of infections, aspects that are of major importance for the aquaculture industry. PMID:24972341

Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Abellán, Emilia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

2014-09-01

223

Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.  

PubMed

Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

2014-06-01

224

Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

225

Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species  

PubMed Central

Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

2014-01-01

226

Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.  

PubMed

The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies. PMID:25808114

Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

2015-05-01

227

Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of historical fishing records to understand relationships between climatic change and fish abundance is limited by the relatively short duration of these records, and complications due to the strong influence of human activity in addition to climatic change. Sedimentary records containing scales, bones or geochemical proxies of variability in fish populations provide unique insights on long-term ecosystem dynamics and relationships with climatic change. Available records from Holocene sediments are summarized and synthesized. The records are from several widespread locations near or along the continental margins of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including Alaska, USA (Pacific salmon), Saanich and Effingham Inlets, British Columbia, Canada (pelagic fish), Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA (Northern anchovies and Pacific sardines), Gulf of California, Mexico (Pacific sardines, Northern anchovies and Pacific hake), Peru upwelling system (sardines, anchovies and hake), and Benguela Current System, South Africa (sardines, anchovies and hake). These records demonstrate that fish population sizes are not constant, and varied significantly over a range of time scales prior to the advent of large-scale commercial fishing. In addition to the decadal-scale variability commonly observed in historical records, the long-term records reveal substantial variability over centennial and millennial time scales. Shifts in abundance are often, but not always, correlated with regional and/or global climatic changes. The long-term perspective reveals different patterns of variability in fish populations, as well as fish-climate relationships, than suggested by analysis of historical records. Many records suggest prominent changes in fish abundance at ca. 1000-1200 AD, during the Little Ice Age, and during the transition at the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century that may be correlative, and that were likely driven by major hemispheric or global reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

2010-02-01

228

The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through otolith microchemical and electronic tagging approaches. Retentive and dispersive behaviours confer resiliency against early survival conditions that vary spatially. Examples of contingent structure are increasingly numerous for diadromous fishes. Here, a nursery habitat associated with a contingent behaviour may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. For flatfish and other marine fishes, contingent structure is probable but not well documented. Proximate factors leading to contingent structure are poorly known, but for diadromous fishes, time of spawning and early life history energetic thresholds is hypothesized to lead to alternative life cycles. Here again time of spawning may lead to the storage effect by hedging against spatial variance in early vital rates. Managing for the storage effect will be promoted by conservation of adult age structure and early habitats upon which both strong and weak year-classes rely.

Secor, David H.

2007-02-01

229

Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

2014-06-01

230

Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction  

PubMed Central

Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates—fishes—remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

Friedman, Matt

2009-01-01

231

Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activity by coastally caught marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many commercially important marine fishes are found in estuaries, particularly as juveniles. The estuaries may provide a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Here, carbon ( ?13C) and sulphur ( ?34S) stable isotope data from coastally caught common sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) were used in independent mixing models to determine relative contributions of estuarine prey to white muscle composition. The influence of assumed trophic fractionation was also investigated with sensitivity analysis. At the population level, there was evidence for estuarine contributions to muscle tissue in both species (means from 16.37% to 61.28%), though among-individual variability was considerable. ?13C and ?34S model outputs implied different estuarine contributions for the same individual, likely reflecting the slower turnover of ?34S than ?13C. Sole exhibited population level plasticity in their feeding as juveniles, separating into two distinct juvenile sub-populations; but they are less plastic as older fish when they adopt increasingly marine diets. Whiting show individual plasticity as both juveniles and adults, feeding on prey of estuarine and coastal origin.

Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

2008-10-01

232

Differential inhibition of xenobiotic-metabolizing carboxylesterases by organotins in marine fish.  

PubMed

The hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in the liver of two tropical marine fish, Siganus canaliculatus and Acanthopagrus latus, was found to be catalyzed by both microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterases; the latter forms were more active than the former. Remarkably greater efficiency of S. canaliculatus for p-nitrophenylacetate hydrolysis was attributed to manyfold higher V(max) and lower K(m) values of hepatic microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterases of S. canaliculatus as compared with those of A. latus. Comparative characterization of the in vitro responses of hepatic microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterases to the organotin group of marine pollutants-tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), and dibutyltin (DBT), a relatively persistent metabolite of TBT-revealed species-, isozymic form-, and organotin structure-related differences in the hydrolytic detoxication. In general, carboxylesterases of S. canaliculatus exhibited severalfold greater susceptibility to organotin inhibition and DBT was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) in micromolar range). Notably, the IC(50) of SnCl(2), a metal present in all the compounds studied, was higher than 2 mM. Cytosolic forms in both species were more sensitive to organotin inhibition than microsomal counterparts. In line with these differences the nature of inhibition of cytosolic and microsomal carboxylesterases by organotins was competitive and noncompetitive, respectively. These results suggest that organotins may aggravate the toxicity of other environmental contaminants in fish and other aquatic organisms. Moreover, highly sensitive cytosolic carboxylesterases of S. canaliculatus liver may serve as molecular biomarkers of organotin pollution. PMID:10903822

Al-Ghais, S M; Ahmad, S; Ali, B

2000-07-01

233

Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20

ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

1999-01-01

234

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway  

SciTech Connect

The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

1981-08-18

235

Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes  

PubMed Central

Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

2013-01-01

236

Can otolith elemental chemistry retrospectively track migrations in fully marine fishes?  

PubMed

Otolith microchemistry can provide valuable information about stock structure and mixing patterns when the magnitude of environmental differences among areas is greater than the cumulative influence of any vital effects. Here, the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing element incorporation into the otolith is reviewed. Hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory is employed to explore the differences in chemical behaviours, distributions and affinities between elements. Hard acid cations (e.g. Mg(2+) , Li(+) and Ba(2+) ) tend to be less physiologically influenced and accepted more readily into the otolith crystal lattice but are relatively homogeneous in seawater. Soft acid cations (e.g. Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ) on the other hand, exhibit more varied distributions in seawater, but are more likely to be bound to blood proteins and less available for uptake into the otolith. The factors influencing the geographical distribution of elements in the sea, and their incorporation into the otoliths of marine fishes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on examining physiological processes, including gonad development, on the uptake of elements commonly used in population studies, notably Sr. Finally, case studies are presented that either directly or indirectly compare population structuring or movements inferred by otolith elemental fingerprints with the patterns indicated by additional, alternative proxies. The main obstacle currently limiting the application of otolith elemental microchemistry to infer movements of marine fishes appears to lie in the largely homogeneous distribution of those elements most reliably measured in the otolith. Evolving technologies will improve the discriminatory power of otolith chemistry by allowing measurement of spatially explicit, low level elements; however, for the time being, the combination of otolith minor and trace element fingerprints with alternative proxies and stable isotopic ratios can greatly extend the scope of migration studies. Among the otolith elements that routinely occur above instrument detection limits, Ba, Mn and Li were deemed the most likely to prove reliable geographic markers in marine species. PMID:22803735

Sturrock, A M; Trueman, C N; Darnaude, A M; Hunter, E

2012-07-01

237

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

2014-01-01

238

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.  

PubMed

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

2014-01-01

239

Comparing the nursery role of inner continental shelf and estuarine habitats for temperate marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine-estuarine transition represents an important biogeographic boundary, yet juvenile marine finfish have been observed in both temperate inner continental shelf (ICS) and estuarine habitats during the summer nursery period. In a direct comparison of ICS and estuary nurseries, spatial and temporal patterns in species composition, biodiversity, size structure, and relative abundance of age-0 fishes were tested using contemporaneous data from multiyear (2004-2006) trawl surveys of the Maryland ICS near Assateague Island, MD, and lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (estuary). Survey data from both habitats showed similar seasonal progression of assemblage structure, biodiversity phenologies, and dominant species identities. Late summer densities for four of five numerically dominant species varied by habitat. Densities of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and Atlantic butterfish Peprilus triacanthus were higher in the ICS; whereas summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus density was higher in the estuary. Density of spot Leiostomus xanthurus did not differ between habitats. Apparent daily growth rates of these five species, as estimated by modal length progression, were not significantly different between the two habitats. Although individual species displayed varying affinities for ICS versus estuarine habitats, this study provides strong evidence that the ICS of the Middle Atlantic Bight is capable of functioning interchangeably with polyhaline estuarine regions as nursery habitat for a diverse group of marine finfish.

Woodland, Ryan J.; Secor, David H.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Wilberg, Michael J.

2012-03-01

240

The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and ?-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

2010-12-01

241

Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ? = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

2014-02-01

242

Occurrence of tumour (odontoma) in marine fish Sphyraena jello from the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

We examined the occurrence of odontoma in the marine fish Sphyraena jello sourced from 3 different landing centers (Cuddalore, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam) in Tamil Nadu (southeast India). A total of 19783 fishes were examined for odontoma presence, of which 2393 were affected with odontoma. The overall prevalence was 12.1% among the 3 stations. Fish landed at Parangipettai showed the highest peak prevalence of odontoma (16.8%) during the pre-monsoon, followed by Nagapatinam (9.1%) during summer 2011. The tumour lengths in premaxilla, supermaxilla and dentary bone were 1.1-3.6, 1.4-5.9 and 1.2-4.1 cm, respectively, and tumour widths were 0.3-1.9, 0.7-3.1 and 0.5-1.9 cm. Higher prevalence (0.206%) of tongue tumour along with odontoma was observed at Nagapattinam whereas it was lower (0.162%) at Cuddalore. Odontoma histopathology showed dense fibrous tissue with fine teeth roots. TEM analysis showed virus-like particles associated with odontoma. Radiography of the odontoma showed that the tumour masses were bony in nature and tissues were merged with upper and lower jaw. PMID:24492054

Vijayakumar, R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Raja, K; Sinduja, K

2014-02-01

243

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

2014-01-01

244

The bottom line: An investigation of the economic, cultural and social costs of industrial longline fishing in the Pacific and the benefits of sustainable use marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial longline fishing can be understood as a case study of the cultural, economic, environmental and social impacts of unsustainable fishing technology. While much attention has been attributed to the impact of industrial longlines on the marine ecosystem, little is known about the impact of longline fishing on local food security, employment, cultural belief systems and traditions, revenue generation from

Robert Ovetz

2006-01-01

245

CORRELATION OF MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITY WITH ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF A MARINE FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Specimens of mullet (Mugil cephalus), a marine fish, were given single doses of 3-methylcholanthrene intraperitoneally and the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxygenase system in the liver was measured by the metabolism of benzo(a)-pyrene. The enzyme system was found to...

246

Digestive physiology of marine fish larvae: Hormonal control and processing capacity for proteins, peptides and amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the majority of marine fish larvae a fully developed digestive tract, including gastric digestion, is acquired weeks to months (depending on species) after onset of exogenous feeding. Still, the processing capacity (capability to degrade and absorb dietary nutrients) of the larval gut is sufficient to support fast larval growth by digesting prey naturally available in the sea. However, the

I. Rønnestad; Y. Kamisaka; L. E. C. Conceição; S. Morais; S. K. Tonheim

2007-01-01

247

9 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine Fisheries Service,  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries Service, dated October 25, 1993. Mid-Columbia summer chinook ESA Administrative Record (Oncorhynchus nerka) age and length at seaward migration past Bonneville Dam. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries

248

Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

249

Differential seeding and regeneration in openings and beneath closed canopy in sub-tropical wet forest  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments were performed in sub-tropical wet forest (tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) type) at El Verde, Puerto Rico. The first compared seed rain beneath closed canopy with that in natural treefall gaps. The purpose was to determine whether differences in seed rain might account for some part of the reported difference in tree regeneration under the two canopy conditions. The second experiment examined regeneration along transects from beneath the forest canopy across large gaps. Plant colonization patterns clearly showed that gaps are non-uniform environments. The correlation of certain attributes (seed weight, dispersal mode, regeneration route, shade tolerance) within species and among groups of species led to the description of regeneration strategies for species in this and similar forest communities. Silvicultural applications are discussed. 33 figs., 33 tabs.

Devoe, N.N.

1989-01-01

250

Estuarine refugia and fish responses to a large anoxic, hydrogen sulphide, “black tide” event in the adjacent marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fish fauna of the Berg River Estuary was sampled from the mouth to 40 km upstream using a small-meshed seine-net before (summer 1993), during (summer 1994) and after (summer 1996) a low-oxygen, hydrogen sulphide "black tide" event that caused a mass mortality of fish in St Helena Bay. These data were compared to determine how the species composition, abundance and distribution of the fish fauna of the Berg River Estuary differed before, during and after the event as well as to ascertain which species, if any, found refuge in the estuary. The overall catch-per-unit-effort of 1637 fish.haul -1 during the event was almost double the 932 fish.haul -1 and 643 fish.haul -1 in the years before and after respectively. All the fish recorded alive in the estuary during the event were species known to have some degree of estuarine association. No representatives of the purely marine species found dead on the adjacent shoreline were recorded live in the estuary during the event. Of the 10 estuarine-associated species sampled, 5 extended their range and/or modal peaks of abundance further upstream during the event. One species, Liza richardsonii, was abundant enough to examine its size distribution in different breaches of the estuary. Large/adult fish were concentrated further upstream than small/juvenile fish, which appeared to be unable to escape tidal currents and were concentrated at the edge of the low-oxygen front. Collectively this circumstantial evidence indicates that (1) fish used the Berg Estuary as a refuge from low-oxygen conditions in the marine environment during the "black tide" event, and (2) the ability to secure refuge in the estuary was restricted to species described as "estuarine-associated" or "estuarine-dependent".

Lamberth, S. J.; Branch, G. M.; Clark, B. M.

2010-01-01

251

Molecular identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes collected in Turkish waters.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis (or anisakidosis). These parasites in the Turkish waters still remain unexplored. This study aims the molecular identification of Anisakis species in Turkey's coast from Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea and specifically to screen for zoonotic species in commonly commercialized a total of 1145 fish belonging to 31 different species using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene. A total of 776 Anisakis type I larvae were isolated in 56/1145 (4.8%) fish of 7 species from Turkish waters. The combining all of our results, e.g., morphology, PCR-RFLP, ITS region, and the cox2 gene, conclusively supported the identification of 3 Anisakis spp. taken from marine fish hosts, namely Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis typica and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.str.)/A. pegreffii hybrid genotype. No Anisakis larvae were isolated from the Black Sea whereas A. pegreffii, A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotype was found in the Aegean Sea and A. pegreffii was only isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This study represents the first identification of A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotypes from Turkish waters. Moreover, in the present study first record of the presence of A. pegreffii is also reported from Turkish coasts of Aegean and Mediterranean Sea. No zoonotic Anisakis species were found in commonly commercialized 1025 fish belonging to 16 different species from the Black Sea, thus Turkish populations who consume captured fish from the Black Sea may have a less risk of human anisakiasis or allergies. However, the prevalence of larvae were 47.1% and 46% and recognized zoonotic A. pegreffii were identified from the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coast, suggesting a high threat of anisakiasis or allergies for Turkish populations who consume fish originating in these regions. PMID:24485564

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Yardimci, Banu; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Acici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

2014-03-17

252

CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

253

Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia  

PubMed Central

Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 ?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

2015-01-01

254

Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.  

PubMed

Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 ?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

2015-01-01

255

Selenium/mercury molar ratios in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish from the USA: variation, risk, and health management.  

PubMed

Fish provide healthy protein as well as recreational and cultural benefits, but can also contain mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants that have adverse effects on humans and other organisms, particularly developing fetuses. Recently, some authors have suggested that a molar excess of selenium (Se) [e.g., selenium/mercury (Se/Hg) molar ratio >1] confers protection from Hg toxicity derived from fish consumption. Herein, we review our studies of Hg and Se in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish (mainly marine), examining the following: (1) whether and how Se/Hg molar ratios vary among species; (2) whether and how the molar ratios vary within species; (3) whether the molar ratios differ between freshwater and saltwater fish; (4) whether mean molar ratio values provide a reliable indication of potential risk to fish consumers; and (5) whether mean Se/Hg molar ratios are sufficiently constant (e.g., low variation) to allow for use in risk assessment, risk management, or risk communication. In saltwater fish, mean Se/Hg molar ratios varied from 0.3 in mako shark to 68.1 in whiting. For freshwater fish, the mean ratios varied from 0.68 in bowfin to 20.8 in black crappie. Commercial seafood (mainly saltwater) showed great variation in ratios; shrimp and scallops had very high ratios. There was somewhat less variability in the ratios for freshwater fish compared with the fish from saltwater, but there was no overall predictable difference in variation in Se/Hg molar ratios. For both saltwater and freshwater fish, some species with mean molar ratios above 1 had a significant proportion of individual fish with molar ratios below 1. Overall, this indicates great variation in measures of central tendencies and in measures of dispersion. We suggest that relying on the Se/Hg molar ratio as a method of predicting reduced risk from Hg toxicity is problematic because of the great variation among and within fish species, and the variation is not predictable because Hg varies by season, size of the fish, and location of the fish (which is not available for commercial fish). With the high variation in ratios, and low predictability, the ratios are currently not useful for risk assessment and risk management, and vulnerable individuals cannot rely on mean Se/Hg molar ratios for protection from Hg toxicity. PMID:24192499

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

256

Acclimation of ion regulatory capacities in gills of marine fish under environmental hypercapnia.  

PubMed

The preservation of ion balance and pH despite environmental fluctuations is essential for the maintenance of vital cellular functions. While several ion transporters contribute to acid-base regulation in fish, the involvement and expression of key transporters under hypercapnia remain to be established. Here, two members of the HCO(3)(-) transporter family (Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBC1 and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE1) were described for the first time in gills of marine fish. Benthic eelpout Zoarces viviparus were acclimated to 10,000 ppm CO(2). Hypercapnia did not affect whole animal oxygen consumption over a period of 4 days. During a time series of 6 wk NBC1 mRNA levels first decreased by about 40% (8 to 24 h) but finally increased about threefold over control. mRNA expression of AE1 decreased transiently by 50% at day 4 but recovered to control levels only. Reduced mRNA levels were also found for two Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE1A, NHE1B) during the first days (by 50-60% at days 1 and 2), followed by restoration of control levels. This pattern was mirrored in a slight decrease of NHE1 protein contents and its subsequent recovery. In contrast, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase mRNA and protein contents, as well as maximum activity, rose steadily from the onset of hypercapnia, and reached up to twofold control levels at the end. These results indicate shifting acclimation patterns between short- and long-term CO(2) exposures. Overall, ion gradient-dependent transporter mRNA levels were transiently downregulated in the beginning of the disturbance. Upregulation of NBC1 on long timescales stresses the importance of this transporter in the hypercapnia response of marine teleosts. Long-term rearrangements include Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase at higher densities and capacities, indicating a shift to elevated rates of ion and acid-base regulation under environmental hypercapnia. PMID:18799636

Deigweiher, Katrin; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Lucassen, Magnus

2008-11-01

257

Response to ocean acidification in larvae of a large tropical marine fish, Rachycentron canadum.  

PubMed

Currently, ocean acidification is occurring at a faster rate than at any time in the last 300 million years, posing an ecological challenge to marine organisms globally. There is a critical need to understand the effects of acidification on the vulnerable larval stages of marine fishes, as there is potential for large ecological and economic impacts on fish populations and the human economies that rely on them. We expand upon the narrow taxonomic scope found in the literature today, which overlooks many life history characteristics of harvested species, by reporting on the larvae of Rachycentron canadum (cobia), a large, highly mobile, pelagic-spawning, widely distributed species with a life history and fishery value contrasting other species studied to date. We raised larval cobia through the first 3 weeks of ontogeny under conditions of predicted future ocean acidification to determine effects on somatic growth, development, otolith formation, swimming ability, and swimming activity. Cobia exhibited resistance to treatment effects on growth, development, swimming ability, and swimming activity at 800 and 2100 ?atm pCO2 . However, these scenarios resulted in a significant increase in otolith size (up to 25% larger area) at the lowest pCO2 levels reported to date, as well as the first report of significantly wider daily otolith growth increments. When raised under more extreme scenarios of 3500 and 5400 ?atm pCO2 , cobia exhibited significantly reduced size-at-age (up to 25% smaller) and a 2-3 days developmental delay. The robust nature of cobia may be due to the naturally variable environmental conditions this species currently encounters throughout ontogeny in coastal environments, which may lead to an increased acclimatization ability even during long-term exposure to stressors. PMID:23504878

Bignami, Sean; Sponaugle, Su; Cowen, Robert K

2013-04-01

258

78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...an incentive for the gillnet fishing industry to comply with pinger requirements...NMFS received a letter from a fishing industry representative requesting that...would an economic benefit to the fishing industry by allowing them to fish...

2013-08-26

259

Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

2012-11-01

260

A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. PMID:25102953

Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

2014-08-01

261

New records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda) from marine fishes in the Argentinean Sea.  

PubMed

Increasing knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in the Argentinean Sea will provide a baseline against which changes in the distribution of marine biota can be detected. We provide new information on the distribution of 13 known species of parasitic copepods gathered from 11 species of marine fishes from Argentinean Sea, including 7 new host records and 9 new locality records. These species are: Bomolochus globiceps (Vervoort et Ramírez, 1968) and Nothobomolochus cresseyi Timi et Sardella, 1997 (Bomolochidae Sumpf, 1871); Brasilochondria riograndensis Thatcher et Pereira, 2004 (Chondracanthidae Milne Edwards, 1840); Taeniacanthus lagocephali Pearse, 1952 (Taeniacanthidae Wilson, 1911); Caligus rogercresseyi Boxshall et Bravo, 2000 and Metacaligus uruguayensis (Thomsen, 1949) (Caligidae Burmeister, 1835); Hatschekia conifera Yamaguti, 1939 (Hatschekiidae Kabata, 1979); Clavellotis pagri (Krøyer, 1863), Clavella adunca (Strøm, 1762), Clavella bowmani Kabata, 1963 and Parabrachiella amphipacifica Ho, 1982 (Lernaeopodidae Milne Edwards, 1840), and Lernanthropus leidyi Wilson, 1922 and Lernanthropus caudatus Wilson, 1922 (Lernanthropidae Kabata, 1979). A list of host species lacking parasitic copepods, for which large samples were investigated by the authors, is also provided in order to compare in future surveys. PMID:22807018

Paula, Cantatore Delfina María; Elizabeth, Braicovich Paola; Julia, Alarcos Ana; Laura, Lanfranchi Ana; Alejandra, Rossin María; Gustavo, Vales Damián; Tomás, Timi Juan

2012-03-01

262

Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm.  

PubMed

The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

Kelly, Ryan P; Port, Jesse A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Crowder, Larry B

2014-01-01

263

Using Environmental DNA to Census Marine Fishes in a Large Mesocosm  

PubMed Central

The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

Kelly, Ryan P.; Port, Jesse A.; Yamahara, Kevan M.; Crowder, Larry B.

2014-01-01

264

Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.  

PubMed

In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump ?-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHrP and STC, and reveal an unexpected contribution of calcaemic factors to acid-base balance. PMID:24501133

Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

2014-05-01

265

OCPs and PCBs in marine edible fish and human health risk assessment in the eastern Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

Marine edible fish samples were collected from two important nearshore fishing sites in the eastern Guangdong Province, China: Shantou Harbor and Haimen Bay. In the mixed edible muscle tissues of marine fish samples, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene ranged from 1.12 to 53.87, ND (not detected) to 84.01, 0.22 to 7.09, ND to 4.74, and ND to 1.49 ng/g wet weight (ww) in Haimen Bay, respectively, and from ND to 70.35, ND to 164.83, ND to 8.68, ND to 25.61, and ND to 1.76 ng/g ww in Shantou Harbor, respectively. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in all samples did not exceed maximum residue limits (China and United States Food and Drug Administration). However, a few fish samples exceed the maximum levels established by the European Union. Daily fish consumption from this region can be of serious concern, and lifetime cancer risk remains a possibility in the studied area. PMID:23314860

Shi, Jingchun; Li, Yuelin; Liang, Hong; Zheng, Gene J; Wu, Yinglin; Liu, Wenhua

2013-05-01

266

Examining the fish microbiome: vertebrate-derived bacteria as an environmental niche for the discovery of unique marine natural products.  

PubMed

Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus. PMID:22574119

Sanchez, Laura M; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M; Schulze, Christopher J; Linington, Roger G

2012-01-01

267

Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park  

PubMed Central

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

2014-01-01

268

Evapotranspiration from subsurface horizontal flow wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The balance between evapotranspiration (ET) loss and rainfall ingress in treatment wetlands (TWs) can affect their suitability for certain applications. The aim of this paper was to investigate the water balance and seasonal dynamics in ET of subsurface horizontal flow (HF) TWs in a sub-tropical climate. Monthly water balances were compiled for four pilot-scale HF TWs receiving horticultural runoff over a two year period (Sep. 1999-Aug. 2001) on the sub-tropical east-coast of Australia. The mean annual wetland ET rate increased from 7.0 mm/day in the first year to 10.6 mm/day in the second, in response to the development of the reed (Phragmites australis) population. Consequently, the annual crop coefficients (ratio of wetland ET to pan evaporation) increased from 1.9 in the first year to 2.6 in the second. The mean monthly ET rates were generally greater and more variable than the Class-A pan evaporation rates, indicating that transpiration is an important contributor to ET in HF TWs. Evapotranspiration rates were generally highest in the summer and autumn months, and corresponded with the times of peak standing biomass of P. australis. It is likely that ET from the relatively small 1 m wide by 4 m long HF TWs was enhanced by advection through so-called "clothesline" and "oasis" effects, which contributed to the high crop coefficients. For the second year, when the reed population was well established, the annual net loss to the atmosphere (taking into account rainfall inputs) accounted for 6.1-9.6 % of the influent hydraulic load, which is considered negligible. However, the net loss is likely to be higher in arid regions with lower rainfall. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of the wetlands in the second year of operation was 1.3 g of above-ground biomass produced per kilogram of water consumed, which is low compared to agricultural crops. It is proposed that system level WUE provides a useful metric for selecting wetland plant species and TW design alternatives to use in arid regions where excessive water loss from constructed wetlands can be problematic. Further research is needed to accrue long-term HF TW water balance data especially in arid climatic zones. PMID:22127043

Headley, T R; Davison, L; Huett, D O; Müller, R

2012-02-01

269

Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy  

SciTech Connect

Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/Chinook/CKPUG.cfm); the fish used in this experiment were hatchery raised and their populations are not in danger of depletion. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Experimental results indicate that non-lethal, low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

2011-09-30

270

Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.  

PubMed

In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2010-05-01

271

Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.  

PubMed

Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

Kelaher, Brendan P; Coleman, Melinda A; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R

2014-01-01

272

Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n?=?4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

273

Size, sex and seasonal patterns in the assemblage of Carcharhiniformes in a sub-tropical bay.  

PubMed

Size, sex and seasonal patterns among Carcharhiniformes were examined in shallow regions of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A total of 1259 sharks were caught, comprising 13 species. The Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori and the blacktip complex Carcharhinus limbatus-Carcharhinus tilstoni comprised 55% of all shark individuals. Neonates were observed for five species including the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, which contrary to previous reports was relatively abundant in shallow, predominantly estuarine waters. Three contrasting patterns of occurrence were observed: smaller species were abundant and present throughout much of their ontogeny, larger species were mainly caught as neonates or juveniles and vagrant species were only caught during the warmer months. The shark assemblage differed significantly among seasons. While many species were observed during the warmer months, species diversity was lower in winter when C. obscurus comprised 43% of the catch. Overall, the results indicated that spatial and temporal distribution patterns were not synchronous for all species. The capture of small numbers of neonate C. obscurus in late autumn and winter demonstrates that parturition among Carcharhiniformes is not confined to spring and summer in sub-tropical waters. PMID:23331147

Taylor, S M; Bennett, M B

2013-01-01

274

Hydrological and environmental assessment of urban growth in a sub-tropical town in India.  

PubMed

Roorkee, a sub-tropical urban town in India, has shown a rapid unplanned growth in the past. This paper presents the findings of a study of characteristics of urban soil, rainwater, and runoff emanating from different sources areas and the stormwater flows in the drains. Urban soil showed significant increase in the concentration of all constituents in comparison to the nearby rural soil. Soil metal pollution index suggested multi-element contamination. The traffic and transportation system emerged as the major source of metals and organics. Concentration of rainwater ions was observed to follow the pattern Ca²? > HCO(3)(-) > Cl? > NO(3)(-) > Na? > Mg²? > SO(4)(²?) > K?. Runoff results indicated a significant enhancement in the concentration of most measured constituents over their rainfall levels. The values of runoff coefficient varied between 0.05 and 0.58, with the high values displayed by the paved areas. Multiple regression equations were developed relating event mean concentration to various storm characteristics. The total load of all measured constituents was observed to vary considerably among the study sites, the direct runoff loads being much higher than the dry weather loads. PMID:25500460

Joshi, Himanshu; Al Obaidy, Abdul Hameed M Jawad

2014-01-01

275

Wintertime observations of SubTropical Mode Water formation within the Gulf Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the structure of SubTropical Mode Water (STMW) within the eastward-flowing Gulf Stream as it forms during strong winter cooling. Shipboard observations using SeaSoar and ADCP reveal that while active mixing by gravitational instabilities is common, large vertical and lateral shears of the Gulf Stream play a central role in determination of the modes of active mixing. Evidence is presented that low static stability and large vertical shear can combine to cause slantwise convection/symmetric instabilities, while the large anticyclonic shears to the south of the Gulf Stream core can cause low absolute vorticity and precondition the Ertel potential vorticity to be small and more susceptible to instabilities. The area of active mixing driven by surface forcing in the presences of shear occupies a swath 50-90km wide immediately south of the Gulf Stream core at the northern edge of the Sargasso Sea: a region previously known to be where deepest winter mixed layers of STMW are found.

Joyce, T. M.; Thomas, L. N.; Bahr, F.

2008-12-01

276

Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2014-01-01

277

Molecular detection and characterization of nodavirus in several marine fish species from the northeastern Atlantic.  

PubMed

Nodaviruses (NNV) are responsible for causing disease outbreaks mainly in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of fishes throughout the world. This disease has seriously limited the culture of marine fishes over the last decade. In the Atlantic provinces of Canada, disease caused by a nodavirus was first reported in juvenile Atlantic cod being reared in Nova Scotia, in 1999. More recently, disease outbreaks caused by nodavirus have been identified in hatchery-reared Atlantic cod and haddock in Newfoundland and New Brunswick, respectively, and along the east coast of the USA. The presence of NNV in wild Atlantic cod adults and wild winter flounder has also been reported. Nodaviruses were isolated from cultured Atlantic cod and haddock, as well as from wild winter flounder from a variety of geographical localities, and their virus coat (capsid) protein genes were partially sequenced. An analysis of the data indicates that all of the nodaviruses isolated from eastern North America were closely related to one another, but that they were distinct from the European isolates already sequenced. Regardless of host species, isolates from close geographical localities were more similar than those from distant geographical areas. At the protein level, differences in coat protein sequences were seen only for strains isolated from Atlantic cod originating from Newfoundland. Our results suggest that NNV may have been present in the Atlantic off Canada and on the east coast of the USA for some time, and has evolved to form a monophyletic group, distinct from other isolates found in cold-water species. Non-lethal methods for detection of NNV are necessary to develop management strategies for this disease, and would be an asset to diagnosticians and producers. Based on the results of this study, new primers were designed and developed for an improved RT-PCR assay able to detect North Atlantic nodaviruses in ovarian fluids, eggs and other tissues. The application of this test to field samples is discussed. PMID:15672873

Gagné, N; Johnson, S C; Cook-Versloot, M; MacKinnon, A M; Olivier, G

2004-12-13

278

Biosynthesis of ( R )-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol from racemic styrene oxide by using bacterial and marine fish epoxide hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enantio-convergent hydrolysis of racemic styrene oxides was achieved to prepare enantiopure (R)-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol by using two recombinant epoxide hydrolases (EHs) of a bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, and a marine fish, Mugil cephalus. The recombinant C. crescentus EH primarily attacked the benzylic carbon of (S)-styrene oxide, while the M. cephalus EH preferentially attacked the terminal carbon of (R)-styrene oxide, thus leading to the

Hee Sook Kim; Ok Kyung Lee; Seungha Hwang; Beum Jun Kim; Eun Yeol Lee

2008-01-01

279

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Ms. Hunter

2009-07-07

280

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

cory jones

2009-09-28

281

Growth and nutrient content of perennial grasslands following burning in semi-arid, sub-tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire often increases the productivity of perennial tussock grasslands inmesic environments but can reduce growth for one or more growing seasons inaridand semi-arid environments. We examined effects of single-burns on growth andnutrient content of grasslands in sub-tropical, northwestern Australia. Thesegrasslands were dominated by Themeda triandra, a speciesoften managed by regular burning in wetter temperate and tropical zones. Burnswere in the

L. T. Bennett; T. S. Judd; M. A. Adams

2003-01-01

282

Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The use of marine reserves as tools either for conservation or fisheries management requires rigorous empirical evidence for the recovery of exploited species within them. 2. The relative density and size structure of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae), an intensively exploited reef fish species, were measured, using baited underwater video, inside and outside three northern New Zealand marine reserves

TREVOR J. WILLIS; RUSSELL B. MILLAR; RUSS C. BABCOCK

283

beta-Naphthoflavone-inducible cytochrome P4501A1 activity in liver microsomes of the marine safi fish (Siganus canaliculatus).  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and other xenobiotics has been investigated in liver microsomes prepared from a local marine safi fish, Siganus canaliculatus. The safi fish was found to have a well-developed microsomal monooxygenase system consisting of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5 and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The fish microsomal enzyme system was able to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene, 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin. Male fish were found to exhibit a higher monooxygenase activity than female fish. Treatment of fish with beta-naphthoflavone was found to induce (2- to 4-fold) the activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. HPLC analysis of the metabolites produced by incubation of benzo(a)pyrene with the liver microsomal preparation showed a predominant formation of 3-OH and 9-OH benzo(a)pyrene. There was an increased formation of benzo(a)pyrene 7,8-diol and benzo(a)pyrene 7,8,9,10-tetrol in liver microsomes prepared from beta-naphthoflavone-treated fish. Western immunoblot analysis of liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated fish using an antibody to rat liver cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) suggested the presence of an inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that was comparable with that of rat liver enzyme. Our results suggest that liver microsomes from the safi fish have multiple forms of cytochrome P450 with a specific beta-naphthoflavone-inducible CYP1A1 homologous protein that can metabolize a variety of substrates. PMID:7503790

Raza, H; Otaiba, A; Montague, W

1995-10-26

284

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

285

Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.  

PubMed

Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

2015-02-01

286

Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.  

PubMed

Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed. PMID:24903212

Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

2014-08-01

287

The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass  

PubMed Central

The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

2015-01-01

288

Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

Starr, Richard M; Wendt, Dean E; Barnes, Cheryl L; Marks, Corina I; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L; Hall, Nathan C; Yochum, Noëlle

2015-01-01

289

Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters  

PubMed Central

Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California’s temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

Starr, Richard M.; Wendt, Dean E.; Barnes, Cheryl L.; Marks, Corina I.; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T.; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L.; Hall, Nathan C.; Yochum, Noëlle

2015-01-01

290

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to\\u000a aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent

Yuuki Matsukane; Hiroshi Sato; Shuhei Tanaka; Yoichi Kamata; Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi

2011-01-01

291

Middle atmospheric thermal structure over sub-tropical and tropical Indian locations using Rayleigh lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's middle atmospheric thermal structure is unique, and having imprints of various physical and chemical processes taking place in the Earth's atmosphere. Nd-YAG laser based Rayleigh lidars are operational at Mt. Abu (24.5°N, 72.7°E) and at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) to study the middle atmospheric temperature structure in the altitude region of 30-75 km. Temperature profiles are derived using Rayleigh lidar measured neutral density profiles. Nightly mean temperature profiles, during 1997-2001, are utilized to obtain average temperature profile for each month over Mt. Abu. Lidar observed temperatures are compared with the temperatures observed by Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), on-board Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), the CIRA-86 and MSISE-90. Observed temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement with CIRA-86 and MSISE-90 model below 50 km, and the agreement is better during winter months. Quantitatively there are significant differences noted, up to 10 K, above 50 km. The temperature profiles are also compared with the equatorial model for the Indian region, based on rocket and balloon measurements. Significant day to day variability is found, which is as high as ±10 K at ˜70 km. The mean values of the stratopause height and temperature are found to be 48 km and 271 K, respectively. Seasonal variation shows equinoctial and summer maxima below 55 km, whereas above 70 km winter maximum with equinoctial minima are present. Comparative study of thermal structure with Gadanki, a tropical station, revealed significant differences in the thermal structure over tropical and sub-tropical locations.

Sharma, Som; Sridharan, S.; Chandra, H.; Lal, S.; Acharya, Y. B.

2012-04-01

292

Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

2015-01-01

293

Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.  

PubMed

Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

2015-04-01

294

Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-10-01

295

How Nemo finds home: the neuroecology of dispersal and of population connectivity in larvae of marine fishes.  

PubMed

Nearly all demersal teleost marine fishes have pelagic larval stages lasting from several days to several weeks, during which time they are subject to dispersal. Fish larvae have considerable swimming abilities, and swim in an oriented manner in the sea. Thus, they can influence their dispersal and thereby, the connectivity of their populations. However, the sensory cues marine fish larvae use for orientation in the pelagic environment remain unclear. We review current understanding of these cues and how sensory abilities of larvae develop and are used to achieve orientation with particular emphasis on coral-reef fishes. The use of sound is best understood; it travels well underwater with little attenuation, and is current-independent but location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize sound for orientation will have location-dependent orientation. Larvae of many species and families can hear over a range of ~100-1000 Hz, and can distinguish among sounds. They can localize sources of sounds, but the means by which they do so is unclear. Larvae can hear during much of their pelagic larval phase, and ontogenetically, hearing sensitivity, and frequency range improve dramatically. Species differ in sensitivity to sound and in the rate of improvement in hearing during ontogeny. Due to large differences among-species within families, no significant differences in hearing sensitivity among families have been identified. Thus, distances over which larvae can detect a given sound vary among species and greatly increase ontogenetically. Olfactory cues are current-dependent and location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize olfactory cues will have location-dependent orientation, but must be able to swim upstream to locate sources of odor. Larvae can detect odors (e.g., predators, conspecifics), during most of their pelagic phase, and at least on small scales, can localize sources of odors in shallow water, although whether they can do this in pelagic environments is unknown. Little is known of the ontogeny of olfactory ability or the range over which larvae can localize sources of odors. Imprinting on an odor has been shown in one species of reef-fish. Celestial cues are current- and location-independent, so species that primarily utilize them will have location-independent orientation that can apply over broad scales. Use of sun compass or polarized light for orientation by fish larvae is implied by some behaviors, but has not been proven. Use of neither magnetic fields nor direction of waves for orientation has been shown in marine fish larvae. We highlight research priorities in this area. PMID:21562025

Leis, Jeffrey M; Siebeck, Ulrike; Dixson, Danielle L

2011-11-01

296

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

297

The global contribution of forage fish to marine fisheries and Ellen K Pikitch1,  

E-print Network

of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA; 10 CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia; 11 Institute of Marine and Antarctic Science, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, Tasmania

Pauly, Daniel

298

Modulation of aromatase activity as a mode of action for endocrine disrupting chemicals in a marine fish.  

PubMed

The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase. Because brain aromatase activity in fish is up to 1000 times that in mammals, fish may be especially susceptible to negative effects from environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that impact aromatase activity. In this study, the effects of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), octylphenol (OP), and androstatrienedione (ATD) on reproduction and aromatase activity in brains and gonads from the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) was investigated. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between changes in aromatase activity and reproductive output in a marine fish, as well as compare aromatase activity to two commonly used indicators of EDC exposure, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Results with E2, EE2, and ATD indicate that aromatase activity in cunner brain and ovary are affected differently by exposure to these EDCs. In the case of E2 and EE2, male brain aromatase activity was signficantly increased by these treatments, female brain aromatase activity was unaffected, and ovarian aromatase activity was significantly decreased. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor ATD resulted in significantly decreased aromatase activity in male and female brain, but had no significant impact on ovarian aromatase activity. Regardless of test chemical, a decrease or an increase in male brain aromatase activity relative to controls was associated with decreased egg production in cunner and was also correlated with significant changes in GSI in both sexes. E2 and EE2 significantly elevated plasma VTG in males and females, while ATD had no significant effect. Treatment of cunner with OP had no significant effect on any measured endpoint. Overall, results with these exposures indicate EDCs that impact aromatase activity also affect reproductive output in spawning cunner. PMID:24418745

Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Zaroogian, Gerald E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Laws, Susan C

2014-02-01

299

Population Genetic Studies Revealed Local Adaptation in a High Gene-Flow Marine Fish, the Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)  

PubMed Central

The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis. PMID:24349521

Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

2013-01-01

300

Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

2014-11-01

301

Deinococcus piscis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from a marine fish.  

PubMed

A radiation-resistant, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating, aerobic, coccoid bacterium, strain 3ax(T), was isolated from a marine fish (black pomfret, Parastromateus niger), with radiation as a selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 3ax(T) exhibited highest similarity (97.9 %) with Deinococcus proteolyticus DSM 20540(T). The DeltaT(m) for DNA-DNA hybridization of D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T) and strain 3ax(T) was 15.3 degrees C, indicating that the novel strain was distinct from D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8. Strain 3ax(T) could grow at 20-42 degrees C; the optimum temperature for growth was 35 degrees C. The strain grew well at pH 6-9, with optimum growth at pH 7. The cell wall contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, 16 : 1omega7c, 16 : 1omega9c and 18 : 1omega9c. Three phosphoglycolipids and one aminophospholipid were the major polar lipids. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain 3ax(T) was significantly different from D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T) and, therefore, it was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus piscis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3ax(T) (=MTCC9123(T) =DSM 19767(T)). PMID:19625434

Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

2009-11-01

302

Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-09-01

303

Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P?.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high cytotoxic or genotoxic potential.

Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

1984-03-01

304

Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.  

PubMed

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

2014-02-01

305

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

306

Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

2010-04-01

307

Transfer and efflux of cadmium and silver in marine snails and fish fed pre-exposed mussel prey.  

PubMed

Subcellular metal distribution may play an important role in the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of metals in marine food chains. In the present study, we preexposed the green mussel Perna viridis to Ag and Cd and quantified their trophic transfer efficiencies to two predators (whelks [Thais clavigera] and fish [Terapon jarbua]). For the mussels, more Ag was distributed in the metal-rich granule (MRG) fraction following Ag exposure, and more Cd was distributed in the metallothionein-like protein following Cd exposure. In addition, Cd was mainly bound with the proteins having a molecular size of approximately 20 kDa. After being fed with metal-exposed mussels, the assimilation efficiencies of Ag decreased significantly (from 77 to 29-60% in whelks and from 9 to 2% in fish) with an increasing percentage of Ag deposited in the MRG fraction of the prey. In contrast, the assimilation efficiencies of Cd remained comparable (81-85% in whelks and 6-8% in fish), because its partitioning in the soluble fraction of different treatments of the prey was similar. The efflux of Ag and Cd in the two predators was comparable after feeding on preexposed mussel prey. Our results imply that the subcellular distribution of metals in prey may affect the dietary assimilation of metals in predators, but such influence is clearly metal-specific. The present study may lead to a better understanding of metal trophic transfer in different marine food chains. PMID:17571682

Cheung, Ma-Shan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2007-06-01

308

Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.  

PubMed

The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. PMID:24943478

Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

2014-06-19

309

On the economic optimality of marine reserves when fishing damages habitat  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I expand a spatially-explicit bioeconomic fishery model to include the negative effects of fishing effort on habitat quality. I consider two forms of effort driven habitat damage: First, fishing effort may ...

Moeller, Holly Villacorta

2010-01-01

310

77 FR 71259 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale...Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale...is well known from southern Japan, Hawaii, and the eastern...area to deep-set longline fishing based, in part, on PBR...

2012-11-29

311

Health aspects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert workshop reviewed the health effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and came to the following conclusions. 1. Consumption of fish may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). People at risk for CHD are therefore advised to eat fish once a week. The n-3 PUFA in fish are probably the active agents. People who do not

EAM de Deckere; O Korver; PM Verschuren; MB Katan

1998-01-01

312

Influence of marine reserves on reef fish recruitment in the upper Florida Keys  

E-print Network

-scale structural habitat. Keywords Coral reef fish Á Spatial management Á Juvenile recruitment Á Predation / Published online: 2 June 2012 � Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper fishes (and other taxa) associated with coral reefs. Much attention has focused on the proximate

Sponaugle, Su

313

Evidence for visual constraints in large marine fish stocks Dag L. Aksnes1  

E-print Network

constrained fish stocks relate inversely to light attenuation for the Black Sea, where long time series a trophic cascade that affects water clarity and another assuming the effect of water clarity on fish relationship between mesopelagic fish abundance and light absorbance (Aksnes et al. 2004; Sørnes and Aksnes

Aksnes, Dag L.

314

Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

2012-12-01

315

Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.  

PubMed

Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ER?) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

2014-09-15

316

Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics  

PubMed Central

The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

2015-01-01

317

Niche shift can impair the ability to predict invasion risk in the marine realm: an illustration using Mediterranean fish invaders.  

PubMed

Climatic niche conservatism, the tendency of species-climate associations to remain unchanged across space and time, is pivotal for forecasting the spread of invasive species and biodiversity changes. Indeed, it represents one of the key assumptions underlying species distribution models (SDMs), the main tool currently available for predicting range shifts of species. However, to date, no comprehensive assessment of niche conservatism is available for the marine realm. We use the invasion by Indo-Pacific tropical fishes into the Mediterranean Sea, the world's most invaded marine basin, to examine the conservatism of the climatic niche. We show that tropical invaders may spread far beyond their native niches and that SDMs do not predict their new distributions better than null models. Our results suggest that SDMs may underestimate the potential spread of invasive species and call for prudence in employing these models in order to forecast species invasion and their response to environmental change. PMID:25626355

Parravicini, Valeriano; Azzurro, Ernesto; Kulbicki, Michel; Belmaker, Jonathan

2015-03-01

318

Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.  

PubMed

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

319

Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing  

PubMed Central

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

320

Percent methylmercury and organic mercury in tissues of marine mammals and fish using different experimental and calculation methods  

SciTech Connect

Muscle and liver tissues of marine mammals and fish were extracted with methylene chloride-hexane (DCM-hexane) or toluene and the extracts were analyzed for organic mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) and for methylmercury by gas liquid chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Total mercury in tissues was determined by VCAAS. Methylmercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle agreed with each other and with total mercury for both marine mammals and fish, indicating that on average 100% of the total mercury in this tissue was in the form of methylmercury. Either total mercury or organic mercury determined by CVAAS was found to be a valid measure of the average methylmercury concentration in muscles of marine mammals and fish. In liver, the CVAAS method produced higher mercury values (15% organic mercury) than the GC-ECD method (6% methylmercury), methylmercury being only 38% of organic mercury. From this, the presence of organic mercury compound(s) other than methylmercury was inferred. The CVAAS method produced a biased estimate of methylmercury in liver; an accurate measure of methylmercury in this tissue was obtained by GC-ECD, either with DCM-hexane or with toluene extraction. The DCM-hexane extract could be directly analyzed by CVAAS for organic mercury while toluene required an additional back-extraction step for such a determination. In calculating the average percentage of methylmercury and organic mercury in a sample, three different calculation methods were used. Only one of them, linear, robust regression analysis produced acceptable results when the variables (MeHg, organic Hg, total Hg) were significantly correlated. The other two methods overestimated the mean percentage under these conditions.

Wagemann, R.; Trebacz, E.; Hunt, R.; Boila, G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1997-09-01

321

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

322

Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.  

PubMed

Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

2014-01-01

323

Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination  

PubMed Central

Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

2014-01-01

324

Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual

Richard Greene; Eric A. Crecelius

2006-01-01

325

Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.  

PubMed

No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

2014-01-01

326

Derelict Fishing Line Provides a Useful Proxy for Estimating Levels of Non-Compliance with No-Take Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

Williamson, David H.; Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Evans, Richard D.; Hill, Jos K.; Russ, Garry R.

2014-01-01

327

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

328

Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Monaco, M.E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, C.; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, R.

2007-01-01

329

Isolation of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) associated with epizootic mortality in two new host species of Alaskan marine fish.  

PubMed

Thousands of dead Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, Pacific hake Merluccius productus and walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma were reported in Lisianski Inlet near Pelican, Alaska, USA, on August 1, 1998. The Pacific hake and pollock continued to die through the end of September. Virological examinations of dead fish identified the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from all 3 species of fish as well as associated high virus titers and possible histopathological lesions. No other primary fish pathogens were detected and there were no apparent environmental causes for fish mortality. This is the first report of VHSV in 2 new Alaskan fish host species and of a natural epizootic associated with VHSV in which progressive mass mortality was observed simultaneously in herring and 2 other species of free-ranging marine fish. PMID:10598280

Meyers, T R; Short, S; Lipson, K

1999-11-01

330

Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories  

SciTech Connect

Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

2006-02-06

331

Protection of Habitat Types: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of a Small Marine Reserve and Impacts of Different Habitats on the Diversity and Abundance of Coral Reef Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Konstantin S. Tkachenko and Keryea Soong (2010) Protection of habitat types: a case study of the effectiveness of a small marine reserve and impacts of different habitats on the diversity and abundance of coral reef fishes. Zoological Studies 49(2): xxx-xxx. The aim of this work was to compare coral reef fish communities from a small recently established marine reserve (a

Konstantin S. Tkachenko; Keryea Soong

2010-01-01

332

Proteasas extracelulares producidas por bacterias marinas aisladas de aguas contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros Extracellular proteases produced by marine bacteria isolated from sea water contaminated with fishing effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 26 strains of marine bacteria with proteolytic activity was isolated from sea water contaminated with fishing effluents; they were evaluated in basis of their growth and formation of activity halos in Marine Agar supplemented with casein to 1%, pH 8,0 and incubated to 25 ºC per 72 hours. Selected five strains were evaluated on the basis of

Tito Sánchez; Jorge León; Juan Woolcott; Katherine Arauco

333

Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the parasite Henneguya carolina sp. nov. (Myxozoa), from the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus in Brazil.  

PubMed

Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Henneguya carolina sp. nov., found infecting the intestine of the marine teleost fish Trachinotus carolinus on the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Spherical to ellipsoid cysts, measuring up to ~750 µm, display synchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore body length, width, and thickness are 12.7 ± 0.8 (12.0-13.4) µm, 8.8 ± 0.6 (7.5-9.6) µm, and 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.0-6.4) µm, respectively; 2 equal caudal processes are 16.8 ± 1.1 (15.9-18.0) µm long, and the total myxospore length is 29.4 ± 0.8 (28.4-30.4) µm. Two pyriform polar capsules measure 5.0 ± 0.5 (4.6-5.6) × 2.4 ± 0.4 (1.9-2.9) µm, and each contains a polar filament forming 3 to 4 coils. Sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Molecular analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene by maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic in marine fish of the order Perciformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signal for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae. PMID:25449325

Rocha, S; Casal, G; Garcia, P; Matos, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

2014-12-01

334

Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.  

PubMed

We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched ?(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher ?(15)N than older fish. These differences in ?(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

2013-02-23

335

Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.  

PubMed

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135 ?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain

2014-03-01

336

Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, V.; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

2011-01-01

337

Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

2012-06-01

338

The effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve (Central Mediterranean Sea, Italy): A first assessment 5 years after its establishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This 2-year study was aimed to investigate the early effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve and to evaluate its level of enforcement. Sampling was carried out by means of underwater visual census techniques in four sampling sites within the reserve boundaries and eight outside the reserve. Results showed significant inside/outside differences in the multivariate abundance of fish assemblage. These results were confirmed and exemplified by significant univariate differences between locations for total abundance, Species Richness and diversity of the fish assemblage; values of these metrics were higher inside the reserve than outside. Small fish size and species of low and medium fishing value did not display significant inside/outside differences in abundances whereas medium, large size fish and high value species showed abundances significantly higher inside the marine reserve. Protection effects were particularly evident for large specimens of high fishing value, most of which were exclusively found inside the reserve (Diplodus puntazzo, Epinephelus costae, Mycteroperca rubra, Scorpaena scrofa, Spondyliosoma cantharus, Sciaena umbra and Epinephelus marginatus). The present study provides evidence of a reserve effect on fish populations after only five years since its establishment. This is an extraordinary result likely due to the high level of enforcement observed inside the Plemmirio MPA.

Pierpaolo, Consoli; Gianluca, Sarà; Gianfranco, Mazza; Pietro, Battaglia; Teresa, Romeo; Vincenzo, Incontro; Franco, Andaloro

2013-05-01

339

A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

340

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever declining numbers of marine plants and fish are sending ecologists scrambling for better ways to protect the oceans. Some have suggested that marine reserves are the answer. This Science Update looks at the unexpected impact marine reserves have on their surroundings.

Science Update

2001-03-30

341

Morphology and phylogeny of Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), infecting the gills of the marine fish Lutjanus jocu.  

PubMed

Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae) is described from the gill lamellae of the marine teleost fish Lutjanus jocu, with a focus on ultrastructural and molecular features. This myxosporean forms subspherical cysts up to ?260 ?m × 130 ?m long, and develops asynchronously. Mature myxospores ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore length 10.9 ± 0.4 ?m (n=50); width, 8.2 ± 0.3 ?m (n=50); and thickness, 2.9 ± 0.5 ?m (n=50). Two equal caudal processes, 34.1±1.0 ?m long (n=50); and total myxospore length, 45.2 ± 1.0 ?m (n=50). Two symmetric valves surround two ellipsoidal polar capsules, 5.0 ± 0.3 × 1.4 ± 0.2 ?m (n=20), each containing an isofilar polar filament forming 4-5 coils along the inner wall of these structures, as well as a binucleated sporoplasm presenting a spherical vacuole and several globular sporoplasmosomes. Both the morphological data and molecular analysis of the SSU rDNA gene identify this parasite as a new species of the genus Henneguya. Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony analyses further indicate that the parasite clusters within others marine Myxobolidae species, forming a group alongside other Henneguya species described from marine hosts. PMID:24457131

Azevedo, Carlos; Rocha, Sónia; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

2014-04-01

342

High gene flow in reef fishes and its implications for ad-hoc no-take marine reserves.  

PubMed

Integration of genetic connectivity information in effective marine reserve (MR) design is important in sustaining marine biodiversity. Here, genetic connectivity based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three reef fish species, namely Epinephelus merra (n = 67; 32 from Bolinao, 14 from Alaminos, and 21 from Masinloc), Parupeneus multifasciatus (n = 23; 12 from Bolinao and 11 from Masinloc), and Odonus niger (n = 35; 21 from Mabini and 14 from Tingloy), sampled across western Luzon, Philippines, was inferred by assessing their genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and historical demography. The results show high haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the three species. Tests for population structure indicate high gene flow and no spatial genetic structuring for the three species. Mismatch analyses suggest unimodal distribution for E. merra and P. multifasciatus, but bimodal distribution for O. niger. Even with differences in mismatch distributions, all the three species exhibit low raggedness index indicating demographic population expansion. The bimodal distribution of O. niger could be attributed to the mixing of two isolated populations. High gene flow between sampling locations implies genetic exchanges and connectivity between many small MRs and fishing grounds in western Luzon, Philippines, at a scale similar to our study. This research is among the first few to elucidate the high genetic connectivity of reef fish communities across the Philippines (here western Luzon), but it also calls for more support (i.e. government and academia) for genetic research that aims to (1) understand the maintenance of megadiversity of the country and (2) search for effective biodiversity conservation options for the coral reefs. PMID:23530464

Matias, Ambrocio Melvin A; Anticamara, Jonathan A; Quilang, Jonas P

2013-10-01

343

Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE) are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host-pathogen interactions and evolutionary history of immunogenetics from fish to mammals. PMID:20707909

2010-01-01

344

Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the tropics to the Arctic.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field. PMID:24612602

Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

2015-01-01

345

C-BANDING OF CHROMOSOMES FROM THREE ESTABLISHED MARINE FISH CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic regions of individuals pa...

346

An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

Epps, Brenden P

2010-01-01

347

TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS IN JUVENILES OF THREE SPECIES OF SPARID FISHES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE LITTORAL  

E-print Network

) found the fish to be omnivorous. The 'J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Rhodes University, P an omnivore (Biden 1954; Talbot 1954; Smith 1965), as isD. cervinus (zebra). Little, however, has been

348

Studies defining essential fish habitat often focus on associations of marine  

E-print Network

, 2001), thus providing a direct linkage between pelagic zoo- plankton and demersal fish produc- tion of the costs and benefits to Abundance, condition, and diet of juvenile Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus

349

Density Responses of Subarctic Coastal Marine Fish and Crabs to Artificial Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally complex habitats provide refuge from predators and higher invertebrate prey density—and therefore have higher densities of young fish—than do noncomplex (or barren) sea floors. Artificial reefs are used worldwide to increase seabed complexity in an attempt to increase fish and invertebrate densities and biomass. We employed small-scale tetrahedral reefs to test three hypotheses: (1) that increased habitat complexity increases

Philip S. Sargent; Robert S. Gregory; David C. Schneider

2006-01-01

350

The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrobenthic (coral, algae, and sea urchins) and fish communities in 15 back-reef sites on the patch and rock-island reefs of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania (?250 km of coastline) were studied in order to (1) test an overfishing model developed in Kenya’s fringing reef (McClanahan, 1995a, A coral reef ecosystem-fisheries model: impacts of fishing intensity and catch selection on

T. R. McClanahan; N. A. Muthiga; A. T. Kamukuru; H. Machano; R. W. Kiambo

1999-01-01

351

Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.  

PubMed

Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. PMID:25180652

Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

2015-01-01

352

The distribution, metabolism and toxicity of c-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies conducted on the distribution, fate and metabolism of DDT in a model ecosystem simulating a tropical marine environment of fish, Gobious nudiceps, Lethrinus harak, Gobious keinesis, Gobious nebulosis and white shrimp (Panaeus setiferus), show that DDT concentration in the water decreases rapidly within the first 24?h. Rapid accumulation of the pesticide in the biota also reaches a maximum level

S. O. Wandiga; I. O. Jumba; W. G. Mutaaga; J. O. Lalah

2003-01-01

353

Ontogenetic patterns of habitat use by reef-fish in a Marine Protected Area network: a multi-scaled remote sensing and in situ approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) on the west coast of the island of Hawaii (West Hawaii) has been shown to vary in its effectiveness to replenish depleted aquarium fish stocks. To determine the abundance and distribution of habitats needed to better design and manage MPAs in Hawaii, underwater video transects, remote sensing data and a benthic classification scheme

Delisse M. Ortiz; Brian N. Tissot

2008-01-01

354

Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

355

Species-and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management  

E-print Network

Species- and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management units for hake environmental policies argue for the development of indicators of the ecological status of ecosystems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Application of a real-time underwater surveillance camera in monitoring of fish assemblages on a shallow coral communities in a marine park  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underwater surveillance camera has been designed for monitoring fish species activity on an inshore coral reef in a Marine Park in Hong Kong. The system consisted of a high-resolution camera. It was connected to the shore base station via a fibre-optic cable with power conductors. The camera could record video on a DVD recorder with hard disk in real

Katherine Lam; Robin S. Bradbeer; P. K. S. Shin; K. K. K. Ku; P. Hodgson

2007-01-01

357

The impact of postglacial marine invasions on the genetic diversity of an obligate freshwater fish, the longnose dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ), on the Quebec peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postglacial seas are expected to have had significant effects on the genetic structure of populations of obli- gate freshwater fishes. To assess this influence, mitochondrial DNA variability was evaluated in 32 populations of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) of the Quebec peninsula located within and outside of the maximum extent of marine invasions of the Champlain and Laflamme seas. Three clades

Philippe Girard; Bernard Angers

2006-01-01

358

The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade  

PubMed Central

Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

2015-01-01

359

The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.  

PubMed

Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

2015-01-01

360

Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)  

PubMed Central

The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37–66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2009–2017. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:23636803

Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

361

An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

2010-09-01

362

Fish consumption, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and incidence of heart failure: a population-based prospective study of middle-aged and elderly men  

PubMed Central

Aims Fatty fish and marine omega-3 fatty acids were associated with lower rates of heart failure (HF) among US elderly, but this has not been confirmed in broader age ranges or other populations where source and type of fish may differ. We therefore conducted a population-based, prospective study of 39 367 middle-aged and older Swedish men. Methods and results Diet was measured using food-frequency questionnaires. Men were followed for HF through Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2004. We used proportional hazards models adjusted for age and other covariates to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Compared with no consumption, men who ate fatty fish once per week had an HR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.68–1.13). Hazard ratios for consumption two times per week and ?3 times per week were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. Hazard ratios across quintiles of marine omega-3 were 1, 0.94 (95% CI 0.74–1.20), 0.67 (95% CI 0.50–0.90), 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.16), 1.00 (95% CI 0.77–1.29). Conclusion In this population, moderate intake of fatty fish and marine omega-3 fatty acids was associated with lower rates of HF, though the association for fish intake was not statistically significant; higher intake was not associated with additional benefit. PMID:19383731

Levitan, Emily B.; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A.

2009-01-01

363

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

364

Redescription and genetic characterization of Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in the South China Sea.  

PubMed

Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990, was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and Pricanthus macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. thalassini collected from the 2 hosts were characterized by sequencing and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. The ITS region of H. thalassini was compared with Hysterothylacium spp. in GenBank, and the results seem to support the validity of the incompletely known species. PMID:23343397

Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

2013-08-01

365

Linking ? 15N and histopathological effects in molluscs exposed in situ to effluents from land-based marine fish farms.  

PubMed

Histopathological alterations can indicate time-integrated impacts on organisms stemming from alterations at lower biological organisation levels. Long-term (native mussels) and short-term (transplanted clams) changes in the tissues of molluscs exposed to the effluents from two land-based marine fish farms (LBMFFs) were determined. Histological alterations were related to the ?(15)N isotopic signal measured in mussels and macroalgae. Effluents from LBMFFs were found to cause severe and moderate gill filament exfoliation in clams and mussels, respectively. Some transplanted clams showed severe degrees of hemocytic phagocytosis in gonads and connective tissue. In an attempt to semi-quantitatively summarize the observed histopathological alterations, a weighted index of damage (WID) was calculated for each type of alteration, species and sampling site. The WID was clearly related to the ?(15)N descriptor of exposure. Further studies aimed at standardizing this relationship may establish critical thresholds of the descriptor for its implementation within environmental monitoring plans for LBMFFs. PMID:22024543

Carballeira, C; Espinosa, J; Carballeira, A

2011-12-01

366

Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1?mg/100g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2013-01-01

367

Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1?mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2013-01-01

368

Structure and origin of the natural halogenated monoterpene MHC-1 and its concentrations in marine mammals and fish.  

PubMed

The halogenated natural product previously named mixed-halogenated compound 1 (MHC-1) was isolated from the red seaweed Plocamium cartilagineum harvested in Helgoland, Germany. A total of 1.9 mg of pure MHC-1 was obtained from 1g air-dried seaweed. The 1H and 13C NMR data matched those reported for a natural monoterpene isolated from this species. Thus, the structure of MHC-1 was established to be (1R,2S,4R,5R,1'E)-2-bromo-1-bromomethyl-1,4-dichloro-5-(2'-chloroethenyl)-5-methylcyclohexane. Moreover, the isolated monoterpene proved to be identical with the compound previously detected in marine mammals and fish from different locations. In addition we examined two samples of P. cartilagineum from Ireland and from the Antarctic; however MHC-1 was only present at low levels. Not only the concentrations were lower but also the pattern of polybrominated compounds differed from MHC-1. A calibrated solution of MHC-1 was used to determine correct concentrations from samples where previously only estimates existed relative to the gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC/ECD) response of trans-chlordane, which underrated the MHC-1 concentrations by more than factor 2. The highest MHC-1 concentration determined to date in marine mammals is 0.14 mg kg(-1) blubber. Significantly higher MHC-1 concentrations were determined in farmed fish with up to 2.2 mg kg(-1) lipids. The samples with high concentrations of MHC-1 have in common that they were collected in proximity of the natural habitats of P. cartilagineum. PMID:18656231

Vetter, Walter; Rosenfelder, Natalie; Kraan, Stefan; Hiebl, Josef

2008-08-01

369

Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem integrity. PMID:17650253

Davoren, Gail K

2007-08-01

370

Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in wild marine fish: implications for the origins of salmon pancreas disease in aquaculture.  

PubMed

Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the aetiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (SPD) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sleeping disease (SD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture. SAV is horizontally transmitted and the virus can survive for extended periods in seawater. A lack of convincing evidence for vertical transmission coupled to the fact that the SPD virus (SPDV) occurs in historically infected sites irrespective of fallow period duration suggests that a substantial reservoir of infection exists in the marine environment. We used a highly sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting a region of the SAV nsP1 gene to screen wild marine fish species for the presence of SAV in an attempt to identify such a potential reservoir. Screened fish species were caught in the vicinity of aquaculture activity in an area with a previous history of SAV infection (Shetland Isles, Scotland). SAV RNA was detected in internal organs (kidney and heart) from the flatfish species common dab Limanda limanda, long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Based on these findings, sampling was extended to an area remote from aquaculture activity (Stonehaven Bay, NE coast of Scotland) from where heart tissues obtained from common dab also tested positive. While no virus could be cultivated from these samples, qPCR detections were shown to be SAV-specific by sequencing of an alternative gene region (E2) to that targeted by the qPCR assay. Analysis of these nucleotide sequences revealed minor differences to those previously obtained from farmed salmon, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of an E2 dataset demonstrated a subtype V-like sequence. PMID:21133318

Snow, M; Black, J; Matejusova, I; McIntosh, R; Baretto, E; Wallace, I S; Bruno, D W

2010-09-17

371

Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps  

PubMed Central

Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

372

Morphology and phylogeny of two new species of Sphaeromyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from marine fish (Clinidae and Trachichthyidae).  

PubMed

Our survey of marine fish from South Africa and Indonesia revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa for which we provide morphological and sequence data. Sphaeromyxa clini n. sp. detected in three Clinus spp. and Muraenoclinus dorsalis from South Africa is morphologically similar to Sphaeromyxa noblei previously described from Heteroclinus whiteleggii from Australia and to several other sphaeromyxids with arcuate spores and rounded ends. This similarity is reflected by phylogenetic positioning of S. clini n. sp. which clusters within the 'incurvata' group of the Sphaeromyxa clade. It differs from morphologically similar species by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. Sphaeromyxa limocapitis n. sp., described from Gephyroberyx darwinii from Java, is morphologically similar to sphaeromyxids with straight spores and to marine Myxidium species with spindle-shaped spores but differs from them by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. S. limocapitis n. sp. represents a separate lineage of the Sphaeromyxa clade and appears to be a missing link in the evolution of sphaeromyxids. PMID:25417699

Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Kuchta, Roman; Reed, Cécile C

2015-04-01

373

Understanding origins of present-day genetic structure in marine fish: biologically or historically driven patterns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the origin of genetic structure is of wide interest because of its use in stock discrimination in marine organisms. Schematically, genetic differentiation can result from historical patterns maintained over geological time or from present-day isolation attributable to biological characteristics of the species. We used a comparative approach to population genetic analysis based on allozyme polymorphism to determine the impact

C. Fauvelot; S. Planes

2002-01-01

374

Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

375

Ocean Space Utilization In Marine Biosphere: Concept For Revitalizing A Fishing Field In Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, almost all of the concept studies been aiming at an improvement of the social system have been plans of a land replacing method, that is, to install arL zrtificipl pedestal on the ocean. In this treatise, giving a remark on the iter-marine organism system and persuing a method of reproduction, we have such a proposition of the unique

Tetsuo Suzuki; Chome Matsumoto

1991-01-01

376

Survival during the larval and ju-venile stages of marine fishes is  

E-print Network

red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in a subtropical estuary* Jay R. Rooker Scott A. Holt G. Joan Holt Lee Aransas, Texas 78373 Present address (for J. R. Rooker): Department of Marine Biology Texas A&M University 5007 Avenue U Galveston, Texas 77551 E-mail address (for J. R. Rooker): rookerj

377

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

378

Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293), proliferation (HEK293 and ASK), apoptosis (ASK), oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293), and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK). DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA) or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA). However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg. PMID:22654480

Nøstbakken, O. J.; Bredal, I. L.; Olsvik, P. A.; Huang, T. S.; Torstensen, B. E.

2012-01-01

379

How to detect polymorphisms undergoing selection in marine fishes? A review of methods and case studies, including flatfishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of marine organisms are potentially affected by numerous selective pressures such as temperature and salinity, or anthropogenic pressures such as xenobiotics that may preclude adaptation to particular habitats. Such selective pressures may also affect their demography. Examples include modifications of the population dynamics through shifts in growth rate, and in life history traits affecting fitness such as size or age of first reproduction. However, the documentation of variation in phenotypically plastic traits specific to distinct environments cannot be taken as the ultimate proof that natural selection has occurred. Measurement of the impact of selection and subsequent local adaptation of fish populations based exclusively on morphological or physiological characters is one of the most difficult things to achieve because it depends on the use of phenotypic characters that closely match the genotype. Molecular markers can help to overcome this problem and, under some circumstances, can record the footprints of selection. A combination of polymorphisms that are under selection and those that are not can provide complementary information. In this paper, we review how and why selection can be detected at the molecular level, using genetic markers analysed in a population genetic framework. We then report and discuss case studies in fish.

Guinand, Bruno; Lemaire, Christophe; Bonhomme, François

2004-05-01

380

Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (? 13C), nitrogen (? 15N) and sulphur (? 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

2008-04-01

381

[Residues and health risk assessment of sulfonamides in sediment and fish from typical marine aquaculture regions of Guangdong Province, China].  

PubMed

Concentrations of sulfonamides including sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidin (SM2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in sediments, muscle and liver tissues of 7 kinds of fish species collected from two marine aquaculture regions along the coast of Guangdong Provice were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a ultraviolet detector. Assessment of the health risks were conducted based on the values of maximum residue limits (MRL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results showed that sulfonamides were found in all the sediment samples. The concentrations (dry wet) ranged from 2.1 - 35.2 ng x g(-1), the detected frequency of the 3 sulfonamide antibiotics ranked as SDZ (85.7%) > SM2 (71.4%) > SMX (28.6%). The detection rate of sulfonamides in samples from Daya Bay was higher than that from Hailing Island. Higher concentrations were detected in liver tissues rather than in muscle tissues (P < 0.05). The residues of SDZ, SM2 and SMX in fish muscle tissues (wet weight) ranged from 11.6-37.9, 16.3-27.8 and 4.9-20.0 ng x g(-1), respectively. The calculated daily intakes of sulfonamides in the present study ranged from 3.37-36.72 ng x kg(-1), which accounted for 0.007% -0.073% of the ADI (50 microg x kg(-1)). Health risks to human body were negligible as the estimated intake was less than 1% ADI, therefore the security of dietary was high. PMID:25244861

He, Xiu-Ting; Wang, Qi; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Yong-Tao; Cheng, Zhang

2014-07-01

382

Prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in Danish marine fishes and its occurrence in new host species.  

PubMed

In order to analyse the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the marine waters around Denmark, staff from the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research participated in 5 research cruises during 1998 to 2002 as a follow-up to 4 research cruises performed in 1996 to 1997. In total, 16,655 fish were examined virologically as 3569 samples. Forty fish species and 3 invertebrate species were represented. VHSV was isolated from 133 samples representing 8 species: herring Clupea harengus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, dab Limanda limanda, flounder Platichthys flesus, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, cod Gadus morhua, sand eel Ammodytes sp. and sand goby Pomatochistus minutus. Calculations showed that VHSV was more prevalent in the Baltic Sea in an area between Zealand and the island of Bornholm and the waters surrounding Bornholm than in the Kattegat, Skagerrak and along the North Sea coast of Denmark. This is the first report on the isolation of VHSV from dab, flounder and plaice and the first publication on VHSV from sand eel from Europe and sand goby. PMID:16231640

Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

2005-09-01

383

Application of mercury isotopes for tracing trophic transfer and internal distribution of mercury in marine fish feeding experiments.  

PubMed

Feeding experiments were performed to investigate mercury (Hg) isotope fractionation during trophic transfer and internal distribution of total Hg (THg) in marine fish on exposure to natural seafood. Young-of-the-year amberjack (Seriola dumerili) were fed with either blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus; 2647 ng/g THg) or brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus; 25.1 ng/g THg) for 80 d or 50 d, respectively, and dissected for muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and blood. After 30 d of tuna consumption, Hg isotopes (?(202) Hg and ?(199)Hg) of the amberjack organs shifted to the tuna value (?(202)Hg = 0.55‰, ?(199)Hg = 1.54‰,), demonstrating the absence of Hg isotope fractionation. When amberjack were fed a shrimp diet, there was an initial mixing of the amberjack organs toward the shrimp value (?(202)Hg = -0.48‰, ?(199)Hg = 0.32‰), followed by a cessation of further shifts in ?(199)Hg and a small shift in ?(202)Hg. The failure of ?(199)Hg to reach the shrimp value can be attributed to a reduction in Hg bioaccumulation from shrimp resulting from feeding inhibition and the ?(202)Hg shift can be attributed to a small internal fractionation during excretion. Given that the feeding rate and Hg concentration of the diet can influence internal Hg isotope distribution, these parameters must be considered in biosentinel fish studies. PMID:23787815

Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Chirby, Michelle A; Chesney, Edward J

2013-10-01

384

Short-term dissolved oxygen patterns in sub-tropical mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO concentrations suitable for aquatic organisms (such as fish) persisted for only a relatively small period during the tide (?1 h), with hypoxic conditions for the remainder. This combination of conditions is favourable to immature mosquitoes.

Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus

2013-10-01

385

Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine life is being affected by changes in ocean conditions resulting from changes in climate and chemistry triggered by combustion of fossil fuels. Shifting spatial distributions of fish species is a major observed and predicted impact of these oceanographic changes, and such shifts may modify fish community structure considerably in particular locations and regions. We projected future range shifts of pelagic marine fishes of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas by 2050 relative to the present. We combined published data, expert knowledge, and pelagic fish survey data to predict current species distribution ranges of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas that occur in the epipelagic zone and are well-represented in pelagic fish surveys. These represent a wide spectrum of sub-tropical to sub-polar species, with a wide range of life history characteristics. Using projected ocean condition changes from three different Earth System Models, we simulated changes in the spatial distribution of each species. We show that Northeast Pacific shelf seas may undergo considerable changes in the structure of its pelagic marine communities by mid-21st century. Ensembles of model projections suggest that the distribution centroids of the studied species are expected to shift poleward at an average rate of 30.1 ± 2.34 (S.E.) km decade-1 under the SRES A2 scenario from 2000 to 2050. The projected species range shifts result in a high rate of range expansion of this group of species into the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. Rate of range contraction of these species is highest at the Aleutian Islands, and in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We also predict increasing dominance of warmer water species in all regions. The projected changes in species assemblages may have large ecological and socio-economic implications through mismatches of co-evolved species, unexpected trophic effects, and shifts of fishing grounds. These results provide hypotheses of climate change impacts that can be tested using data collected by monitoring programmes in the region.

Cheung, William W. L.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Okey, Thomas A.; Pauly, Daniel

2015-01-01

386

Comparative Growth, Mortality, and Energetics of Marine Fish Larvae: Temperature and Implied  

E-print Network

, mortality rates. larval stage durations, gross growth efficien- cies, and oxygen uptakes were considered and mortality rates each increased approximately 0.01 per °C increase in temperature. But and dynamic constraints in the larval stage. Variability in growth and mortality rates of ma- rine fish larvae

387

Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths  

PubMed Central

No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400–11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000–8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

Yancey, Paul H.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Jamieson, Alan

2014-01-01

388

Anisakis infestation in marine fish and cephalopods from Galician waters: an updated perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2,673 fresh specimens of cephalopod and fish representing 35 species were obtained from commercial local fisheries in Galician waters (NW Spain). They were examined for anisakid nematodes by digestion of the muscle and elution of the viscera and whole body cavity. All larval nematodes recovered were identified by light microscopy and multilocus electrophoresis as belonging to the

E. Abollo; C. Gestal; S. Pascual

2001-01-01

389

EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A MARINE FISH, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...

390

Spatio-temporal variability of richness estimators: coastal marine fish communities as examples.  

PubMed

We assessed the performance of two estimators of species richness, the Chao2 and the Coleman 'random placement curve'. Using a dataset of intertidal fish from the Norwegian Skagerrak coast, we found that Chao2 was effective for low sampling intensity, often reaching asymptotic values for few samples, but for higher sampling intensity the performance deteriorated. For large samples, the Coleman random placement curve was more effective than the Chao2 estimates when comparing spatio-temporal patterns of species richness. Spatial patterns were clearly and consistently identified by both methods, whereas the coastal fish communities displayed too much variability in the early summer for any sensible measure of temporal patterns of fish-species richness to be made. To control for spurious results due to systematic differences in mean abundance of the samples the analyses were performed also on data standardised by the number of individuals in the samples, without any significant change in the results. We conclude that modest sampling effort is sufficient to characterise spatial patterns of coastal fish-species richness, while a detailed and high-precision description of seasonal patterns could not be obtained with any reasonable sampling effort. PMID:15800740

Lekve, Kyrre; Ellingsen, Kari E; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2005-06-01

391

Total and organic mercury in marine fish of the upper gulf of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury compounds are utilized on a large scale both in industry and agriculture. Mercury from industrial wastes accumulate in soil and water, and may be translocated to the aquatic environment, which in turn becomes a source of contamination of fish. The ability of some micro-organisms to methylate inorganic mercury to the more biologically stable alkyl forms and the more toxic

Varavit Cheevaparanapivat; Piamsak Menasveta

1979-01-01

392

Characterization of lipid spray beads for delivery of glycine and tyrosine to early marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid spray beads (LSB) composed singly or of mixtures of trilaurin, methyl palmitate (MP), menhaden stearine (MS), spermaceti and coconut oil were prepared and their performances were compared for delivering glycine and tyrosine to the early stages of fish larvae. Measures of performances of LSB included inclusion (IE), encapsulation (EE), retention (RE) and delivery efficiencies (DE) in addition to T50

Umur Önal; Chris Langdon

2004-01-01

393

On the spot: the absence of predators reveals eyespot plasticity in a marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyespots have long been thought to confer protection against predators, but empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of these markings and their survival value in the wild is limited. Using a mark--recapture experiment, I examined the functional significance of the eyespot on the dorsal fin of a juvenile tropical fish to its survival on coral reefs. None of the juveniles recaptured

Monica Gagliano

2008-01-01

394

Imaginative solutions by marine organisms for drag reduction Frank E. Fish  

E-print Network

improvements in design which have culminated in adaptations for high speed and efficiency [4, 5]. Because with the same physical laws that regulate their design and behavior. Many animals demonstrate high levels of submarine boat, which appeared (as far as I could judge) like a huge fish of steel. (Jules Verne, Twenty

Fish, Frank

395

Marine Game Fish Tournament Data Published u.s. Fisheries Gain at ICNAF Meeting  

E-print Network

/NMFS Developments All major United States proposals be- fore the International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic-nation body was called at the request of Canada and the United States to obtain reduction of fishing ef- fort States." The Commission acted to: I) reduce substantially the 1976 overall catch quota for all finfish

396

Engineering and functional properties of protein powders from underutilized marine fish and by-products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel processing methods are needed to convert seafood by-products into marketable products. Protein derived from seafood by-products can have a range of good functional properties and can potentially be used as binders and emulsifiers. Functional properties of fish proteins are related to their phy...

397

Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

1996-10-01

398

The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 ?m bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

2013-11-01

399

Continuous water vapor isotopic composition observations in the sub-tropical North Atlantic (Bermuda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We installed an autonomous continuous water vapor isotope monitoring station in Bermuda (Tudor Hill) (32.26 N 64.86 W) in November 2011 with the aim of understanding the processes of the marine atmospheric boundary layer giving rise to the isotope fingerprint in the water vapor. Similarly we installed a station running in parallel on the south coast of Iceland (63.83 N 21.47W) with the aim of studying moisture advection processes between the two stations. The isotope monitoring station in Bermuda consists of a Picarro Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer together with an autonomous calibration system, which allows for unmanned operation periods of several months. The system automatically performs calibration every 6 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the d-excess in the water vapor. We present comparison between our observed high-resolution isotopic composition record and nudged simulations using three isotope-enabled atmosphere general circulation models (AGCM), ECHAM5-wiso, LMDZiso and isoGCM. This allows for a direct validation of the isotopic simulation in the AGCM. We find that there is good agreement between the observed and modeled variations in absolute humidity and d18O. This gives us confidence in the models providing a correct representation of the large-scale atmospheric circulation pattern. However, the nudged simulations are not able to reproduce the same observed magnitude of the d-excess variation. We interpret this as a misrepresentation of marine atmosphere boundary layer physical processes. The continuous monitoring of the water vapor isotopic composition makes it possible to have high resolution observations of the isotope fingerprint for different air masses: we observe d-excess variations from 0 o/oo to 30 o/oo occurring in a few hours as cold fronts pass over the site. Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] described how the d-excess in the marine atmosphere boundary water vapor should depend on the relative humidity. Despite this assumption being crucial in isotopic modeling this has not been extensively tested until now and never at such a high frequency. Our high-frequency isotope measurements support this assumption albeit with minor caveats.

Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Sveinbjörnsdottir, Arny E.; Werner, Martin; Risi, Camille; Yoshimura, Kei; Peters, Andrew; Rosset, Julianne

2013-04-01

400

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

2013-08-01

401

Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish  

PubMed Central

The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO2-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity. PMID:19188596

Munday, Philip L.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Devitsina, Galina V.; Døving, Kjell B.

2009-01-01

402

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants. PMID:23817947

Jiménez, Jaime E; Arriagada, Aldo M; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Camus, Patricio A; Avila-Thieme, M Isidora

2013-08-01

403

Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: non-essential versus essential.  

PubMed

Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe. PMID:23017951

Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

2012-12-01

404

Comparative utilization of shallow water habitats at Galveston, Texas by immature marine fish  

E-print Network

nurseries for larger juveniles of offshore spawners in winter and spring. Larvae of resi- dent gobies and bay anchovy dominated marsh ichthyoplankton during late spring and summer. H''ghest total number of immature fish was collected at the tideflat... of taxa. Diversity index' Community composition. 40 4S 52 Winter 52 Spring 52 Summer 56 Fall. Gulf menhaden ? (Brevoortia patronus). . 57 Bay anchovy ? (Anchoa mitchilli), 72 Spot ? (Leiostomus xanthurus) 85 Naked goby ? (Gobiosoma bosci). 100...

Guillen, George Joseph

1983-01-01

405

Marine fish oils are not equivalent with respect to B-cell membrane organization and activation.  

PubMed

We previously reported that docosahexaenoic-acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (DFO) feeding altered B-cell membrane organization and enhanced B-cell function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether menhaden oil (MO) and eicosapentaenoic-acid (EPA)-enriched fish oil (EFO) alters B-cell function/phenotype similarly. Mice were fed control (CON), MO, EFO or DFO diets for 5weeks. We evaluated the fatty acid composition of B-cell phospholipids, membrane microdomain organization, ex vivo B-cell functionality and in vivo B-cell subsets. Red blood cells and B cells were found to be strongly (r>0.85) and significantly (P<.001) correlated for major n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Compared to CON, MO and DFO resulted in decreased clustering of membrane microdomains, whereas EFO increased clustering. All fish oil treatments had 1.12-1.60 times higher CD40 expression following stimulation; however, we observed 0.86 times lower major histocompatibility complex class II expression and 0.7 times lower interleukin (IL)-6 production from EFO, but 3.25 times higher interferon-? from MO and 1.5 times higher IL-6 from DFO. By 90min of incubation, MO had 1.11 times higher antigen uptake compared to CON, whereas EFO was 0.86 times lower. All fish oil treatments resulted in decreasingly mature splenic and bone marrow B-cell subsets. We conclude that diets high in n-3 LCPUFAs may elicit similar B-cell phenotypes but different organizational and functional outcomes. More specifically, these data suggest that the EPA and DHA content of a diet influences immunological outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding how specific n-3 LCPUFAs modulate B-cell development and function. PMID:25616447

Gurzell, Eric A; Teague, Heather; Duriancik, David; Clinthorne, Jonathan; Harris, Mitchel; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fenton, Jenifer I

2015-04-01

406

Influence of marine reserves on reef fish recruitment in the upper Florida Keys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper Florida Keys was monitored monthly for 7 years (2003-2009) to establish a baseline and test whether recruitment varied between reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruits <30 days old were surveyed in two primary habitat types (reef and rubble) in each of two replicate reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruitment of all fish species peaked in the summer and early fall; winter recruitment was consistently low. Some interannual recruitment patterns were roughly similar among species, with recruitment generally lower in 2004 for several taxa, possibly reflecting a system-wide process. During 7 peak recruitment months each year, overall recruitment to reef habitat was significantly higher in non-reserve sites in 2 of 7 years. In contrast, recruitment to rubble habitat was significantly higher in reserves in 3 of 7 years. Specific fish taxa had variable patterns of recruitment to reserves and non-reserves: Despite high interannual variation in recruitment magnitude, Scaridae (parrotfish) densities were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves. Densities of two abundant goby taxa ( Gnatholepis thompsoni and Coryphopterus spp.) were also higher in reserves than in non-reserves, but the magnitude varied among years. Recruitment of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, did not differ consistently between reserves and non-reserves. Densities of Thalassoma bifasciatum had an opposite trend relative to other taxa, with densities typically higher in non-reserves than in reserves (in 6 of 7 years; significant in only 2 years). Higher recruit densities (scarids, gobies, and all rubble taxa together) within reserves were coupled with significantly lower densities of intermediate-sized piscivores and significantly greater cover of Dictyota spp. macroalgae and turfs relative to non-reserves. Reserves may be areas of relative refuge from predation for some fish recruits due to a combination of reduced predator abundance and enhanced small-scale structural habitat.

Sponaugle, S.; Walter, K. D.; Grorud-Colvert, K.; Paddack, M. J.

2012-09-01

407

Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

1979-01-01

408

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

409

Impact of a flood event on benthic and pelagic coupling in a sub-tropical east Australian estuary (Brunswick)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the impact of a 1:3 year return period flood on benthic and pelagic coupling in the river-dominated sub-tropical Brunswick Estuary. The flood had a significant impact on the study site flushing it with freshwater, reducing the flushing time 0.6 days, increasing nutrient concentrations in the water column and scouring the sediment surface. In the three weeks post-flood the benthic and pelagic systems alternated between being coupled and un-coupled via dissolved, particulate and living material pathways. Immediately post-flood benthic and pelagic coupling via the deposition of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells was reduced due to the scouring of the top sediment layers, and benthic respiration and productivity and NH 4+ effluxes all decreased correspondingly. In contrast, benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake and denitrification of NO 3- due to elevated NO 3- concentrations in the water column. Some of the NO 3- consumed by the sediments may have also been converted to DON. Two weeks post-flood benthic and pelagic coupling was significantly enhanced via the deposition of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells associated with a phytoplankton bloom in the water column. This increased supply of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells rapidly increased benthic respiration and productivity and NH 4+ efflux. The depletion of water column DIN by the phytoplankton bloom resulted in a de-coupling of the benthic and pelagic systems via the uptake and denitrification of NO 3-. However, benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake of NH 4+ by benthic microalgae. Three weeks post-flood the phytoplankton bloom had collapsed and the coupling between the benthic and pelagic systems via the deposition of phyto-detritus and living algal cells had diminished. Again benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake and denitrification of NO 3- due to elevated NO 3- concentrations in the water column associated with the recycling of bloom material. Overall the sediments became less heterotrophic (increasing benthic productivity/respiration ratio) following the flood. Floods can cause rapid and complex changes in the coupling between benthic and pelagic systems in sub-tropical estuaries.

Eyre, Bradley D.; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

2006-01-01

410

Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

1993-10-01

411

Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish  

PubMed Central

Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km3 lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

Mackey, Benjamin H.; Roering, Joshua J.; Lamb, Michael P.

2011-01-01

412

Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish.  

PubMed

Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P

2011-11-22

413

Biological weighting of ultraviolet (280–400?nm) induced mortality in marine zooplankton and fish. I. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, productivity-determining biophysical interactions occur in the upper 0 to 30?m of the\\u000a water column. The eggs and larvae of several commercially important marine invertebrates and fishes (e.g. Gadus morhua L.) are found in this layer. Measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficients for ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 320?nm,\\u000a UV-B) at various locations in this

J. H. M. Kouwenberg; H. I. Browman; J. J. Cullen; R. F. Davis; J.-F. St-Pierre; J. A. Runge

1999-01-01