Science.gov

Sample records for sub-tropical marine fish

  1. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates may thus contribute not only to the mud-fraction of marine carbonates, but also to the fine sand fraction as intergrown particles, and to the fine to coarse sand fractions as intact and partially intact pellets. These experimental data indicate that hydrodynamic regimes local to sites of excretion will influence the generation of carbonates with different size fraction ranges. Rapid pellet disaggregation is more likely in high energy settings, hypothesised to result in redistribution of liberated mud-grade particles to lower energy platform-top settings and/or off-platform. In contrast, pellets excreted in lower energy settings are more likely to be preserved intact, and are thus proposed as a previously unrecognised source of pelletal and peloidal carbonate sediments.

  2. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  3. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2015-09-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Güimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (? 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  4. The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

    2012-12-01

    The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

  5. DNA barcoding Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Lakra, W S; Verma, M S; Goswami, M; Lal, K K; Mohindra, V; Punia, P; Gopalakrishnan, A; Singh, K V; Ward, R D; Hebert, P

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been adopted as a global bio-identification system for animals in recent years. A major national programme on DNA barcoding of fish and marine life was initiated in India by the authors during 2006 and 115 species of marine fish covering Carangids, Clupeids, Scombrids, Groupers, Sciaenids, Silverbellies, Mullids, Polynemids and Silurids representing 79 Genera and 37 Families from the Indian Ocean have been barcoded for the first time using cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) of the mtDNA. The species were represented by multiple specimens and a total of 397 sequences were generated. After amplification and sequencing of 707 base pair fragment of COI, primers were trimmed which invariably generated a 655 base pair barcode sequence. The average Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera, families, orders were 0.30%, 6.60%, 9.91%, 16.00%, respectively. In addition to barcode-based species identification system, phylogenetic relationships among the species have also been attempted. The neighbour-joining tree revealed distinct clusters in concurrence with the taxonomic status of the species. PMID:21429101

  6. Therapeutic drugs: healing power of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Sampath Kumar, N S; Satya Vijaya Kumar, N; Jaiganesh, R

    2012-01-01

    Marine fish is a major source of high-quality protein, lipids, and a wide variety of vitamins and minerals. These macromolecules and their derivatives show different pharmacological activities, which make the fish as a therapeutic diet. Modern technology has made it easy to explore the therapeutic importance of fish-based diet on cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, radicals-mediated diseases, and cancer. In this review, we focus on exploration of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and their derivatives from marine fish as a major source for bioactive compounds and their medicinal importance. PMID:22361194

  7. SCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002

    E-print Network

    Love, Milton

    to recreational fishing only when there is clear demonstration that recreational anglers contribute to overfishingSCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002 RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS IN CALIFORNIA DONNA M. SCHROEDER AND MILTON S. LOVE Marine

  8. Introduction Tropical marine fish species, such

    E-print Network

    10 Introduction Tropical marine fish species, such as groupers, are generally consid- ered many grouper stocks below sus- tainable levels and eliminated them from much of their historic range, abundance, biology, and harvest of these populations. Caribbean groupers include a vari- ety of species

  9. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, J A

    2000-08-24

    Overexploitation and subsequent collapse of marine fishes has focused attention on the ability of affected populations to recover to former abundance levels and on the degree to which their persistence is threatened by extinction. Although potential for recovery has been assessed indirectly, actual changes in population size following long-term declines have not been examined empirically. Here I show that there is very little evidence for rapid recovery from prolonged declines, in contrast to the perception that marine fishes are highly resilient to large population reductions. With the possible exception of herring and related species that mature early in life and are fished with highly selective equipment, my analysis of 90 stocks reveals that many gadids (for example, cod, haddock) and other non-clupeids (for example, flatfishes) have experienced little, if any, recovery as much as 15 years after 45-99% reductions in reproductive biomass. Although the effects of overfishing on single species may generally be reversible, the actual time required for recovery appears to be considerable. To exempt marine fishes from existing criteria used to assign extinction risk would be inconsistent with precautionary approaches to fisheries management and the conservation of marine biodiversity. PMID:10972288

  10. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  11. Oregon Sea Grant Marine Education Program at Hatfield Marine Science Center Fish Dissection

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Oregon Sea Grant Marine Education Program at Hatfield Marine Science Center Fish Dissection The Fish Dissection program at Hatfield Marine Science Center is a 50-minute hands-on program for 4th through 12th grade students. Students will work in small groups as they examine a variety of fish, study

  12. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000?km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2?t?ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45?t?ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  13. Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    is that marine fishes may be less vulnerable to extinction than other taxa, because of great natural variabilityConservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of extinction risk Jeffrey A. Hutchings Abstract: Quantitative criteria used to assign species to categories

  14. Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

    2013-06-01

    This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139

  15. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  16. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  17. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...0907301201-91203-01] RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish and fish products to the United States, and other...

  18. Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. W.; Millero, F. J.; Taylor, J. R.; Walsh, P. J.; Christensen, V.; Jennings, S.; Grosell, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marine fish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marine fish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle.

  19. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SODIUM 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

  20. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF MARINE FISHES IN FOUR SHORES HABITATS

    E-print Network

    OCCURRENCE OF MARINE FISHES IN FOUR SHORE HABITATS NEAR BEAUFORT, N. C, 1957-60 By Marlin E. Tagatz BEAUFORT, N. C, 1957-60 by Marlin E. Tagatz and Donnie L. Dudley U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau (1905), Coles (1910), Gudger (1910, 1912a, 1912b, Note.--Marlin E. Tagatz, Fishery Research Biologist

  1. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širovi?, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  2. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  3. Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre: Biology of Marine Fishes Lecturer: Dr. T. E. Reimchen

    E-print Network

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    of intertidal and sub-tidal ecology. Generalized outline of lecture/discussion topics General anatomy and Evolution, Science, Nature, Evolution, etc. for topics discussed in lectures Labs: Labs will examine external and internal anatomy of fishes, identification and functional morphology of marine fishes

  4. Survey of Anisakis larvae in marine fish of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D

    1985-09-01

    A survey on the prevalence and intensity of larval anisakid infection in some species of marine fishes sold in the markets at Tan-shui in northern Taiwan was carried out from May to August 1980. The general infection rate was 37.7% with an average of 14.2 larvae per fish. A total of 13 species of examined fishes were found with Anisakis larvae, these were Argyrosomus argentatus, Caranx djeddaba, Diploprion bifasciatum, Evynnis cardinalis, Lethrinus haematopterus, Megalops cyprinoides, Nemipterus virgatus, Paraplagusia formosana, Plectorhinchus pictus, Rastrelliger chrysozonus, Saurida tumbil, Scolopsis vosmeri, and Trichiurus haumela. The highest intensity of Anisakis larvae was obtained in E. cardinalis with an average of 80.3 larvae per fish; the next was in N. virgatus (76.2 larvae/fish). The parasite could not be found in the other 20 species of fishes examined. PMID:3833830

  5. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish

    PubMed Central

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  6. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  7. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 216 RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries..., in order to provide additional opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish...

  8. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography, B3H 4J1 Canada Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when

  9. Illegal shark fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n

    E-print Network

    Illegal shark fishing in the Gala´pagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n , Adrian C. Stier c´pagos Shark fishing Marine reserves Conservation Enforcement Illegal a b s t r a c t Illegal shark fishing is thought to occur globally, including within so-called ``shark sanctuaries'', marine reserves and even

  10. Nutritional Properties of Recreationally Caught Marine Fishes

    E-print Network

    ). For low calorie diets (as for weight re duction), species of fish in category A are especially desirable because they have a low calorie content (low oil-lower than most meats), but as high a protein content

  11. Marine natural resource managers must define essential fish habitat

    E-print Network

    293 Marine natural resource managers must define essential fish habitat (EFH) for federally managed Fisheries Service, NOAA. Abstract--Defining types of seafloor substrate and relating them successive pings in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. A noteworthy drawback with the pro- cessing

  12. Protect marine life while fishing..... Immediately report injured,

    E-print Network

    : Serious and even fatal injures to marine life from fishing gear are on the rise. You can help prevent these injuries and damage to your gear by following these tips: Help support research and report your sawfish catch to: 1-941-255-7403 Florida Museum of Natural HistoryHubbs-SeaWorld Design: www

  13. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Proposed Permit AGENCY...that incidental taking from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback...et seq.) in the course of commercial fishing operations if NMFS determines...

  14. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction...regulations by permanently continuing nighttime fishing restrictions of medium mesh gillnets operating...repeated here. Nighttime Medium Mesh Gillnet Fishing Restrictions in North Carolina This...

  15. 77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction...permanently continuing medium mesh gillnet fishing restrictions in North Carolina coastal...expiration date to continue current nighttime fishing restrictions of medium mesh gillnets...

  16. 77 FR 11493 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations, no TRP is required...mammals incidental to commercial fishing. With issuance of this notice...Marine Mammals Incidental to Fishing Operations...stock. Hi shallow-set (swordfish II Humpback whale, CNP...

  17. Contrasting "Fish" Diversity Dynamics between Marine and Freshwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel

    2015-08-31

    Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe long-term dynamics of diversification: the equilibrium model considers the Earth as a closed system with a fixed maximum biological carrying capacity, whereas the expansion model hypothesizes a continuously increasing diversification of life. Based on the analysis of the fossil record of all organisms, Benton suggested contrasting models of diversity dynamics between marine and continental realms. Diversity in marine environments is characterized by phases of rapid diversification followed by plateaux, i.e., an equilibrium model directly derived from insular biogeography theories, whereas diversity in continental environments is characterized by exponential growth. Previous studies that aimed at testing these models with empirical data were based on datasets extracted directly from the reading of the vagaries of the raw fossil record, without correcting for common fossil record biases (preservation and sampling). Although correction of datasets for the incompleteness of the fossil record is now commonly performed for addressing long-term biodiversity variations, only a few attempts have been made to produce diversity curves corrected by phylogenetic data from extant and extinct taxa. Here we show that phylogenetically corrected diversity curves for "fish" (actinopterygians and elasmobranchs) during the last 200 million years fit an equilibrium model in the marine realm and an expansion model in the freshwater realm. These findings demonstrate that the rate of diversification has decreased for marine fish over the Cenozoic but is in sharp expansion for freshwater fish. PMID:26279235

  18. Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response

    E-print Network

    Suski, Cory David

    Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air. Keywords: Air exposure; Bonefish; Exercise; Albula vulpes; Ion loss; Marine; Recovery; Stress 1

  19. Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

  20. Genotoxic effects of profenofos on the marine fish, Therapon jarbua.

    PubMed

    Janaki Devi, V; Nagarani, N; Yokesh Babu, M; Vijayalakshimi, N; Kumaraguru, A K

    2012-02-01

    Profenofos (EC(50)) is a persistent and toxic organophosphorus insecticide. Animals get exposed to profenofos via food and water. The present study was designed to explore the genotoxic effect of profenofos in the marine fish. The ubiquitously occurring marine fish, Therapon jarbua, was exposed to profenofos and its effect on DNA was measured using comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay. DNA damage were scored using mean percentage of tail length and compared with the comet classes' viz., 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the first three doses, the (21.5, 43.0 and 86.0 µg L(-1)) comets were observed, of which the mean tail length differed significantly (p?marine environments using Comet assay as an identification tool. We infer that organophosphorus insecticides may be dangerous to the marine lives. PMID:21859359

  1. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. PMID:26321055

  2. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically, asymmetry should be accounted for in future studies based on otolith shape. PMID:26255775

  3. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  4. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  5. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Munday, Philip L; Wittenrich, Matthew L; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y

    2011-12-23

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO(2)-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO(2). Juveniles from ambient CO(2)-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO(2)-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

  6. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Munday, Philip L.; Wittenrich, Matthew L.; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L.; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO2-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO2-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO2. Juveniles from ambient CO2-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO2-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

  7. Marine fish food in the United States and methylmercury risk.

    PubMed

    Chen, David Y; Williams, Vereda J

    2009-04-01

    This paper takes a market-oriented approach to study potential exposure of methylmercury (MeHg) risk to human health from US domestic commercial ocean fish landings (consumption). Information is assembled on MeHg concentration levels of marine species. Landings were examined for 1995-2005. Confined to this seafood source, trends of landings indicating high concentration species (above 0.7 ppm, tilefish, shark, king mackerel and swordfish) were significantly decreased. People bought stable amount of medium MeHg level species (0.3-0.7 ppm, grouper, Spanish mackerel) but less amount of low concentration level species (below 0.3 ppm, catfish, tuna and southern flounder). Based on estimated prices of species and quantities taken it is found that consumers, one crucial link of the entire MeHg risk assessment process, had exhibited awareness of potential MeHg risk in fish and demonstrated in household fish consumption. Information assembled in this paper is insufficient to draw further inference on specific population cohorts more susceptible to potential exposure of MeHg risk. This inquiry may be extended to imported fish in the US for comparison. PMID:19370462

  8. Hindgut Fermentation in Three Species of Marine Herbivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Campbell, Jane; Clements, Kendall D.

    2002-01-01

    Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production have not been measured. Such information is an important prerequisite to understanding the contribution that gut microorganisms make in satisfying the energy needs of the fish. We have estimated the rates of acetate production in the gut of three species of temperate marine herbivorous fish from northeastern New Zealand: Kyphosus sydneyanus (family Kyphosidae), Odax pullus (family Odacidae), and Aplodactylus arctidens (family Aplodactylidae). Ex vivo preparations of freshly caught fish were maintained with their respiratory and circulatory systems intact, radiolabeled acetate was injected into ligated hindgut sections, and gut fluid was sampled at 20-min intervals for 2 h. Ranges for acetate turnover in the hindguts of the studied species were determined from the slope of plots as the log of the specific radioactivity of acetate versus time and pool size, expressed on a nanomole per milliliter per minute basis. Values were 450 to 570 (K. sydneyanus), 373 to 551 (O. pullus), and 130 to 312 (A. arctidens). These rates are comparable to those found in the guts of herbivorous reptiles and mammals. To determine the contribution of metabolic pathways to the fate of acetate, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured in the fore-, mid-, and hindgut sections of the three fish species. Both rates increased from the distal to proximal end of the hindgut, where sulfate reduction accounted for only a small proportion (<5%) of acetate methyl group transformed to CO2, and exceeded methanogenesis from acetate by >50-fold. When gut size was taken into account, acetate uptake from the hindgut of the fish species, determined on a millimole per day per kilogram of body weight basis, was 70 (K. sydneyanus), 18 (O. pullus), and 10 (A. arctidens). PMID:11872490

  9. `Whales eat fish'? Demystifying the myth in the Caribbean marine ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Gerber, Leah R.

    `Whales eat fish'? Demystifying the myth in the Caribbean marine ecosystem Lyne Morissette1 Abstract There has been much recent discussion about the idea that large whales are potential competitors with fisheries for available marine resources. Based on this idea, often referred to as the `whales eat fish

  10. A Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs of the

    E-print Network

    Mcilwain, Jenny

    A Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs of the Central of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs of the Central Visayas, Philippines by the World Bank/Global Environment Facility Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Coral Reef Management

  11. Osmoregulation in marine fish Three distinct strategies for maintaining salt and water

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    2813 Osmoregulation in marine fish Three distinct strategies for maintaining salt and water balanceCl concentrations at approximately d of ambient levels. (3) The most common strategy is osmoregulation, found in all and extra-renal fluid loss to the hypertonic marine environment in hypo-osmoregulating fish was compensated

  12. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Review Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2 to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond , Nicholas B. Goodwin3 and Jeffrey A. Hutchings4 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

  13. Artificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes

    E-print Network

    Osenberg, Craig W.

    ornamental fishes sold in the aquarium trade are collected from their natural habitats. Concerns have beenArtificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental, marine ornamentals ABSTRACT Artificial reefs may provide a useful tool to enhance production of marine

  14. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... receipt of the petition, with a January 29, 2009, deadline for comments (73 FR 75988). NMFS subsequently reopened the comment period from February 4 to March 23, 2009 (74 FR 6010, February 4, 2009). Although the...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  15. Utilization of soybean products in non-salmonid marine fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current feeds for marine finfish are heavily dependend on fish meal and fish oil to meet their critical protein and lipid requirements. Due to the increased demand, uncertain availability, and rising costs of fish meal and oil, however, several ingredients of plant origin have been evaluated as pote...

  16. Encouraging the Use of Underutilized Marine Fishes by Southeastern U.S. Anglers,

    E-print Network

    Encouraging the Use of Underutilized Marine Fishes by Southeastern U.S. Anglers, Part I the factors influ encing the angler's evaluations concerning the desirability of fish that ultimately af over of fishermen dis card, release, or unnecessarily ruin and waste millions of pounds of saltwater fish

  17. Species Identification of Marine Fishes in China with DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbin

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742% among congeners and only 0.319% for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. PMID:21687792

  18. Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Regetz, James; Warner, Robert R

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing realization that the scale and degree of population connectivity are crucial to the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. For marine organisms with complex life cycles, experiences during larval life may influence phenotypic traits, performance, and the probability of postsettlement survival. For a Caribbean reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum) on an oceanic island, we used otolith (ear stone) elemental profiles of lead (Pb) to assign recent settlers to a group that developed in waters elevated in Pb concentrations throughout larval life (i.e., nearshore signature) and a group that developed in waters depleted in Pb (i.e., offshore signature), potentially dispersing from upstream sources across oceanic waters. Larval history influenced early life history traits: offshore developers initially grew slowly but compensated with fast growth upon entering nearshore waters and metamorphosed in better condition with higher energy reserves. As shown in previous studies, local production contributed heavily to settlement: at least 45% of settlers developed nearshore. However, only 23% of survivors after the first month displayed a nearshore otolith profile. Therefore, settlers with different larval histories suffered differential mortality. Importantly, selective mortality was mediated by larval history, in that the postsettlement intensity of selection was much greater for fish that developed nearshore, potentially because they had developed in a less selectively intense larval environment. Given the potential for asymmetrical postsettlement source-based survival, successful spatial management of marine populations may require knowledge of "realized connectivity" on ecological scales, which takes into account the postsettlement fitness of individuals from different sources. PMID:18230727

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

  20. APPARATUS AND METHODS EMPLOYED AT THE MARINE FISH HATCHERY AT FLODEVIG, NORWAY

    E-print Network

    Hatchery. ~ The main point in artificial propagation of marine fishes is to hatch the greatest possible. The spawning pond must be covered to keep out snow, rain, and to some extent, light. Direct sunlight is apt

  1. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...

  3. National Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    California Voluntary Drought Initiative Goals of the Voluntary Drought Initiative NOAA's National Marine salmon and steelhead populations in California during the 2014 drought, while Federal and State droughtNational Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife

  4. 8 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine Fisheries

    E-print Network

    nerka) age and length at seaward migration past Bonneville Dam. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spec8 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine in strams. In E.L. Brannon and E.O. Salo, editors, Salmon and trout migratory behaviour symposium. Allen, R

  5. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of ?13C and ?15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean ?15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted ?15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  6. BIOACCUMULATION OF DDT AND PCB IN TISSUES OF MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes of commercial importance were monitored in New England coastal waters in 1974 to determine whether synthetic organic residues in the fish were large enough to affect the utilization of such fish as food by man or to interfere with their ability to reproduce. About 700 fish...

  7. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  8. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  9. A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate viral infection in 253 wild marine fishes harvested in the southern coastal area of Korea from 2010 to 2012. The fish that were captured by local anglers were randomly bought and sampled for virus examination. The samples were tested for presence of virus by virus isolation with FHM, FSP, and BF-2 cells and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Of the 253 fish sampled, 9 fish were infected with virus. Aquabirnaviruses (ABVs), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) were detected in 7, 1, and 1 fish, respectively. Molecular phylogenies demonstrated the detected viruses (ABV, VHSV, and RSIV) were more closely related to viruses reported of the same type from Korea and Japan than from other countries, suggesting these viruses may be indigenous to Korean and Japanese coastal waters. PMID:24081931

  10. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

  11. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

  12. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

  13. Long-term functional changes in an estuarine fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Baptista, J; Martinho, F; Nyitrai, D; Pardal, M A; Dolbeth, M

    2015-08-15

    The functional diversity of the fish assemblages of the Mondego estuary was studied for a discontinuous 30-year period (1988-2012). During this time, hydrological changes occurred due to man-induced alterations and weather extremes. These changes led to alterations in the structure and function of the fish community. Species richness and functional richness decreased over time and the fish community started to explore new micro-habitats and food resources. Before severe hydrological changes, the community was dominated by pelagic, detritivorous and species with wider salinity ranges. After, the community became dominated by demersal, benthic, piscivorous and marine species. During a drought, omnivorous became increasingly important, reflecting greater possibilities of using available feeding resources. We have also found an increase in sub-tropical species throughout the years, which might be related to gradual temperature increases at a global scale. This study also confirmed estuaries as extremely important for restocking several commercial species. PMID:26093816

  14. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  15. Wintertime observations of SubTropical Mode Water formation within the Gulf Stream

    E-print Network

    Joyce, Terrence M.

    of the Sargasso Sea 1 #12;1. Introduction The SubTropical Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean is called is found within the anticyclonic flow of the Gulf Stream (GS), in the extreme north of the Sargasso Sea using SeaSoar and ADCP reveal that while active mixing by gravitational instabilities is common, large

  16. Simulation of high frequency nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated sub-tropical soils using DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique high temporal frequency dataset from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intens...

  17. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  18. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section...UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section...UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section...UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial...fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?...

  1. Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

    2013-08-01

    With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

  2. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ?2HBCD (?- and ?-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ?2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. PMID:26163486

  3. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  4. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  5. Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  6. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  7. PATTERNS OF LARVAL DRIFT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MARINE SHORE FISHES INFERRED FROM ALWZYME DATA

    E-print Network

    if time and place of spawning are known. However, as such models are generally based on long-term mean-scale patterns among species with markedly different life history features and dispersal capabilities suggests as well as fish) with pelagic larvae. Two characteristics of shallow-water marine organ- isms make

  8. Genetic variation in life-history reaction norms in a marine fish

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Genetic variation in life-history reaction norms in a marine fish Jeffrey A. Hutchings1,*, Douglas and their norms of reaction differ genetically among four populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). These traits failed to detect population structure. Divergent survival reaction norms indicate that warm

  9. Recruitment of marine fishes is highly variable and closely linked to early

    E-print Network

    Rooker, Jay R.

    545 Recruitment of marine fishes is highly variable and closely linked to early life events (Houde, 1996; Cole, 1999). Early life survival is dependent upon several biological and environmen- tal factors of relative abundance (Sano, 1997), whereas estimates of growth and mortality are commonly used to index

  10. A Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs

    E-print Network

    Raymundo, Laurie

    A Survey of Coral Disease Prevalence in Marine Protected Areas and Fished Reefs of the Central Building for Coral Reef Management Project, Coral Disease Working Group June 30, 2006 #12;i Table Visayas Surveys #12;1 Introduction This survey was designed to test the hypothesis that coral reefs

  11. Flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) are a successful group of marine temperate shallow-water fishes with approximately 520

    E-print Network

    Gibb, Alice C.

    Flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) are a successful group of marine temperate shallow-water fishes adaptation to a benthic existence; all mature flatfish have both eyes on one side of their head. This adaptation allows flatfish to lie on the bottom on their eyeless (or blind) side and search the surrounding

  12. Methods of assessing extinction risk in marine fishes Nicholas K Dulvy1

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Methods of assessing extinction risk in marine fishes Nicholas K Dulvy1 , Jim R Ellis1 , Nicholas B of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK Introduction 256 Defining extinction 257 The routes to extinction an important issue in fisheries ecology. There is a need to identify which species are at risk of extinction

  13. Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

  14. AbstractMarine mammal diet is typ ically characterized by identifying fish

    E-print Network

    423 Abstract­Marine mammal diet is typ ically characterized by identifying fish otoliths attempts to identify prey using skel etal remains in addition to beaks and otoliths are an improvement for most taxa when prey structures in addition to otoliths were identified. Estimating prey mass

  15. Choosing an Appropriate Live Feed for Larviculture of Marine Fish 1

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Requirements Fatty Acid Nutrition Marine fish larvae require live feeds that contain essential nutrients at appropriate concentrations. One group of essential nutrients are the fatty acids, organic acids found in animal and vegetable fats and oils. Fatty acids are mainly composed of long chains of hydrocarbons

  16. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  17. Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions be either described as acoustic displacement, particle velocity, or particle acceleration, each of which can

  18. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of Fisheries (75 FR 68468, November 8, 2010) identifies several other species or stocks of marine... from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback whales (75 FR 29984, May 28, 2010... January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2853), and selected team members according to guidance provided in MMPA...

  19. Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2007-03-01

    The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ?45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 ± 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 ± 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 ± 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 ± 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

  20. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  1. A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Cecile C

    2015-01-01

    Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24785716

  2. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-01-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  3. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-02-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  4. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

  5. Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  6. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  7. A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing

    E-print Network

    Malcolm, Stephen

    to fishing William W.L. Cheung *, Tony J. Pitcher, Daniel Pauly Fisheries Centre, The University of British.cheung@fisheries.ubc.ca (W.W.L. Cheung). www.elsevier.com/locate/biocon Biological Conservation 124 (2005) 97­111 BIOLOGICAL of fishing (Pitcher, 1998; Roberts and Hawkins, 1999; Wolff, 2000; Reynolds et al., 2001; Dulvy et al., 2003

  8. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring. PMID:26209126

  9. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  10. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  11. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  12. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodósio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; Ré, P

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  13. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 ?Pa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 ?Pa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased. PMID:22385754

  14. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Pardal, M; Duarte, A; Pereira, E; Palmeira, C M

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this work was to understand the extent of mercury toxic effects in liver metabolism under an episode of acute contamination. Hence, the effects of in vitro mercuric chloride in liver mitochondria were assessed in two commercial marine fish: Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Liver mitochondria were exposed to 0.2mgL(-1) of mercury, the average concentration found in fish inhabiting contaminated areas. Mercuric chloride depressed mitochondrial respiration state 3 and the maximal oxygen consumption in the presence of FCCP indicating inhibitory effects on the oxidative phosphorylation and on the electron transport chain, respectively. The inhibition of F1Fo-ATPase and succinate-dehydrogenase activities also corroborated the ability of mercury to inhibit ADP phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. This study brings new understanding on the mercury levels able to impair fish mitochondrial function, reinforcing the need for further assessing bioenergetics as a proxy for fish health status. PMID:26026249

  15. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  16. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. PMID:24083999

  17. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

  18. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

  19. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  20. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several fields, from fisheries and conservation programs to control of fish products authenticity. PMID:25222272

  1. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  2. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  3. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  4. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  5. Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Graham, M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

  6. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  7. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  8. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  9. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  10. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein. PMID:26546570

  11. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May–June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

  12. Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  13. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  14. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  15. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  16. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  17. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  18. Spatial behavior of two coral reef fishes within a Caribbean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jessica; Mourier, Johann; Lenfant, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the key ecological processes of marine organisms is fundamental to improving design and effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine biodiversity. The movement behavior of coral reef fish is a complex mechanism that is highly linked to species life-history traits, predation risk and food resources. We used passive acoustic telemetry to study monthly, daily and hourly movement patterns and space use in two species, Schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus) and Stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). We investigated the spatial overlap between the two species and compared intra-specific spatial overlap between day and night. Presence-absence models showed different diel presence and habitat use patterns between the two species. We constructed a spatial network of the movement patterns, which showed that for both species when fish were detected by the array of receivers most movements were made around the coral reef habitat while occasionally moving to silt habitats. Our results show that most individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations and habitat types, although individual behavioral changes were observed for some individuals across time. Our study also highlights the necessity to consider multiple species during MPA implementation and to take into account the specific biological and ecological traits of each species. The low number of fish detected within the receiver array, as well as the intraspecific variability observed in this study, highlight the need to compare results across species and individuals to be used for MPA management. PMID:26100078

  19. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Inorganic and Methylmercury in a Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-08-18

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to simulate the uptake, distribution, and elimination of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) in a marine fish, Terapon jarbua. In this model, fish were schematized as a six-compartment model by assuming that blood was the medium linking the exchange between the different compartments. The transfer rates between blood and other compartments were determined during a period of 10-day dietary Hg(II) or MeHg exposure, followed by a 30-day depuration. For both Hg species, the exchange rates between liver and blood were high, indicating that liver served as a "transferring station" in the distribution. Their accumulation in the kidney was relatively constant and low. The carcass (mainly muscle) represented a large sink for both Hg(II) and MeHg with the highest input rate constants and relatively lower output rate constants. Significant differences were observed in the rate constants between the two Hg species, suggesting great variations in their exchange and transportation routes. Modeling simulation for the first time demonstrated that the gill was the most important route in Hg(II) elimination in marine fish, with a rate constant of 0.90 d(-1). A long time frame is needed to study the exact rate of MeHg elimination in marine fish. This study showed that the PBPK modeling provided critical information for the uptake, distribution and elimination of Hg(II) and MeHg in the fish body, especially in elucidating the role of each compartment. PMID:26214348

  20. Organochlorines in Greenland marine fish, mussels and sediments.

    PubMed

    Cleemann, M; Riget, F; Paulsen, G B; Klungsøyr, J; Dietz, R

    2000-01-17

    Shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), polar cod (Boreogadus saida), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sediments were sampled in Greenland 1994-1995 at three locations at the west coast and one at the east coast. Fish liver, mussel soft tissue and sediments were analysed for PCBs (10 congeners), DDTs (pp,'), HCHs (alpha, beta, gamma), HCB and trans-nonachlor. The overall geometric mean concentrations found for PCBs were 17 micrograms kg-1 wet wt. in shorthorn sculpin liver, 33 micrograms kg-1 wet wt. in polar cod liver, and 0.86 microgram kg-1 wet wt. in blue mussels. For the three species, the geometric mean concentrations for DDTs were 11, 36, and 0.39 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; for HCHs: 8.7, 32 and 0.56 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; for HCB: 4.2, 11 and 0.06 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; and for trans-nonachlor: 6.3, 19 and 0.16 microgram kg-1 wet wt., respectively. All organochlorines in the sediment samples were below the detection limit of 0.1 microgram kg-1 dry weight. For sculpins and mussels, most organochlorine compounds were found to increase with increasing lipid content. The weight of mussels did not influence organochlorine concentrations, whereas organochlorine content in general increased with fish length of sculpins. The concentrations were found to be comparable to levels in other Arctic regions, but orders of magnitude lower than levels found in the southern part of the North Sea. Organochlorine concentrations in sculpins showed a decreasing trend following the ocean current flowing from north to south at the east coast and from south towards north at the west coast of Greenland. The proportion of higher chlorinated PCBs (Cl atoms > or = 6) in sculpin liver followed the decreasing trend of PCB concentrations. PMID:10682358

  1. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a,

    E-print Network

    Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a, , R.D. McCauley b a Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia b Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia a r t i c l e i n f o

  2. Latest Triassic marine sharks and bony fishes from a bone bed preserved in a burrow system, from Devon, UK

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    extinctions and turnovers among sharks (Cappetta, 1987) and marine reptiles (Thorne et al., 2011). In generalLatest Triassic marine sharks and bony fishes from a bone bed preserved in a burrow system, from of extinction, culminating in the end-Triassic mass extinction itself. In the oceans, there were major

  3. Methylmercury and trace elements in the marine fish from coasts of East China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption is an important source of human exposure to heavy metals. To determine the health risks for metals by consumption of marine fish in China, three species of fish, namely large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were collected and analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (T-Hg), selenium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. The large yellow croakers had the highest concentrations of mercury, lead, nickel and zinc, and the levels of MeHg were positively correlated to T-Hg. The ratios of MeHg to T-Hg in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in silver pomfret, indicating differences in accumulation and magnification of MeHg in these two types of fish. The concentration of T-Hg was found to decrease as the Se level in fish tissues increased. Cadmium levels in 16% of the samples were higher than the criterion recommended by the European Commission Regulation. The concentrations of other metals were well below international standards. A human health risk assessment showed that the estimated daily intake of these metals did not exceed the reference dose established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The hazard quotients (HQs) were all less than 1, indicating a situation of no risk for consumption of these fish. PMID:23802158

  4. Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

  5. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for recruitment to the population. An example of adaptation to such conditions is Cape hake spawning above the critical layer in the Northern Benguela upwelling ecosystem. The eggs rise slowly in the onshore subsurface current below the Ekman layer, hence being advected inshore where the hatched larvae concentrate with optimal feeding conditions. PMID:26465149

  6. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  7. Bioconcentration and Elimination of the Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Polycarbamate in Marine Teleost Fish and Polychaete.

    PubMed

    Hano, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the bioconcentration and elimination of polycarbamate, a popular antifoulant classified as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in a marine teleost fish, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), and a polychaete (Perinereis nuntia). Following polycarbamate exposure and depuration, the calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elimination rate constant (k2) were 3.1 and 0.17 day(-1) in fish and 1.5-7.8 and 0.13-0.18 day(-1) in the polychaete, indicating that the fungicide has low bioconcentration potential in both organisms. Given the BCF of 3.1, the permissible environmental concentration level of polycarbamate in water was calculated to be 6.1 µg L(-1) to satisfy the threshold pesticide residue levels in fish permitted by law, which is far below the permissible levels in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Therefore, we consider that the current polycarbamate contamination level in terms of bioconcentration is not likely to be an alarming issue in coastal environments. PMID:25904091

  8. The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-01-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

  9. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Thorrold, Simon R

    2009-04-01

    Networks of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for the conservation of marine biodiversity. But for MPA networks to be successful in protecting marine populations, individual MPAs must be self-sustaining or adequately connected to other MPAs via dispersal. For marine species with a dispersive larval stage, populations within MPAs require either the return of settlement-stage larvae to their natal reserve or connectivity among reserves at the spatial scales at which MPA networks are implemented. To date, larvae have not been tracked when dispersing from one MPA to another, and the relative magnitude of local retention and connectivity among MPAs remains unknown. Here we use DNA parentage analysis to provide the first direct estimates of connectivity of a marine fish, the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), in a proposed network of marine reserves in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Approximately 40% of A. percula larvae settling into anemones in an island MPA at 2 different times were derived from parents resident in the reserve. We also located juveniles spawned by Kimbe Island residents that had dispersed as far as 35 km to other proposed MPAs, the longest distance that marine larvae have been directly tracked. These dispersers accounted for up to 10% of the recruitment in the adjacent MPAs. Our findings suggest that MPA networks can function to sustain resident populations both by local replenishment and through larval dispersal from other reserves. More generally, DNA parentage analysis provides a direct method for measuring larval dispersal for other marine organisms. PMID:19307588

  10. Freshwater fish drink very little, while most marine fish ingest copious amounts of

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    of global CO2 emissions. Until now, scientists have believed that the oceans' calcium carbonate, which that future increases in sea temperature and rising CO2 will cause fish to produce even more calcium carbonate in controlling how easily the ocean will absorb and buffer future increases in atmospheric CO2. This calcium

  11. Fish Bulletin 157. Guide To The Coastal Marine Fishes of California

    E-print Network

    Miller, Daniel J; Lea, Robert N

    1972-01-01

    below. Uncom- mon. SALMON SHARK, Lamna ditropis. Familytwo sharks below and the SALMON SHARK on page 39 FISHES OFsalmon, 38–39 sevengill, 34 sixgill, 34 soupfin, 40 swell, 36–37 tiger, 40 whale, 33, 36–37, 211 white, 38 sharks,

  12. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish samples, collected from Suruga-bay (located on Pacific coast in the middle of Honshu, Japan) showed 1E-10 to 7E-10, which was consistent with that of surface seawater.

  13. Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

    Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

  14. Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

  15. A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

  16. Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species now in northwestern Europe were displaced significantly southwards from the modern distribution, challenging an existing paradigm of marine glacial refugia. The model presents strong evidence that there was an invasion of important fish through the Straits of Gibraltar in glacial times, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations around the western Mediterranean Sea. The ENM results are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. Economically, the approach may be used to understand how the ranges of exploited fish species may be displaced with the future climate warming. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to delimit the glacial refugia and to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on deep-sea core records.

  17. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  19. Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

  20. Are we predicting the actual or apparent distribution of temperate marine fishes?

    PubMed

    Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change--particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km(2) study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

  1. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  2. Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration. PMID:24401080

  3. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    PubMed

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds (e.g. some groupers, emperors, snappers and jacks) or thousands of kilometres (e.g. some sharks and tuna). Larval dispersal distances tend to be <5-15 km, and self-recruitment is common. Synthesising this information allows us, for the first time, to provide species, specific advice on the size, spacing and location of marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management for a range of taxa. We recommend that: (i) marine reserves should be more than twice the size of the home range of focal species (in all directions), thus marine reserves of various sizes will be required depending on which species require protection, how far they move, and if other effective protection is in place outside reserves; (ii) reserve spacing should be <15 km, with smaller reserves spaced more closely; and (iii) marine reserves should include habitats that are critical to the life history of focal species (e.g. home ranges, nursery grounds, migration corridors and spawning aggregations), and be located to accommodate movement patterns among these. We also provide practical advice for practitioners on how to use this information to design, evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of marine reserve networks within broader ecological, socioeconomic and management contexts. PMID:25423947

  4. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

  5. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  6. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  7. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

  8. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2015-04-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the most recent 59-year period (1950-2008) have been identified based on Student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. The global forcing mechanism is described with a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate that examining the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries is a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from longwave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter-wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in global marine fisheries.

  9. A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work. PMID:22558244

  10. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents. PMID:26073800

  11. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  12. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

  13. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  14. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

  15. Comparative analysis of the humoral immunity of skin mucus from several marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Abellán, Emilia; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2014-09-01

    Fish skin mucus contains several immune substances that provide the first line of defence against a broad spectrum of pathogens although they are poorly studied to date. Terminal carbohydrate composition and levels of total IgM antibodies, several immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, proteases and antiproteases) as well as the bactericidal activity (against fish pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio angillarum, Photobacterium damselae and non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shewanella putrefaciens) were identified and measured in the skin mucus of five marine teleosts: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa), common dentex (Dentex dentex) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). First, lectin binding results suggests that skin mucus contain, in order of abundance, N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and fucose residues. Second, results showed that while some immune activities were very similar in the studied fish (e.g. IgM and lysozyme activity) other such as protease, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase, esterase and peroxidase activities varied depending on the fish species. High levels of peroxidase and protease activity were found in U. cirrosa respect to the values obtained in the other species while E. marginatus and S. aurata showed the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities, respectively. Moreover, skin mucus of S. aurata revealed higher bactericidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, contrarily, to what happened with non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis). Thus, study of the variations in the carbohydrate profile and immune-related components of the fish skin mucus could help to understand the fish resistance as well as the presence and distribution of pathogens and magnitude of infections, aspects that are of major importance for the aquaculture industry. PMID:24972341

  16. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  17. Human excretory products of selenium are natural constituents of marine fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Nina; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2015-10-01

    A selenosugar (selenosugar 1, methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-?-D-galactopyranoside) was identified in aqueous extracts of muscle tissue of three marine fish species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and tuna (Thunnus albacares), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry. Selenoneine (2-selenyl-N?, N?, N?-trimethyl-L-histidine), a known selenium compound in fish, was the major form of selenium in the aqueous extracts, and the methylated derivative of selenoneine, namely Se-methylselenoneine, was also identified as a minor natural constituent in the fish. Selenosugar 1, a major urinary excretion product of selenium often found in organs and body fluids related to selenium excretion, has so far not been reported in muscle tissue. Se-methylselenoneine has been proposed as the main urinary metabolite from selenoneine. This first report of selenosugar 1 and Se-methylselenoneine as natural constituents of fish muscle tissue opens up a new perspective on the role of these compounds in selenium metabolism and is relevant to selenium supplementation studies. PMID:26253229

  18. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  19. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. PMID:17465152

  20. Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ? = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

  1. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies. PMID:25808114

  2. Differential seeding and regeneration in openings and beneath closed canopy in sub-tropical wet forest

    SciTech Connect

    Devoe, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in sub-tropical wet forest (tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) type) at El Verde, Puerto Rico. The first compared seed rain beneath closed canopy with that in natural treefall gaps. The purpose was to determine whether differences in seed rain might account for some part of the reported difference in tree regeneration under the two canopy conditions. The second experiment examined regeneration along transects from beneath the forest canopy across large gaps. Plant colonization patterns clearly showed that gaps are non-uniform environments. The correlation of certain attributes (seed weight, dispersal mode, regeneration route, shade tolerance) within species and among groups of species led to the description of regeneration strategies for species in this and similar forest communities. Silvicultural applications are discussed. 33 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through otolith microchemical and electronic tagging approaches. Retentive and dispersive behaviours confer resiliency against early survival conditions that vary spatially. Examples of contingent structure are increasingly numerous for diadromous fishes. Here, a nursery habitat associated with a contingent behaviour may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. For flatfish and other marine fishes, contingent structure is probable but not well documented. Proximate factors leading to contingent structure are poorly known, but for diadromous fishes, time of spawning and early life history energetic thresholds is hypothesized to lead to alternative life cycles. Here again time of spawning may lead to the storage effect by hedging against spatial variance in early vital rates. Managing for the storage effect will be promoted by conservation of adult age structure and early habitats upon which both strong and weak year-classes rely.

  4. Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    The use of historical fishing records to understand relationships between climatic change and fish abundance is limited by the relatively short duration of these records, and complications due to the strong influence of human activity in addition to climatic change. Sedimentary records containing scales, bones or geochemical proxies of variability in fish populations provide unique insights on long-term ecosystem dynamics and relationships with climatic change. Available records from Holocene sediments are summarized and synthesized. The records are from several widespread locations near or along the continental margins of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including Alaska, USA (Pacific salmon), Saanich and Effingham Inlets, British Columbia, Canada (pelagic fish), Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA (Northern anchovies and Pacific sardines), Gulf of California, Mexico (Pacific sardines, Northern anchovies and Pacific hake), Peru upwelling system (sardines, anchovies and hake), and Benguela Current System, South Africa (sardines, anchovies and hake). These records demonstrate that fish population sizes are not constant, and varied significantly over a range of time scales prior to the advent of large-scale commercial fishing. In addition to the decadal-scale variability commonly observed in historical records, the long-term records reveal substantial variability over centennial and millennial time scales. Shifts in abundance are often, but not always, correlated with regional and/or global climatic changes. The long-term perspective reveals different patterns of variability in fish populations, as well as fish-climate relationships, than suggested by analysis of historical records. Many records suggest prominent changes in fish abundance at ca. 1000-1200 AD, during the Little Ice Age, and during the transition at the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century that may be correlative, and that were likely driven by major hemispheric or global reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

  5. Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K.; Wake, Bronwyn D.; Snow, Joseph T.; Honey, David J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Moore, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north–south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial–temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

  6. CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

  7. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  8. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

  9. Stochastic population dynamics and life-history variation in marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Grøtan, Vidar; Aanes, Sondre; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Aanes, Ronny

    2012-09-01

    We examined whether differences in life-history characteristics can explain interspecific variation in stochastic population dynamics in nine marine fish species living in the Barents Sea system. After observation errors in population estimates were accounted for, temporal variability in natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate was negatively related to generation time. Mean natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate were lower in long-lived species than in short-lived species. Thus, important species-specific characteristics of the population dynamics were related to the species position along the slow-fast continuum of life-history variation. These relationships were further associated with interspecific differences in ecology: species at the fast end were mainly pelagic, with short generation times and high natural mortality, annual recruitment, and population growth rates, and also showed high temporal variability in those demographic traits. In contrast, species at the slow end were long-lived, deepwater species with low rates and reduced temporal variability in the same demographic traits. These interspecific relationships show that the life-history characteristics of a species can predict basic features of interspecific variation in population dynamical characteristics of marine fish, which should have implications for the choice of harvest strategy to facilitate sustainable yields. PMID:22854080

  10. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates—fishes—remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

  11. Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Dixson, Danielle L; Endo, Geoff G K

    2009-09-22

    Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO(2) and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50-100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO(2)). CO(2) acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO(2) acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO(2) acidification. Elevated CO(2) and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marine fishes. PMID:19556256

  12. A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

    2011-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

  13. Two new genera and species of cystidicolids (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2010-06-01

    Two new nematode species of the family Cystidicolidae, each representing a new genus, were recovered from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia, South Pacific: Ascarophisnema tridentatum n. gen., n. sp. from the stomach of the Japanese large-eye bream, Gymnocranius euanus (Günther) (Lethrinidae) and Metabronemoides mirabilis n. gen., n. sp. from the stomach of the painted sweetlip, Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae). Ascarophisnema is characterized mainly by its cephalic structures (presence of two tooth-like projections on either side of the base of each pseudolabium, dorsal and ventral inner extensions of each pseudolabium recurved laterally in apical view, and submedian sublabia fused together dorsally and ventrally) and the presence of trident-like deirids, and Metabronemoides by its unique cephalic structures (presence of one dorsal and one ventral labium and four large dorsolateral and ventrolateral labia, and absence of sublabia). Rhabdochona gymnocranius (considered a species inquirenda) is provisionally transferred to the former genus as Ascarophisnema gymnocranius (Yamaguti, 1935) n. comb. To date, a total of seven species of cystidicolids are reported from marine fishes off New Caledonia. PMID:20129064

  14. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare

    E-print Network

    Borges, Rita

    Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case and distribution of several marine fish and inver- tebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci

  15. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish

    PubMed Central

    Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. Results The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Conclusion Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment. PMID:21504921

  16. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-08-18

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

  17. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  18. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

  19. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  20. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  1. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and ?-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  2. Developmental patterns of copper bioaccumulation in a marine fish model Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Green, Iain; Tan, Qiaoguo; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Allometry is known to be an important factor influencing metal bioaccumulation in animals. However, it is not clear whether effects are due to body size per se or changes in physiological traits during the animals' development. We therefore investigated the biokinetics of copper (Cu) and predicted Cu bioaccumulation during the development of a fish model, the marine medaka. The results revealed that the waterborne Cu uptake rate constant decreased and dietary Cu assimilation efficiency increased during development from larvae to adults. Thus, the allometric dependency of the biokinetic parameters in juveniles and adults can not be simply extrapolated to the whole life cycle. The body Cu concentration in the fish was predicted by the biokinetic model, which showed a rapid increase in the larval stage, followed by a slight increase from juveniles to adults, and then a relatively stable plateau in the post-adult stage. Dietary Cu uptake became more important as fish developed from larvae to juveniles, but became less important from juveniles to adults. These findings suggested that the developmental patterns of metal bioaccumulation are driven by an integrated biological/physiological shift through animals' ontogeny rather than a simple allometric dependent change. The developmental changes of metal uptake should be considered in ecological bioassessment and biomonitoring programs. PMID:26675367

  3. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca J; Bellwood, David R; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2-3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  4. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca J.; Bellwood, David R.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2–3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  5. Differential Toxicokinetics Determines the Sensitivity of Two Marine Embryonic Fish Exposed to Iranian Heavy Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Hana; Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-11-17

    Interspecific difference in the developmental toxicity of crude oil to embryonic fish allows the prediction of injury extent to a number of resident fish species in oil spill sites. This study clarifies the comparative developmental effects of Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) on the differences of biouptake and toxic sensitivity between embryonic spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculates) and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). From 24 h after exposure to IHCO, several morphological defects were observed in both species of embryonic fish, including pericardial edema, dorsal curvature of the trunk, developmental delay, and reduced finfolds. The severity of defects was greater in flounder compared to that in sea bass. While flounder embryos accumulated higher embryo PAH concentrations than sea bass, the former showed significantly lower levels of CYP1A expression. Although bioconcentration ratios were similar between the two species for some PAHs, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes showed selectively higher bioconcentration ratios in flounder, suggesting that this species has a reduced metabolic capacity for these compounds. While consistent with a conserved cardiotoxic mechanism for petrogenic PAHs across diverse marine and freshwater species, these findings indicate that species-specific differences in toxicokinetics can be an important factor underlying species' sensitivity to crude oil. PMID:26458192

  6. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs") is therefore more robust. PMID:26297042

  7. Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

  8. Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

  9. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-01-01

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast. PMID:25947787

  10. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential and gap of the sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, T.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    A database of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks was created for the sub-tropical belt using existing global SOC databases (WISE3; various SOTER) and new data from an ongoing project (ERC Africa-GHG) specific for the tropical forests of the African continent. The intent of this database is to evaluate the sequestration potential of a critical area of the world where most of the primary rainforests are located, and actually show undoubtedly high SOC losses associated with deforestation. About 4100 profiles, quite well distributed over the entire sub-tropical belt, were used to calculate the actual SOC stock for the 0-30 cm and 30-100 cm depths of mineral soil. First, this actual SOC stock has been related to the current Land Use Systems; successively, it has been interpolated taking into account Homogeneous Land Units (HLUs) in terms of soil type, climate zone and land use. Then, relying on consistent projections, of both climate and land use changes, for the years 2050 and 2100 under extremes IPCC-SRES emission scenarios such as the B1 and the A2, potential SOC stocks for these time frames has been calculated. Soil carbon sequestration gap is calculated by the difference of the actual SOC stock and the future projections. When subtracting potential from the actual SOC stocks, negative values represent a gap in terms of possible SOC losses and so reduced carbon sequestration. The soil carbon gap indicates locations where there will be low soil-carbon levels associated with medium-to-high actual SOC stocks, and medium soil-carbon levels associated with high actual SOC stocks, depending on soil type, climate and land use conditions. On the long term, 2076-2100, a SOC gap is observed under all scenarios in South America, just below the Amazonia basin, where are located open and fragmented forests. However, in the Amazonia basin deforestation decrease since no sensible SOC losses were observed. An important gap is observed also in the Congo basin and West Africa, but the gap is more fragmented in small spots than that observed in South America. Forests of Asia seems to be less interested from SOC losses and the projections show almost no gaps under both scenarios. The soil organic carbon sequestration potential database is intended to provide an indication at the regional level of the potential for policy makers to provide environmental services and drive specific policy to increase sustainable land management.

  11. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 ?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  12. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  13. Assessment of risk to humans of bisphenol A in marine and freshwater fish from Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi; Huang, Yeqing; Wong, Ming H; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production-volume chemical used in the manufacture of a wide variety of consumer products. However it is also a ubiquitous contaminant that can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. China is the "world factory" and the Pearl River Delta is the major manufacturing center and is consequently polluted. Concentrations of BPA in meats of marketable fish had not been previously reported for this region. In the study upon which we report here concentrations of BPA were determined in 20 common species of freshwater and marine fish, collected from markets in Hong Kong, SAR, China. A comprehensive analytical method based on SPE extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied. The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 and 1.25 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. BPA was detected in 19 species of fish at concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ng g(-1) ww. Average daily BPA intake per person ranged from 1.1×10(2) ng d(-1) for marine fish and 2.2×10(2) ng d(-1) for freshwater fish. Concentrations of BPA in fish from Hong Kong markets unlikely would be causing adverse population-level effects in humans. PMID:21700311

  14. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, ?st?=?0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis ?st?=?0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  15. Comparison of biologically damaging spectral solar ultraviolet radiation at a southern hemisphere sub-tropical site.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Sabburg, J; Kimlin, M G

    2003-04-21

    The first dataset of a complete year of biologically damaging spectral UV at a sub-tropical latitude in the southern hemisphere has been presented. The new data provides a baseline dataset against which comparisons can be made in the future to establish if there have been any long term trends in the biologically damaging UV. The general shape of the variation of the daily biologically damaging exposures through the year depends on the relative response of the various action spectra at the different wavelengths. The ratio of the daily erythemal to actinic exposures drops by approximately 20 to 25% from winter to summer. The ratio of the erythemal to DNA exposures drops by approximately 50% over the same period. In contrast, the ratio of the erythemal to plant damage exposures is higher in summer compared to winter. This is due to the changes in the relative proportion of UVA to UVB wavebands and relative responses of the different action spectra. The relative changes for the different action spectra show that the erythemal action spectrum cannot be used as a proxy for other biologically damaging responses. PMID:12741504

  16. Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

    1987-01-01

    A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

  17. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species.

    PubMed

    Miya, M; Sato, Y; Fukunaga, T; Sado, T; Poulsen, J Y; Sato, K; Minamoto, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, H; Araki, H; Kondoh, M; Iwasaki, W

    2015-07-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163-185?bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  18. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185?bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  19. Alternative nursery habitat for estuarine associated marine fish during prolonged closure of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

    2009-10-01

    The Mfolozi estuary, located on the east coast of South Africa, was historically directly linked to the adjacent St Lucia estuarine system, the largest estuarine system in Africa and a World Heritage Site. The Mfolozi used to be the main feeder system to maintain lake levels in St Lucia, but increased siltation from sugar cane farming in the Mfolozi floodplain led to artificial separation of the two systems in 1950. Reduced freshwater inflow due to drought conditions caused the St Lucia mouth to remain closed from June 2002 to present, coinciding with low lake levels and hypersaline conditions, except for a brief period during 2007 after the St Lucia mouth breached. These conditions led to disruption of larval recruitment into the system and major changes in biotic communities. Due to the importance of the St Lucia - Mfolozi System link, a study was initiated in 2007 on the fish community of the Mfolozi system, which was sampled using seine and gill nets. The 48 species recorded were dominated by juveniles of marine spawners, particularly Leiognathus equula and Valamugil cunnesius and the estuarine spawners Ambassis dussumieri and Ambassis natalensis. Estuarine dependent marine spawning species formed 68% of both the species numbers and CPUE, an indication of the regional importance of the Mfolozi estuary as an alternate refuge for juvenile marine fish during periods when the St Lucia system remained closed. Post-larval recruits of marine spawning species were particularly abundant, but low zoobenthic densities caused a rapid decline in numbers of benthic feeders shortly after their recruitment into the system. The importance of the Mfolozi estuary in maintaining marine brood stocks of estuarine dependent marine fish is discussed with particular reference to estuarine degradation and the ecological integrity of the St Lucia system.

  20. Depth and medium-scale spatial processes influence fish assemblage structure of unconsolidated habitats in a subtropical marine park.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Arthur L; Malcolm, Hamish A; Bucher, Daniel J; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D A

    2014-01-01

    Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

  1. Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

  2. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/Chinook/CKPUG.cfm); the fish used in this experiment were hatchery raised and their populations are not in danger of depletion. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Experimental results indicate that non-lethal, low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

  3. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan-ru; Peng, Shao-lin; Mo, Jiang-ming; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Zhuo-quan; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Jin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features—color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61 t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. This is the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. PMID:16615168

  4. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

  5. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

  6. MARINE FISH LARVAE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL: EFFECTS OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT FACTORS: SPOTTED SEATROUT ('CYNOSCION NUEBLOSUS') AND LINED SOLE ('ACHIRUS LINEATUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard culture methods were developed for larvae of two common marine fishes, the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the lined sole Achirus lineatus. Culture methods were described and the relationships of survival, growth and yield to temperatures, food concentrations an...

  7. Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n?=?4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

  8. Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  9. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Marine Fish Pathogens by Using Multiplex PCR and a DNA Microarray

    PubMed Central

    González, Santiago F.; Krug, Melissa J.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Santos, Ysabel; Call, Douglas R.

    2004-01-01

    We coupled multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray to construct an assay suitable for the simultaneous detection of five important marine fish pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Listonella anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The array was composed of nine short oligonucleotide probes (25-mer) complementary to seven chromosomal loci (cyt, rpoN, gyrB, toxR, ureC, dly, and vapA) and two plasmid-borne loci (fatA and A.sal). Nine primer sets were designed to amplify short fragments of these loci (100 to 177 bp) in a multiplex PCR. PCR products were subsequently labeled by nick translation and hybridized to the microarray. All strains of the five target species (n = 1 to 21) hybridized to at least one species-specific probe. Assay sensitivities ranged from 100% for seven probes to 83 and 67% for the two remaining probes. Multiplex PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against 23 related species of bacteria (n = 40 strains; 100% specificity). Using purified genomic DNA, we were able to detect PCR products with <20 fg of genomic DNA per reaction (equivalent to four or five cells), and the array was at least fourfold more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for detecting PCR products. In addition, our method allowed the tentative identification of virulent strains of L. anguillarum serotype O1 based on the presence of the fatA gene (67% sensitivity and 100% specificity). This assay is a sensitive and specific tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in fish and humans. PMID:15070982

  11. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established. PMID:25822200

  12. Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium symbiotic with deep-sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Thompson, Fabiano L; De Vos, Paul; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Six representatives of a luminous bacterium commonly found in association with deep, cold-dwelling marine fishes were isolated from the light organs and skin of different fish species. These bacteria were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive or oxidase-negative. Morphologically, cells of these strains were coccoid or coccoid-rods, occurring singly or in pairs, and motile by means of polar flagellation. After growth on seawater-based agar medium at 22 degrees C for 18 h, colonies were small, round and white, with an intense cerulean blue luminescence. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity placed these bacteria in the genus Photobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven housekeeping gene sequences (16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD), seven gene sequences of the lux operon (luxC, luxD, luxA, luxB, luxF, luxE and luxG) and four gene sequences of the rib operon (ribE, ribB, ribH and ribA), resolved the six strains as members of the genus Photobacterium and as a clade distinct from other species of Photobacterium. These strains were most closely related to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the designated type strain, Photobacterium kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T), and P. phosphoreum LMG 4233(T), P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T) and Photobacterium indicum LMG 22857(T) were 51, 43 and 19 %, respectively. In AFLP analysis, the six strains clustered together, forming a group distinct from other analysed species. The fatty acid C(17 : 0) cyclo was present in these bacteria, but not in P. phosphoreum, P. iliopiscarium or P. indicum. A combination of biochemical tests (arginine dihydrolase and lysine decarboxylase) differentiates these strains from P. phosphoreum and P. indicum. The DNA G+C content of P. kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T) is 40.2 %, and the genome size is approximately 4.2 Mbp, in the form of two circular chromosomes. These strains represent a novel species, for which the name Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain, pjapo.1.1(T) (=ATCC BAA-1194(T)=LMG 23890(T)), is a luminous symbiont isolated from the light organ of the deep-water fish Physiculus japonicus. PMID:17766874

  13. Osmoregulation and epithelial water transport: lessons from the intestine of marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    For teleost fish living in seawater, drinking the surrounding medium is necessary to avoid dehydration. This is a key component of their osmoregulatory strategy presenting the challenge of excreting excess salts while achieving a net retention of water. The intestine has an established role in osmoregulation, and its ability to effectively absorb fluid is crucial to compensating for water losses to the hyperosmotic environment. Despite this, the potential for the teleost intestine to serve as a comparative model for detailed, integrative experimental studies on epithelial water transport has so far gone largely untapped. The following review aims to present an assessment of the teleost intestine as a fluid-transporting epithelium. Beginning with a brief overview of marine teleost osmoregulation, emphasis shifts to the processing of ingested seawater by the gastrointestinal tract and the characteristics of intestinal ion and fluid transport. Particular attention is given to acid-base transfers by the intestine, specifically bicarbonate secretion, which creates the distinctly alkaline gut fluids responsible for the formation of solid calcium carbonate precipitates. The respective contributions of these unique features to intestinal fluid absorption, alongside other recognised ion transport processes, are then subsequently considered within the wider context of the classic physiological problem of epithelial water transport. PMID:21735220

  14. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  15. Fluctuations in food supply drive recruitment variation in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Daniel K.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Reed, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive rates and survival of young in animal populations figure centrally in generating management and conservation strategies. Model systems suggest that food supply can drive these often highly variable properties, yet for many wild species, quantifying such effects and assessing their implications have been challenging. We used spatially explicit time series of a well-studied marine reef fish (black surfperch Embiotoca jacksoni) and its known prey resources to evaluate the extent to which fluctuations in food supply influenced production of young by adults and survival of young to subadulthood. Our analyses reveal: (i) variable food available to both adults and to their offspring directly produced an order of magnitude variation in the number of young-of-year (YOY) produced per adult and (ii) food available to YOY produced a similar magnitude of variation in their subsequent survival. We also show that such large natural variation in vital rates can significantly alter decision thresholds (biological reference points) important for precautionary management. These findings reveal how knowledge of food resources can improve understanding of population dynamics and reduce risk of overharvest by more accurately identifying periods of low recruitment. PMID:23015631

  16. The potential for spatial distribution indices to signal thresholds in marine fish biomass.

    PubMed

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  17. Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E R; Reale, E

    1989-07-01

    Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933

  18. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

  19. Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Richard M.; Wendt, Dean E.; Barnes, Cheryl L.; Marks, Corina I.; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T.; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L.; Hall, Nathan C.; Yochum, Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California’s temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

  20. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

  1. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

  2. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  3. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 ?g and 3.0 ?g-TiO2-NP g(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

  4. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Roži?, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

  5. Connectivity patterns of coastal fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary marine protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, Barbara; Gérigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hélène; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François; Agostini, Sylvia

    2015-03-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by coastal fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between coastal areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.

  6. 77 FR 11493 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) requires NMFS to publish in the Federal Register a list of fisheries that have been authorized to take threatened or endangered marine mammals. A list of such fisheries was published December 29, 2010, which authorized the taking of certain marine mammals listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) incidental to commercial......

  7. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

    1984-03-01

    The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P?.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high cytotoxic or genotoxic potential.

  9. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and ?-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while ?-tubulin, V-type ATPase ? subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, ?-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of the differences in gene expression and phenotypes among the different stages of parasitic infection, and might be considered as a source of candidate proteins for disease diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:25997646

  10. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  11. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  12. Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, M.

    1988-12-01

    Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.

  13. On the economic optimality of marine reserves when fishing damages habitat

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Holly Villacorta

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I expand a spatially-explicit bioeconomic fishery model to include the negative effects of fishing effort on habitat quality. I consider two forms of effort driven habitat damage: First, fishing effort may ...

  14. 78 FR 42653 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan Regulations...Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan Regulations...amend the regulations implementing the Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan...

  15. Population Genetic Studies Revealed Local Adaptation in a High Gene-Flow Marine Fish, the Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis. PMID:24349521

  16. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

  17. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    PubMed

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. PMID:24943478

  18. Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  19. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  20. Marine species mortality in derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound, WA and the cost/benefits of derelict net removal.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; June, Jeffrey A; Antonelis, Kyle; Broadhurst, Ginny; Cowan, Tom

    2010-03-01

    Derelict fishing gear persists for decades and impacts marine species and underwater habitats. Agencies and organizations are removing significant amounts of derelict gear from marine waters in the United States. Using data collected from repeated survey dives on derelict gillnets in Puget Sound, Washington, we estimated the daily catch rate of a given derelict gillnet, and developed a model to predict expected total mortality caused by a given net based on entanglement data collected upon its removal. We also generated a cost:benefit ratio for derelict gear removal utilizing known true costs compared to known market values of the resources benefiting from derelict gear removal. For one study net, we calculated 4368 crab entangled during the impact lifetime of the net, at a loss of 19,656 dollars of Dungeness crab to the commercial fishery, compared to 1358 dollars in costs to remove a given gillnet, yielding a cost:benefit ratio of 1:14.5. PMID:20031176

  1. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ER?) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  2. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

  3. Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-09-15

    There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field. PMID:22579710

  4. Derelict Fishing Line Provides a Useful Proxy for Estimating Levels of Non-Compliance with No-Take Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H.; Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Evans, Richard D.; Hill, Jos K.; Russ, Garry R.

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  5. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  6. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  7. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. 75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...NMFS proposes to issue a permit for a period of three years to authorize the incidental, but not intentional, taking of individuals from six marine mammal stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has made a preliminary determination that incidental......

  9. Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

    2012-06-01

    In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

  10. Methyl chloride emission from a fern growing in sub-tropical, temperate and cool-temperate climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Takenaka, Akio; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hiura, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl chloride(CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the troposphere, and is known as a natural stratospheric ozone depletion compound. Amongst its various sources, tropical forests are likely the largest contributor, followed by biomass burning, oceans and salt marshes. There have been unsolved questions why CH3Cl-emitting plants are dominated by tropical plants. Recently we found that a fern, Osmunda japonica, collected from temperate zone emits as high as several ?g-g(dw)-1-h-1 of CH3Cl. This fern has a wide natural distribution, covering sub-tropical, temperate and cool-temperate climate, making it possible to study the CH3Cl emission rate from one species under different climate conditions. In this presentation, we report seasonal and spatial variation of the CH3Cl emission rate from O. japonica, and discuss its controlling factors.

  11. Distribution of brominated flame retardants and dechloranes between sediments and benthic fish - A comparison of a freshwater and marine habitat.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Busch, Friederike; Fricke, Nicolai; Kötke, Danijela; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-01-15

    A total of 53 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were analysed in sediments, European eels and dabs from both freshwater and marine sampling stations in the German Bight and the river Elbe. Classic HFRs, such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), were the highest concentrated HFRs in eels as well as in most dabs (apart from 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO)). In sediments, on the other hand, alternate BFRs and especially dechloranes dominated the contamination pattern. Dabs were still found to be statistically representative for the contamination patterns and relative magnitude in sediments from their respective habitats. Contamination patterns in eels seemed to be more driven by the contamination situation in the food chain or historical contamination of their habitat. Unsuspectedly the alternate flame retardant TBCO was found in comparably high concentrations (up to 12ngg(-1) ww) in dabs from two sampling stations as well as in sediments from these stations (up to 1.2ngg(-1) dw). It could not be detected in any other analysed fish or sediment samples, indicating a localised contamination source in the area. This study provides information on HFR contamination patterns and behaviour in both marine and freshwater sediments and their potential role as contamination source for benthic fish. PMID:26544886

  12. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  13. Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain

    2014-03-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135 ?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

  14. A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

  15. 50 CFR 223.301 - Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Project No. 2030) Round Butte Dam by PGE or CTWS as administered...impingement at Round Butte Dam facilities, or delay in up...and maintenance of Round Butte Dam include, but are not limited...Provision of upstream and downstream fish passage, (D) Fish...

  16. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ?4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles can support equitable analysis and comparison of diverse ecosystems. The analyses provide insights into the effects of parameter uncertainty on global biomass and production estimates, which have yet to be achieved with complex models, and will therefore help to highlight priorities for future research and data collection. However, the focus on simple model structures and global processes means that non-phytoplankton primary production and several groups, structures and processes of ecological and conservation interest are not represented. Consequently, our simple models become increasingly less useful than more complex alternatives when addressing questions about food web structure and function, biodiversity, resilience and human impacts at smaller scales and for areas closer to coasts. PMID:26226590

  17. Input of organic matter enhances degradation of weathered diesel fuel in sub-tropical sediments.

    PubMed

    Horel, Agota; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    We investigated different types of biostimulation practices to enhance degradation of weathered conventional diesel fuel in sandy beach sediments from coastal Alabama. Biodegradation rates were measured following the addition of either inorganic nutrients, or organic matter derived from either plant material (Spartina alterniflora) or fish tissue (Chloroscombrus chrysurus) both common to the region. The greatest hydrocarbon degradation rates were observed in the C. chrysurus amended treatments (k=0.0119 d(-1)). Treatment with fish-derived organic matter increased the degradation rates by 104% as compared to control treatments, while inorganic nutrient addition increased the degradation rates by 57%. The addition of plant derived organic matter, however, only marginally enhanced the degradation rates (~7%) during the course of the study. Bacterial 16S rRNA analyses revealed that most sediment microorganisms belonged to the classes; Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The most frequently abundant hydrocarbon degraders were mostly similar to Achromobater sp., Microbulbifer sp., Ruegeria sp., and Pseudomonas sp. PMID:26151652

  18. Spatial distribution of fishes in a Northwest Atlantic ecosystem in relation to risk of predation by a marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Swain, Douglas P; Benoît, Hugues P; Hammill, Mike O

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that, at spatial scales of metres to several kilometres, animals balance the trade-off between foraging success and predation mortality by increasing their use of safer but less profitable habitats as predation risk increases. However, it is less clear whether prey respond similarly at the larger spatiotemporal scales of many ecosystems. We determine whether this behaviour is evident in a large marine ecosystem, the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (sGSL, 75 000 km(2) ) over a 42-year period. This ecosystem is characterized by a recent increase in the abundance of a large marine predator, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius), by more than an order of magnitude. We compared changes in spatial distribution over the 1971-2012 period between important prey of grey seals (Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.; white hake, Urophycis tenuis Mitchill; and thorny skate, Amblyraja radiata Donovan) and non-prey fishes. Distribution was modelled using generalized additive models incorporating spatially variable effects of predation risk, density dependence and water temperature. Distributions of cod, hake and skate were strongly related to risk of predation by seals, with distribution shifting into lower risk areas as predation risk increased. Non-prey species did not show similar changes in habitat use. Spatial variation in fish condition suggests that these low-risk areas are also less profitable for cod and skate in terms of food availability. The effects of density dependence and water temperature were also important in models, but did not account for the changes in habitat use as the risk of predation increased. These results indicate that these fish are able to assess and respond to spatial variation in predation risk at very large spatial scales. They also suggest that non-consumptive 'risk' effects may be an important component of the declines in productivity of seal prey in this ecosystem, and of the indirect effects at lower trophic levels. PMID:25976520

  19. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field. PMID:24612602

  20. Host tropism of infectious salmon anaemia virus in marine and freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, M; Dale, O B; McBeath, A; Falk, K

    2015-08-01

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) causes a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Although some ISA outbreaks are caused by horizontal transmission of virus between farms, the source and reservoir of the virus is largely unknown and a wild host has been hypothesized. Atlantic salmon are farmed in open net-pens, allowing transmission of pathogens from wild fish and the surrounding environment to the farmed fish. In this study, a large number of fish species were investigated for ISAV host potential. For orthomyxoviruses, a specific receptor binding is the first requirement for infection; thus, the fish species were investigated for the presence of the ISAV receptor. The receptor was found to be widely distributed across the fish species. All salmonids expressed the receptor. However, only some of the cod-like and perch-like fish did, and all flat fish were negative. In the majority of the positive species, the receptor was found on endothelial cells and/or on red blood cells. The study forms a basis for further investigations and opens up the possibility for screening species to determine whether a wild host of ISAV exists. PMID:25048819

  1. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, THEIR DERIVATIVES, AND HEAVY METALS IN MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine organisms living in environments containing toxic chemicals are often exposed simultaneously to many different classes of compounds, which collectively pose a different threat of toxicological effects than is posed separately by the individual compounds. The present resear...

  2. Imaginative solutions by marine organisms for drag reduction Frank E. Fish

    E-print Network

    Fish, Frank

    impede the development of engineered systems [6, 7]. Airplanes do not flap their wings like birds for lift and ships do not undulate like fish for propulsion. The reason that the duplication of biological

  3. An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers

    E-print Network

    Epps, Brenden P

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

  4. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  5. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  6. A coupled stable isotope-size spectrum approach to understanding pelagic food-web dynamics: A case study from the southwest sub-tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Allain, V.; Menkes, C.; Lorrain, A.; Graham, B.; Rodier, M.; Pagano, M.; Carlotti, F.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the food web structure of the oligotrophic picophytoplankton-dominated pelagic ecosystem in the vicinity of New Caledonia, within the Archipelagic Deep Basin (ARCH) province of the southwest sub-tropical Pacific. Nitrogen stable isotope (?15N) data were collected for mesozooplankton (0.2-2 mm), macrozooplankton (2-20 mm), micronekton (20-200 mm) and nekton (>200 mm) during 2002-2004 and 2011. Using a coupled ?15N size-spectrum approach, we estimated (1) organism trophic level (TL); (2) food chain length (FCL); (3) predator prey mass ratio (PPMR); and (4) transfer efficiency (TE). The role of phytoplankton size structure in determining these parameters was investigated. Applying a trophic enrichment factor (TEF) of 3.4, maximum TL was calculated at ~5. The number of TLs spanned by each length class was 1.97 for mesozooplankton, 2.07 for macrozooplankton, 2.75 for micronekton, and 2.21 for nekton. Estimated PPMR was 10,099:1 for mesozooplankton, 3683:1 for macrozooplankton/micronekton, and 2.44×105:1 for nekton, corresponding to TEs of 6.3%, 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively. PPMR and TE were strongly influenced by the TEF used, and TEF 3.4 likely over and underestimated PPMR and TE, respectively, for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton. Comparatively low PPMR for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton indicated longer food chains and higher connectivity within these groups than for the nekton. Conversely, the high PPMR yet high trophic niche width for the nekton indicated that they prey primarily on macrozooplankton/micronekton, with a relatively high degree of dietary specialisation. Our results are discussed in the context of other marine food webs. The ARCH food chain was found to be 1-1.5 trophic levels longer than the eutrophic micro-/nanophytoplankton-dominated Californian upwelling system, providing empirical support for the role of phytoplankton size in determining FCL. Group specific PPMR estimates demonstrated that it is changes in trophic pathways across the mesozooplankton/macrozooplankton/micronekton groups that are primarily responsible for higher FCL under oligotrophic conditions. Finally, we discuss consistently low ?15N values to the east of New Caledonia, and implications for the contribution of diazotroph nitrogen to the pelagic food web in this region.

  7. Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

  8. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M.; Charles, J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  9. Factors determining ?13C and ?18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining ? 13C and ? 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the ? 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between ? 13C- carbonate-? 13C water (? 13C) and temperature: ? 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between ? 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (?) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln ? = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the ? 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the ? 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  10. Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William W. L.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Okey, Thomas A.; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Marine life is being affected by changes in ocean conditions resulting from changes in climate and chemistry triggered by combustion of fossil fuels. Shifting spatial distributions of fish species is a major observed and predicted impact of these oceanographic changes, and such shifts may modify fish community structure considerably in particular locations and regions. We projected future range shifts of pelagic marine fishes of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas by 2050 relative to the present. We combined published data, expert knowledge, and pelagic fish survey data to predict current species distribution ranges of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas that occur in the epipelagic zone and are well-represented in pelagic fish surveys. These represent a wide spectrum of sub-tropical to sub-polar species, with a wide range of life history characteristics. Using projected ocean condition changes from three different Earth System Models, we simulated changes in the spatial distribution of each species. We show that Northeast Pacific shelf seas may undergo considerable changes in the structure of its pelagic marine communities by mid-21st century. Ensembles of model projections suggest that the distribution centroids of the studied species are expected to shift poleward at an average rate of 30.1 ± 2.34 (S.E.) km decade-1 under the SRES A2 scenario from 2000 to 2050. The projected species range shifts result in a high rate of range expansion of this group of species into the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. Rate of range contraction of these species is highest at the Aleutian Islands, and in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We also predict increasing dominance of warmer water species in all regions. The projected changes in species assemblages may have large ecological and socio-economic implications through mismatches of co-evolved species, unexpected trophic effects, and shifts of fishing grounds. These results provide hypotheses of climate change impacts that can be tested using data collected by monitoring programmes in the region.

  11. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem integrity. PMID:17650253

  12. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1?mg/100g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  13. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... (LOF) (74 FR 58859, November 16, 2009), and the draft 2009 marine mammal stock assessment reports (SAR... FR 31666, June 16, 1995 (proposed) and 65 FR 45399, August 31, 1995 (interim)). A rationale..., NMFS published a notice (63 FR 71894, December 30, 1998) advising the public that the agency...

  14. Mark retention and growth of jet-injected juvenile marine fish

    E-print Network

    , 1988; Laufle et al., 1990). Juvenile flatfish have been marked with needle-injected latex (Riley, 1966 and histological effects on three species of marine flatfish. We in- jected two substances into juvenile sablefish the pelvic fins (Fig. 1). Flatfish, however, were marked with indi- vidual identifying marks on the ventral

  15. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  16. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... species or stock. On May 8, 2013 (78 FR 26751), NMFS proposed to issue a permit under MMPA section 101(a... preparation of the 2012 MMPA List of Fisheries (LOF or List) (76 FR 73912; November 29, 2011), the 2011 marine...; humpback whale, CA/OR/WA stock; and sperm whale, CA/OR/WA stock. This authorization is based on...

  17. Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response to variable exercise and exposure to air.

    PubMed

    Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gravel, Marie-Ange; Redpath, Tara; Hanson, Kyle C; Gingerich, Andrew J; Murchie, Karen J; Danylchuk, Sascha E; Koppelman, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2007-11-01

    Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air exposure regimens. Results showed that metabolic disturbances (lactate production, hyperglycemia) increased following exercise and exposure to air, and that the magnitude of metabolic disturbance was proportional to the duration of the stressful event. Fish required between 2-4 h to return to resting values. Exercise and exposure to air also resulted in significant increases in plasma Ca2+, Cl- and Na+, but the magnitude of these ionic changes did not vary with exercise or exposure to air duration and required over 4-h to return to baseline levels. Mortality following exercise was observed only for fish that had been exposed to air for 3 min and not in fish that had been exposed to air for 1 min. Together, results from this study provide a physiological basis for management strategies that can improve the post-release survival of bonefish that have been caught during a catch-and-release angling event. PMID:17884649

  18. Heavy metals produce toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the marine teleost fish SAF-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Esteban, María Á; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The use of cell lines to test the toxicity of aquatic pollutants is a valuable alternative to fish bioassays. In this study, fibroblast SAF-1 cells from the marine gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) were exposed for 24 h to the heavy metals Cd, Hg, MeHg (Methylmercury), As or Pb and the resulting cytotoxicity was assessed. Neutral red (NR), MTT-tetrazolio (MTT), crystal violet (CV) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) viability tests showed that SAF-1 cells exposed to the above heavy metals produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of viable cells. Methylmercury showed the highest toxicity (EC50 = 0.01 mM) followed by As, Cd, Hg and Pb. NR was the most sensitive method followed by MTT, CV and LDH. SAF-1 cells incubated with each of the heavy metals also exhibited an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis cell death. Moreover, the corresponding gene expression profiles pointed to the induction of the metallothionein protective system, cellular and oxidative stress and apoptosis after heavy metal exposure for 24 h. This report describes and compares tools for evaluating the potential effects of marine contamination using the SAF-1 cell line. PMID:26363324

  19. Morphology and phylogeny of two new species of Sphaeromyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from marine fish (Clinidae and Trachichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Kuchta, Roman; Reed, Cécile C

    2015-04-01

    Our survey of marine fish from South Africa and Indonesia revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa for which we provide morphological and sequence data. Sphaeromyxa clini n. sp. detected in three Clinus spp. and Muraenoclinus dorsalis from South Africa is morphologically similar to Sphaeromyxa noblei previously described from Heteroclinus whiteleggii from Australia and to several other sphaeromyxids with arcuate spores and rounded ends. This similarity is reflected by phylogenetic positioning of S. clini n. sp. which clusters within the 'incurvata' group of the Sphaeromyxa clade. It differs from morphologically similar species by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. Sphaeromyxa limocapitis n. sp., described from Gephyroberyx darwinii from Java, is morphologically similar to sphaeromyxids with straight spores and to marine Myxidium species with spindle-shaped spores but differs from them by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. S. limocapitis n. sp. represents a separate lineage of the Sphaeromyxa clade and appears to be a missing link in the evolution of sphaeromyxids. PMID:25417699

  20. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  1. Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

  2. How to detect polymorphisms undergoing selection in marine fishes? A review of methods and case studies, including flatfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinand, Bruno; Lemaire, Christophe; Bonhomme, François

    2004-05-01

    Populations of marine organisms are potentially affected by numerous selective pressures such as temperature and salinity, or anthropogenic pressures such as xenobiotics that may preclude adaptation to particular habitats. Such selective pressures may also affect their demography. Examples include modifications of the population dynamics through shifts in growth rate, and in life history traits affecting fitness such as size or age of first reproduction. However, the documentation of variation in phenotypically plastic traits specific to distinct environments cannot be taken as the ultimate proof that natural selection has occurred. Measurement of the impact of selection and subsequent local adaptation of fish populations based exclusively on morphological or physiological characters is one of the most difficult things to achieve because it depends on the use of phenotypic characters that closely match the genotype. Molecular markers can help to overcome this problem and, under some circumstances, can record the footprints of selection. A combination of polymorphisms that are under selection and those that are not can provide complementary information. In this paper, we review how and why selection can be detected at the molecular level, using genetic markers analysed in a population genetic framework. We then report and discuss case studies in fish.

  3. Cloning of matrix Gla protein in a marine cartilaginous fish, Prionace glauca: preferential protein accumulation in skeletal and vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Simes, D C; Viegas, C S B; Schaff, B J; Sarasquete, C; Cancela, M L

    2006-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft tissue extracts, while the accumulation of the protein was found mainly in calcified tissues. More recently, the MGP gene expression was also studied in marine teleost fish where it was found to be associated with chondrocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells. To date no information is available on the sites of MGP expression or accumulation in cartilaginous fishes that diverged from osteichthyans, a group that includes mammals, over 400 million years ago. The main objectives of this work were to study the sites of MGP gene expression and protein accumulation by means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. MGP mRNA and protein were localized as expected not only in cartilage from branchial arches and vertebra but also in the endothelia of the vascular system as well as in the tubular renal endothelium. The accumulation of MGP in non mineralized soft tissues was unexpected and suggests differences in localization or regulation of this protein in shark soft tissues compared to tetrapods and teleosts. Our results also corroborate the hypothesis that in Prionace glauca, as previously shown in mammals, the MGP protein probably also acts as a calcification inhibitor, protecting soft tissues from abnormal and ectopic calcification. PMID:16411118

  4. Studies of the population dynamics of marine fishes depend on the ability to

    E-print Network

    data and that of scales and spines of both juvenile and adult fish. A multivariate test of matrix- vide a reliable measure of stock identity. Genetic techniques are frequently used but fail to differentiate stocks because a small amount of larval or adult mixing among populations makes differences

  5. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A MARINE FISH, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...

  6. Engineering and functional properties of protein powders from underutilized marine fish and by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel processing methods are needed to convert seafood by-products into marketable products. Protein derived from seafood by-products can have a range of good functional properties and can potentially be used as binders and emulsifiers. Functional properties of fish proteins are related to their phy...

  7. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  8. Frequency and intensity of productivity regime shifts in marine fish stocks

    PubMed Central

    Vert-pre, Katyana A.; Amoroso, Ricardo O.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Hilborn, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Fish stocks fluctuate both in abundance and productivity (net population increase), and there are many examples demonstrating that productivity increased or decreased due to changes in abundance caused by fishing and, alternatively, where productivity shifted between low and high regimes, entirely unrelated to abundance. Although shifts in productivity regimes have been described, their frequency and intensity have not previously been assessed. We use a database of trends in harvest and abundance of 230 fish stocks to evaluate the proportion of fish stocks in which productivity is primarily related to abundance vs. those that appear to manifest regimes of high or low productivity. We evaluated the statistical support for four hypotheses: (i) the abundance hypothesis, where production is always related to population abundance; (ii) the regimes hypothesis, where production shifts irregularly between regimes that are unrelated to abundance; (iii) the mixed hypothesis, where even though production is related to population abundance, there are irregular changes in this relationship; and (iv) the random hypothesis, where production is random from year to year. We found that the abundance hypothesis best explains 18.3% of stocks, the regimes hypothesis 38.6%, the mixed hypothesis 30.5%, and the random hypothesis 12.6%. Fisheries management agencies need to recognize that irregular changes in productivity are common and that harvest regulation and management targets may need to be adjusted whenever productivity changes. PMID:23322735

  9. Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

  10. 27.-FISH-CULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS AT ST. ANDREWS MARINE LAB-ORATORY, SCOTLAND.

    E-print Network

    the greatest uncertainty prevailed as to the floating or sinking of the eggs of such fishes; indeed, among which was first stimulated by the absence of reliable knowledge on this subject as well as of the eggs of them thought that the floating or sinking of theseeggs might be due wholly to the temperature

  11. Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, Paul H.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Jamieson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400–11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000–8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

  12. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-03-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: pH 8.15 and 404 ?atm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph of fish exposed to elevated pCO2 can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  13. Relationship between biomarkers of contaminant exposure and toxicopathic lesions in marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, T.K.; Anulacion, B.F.; Myers, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Fish residing in contaminated habitats incur a variety of biological effects as a result of their exposure to chemical contaminants. These effects include impaired reproduction, reduced growth, and toxicopathic disease. Strong correlations have been demonstrated between the occurrence of some of these conditions and the levels of certain classes of contaminants in fish tissues and the sediments at sampling sites, on the West, East, and Gulf Coasts of the USA. Moreover, relative risks for development of toxicopathic liver disease in bottom fish have been estimated for several chemical and biological risk factors at a large number of sites. The authors are currently determining the relationships between biomarkers of contaminant exposure and the presence of several liver diseases in these fish species. Biomarkers thus far incorporated into these calculations include levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACS) in bile, hepatic activities and levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYPLA), and levels of hepatic DNA adducts. All of these have shown statistically significant positive relationships with preneoplastic and/or neoplastic lesions in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus). More recently, the authors have focused on differences in cellular expression of CYPLA as they may relate to the eventual outcome of contaminant exposure, utilizing benthic fish species which show markedly different susceptibilities to contaminant-induced neoplasia. Through use of immunohistochemical localization of CYPLA, combined with quantitative measurement by image analysis and color thresholding, the authors have demonstrated markedly different patterns of cellular expression, consistent with cellular patterns of pathological injury, These results have helped substantially to determine the relevance of biomarker responses with respect to biological damage.

  14. Evaluation of an Inexpensive Growth Medium for Direct Detection of Escherichia coli in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Robert E. S.; Woodall, Claire; Elliott, John; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Tung, Rosalind; Morley, Robert; du Preez, Martella; Bartram, Jamie K.; Davis, Anthony P.; Gundry, Stephen W.; Pedley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The cost and complexity of traditional methods for the detection of faecal indicator bacteria, including E. coli, hinder widespread monitoring of drinking water quality, especially in low-income countries and outside controlled laboratory settings. In these settings the problem is exacerbated by the lack of inexpensive media for the detection of E. coli in drinking water. We developed a new low-cost growth medium, aquatest (AT), and validated its use for the direct detection of E. coli in temperate and sub-tropical drinking waters using IDEXX Quanti-Tray®. AT was compared with IDEXX Colilert-18® and either EC-MUG or MLSB for detecting low levels of E. coli from water samples from temperate (n = 140; Bristol, UK) and subtropical regions (n = 50, Pretoria/Tshwane, South Africa). Confirmatory testing (n = 418 and 588, respectively) and the comparison of quantitative results were used to assess performance. Sensitivity of AT was higher than Colilert-18® for water samples in the UK [98.0% vs. 86.9%; p<0.0001] and South Africa [99.5% vs. 93.2%; p = 0.0030]. There was no significant difference in specificity, which was high for both media (>95% in both settings). Quantitative results were comparable and within expected limits. AT is reliable and accurate for the detection of E. coli in temperate and subtropical drinking water. The composition of the new medium is reported herein and can be used freely. PMID:26495983

  15. Spatial Niche Partitioning in Sub-Tropical Solitary Ungulates: Four-Horned Antelope and Barking Deer in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Differential resource use allows a diversity of species to co-exist in a particular area by specializing in individual ecological niches. Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has a restricted distribution in Nepal and India; however, the barking deer Muntiacus vaginalis is relatively common throughout its wide distribution range. We wanted a better understanding of their habitats and how these two similarly sized solitary ungulates manage to coexist in lowland Nepal. We used fecal pellet belt transect surveys in the Babai valley, Bardia National Park to study the habitat associations of both species. We found empirical evidence that four-horned antelope prefer hill sal forest and deciduous hill forest at higher elevations, whereas barking deer preferred riverine and sal forest in lower elevations. We found a clear niche differentiation of four-horned antelope and barking deer that made the coexistence of these similarly sized solitary ungulates possible. Hence, resource partitioning is the key to coexistence of these solitary ungulates, and the fine-grained habitat mosaic of different forest types in the study landscape appears to be the underlying feature. Therefore, maintaining the habitat mosaic and preserving valuable hill sal and deciduous hill forests will facilitate the coexistence of herbivores in sub-tropical regions. PMID:25714092

  16. Spatial niche partitioning in sub-tropical solitary ungulates: four-horned antelope and barking deer in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Differential resource use allows a diversity of species to co-exist in a particular area by specializing in individual ecological niches. Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has a restricted distribution in Nepal and India; however, the barking deer Muntiacus vaginalis is relatively common throughout its wide distribution range. We wanted a better understanding of their habitats and how these two similarly sized solitary ungulates manage to coexist in lowland Nepal. We used fecal pellet belt transect surveys in the Babai valley, Bardia National Park to study the habitat associations of both species. We found empirical evidence that four-horned antelope prefer hill sal forest and deciduous hill forest at higher elevations, whereas barking deer preferred riverine and sal forest in lower elevations. We found a clear niche differentiation of four-horned antelope and barking deer that made the coexistence of these similarly sized solitary ungulates possible. Hence, resource partitioning is the key to coexistence of these solitary ungulates, and the fine-grained habitat mosaic of different forest types in the study landscape appears to be the underlying feature. Therefore, maintaining the habitat mosaic and preserving valuable hill sal and deciduous hill forests will facilitate the coexistence of herbivores in sub-tropical regions. PMID:25714092

  17. 78 FR 26751 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...NMFS plans to issue a permit for a period of three years to authorize the incidental, but not intentional, taking of three stocks of marine mammals listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the California (CA) thresher shark/ swordfish drift gillnet (DGN) fishery (>=14 inch mesh) and the Washington/Oregon/California (WA/OR/CA) sablefish pot fishery. In......

  18. The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 ?m bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

  19. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Jaime E; Arriagada, Aldo M; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Camus, Patricio A; Avila-Thieme, M Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants. PMID:23817947

  20. Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Dixson, Danielle L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Pratchett, Morgan S; Devitsina, Galina V; Døving, Kjell B

    2009-02-10

    The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO(2)-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity. PMID:19188596

  1. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  2. A standardized method of propagating the marine fish parasite, Amyloodinium ocellatum.

    PubMed

    Bower, C E; Turner, D T; Biever, R C

    1987-02-01

    The peridinian dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was propagated by serial passage in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis). Each 25-50-mm fish was exposed to 4,000-6,000 dinospores in 400 ml of artificial seawater for 30 min. Two days after exposure, trophonts were harvested by immersing the fishes in fresh water. After encystment, tomonts were axenized by multiple washes with sterile distilled water and sterile artificial seawater containing penicillin and streptomycin, and then incubated in the antibiotic solution. High yields of both tomonts and dinospores of the same sizes and ages were obtained, and host mortalities were eliminated. Microbial growth in incubating cultures was inhibited until after dinospores had emerged from tomonts, and dinospores remained infective for at least 4 days at 26 C. PMID:3572670

  3. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 ?atm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  4. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?, ?) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (?) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (?, ?) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (?, ?) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (?) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (?) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  5. Two new species of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in marine fishes from Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Ascarophis van Beneden, 1871 (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), found in fishes from southern Chile. Ascarophis carvajali n. sp. was found in Austrolycus depressiceps and Patagonotothen cornucola, whereas Ascarophis draconi n. sp. was taken from Champsocephalus gunnari. These new Ascarophis species differ from other species in a combination of several morphometric and morphological characteristics. Although A. carvajali n. sp. was morphologically close to Ascarophis minuta, the new species has a larger ratio between glandular and muscular esophagus, filaments on both egg poles, and a shorter right spicule than A. minuta. Ascarophis draconi n. sp. was morphologically similar to Ascarophis adioryx and Ascarophisfiliformis. However, A. adioryx has eggs without filaments, a smaller ratio between glandular and muscular esophagus length, and a smaller ratio between left and right spicule lengths in contrast to A. draconi n. sp., whereas A. filiformis has a shorter glandular esophagus and left spicule length than A. draconi n. sp. Only 1 Ascarophis species has been recorded in a single fish from Chile (i.e., Ascarophis sebastodis in Sebastes capensis). Consequently, this study constitutes not only new species and records of Ascarophis in fishes from Chile, but also new records for the Pacific coast of South America. PMID:18163355

  6. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  7. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  8. Stable isotopes from Benthic foraminifera and Fish otoliths as proxies for Orbital Climate Forcing and Seasonality Changes during the Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene in the shallow marine North Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Man, Ellen; Ivany, Linda; van Simaeys, Stefaan; Steurbaut, Etienne; Vandenberghe, Noel

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes from Benthic foraminifera and Fish otoliths as proxies for Orbital Climate Forcing and Seasonality Changes during the Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene in the shallow marine North Sea Basin

  9. Bioeconomic analysis of the environmental impact of a marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Rabassó, Miguel; Hernández, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the environmental impact of aquaculture installations is nowadays a common social demand in many countries. The usual scientific approach to this question has been to assess the outcome from an ecological perspective, focussing on the effects produced on benthos or the water column and interactions with marine flora and fauna. In this paper, a bioeconomic model is developed to extend this traditional approach, to determine both the amount of total settled matter, its dispersion on the ocean floor and impacts on the marine ecosystem, while also taking into account other social considerations such as discounted net profits and investment returns. The model was applied to the case of off-shore gilthead seabream production in a coastal area of the Canary Isles archipelago, where the tidal current is predominant. Cage emissions and the degree of degradation of seagrass meadows on the seabed were taken as ecological impact indicators, while the net present value (NPV) for a specific time period was used as an economic indicator. By analysing the simulation results obtained by the bioeconomic model, we were able to determine the combination of production volume and harvest quantity which yields the greatest economic efficiency for different levels of degraded area. PMID:25942562

  10. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Benjamin H.; Roering, Joshua J.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km3 lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

  11. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P

    2011-11-22

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

  12. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra, P. barnesi sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), from the marine fish Pomadasys argenteus (Haemulidae) off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

    2015-11-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra barnesi sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from the ovary of the marine teleost Pomadasys argenteus (Fosskål) (Haemulidae) off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin). The new species is characterized by short subequal spicules (84 and 87 ?m long), a gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance at its distal tip, the structure of male anterior and posterior body ends, the body lengths of males (1.67 mm) and gravid females (320-597 mm) and the structure of the oesophagus and caudal end of gravid females. Philometra barnesi is the sixth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the third species of philometrids described from fishes of the family Haemulidae. PMID:26231836

  13. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Zi?tara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution. PMID:22983803

  14. Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    Interactions among watershed nutrient loading, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine the capacity of estuaries to accommodate introduced nutrients. Baseline quantification of loading, flushing time, export, and internal processes is essential to understand responses of sub-tropical estuaries to variable climate and nutrient loading. The goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002-2008 spanning various climatic conditions. The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Biogeochemical Model was used to generate water, salt, and (DIN and DIP) budgets. The predicted increase in internal DIN production for the CRE vs. the SLE was associated with increased external DIN loading. Water column DIN concentrations decreased and stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to > 10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy or balanced metabolism across all seasonal budgets. Although the SLE was also sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy and net ecosystem metabolism increased with DIP loading to this estuary. This included a huge DIP consumption and bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification offered a loss pathway for inorganic nitrogen in the CRE, this potential was not evident for the smaller and more anthropogenically altered St. Lucie Estuary. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that management actions should examine the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in attempts to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the SLE. Establishment of quantitative loading limits for anthropogenically impacted estuaries requires an understanding of the inter-seasonal and inter-annual relationships for both N and P, circulation and flushing, variability in plankton community composition, and the dynamics of DON.

  15. Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

  16. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a Simple Tool to Aid Modelling of Particulate Waste Distribution at Marine Fish Cage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, O. M.; Telfer, T. C.; Beveridge, M. C. M.; Ross, L. G.

    2002-04-01

    Deposition of particulate organic waste from marine fish farm cages on to sea-bed sediments can cause major changes to the benthic ecosystem. Validated spatial models are considered as the most cost-effective tools for predicting environmental impacts. An improved version of an existing predictive particulate waste distribution model for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) is presented, which uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) combined with a spreadsheet. The model presented uses existing distribution algorithms but also incorporates functions to calculate feed loading for all the cages within a pontoon independently, spreads the input load over the whole cage area and simulates post-depositional distribution of the carbon. The model uses approximate estimates of feed and faecal waste derived from dietary considerations (mass balance model) and separate, unique settling velocities for waste feed and faecal particles. The model incorporates values of current speed and direction recorded over spring and neap tides. Output from the model is in the form of a contour plot of organic carbon (g C m -2), showing distribution of the particulate organic carbon material as deposited on the sea-bed. During this study using hydrographic data collected from near a fish farm, the model predicted a smooth gradient of sediment carbon concentrations which decreased with distance from the cages. Model performance was validated using measured levels of sediment carbon, and showed a significant correlation between predicted and actual sediment loading (R=0·7; P <0·01). The differences between predicted and measured quantities of carbon found at some sampling stations are likely to be due to processes not included in the model, such as small differences in bathymetry, differences in bottom type which may have increased or decreased the carbon distribution through saltation, or natural variation in the sediment composition.

  17. The effects of pH and the iron redox state on iron uptake in the intestine of a marine teleost fish, gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    The effects of pH and the iron redox state on iron uptake in the intestine of a marine teleost fish teleost intestine the secretion of bicarbonate increases pH of the lumen (pH 8.4 ­9.0) and importantly segments in modified Ussing chambers fitted to a pH-stat titration system. This system titrates to maintain

  18. Marine Fisheries Marine recreational angling. Florida

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W Marine recreational angling. Florida News Bureau photo by Jack Fortune 1980 Jay D. Andrews 1 Social Considerations Associated With Marine Recreational Fishing Under FCMA/NMFS Developments Index, 1980 Papers in Marine Fisheries Review, 1980 Chad P. Dawson and Bruce T. Wilkins 12 Charles

  19. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of the Marine Bacterial Genus Tenacibaculum Suggests Parallel Evolution of Fish Pathogenicity and Endemic Colonization of Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E.; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species. PMID:24973065

  20. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis).

    PubMed

    Moraga, F A; Urriola-Urriola, N

    2015-05-01

    Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons). Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC) for Ach (10(-13) to 10(-3) M), and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway. PMID:26132019

  1. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing. PMID:26064531

  2. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite—a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing. PMID:26064531

  3. Transport of marine fish larvae to Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan) in relation to the availability of zooplankton prey under the winter ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, Martin; Fortier, Louis

    1997-02-01

    To assess the importance of ice-covered Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for young fish spawned offshore, we monitored the recruitment of marine fish larvae from the Sea of Okhotsk to the lagoon as well as the availability of larval fish prey under the ice cover from 24 February to 23 March 1992. Sand lance ( Ammodytes sp.) and walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) larvae recruited to the lagoon on flood tide whereas snake prickleback ( Lumpenus sagitta) larvae were exported to the Sea of Okhotsk on ebb. Before the ice breakup, ice microalgae made up the bulk of the microalgal biomass in the lagoon. The production and release of ice algae did not trigger the maturation of the late copepodite stages of copepods, and the proportion of adult females in the copepod assemblage remained low. The production of copepod nauplii (the main prey of fish larvae) under the ice was probably insufficient to insure suitable feeding and growth of fish larvae entering the lagoon in winter. Sand lance larvae, the most abundant species to colonize the lagoon in February-March, had to survive for nearly two months at low food abundance. Based on our results, the importance of Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for fish larvae appears negligible.

  4. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Malvezzi, Alex J; Murray, Christopher S; Feldheim, Kevin A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Garant, Dany; Gobler, Christopher J; Chapman, Demian D; Baumann, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (?2300 ?atm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection. PMID:25926880

  5. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  6. Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability-diversity implications.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, Axel G; Farnsworth, Keith D; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K

    2011-06-01

    A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

  7. Spatiotemporal genetic structure in a protected marine fish, the California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis), and relatedness in the genus Leuresthes.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Rosemary J; Bernardi, Giacomo; Avise, John C

    2013-01-01

    The genus Leuresthes displays reproductive behavior unique among marine fish in which mature adults synchronously emerge completely out of the water to spawn on beach land. A limited number of sandy beaches, which are suitable for these spawning events, are present in discontinuous locations along the geographic range of the species, potentially limiting gene flow and the degree of genetic homogeneity between intraspecific populations. Here, we tested for molecular genetic differentiation between 363 individuals, representing 3 populations of California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, by employing 2 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear DNA markers. We include temporally diverse sampling to evaluate contemporary and temporal divergence, and we also analyze 28 individuals from one population of Gulf grunion (restricted to the Gulf of California), Leuresthes sardina, at the same markers to evaluate the molecular evidence for their separate species distinction. We find no significant differences between temporal samples, but small significant differences among all populations of L. tenuis, and unequivocal support for the separate species distinction of L. sardina. Genetic data suggest that the Monterey Bay population of L. tenuis near the species' most northern range likely represents a relatively recent colonization event from populations along the species' more traditional range south of Point Conception, California. We conclude that both the topographic features of the California and Baja California coastlines and the grunions' unique reproductive behavior have influenced the genetic structure of the populations. PMID:23616479

  8. Metabolic programming mediated by an essential fatty acid alters body composition and survival skills of a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Perez, Kestrel O

    2015-11-22

    Metabolic programming occurs when variations in nutrition during a specific developmental window result in long-term metabolic effects. It has been studied almost exclusively in humans and other mammals but never in an ecological context. Here, we report metabolic programming and its functional consequences in a marine fish, red drum. We demonstrate that maternal provisioning of eggs with an essential fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), varies with DHA content of the maternal diet. When offspring are reared on a DHA-replete diet, whole-body DHA content of offspring depends upon the amount of DHA that was in the egg. We further demonstrate that whole-body DHA content is correlated with traits related to offspring fitness (escape responses, routine swimming, growth, and survival). DHA content of red drum eggs produced in nature is in the range where the effects of metabolic programming are most pronounced. Our findings indicate that during a brief developmental window, DHA plays a role in establishing the metabolic capacity for its own uptake or storage, with protracted and possibly permanent effects on ecologically important survival skills of individuals and important implications for dynamics of populations and food webs. PMID:26582018

  9. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  10. Marine reserve recovery rates towards a baseline are slower for reef fish community life histories than biomass.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Graham, N A J

    2015-12-22

    Ecological baselines are disappearing and it is uncertain how marine reserves, here called fisheries closures, simulate pristine communities. We tested the influence of fisheries closure age, size and compliance on recovery of community biomass and life-history metrics towards a baseline. We used census data from 324 coral reefs, including 41 protected areas ranging between 1 and 45 years of age and 0.28 and 1430 km(2), and 36 sites in a remote baseline, the Chagos Archipelago. Fish community-level life histories changed towards larger and later maturing fauna with increasing closure age, size and compliance. In high compliance closures, community biomass levelled at approximately 20 years and 10 km(2) but was still only at approximately 30% of the baseline and community growth rates were projected to slowly decline for more than 100 years. In low compliance and young closures, biomass levelled at half the value and time as high compliance closures and life-history metrics were not predicted to reach the baseline. Biomass does not adequately reflect the long-time scales for full recovery of life-history characteristics, with implications for coral reef management. PMID:26702040

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

    2014-04-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife. PMID:24496035

  12. Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

  13. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Malvezzi, Alex J; Murray, Christopher S; Feldheim, Kevin A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Garant, Dany; Gobler, Christopher J; Chapman, Demian D; Baumann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (?2300 ?atm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent–offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection. PMID:25926880

  14. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 ?m), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae. PMID:25982574

  15. Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy).

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Wysocki, Lidia E; Ladich, Friedrich; Picciulin, Marta

    2009-12-01

    The WWF-Natural Marine Reserve of Miramare (Trieste, Italy) is located in a major industrial and vacation area in the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, noise emanating from boating and shipping is an inevitable factor for local fishes. This study investigates the effects of ambient and ship noise on representatives of three vocal fish families with different hearing abilities. Ambient and ship noise were recorded, their sound pressure levels measured and played back in the lab. Auditory sensitivity was determined in Chromis chromis, Sciaena umbra and Gobius cruentatus, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. Compared to lab conditions, hearing thresholds determined during ambient noise playbacks were barely masked. Contrary, the noise emanating from a cabin-cruiser substantially reduced auditory sensitivity relative to thresholds in ambient noise. This masking effect was most pronounced in the frequency range where acoustic communication takes place. Boat noise potentially affects acoustic communication in fishes inhabiting the reserve. PMID:19666180

  16. Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC MARINE FISHES FROM SIBERIA, RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC MARINE FISHES FROM SIBERIA, RUSSIA ALEXANDERIVANOV1@lab.nsu.ru Triassic fishes are poorly known from Siberia, Russia. A few actinopterygians are mentioned from some regions of Siberia, frequently from the freshwater deposits. The first chondrichthyan and actinopterygian

  17. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  18. Recreational Fish-Finders-An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Alistair M; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C; Edwards, Loyd C; Ryan, Peter G; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  19. Recreational Fish-Finders—An Inexpensive Alternative to Scientific Echo-Sounders for Unravelling the Links between Marine Top Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Alistair M.; Khoosal, Arjun; Murrell, Ben; Merkle, Dagmar; Lacerda, Miguel; Nyengera, Reason; Coetzee, Janet C.; Edwards, Loyd C.; Ryan, Peter G.; Rademan, Johan; van der Westhuizen, Jan J; Pichegru, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating how mobile marine predators respond to their prey are limited due to the challenging nature of the environment. While marine top predators are increasingly easy to study thanks to developments in bio-logging technology, typically there is scant information on the distribution and abundance of their prey, largely due to the specialised nature of acquiring this information. We explore the potential of using single-beam recreational fish-finders (RFF) to quantify relative forage fish abundance and draw inferences of the prey distribution at a fine spatial scale. We compared fish school characteristics as inferred from the RFF with that of a calibrated scientific split-beam echo-sounder (SES) by simultaneously operating both systems from the same vessel in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Customized open-source software was developed to extract fish school information from the echo returns of the RFF. For schools insonified by both systems, there was close correspondence between estimates of mean school depth (R2 = 0.98) and school area (R2 = 0.70). Estimates of relative school density (mean volume backscattering strength; Sv) measured by the RFF were negatively biased through saturation of this system given its smaller dynamic range. A correction factor applied to the RFF-derived density estimates improved the comparability between the two systems. Relative abundance estimates using all schools from both systems were congruent at scales from 0.5 km to 18 km with a strong positive linear trend in model fit estimates with increasing scale. Although absolute estimates of fish abundance cannot be derived from these systems, they are effective at describing prey school characteristics and have good potential for mapping forage fish distribution and relative abundance. Using such relatively inexpensive systems could greatly enhance our understanding of predator-prey interactions. PMID:26600300

  20. Fish species and community distributions as proxies for seafloor habitat distributions: The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (Northwest Atlantic, Gulf of Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Joy, K.; Valentine, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

  1. Fish species and community distributions as proxies for sea-floor habitat distributions: the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (northwest Atlantic, Gulf Of Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, Peter J.; Joy, Kevin; Valentine, Page C.

    2001-01-01

    Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

  2. Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W.N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J.R.; Dopazo, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

  3. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr.; Houde, E.D.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual ``theoretical`` ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a ``switch`` occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  4. Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Marine Sciences); Houde, E.D. . Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual theoretical'' ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a switch'' occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SUBCHAPTER A PAPAHÄNAUMOKUÄKEA MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is subject to a zero annual harvest limit condition. (b) Fishing and...

  6. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is subject to a zero annual harvest limit condition. (b) Fishing and...

  7. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is subject to a zero annual harvest limit condition. (b) Fishing and...

  8. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10 Wildlife and...MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  9. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10 Wildlife and...MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  10. A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

    This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the aquarium for…

  11. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of ?(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour related to reproductive strategy. PMID:23189927

  12. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 ?g/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  13. Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Renick, Violet Compton; Anderson, Todd W; Morgan, Steven G; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-03-01

    Coastal development has generated multiple stressors in marine and estuarine ecosystems, including habitat degradation and pollutant exposure, but the effects of these stressors on the ecology of fishes remain poorly understood. We studied the separate and combined effects of an acute 4 h sublethal exposure of the pyrethroid pesticide esfenvalerate and structural habitat complexity on behavior and predation risk of larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Larvae were exposed to four nominal esfenvalerate concentrations (control, 0.12, 0.59, 1.18 ?g/L), before placement into 12 L mesocosms with a three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) predator. Five treatments of artificial eelgrass included a (1) uniform and (2) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a low density (500 shoots per m(2)), a (3) uniform and (4) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a high density (1,000 shoots per m(2)), and (5) the absence of eelgrass. The capture success of predators and aggregative behavior of prey were observed in each mesocosm for 10 min of each trial, and mortality of prey was recorded after 60 min. Exposure to esfenvalerate increased the proportion of larvae with swimming abnormalities. Surprisingly, prey mortality did not increase linearly with pesticide exposure but increased with habitat structure (density of eelgrass), which may have been a consequence of compensating predator behavior. The degree of prey aggregation decreased with both habitat structure and pesticide exposure, suggesting that anti-predator behaviors by prey may have been hampered by the interactive effects of both of these factors. PMID:25421633

  14. 9 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine Fisheries Service,

    E-print Network

    (Oncorhynchus nerka) age and length at seaward migration past Bonneville Dam. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. ------. Maternal influences on the age at maturity of Skeena River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Fish. Res366 9 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National

  15. The Trends in Excess Mortality in Winter vs. Summer in a Sub-Tropical City and Its Association with Extreme Climate Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    While there is literature on excess winter mortality, there are few studies examining the evolution of its trend which may be changing in parallel with global warming. This study aimed to examine the trend in the excess mortality in winter as compared to summer among the older population in a sub-tropical city and to explore its association with extreme weather. We used a retrospective study based on the registered deaths among the older population in Hong Kong during 1976-2010. An Excess Mortality for Winter versus Summer (EMWS) Index was used to quantify the excess number of deaths in winter compared to summer. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the trends and its association with extreme weather. Overall, the EMWS Index for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, pneumonia, and other causes were 43.0%, 34.2%, 42.7%, 23.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Significant decline was observed in the EMWS Index for chronic lower respiratory diseases and other causes. The trend in the index for cerebrovascular diseases depended on the age group, with older groups showing a decline but younger groups not showing any trend. Meteorological variables, in terms of extreme weather, were associated with the trends in the EMWS Index. We concluded that shrinking excess winter mortality from cerebrovascular diseases and chronic lower respiratory diseases was found in a sub-tropical city. These trends were associated with extreme weather, which coincided with global warming. PMID:25993635

  16. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (p<0.05). The third objective compared the immune responses (hemagglutination-HA titers) and complement fixation (CF) titers in mature does of the two breeds to chicken red blood cells (c-RBC). The HA titers showed a significant seroconversion only in imported Saanen (p<0.05) but not in local does; however, the CF titers increased significantly at 4 weeks following priming with c-RBC in local (p<0.05) but not in the imported Saanen does. The impact of the differences in blood immune components and responses to antigens in the compared goats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed. PMID:21720787

  17. The Trends in Excess Mortality in Winter vs. Summer in a Sub-Tropical City and Its Association with Extreme Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    While there is literature on excess winter mortality, there are few studies examining the evolution of its trend which may be changing in parallel with global warming. This study aimed to examine the trend in the excess mortality in winter as compared to summer among the older population in a sub-tropical city and to explore its association with extreme weather. We used a retrospective study based on the registered deaths among the older population in Hong Kong during 1976-2010. An Excess Mortality for Winter versus Summer (EMWS) Index was used to quantify the excess number of deaths in winter compared to summer. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the trends and its association with extreme weather. Overall, the EMWS Index for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, pneumonia, and other causes were 43.0%, 34.2%, 42.7%, 23.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Significant decline was observed in the EMWS Index for chronic lower respiratory diseases and other causes. The trend in the index for cerebrovascular diseases depended on the age group, with older groups showing a decline but younger groups not showing any trend. Meteorological variables, in terms of extreme weather, were associated with the trends in the EMWS Index. We concluded that shrinking excess winter mortality from cerebrovascular diseases and chronic lower respiratory diseases was found in a sub-tropical city. These trends were associated with extreme weather, which coincided with global warming. PMID:25993635

  18. Determining the land use legacy effect on nutrient loads to streams from sub-tropical forest watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, G. A.; Perez, L.; Martinez, G.; Castro, G.

    2013-12-01

    In order to address the issue of nutrient over enrichment in the nation's waters, the USEPA established the National Nutrient Criteria Program in 1994. One of its principal aims is to establish a numeric estimate of the nutrient status of minimally impacted waters for a particular eco region. In places such as Puerto Rico few scarce areas remain that can be considered primary forest lands, which is the ideal for establishing such criteria (Martinez et al., 2010). Past analyses indicate that succession lands result in total phosphorus (TP) concentration levels which are up to ten times higher than those from waters that have permanently remained under forest cover and it is predicted that this could be due to an inherited elevated soil fertility status from past agricultural activities. In order to aid in the establishment of 'reference' criteria the nutrient status and dynamics of soils, water, litterfall and stream sediments of a secondary (successional) forested watershed is being compared with the dynamics of an 'historically' forested watershed in Puerto Rico. These are otherwise similar in geology, soil type and other supplementary factors. Additionally an empirical framework is being developed for both watersheds using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to account for the land use legacy effect on the present nutrient status of the waters. Two watersheds were instrumented using automatic water samplers, submerged probe flow meters and rain gages. Rating curves were developed using HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS in order to determine total nitrogen and phosphorous loads from sampled and monitored events at both watersheds. Results indicate an average nutrient export per area coefficient of 1.39 and 0.206 kg/ha-yr for TN and TP respectively at the succession watershed compared to the historical watershed with 0.263 and 0.032 kg/ha-yr for TN and TP respectively. In both cases the nutrient export at the succession watershed is over five times greater than the historical watershed. Additionally soil, litterfall and stream sediment data gathered by the study group confirm an inherited elevated soil fertility status in terms of phosphorous at the succession watershed. This suggests that the agricultural land use legacy of a watershed is significantly correlated to actual non-point source (NPS) nutrient loadings at sub-tropical forested watersheds under analysis and that the effects on the nutrient status of streams can remain for decades. Upon calibration and validation of SWAT at both watersheds the necessary time lapse required in order for these waters to reach pre disturbance levels as well as the magnitude of this legacy effect can be estimated. In order to account for the temporal-spatial variation of land use the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) will be calculated from historical aerial images. This study will aid in developing a methodology for determining the land use legacy effect of NPS on receiving waters and to establish reference conditions which protect and improve the ecological integrity of rivers.

  19. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  20. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, M. U.; Asaduzzaman, Kh.; Nawi, S. M.; Usman, A. R.; Amin, Y. M.; Daar, E.; Bradley, D. A.; Ahmed, H.; Okhunov, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrouding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance. PMID:26075909

  1. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35). PMID:21980777

  2. First description of the male of Philometra filiformis (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the marine fish Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae) in Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Panebianco, Antonio; Moravec, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The male of the gonad-infecting nematode Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896) (Philometridae) is for the first time described, based on specimens from the ovary of the marine fish Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus) from the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sicily, Italy. It is mainly characterized by the testis extending anteriorly nearly to the anterior end of body, the oesophagus without a usual anterior inflation, the absence of a dorsal barb or distinct transverse lamellae on the tip of the gubernaculum, the measurements of the spicules and the gubernaculum, and a fairly long body. PMID:20128245

  3. Temperature-related variation in growth rate, size, maturation and life span in a marine herbivorous fish over a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Trip, Elizabeth D L; Clements, Kendall D; Raubenheimer, David; Choat, J Howard

    2014-07-01

    In ectotherms, growth rate, body size and maturation rate covary with temperature, with the direction and magnitude of variation predicted by the Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). Nutritional quality or availability of food, however, may vary over latitudinal gradients, resulting in ambiguous effects on body size and maturation rate. The Temperature-Constraint Hypothesis (TCH) predicts that marine herbivorous ectotherms are nutritionally compromised at latitudes exceeding 30°. This provides an opportunity to resolve the contrasting demographic responses of ectotherms to variation in temperature and nutritional status over latitudinal gradients. This study uses analysis of demographic rates to evaluate the predictions of the TSR in a marine herbivorous ectotherm sampled over a significant latitudinal gradient. The direction and magnitude of demographic variation was established in the marine herbivorous fish, Odax pullus (the butterfish), and compared with that of a phylogenetically related but trophically distinct species, the carnivorous Notolabrus fucicola (the banded wrasse). Both species were sampled at three locations across the length of New Zealand covering latitudes between 35°S and 49°S. Growth rate, mean size-at-age, age- and size-at-maturity, life span and abundance were estimated for each species at each location. Demographic traits of both taxa varied with latitude. Both species showed slower initial growth rates, and matured later at a larger body size at higher latitudes than populations sampled at lower latitudes. In addition, abundances increased significantly at higher latitudes in both species. These results were consistent with the TSR but not with the TCH, confirming that nutritional ecology (herbivore vs. carnivory) did not determine demographic patterns over a biologically significant latitudinal gradient. Results from this study suggest that the absence of herbivorous reef fishes from the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere may not reflect a general physiological mechanism as suggested by the TCH and highlights the need to clarify the evolutionary histories of the marine biota of each hemisphere. PMID:24252150

  4. Evaluation of species-specific dissimilarities in two marine fish species: mercury accumulation as a function of metal levels in consumed prey.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to compare mercury (Hg) accumulation (total and organic) and tissue distribution in two marine fish species with contrasting feeding tactics. Thus, juvenile specimens of European sea bass and Golden grey mullet were surveyed in an estuary historically affected by Hg discharges. Total Hg was preferentially accumulated in intestine, muscle, and liver, whereas gills and brain presented the lowest Hg levels observed in both species. Significant differences between species were only verified for muscle, with D. labrax's levels being greater than L. aurata's. Muscle accounted for >87% of the Hg relative tissue burden, whereas liver did not exceed 11%. Organic Hg accumulation occurred mainly in liver and muscle, with D. labrax evidencing significantly greater loads. Moreover, organic Hg in consumed prey items was also significantly greater in D. labrax. Accumulation of organic Hg in liver, intestine, and muscle seemed to vary as a function of the consumed prey items contamination, suggesting fish feeding strategies as the dominant factor determining metal accumulation. For both fish species, a stable ratio was observed between Hg increments from the reference to the contaminated site, possibly indicating that the organic Hg content of diet may regulate the internal levels of this contaminant. Thus, this ratio might prove to be a useful contamination predictor tool in early life stages of fish. PMID:22189708

  5. Spawning salmon and the fitness of stream-dwelling fishes: Marine-derived nutrients show saturating effects on growth and energy storage in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and d15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg•m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and d15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of d15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  6. Marine Fisheries On the cover. Views of marine

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover. Views of marine recreational fisheries. NMFS, NOAA photos. Articles 49(2), 1987 Special Issue: Marine Recreational Fisheries and Fishing Introduction 1 Marine Recreational Fisheries in the Southeastern United States Ronald L. Schmied and Edward E. Burgess 2 Marine

  7. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

  8. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  9. Intestinal anion exchange in marine teleosts is involved in osmoregulation and contributes to the oceanic inorganic

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    REVIEW Intestinal anion exchange in marine teleosts is involved in osmoregulation and contributes-mail: mgrosell@rsmas.miami.edu Abstract Marine teleost fish osmoregulation involves seawater ingestion, inorganic carbon cycle, intestine, marine fish, water absorption. Marine teleosts are osmoregulators

  10. Piscivory does not cause pansteatitis (yellow fat disease)in Oreochromis mossambicus from an African sub-tropical reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Pansteatitis (yellow fat disease) is ubiquitous in the free-ranging population of Oreochromis mossambicus from Loskop Reservoir (LR), South Africa. The disease is nutritionally mediated and associated with a diet high in polyunsaturated or rancid fats, frequently of fish origi...

  11. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World’s Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world’s oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ?4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles can support equitable analysis and comparison of diverse ecosystems. The analyses provide insights into the effects of parameter uncertainty on global biomass and production estimates, which have yet to be achieved with complex models, and will therefore help to highlight priorities for future research and data collection. However, the focus on simple model structures and global processes means that non-phytoplankton primary production and several groups, structures and processes of ecological and conservation interest are not represented. Consequently, our simple models become increasingly less useful than more complex alternatives when addressing questions about food web structure and function, biodiversity, resilience and human impacts at smaller scales and for areas closer to coasts. PMID:26226590

  12. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Zwi, Anthony B.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M.; Soomro, Abdul Qadeem; Baig, Rashid; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ? 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons) had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart), satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12). 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women’s eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18) compared with men’s eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001) after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women’s than men’s eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8%) or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144) of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0.001). Conclusions The quality of cataract surgery in this marginalised population, especially among women, falls well below the WHO recommended standards. Gender disparities, in particular, deserve proactive attention in policy, service delivery, research and evaluation. PMID:26186605

  13. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

  14. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

  15. Towards an enhanced use of soil databases for assessing water availability in (sub)tropical regions using fractal-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botula Manyala, Y.; Baetens, J.; Baert, G.; Van Ranst, E.; Cornelis, W.

    2012-12-01

    Following the completion of numerous elaborate soil surveys in many (sub)tropical regions of the African continent during the past decades, vast databases with soil properties of the prevailing soil orders in these regions have been assembled in order to support agricultural stakeholders throughout crucial decision-making processes. Unfortunately, even though soil hydraulic properties are of primary interest for designing sustainable farming practices, guiding crop choice and irrigation scheduling, a substantial share of the soil surveys is restricted to the collection of soil chemical properties. This bias principally originates from the fact that soil chemical characteristics like pH, organic carbon/matter (OC/OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS) can be determined readily. On the other hand, determination of the hydraulic properties of a soil on the field or in the lab, is much more time consuming, particularly the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) which is generally considered as one of the most important physical property since it constitutes the footprint of a soil. Owing to the incompleteness of most soil databases in (sub)tropical regions, either much valuable information is discarded because the assessment of meaningful indices in land evaluation such as the soil available water capacity (AWC), the hydraulic conductivity are merely based upon those soil samples for which hydraulic properties were measured, or one has to resort to pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The latter are equations for deducing hydraulic properties of a soil from physico-chemical data that are commonly available in soil survey reports (sand, silt, clay, OC/OM, CEC, etc.). Yet, such PTFs are only locally applicable because their derivation rests on statistical or machine learning techniques and has no physical basis. Recently, however, physically-based, and hence globally applicable, fractal methods have been put forward for assessing a soil's SWRC based upon its particle-size distribution, which is a significantly more available property in dedicated soil databases than its hydraulic properties. Notwithstanding the fact that these methods offer a means to fully exploit soil databases of (sub)tropical regions, their applicability methods has only been demonstrated for soils from temperate regions. Here, we first demonstrate the applicability of such fractal-based methods for some soil orders (Acrisols and Ferrasols) that are typically tied up with (sub)tropic climate zones. Then, the fractal-based method that gave rise to the best performance indices for the considered soil families is used to retrieve the spatio-temporal distribution of the AWC across Lower Congo, which is one of the agricultural hotspots of Democratic Republic of Congo whose soil physical properties have therefore been surveyed elaborately. Since this map is based upon the entire soil database of Lower Congo, which is the advent of using the aforementioned fractal-based methods for translating the measured soil physical properties like texture into the otherwise unknown soil hydraulic properties, it reflects the spatial variability of the AWC in more detail, such that it is of greater value for the involved stakeholders during the process of crop, harvest and tillage selection.

  16. The Effect of 17?-Ethynylestradiol on Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Cytokine Gene Expression Is Related to the Reproductive Stage in Marine Hermaphrodite Fish

    PubMed Central

    Cabas, Isabel; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano; García-Ayala, Alfonsa

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants have been reported to disrupt the endocrine system of marine animals, which may be exposed through contaminated seawater or through the food chain. Although 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a drug used in hormone therapies, is widely present in the aquatic environment, current knowledge on the sensitivity of marine fish to estrogenic pollutants is limited. We report the effect of the dietary intake of 5 µg EE2/g food on different processes of testicular physiology, ranging from steroidogenesis to pathogen recognition, at both pre-spermatogenesis (pre-SG) and spermatogenesis (SG) reproductive stages, of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), a marine hermaphrodite teleost. A differential effect between pre-SG and SG specimens was detected in the sex steroid serum levels and in the expression profile of some steroidogenic-relevant molecules, vitellogenin, double sex- and mab3-related transcription factor 1 and some hormone receptors. Interestingly, EE2 modified the expression pattern of some immune molecules involved in testicular physiology. These differences probably reflect a developmental adjustment of the sensitivity to EE2 in the gilthead seabream gonad. PMID:24335523

  17. Summer (sub-arctic) versus winter (sub-tropical) production affects on spinach leaf bio-nutrients: Vitamins (C, E, Folate, K1, provitamin A), lutein, phenolics, and antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars Lazio and Samish grown during the summer solstice in the sub-arctic versus the winter solstice in the sub-tropics provided insight into interactions between plant environment (day length, light intensity, ambient temperatures), cultivar and leaf...

  18. Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

    2011-05-01

    West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.

  19. USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

  20. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurdalila, A’wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  1. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  2. Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

  3. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata. In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

  4. Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

  5. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A NON-MIGRATORY MARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS ACROSS A STRONG GRADIENT OF PCB CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to contaminated sites exhibit heritable resistance to some of the toxic effects of early life-stage exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This evolved tolerance provides evidence of strong selection by PCB...

  6. METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; the inlan...

  7. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different ? chains, ?1 and ?2, as well as a ? component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

  8. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.129 “Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish,...

  9. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.129 “Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish,...

  10. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.129 “Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish,...

  11. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.129 “Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish,...

  12. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Scenes

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Scenes from the Boston Fish Pier. Articles January 1983, 45 and Virginia Fish Ladders, Alaskan Abalones and Salmon, The Pacific Halibut Catch, Florida's Marine Angling and Marine Recreational Fishing, Cephalopod Resources and Their Harvest, and The Environment Near Shore 29

  13. Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B?naru, D.; Mellon-Duval, C.; Roos, D.; Bigot, J.-L.; Souplet, A.; Jadaud, A.; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    The Gulf of Lions ecosystem was described using the Ecopath mass-balance model to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of the multispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of cetaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input data were based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishing data, stock assessment outputs, stomach content analyses and published information. Results showed that the functional groups were organised into five trophic levels with the highest one represented by dolphins, anglerfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna, European hake and European conger. European pilchard and European anchovy dominated in terms of fish biomass and catch. Other fish with high biomass such as Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting were highly important in the food web. Seabirds, dolphins and cuttlefish-squids represented keystone species. Important coupled pelagic-demersal-benthic interactions were described. The 7 different fisheries analysed were operating at mean trophic levels situated between 2.6 for small artisanal boats, and 4.1 for purse seines (> 24 m) targeting large pelagic fish, indicating an intensively exploited ecosystem. Large trawlers (24-40 m) had the highest impact on most of the groups considered; while purse seines (12-24 m) targeting small pelagic fish had the lowest impact. Preliminary results highlighted the importance of data sources for further ecosystem and fisheries analyses and management scenarios.

  14. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...

  15. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...

  16. Professor Martin Grosell and colleagues have made a fascinating discovery about the contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle and the potential impact they may have on future ocean acidification

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    of our oceans is critical for predictions of ocean acidification as environmental CO2 levels rise. Our of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle and the potential impact they may have on future ocean acidification Calcium carbonate contributors First, can you outline what defines teleostei and explain the links

  17. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in the East China Sea. The identification of A. typica, recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, H. amoyense and H. fabri is first reported in this area. The wide diversity and substantial geographical distributions of these nematodes will provide a foundation for future studies of Anisakidae family. The high prevalence of these nematodes in marine fishes off the East China Sea may pose considerable food safety problems, which is a potential cause of human anisakiasis. PMID:25617845

  18. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  19. Evaluating mercury biomagnification in fish from a tropical marine environment using stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N).

    PubMed

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Ababneh, Fuad A; Lean, David R

    2007-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in zooplankton and 13 fish species from a coastal food web of the Gulf of Oman, an arm of the Arabian Sea between Oman and Iran. Stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) also were determined to track mercury biomagnification. The average concentration of T-Hg in zooplankton was 21 +/- 8.0 ng g(-1) with MeHg accounting 10% of T-Hg. Total mercury levels in fish species ranged from 3.0 ng g(-1) (Sardinella longiceps) to 760 ng g(-1) (Rhizoprionodon acutus) with relatively lower fraction of MeHg (72%) than that found in other studies. The average trophic difference (Deltadelta13C) between zooplankton and planktivorous fish (Selar crumenopthalmus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, and S. longiceps) was higher (3.4 per thousandth) than expected, suggesting that zooplankton may not be the main diet or direct carbon source for these fish species. However, further sampling would be required to compensate for temporal changes in zooplankton and the influence of their lipid content. Trophic position inferred by delta15N and and slopes of the regression equations (log10[T-Hg] = 0.13[delta15N] - 3.57 and log10[MeHg] = 0.14[delta15N] - 3.90) as estimates of biomagnification indicate that biomagnification of T-Hg and MeHg was lower in this tropical ocean compared to what has been observed in arctic and temperate ecosystems and tropical African lakes. The calculated daily intake of methylmercury in the diet of local people through fish consumption was well below the established World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake threshold for most of the fish species except Euthynnus affinis, Epinephelus epistictus, R. acutus, and Thunnus tonggol, illustrating safe consumption of the commonly consumed fish species. PMID:17702328

  20. Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Bob

    Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

  1. Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in two marine fish species collected in Galveston Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; Steinberg, M.A.; Safe, S.H.; McDonald, S.J.; Beatty, K.B.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1997-07-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary exhibited a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the comparative sensitivity of various biomarkers in fish from different bay locations were determined. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 > 1,000 ng/g. The induction of cytochrome P4501A-(CYP1A)-dependent hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, CYPIA mRNA levels, or CYPIA immunoreactive protein in hardhead catfish was highly variable in the field-collected fish and in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In contrast, significant differences were seen in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites in hardhead catfish from polluted versus less polluted areas. In croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, EROD and glutathione S-transferase activities, immunoreactive CYP1A protein, biliary PAH metabolites, and PAH-DNA adducts were higher at the contaminated stations compared with less polluted locations. These studies suggest that the croaker is a good species for monitoring contaminants that induce CYP1A-mediated responses. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were also sensitive indicators of exposure to PAH contamination in both species of fish.

  2. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawra, Hideki; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the Hg concentration, and ?¹³C and ?15N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher ?15N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and ?15N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal)-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the ?15N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with ?15N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a ?¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the ?¹³C value of the marine food web. PMID:26065892

  3. UNITED STATES: 1 NOAA Creates Marine Advisory

    E-print Network

    .S. Quintupled 43 Swedish Fisheries Decline in 1971 44 44 45 Norway's Fish Farming Grows Ireland: Coops Foster Fish- eries and Marine Environment 5 NMFS Offers North Pacific Marine Fish Chart ARTICLES: 6 Japanese Fishing Vessels Off Alaska, by William R. Dickinson 19 A Survey of the Sea Bass Fishery, by David W. Frame

  4. Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network

    E-print Network

    Tan, Xiaobo

    Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network Autonomous Robotic Fish as Mobile Sensor Platforms: Challenges and Potential Solutions Xiaobo Tan. Marine Technology, and is not to be distributed in any format. The Marine Technology Society is a not-for-profit, international, professional

  5. ACTIVITIES OF AMMONIA ASSIMILATION ENZYMES AS INDICATORS OF THE RELATIVE SUPPLY OF NITROGEN SUBSTRATES FOR MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SUB-TROPICAL COASTAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The supply of nitrogen substrates available for bacterial production in seawater was determined using the activities of ammonia assimilation enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Expression of GS and GDH by bacteria in pure culture is generally ind...

  6. Radiological dose rates to marine fish from the Fukushima Daiichi accident: the first three years across the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Mathew P; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Higley, Kathryn; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    A more complete record is emerging of radionuclide measurements in fish tissue, sediment, and seawater samples from near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and across the Pacific Ocean. Our analysis of publicly available data indicates the dose rates to the most impacted fish species near the FDNPP (median 1.1 mGy d(-1), 2012-2014 data) have remained above benchmark levels for potential dose effects at least three years longer than was indicated by previous, data-limited evaluations. Dose rates from (134,137)Cs were highest in demersal species with sediment-associated food chains and feeding behaviors. In addition to (134,137)Cs, the radionuclide (90)Sr was estimated to contribute up to approximately one-half of the total 2013 dose rate to fish near the FDNPP. Mesopelagic fish 100-200 km east of the FDNPP, coastal fish in the Aleutian Islands (3300 km), and trans-Pacific migratory species all had increased dose rates as a consequence of the FDNPP accident, but their total dose rates remained dominated by background radionuclides. A hypothetical human consumer of 50 kg of fish, gathered 3 km from the FDNPP in 2013, would have received a total committed effective dose of approximately 0.95 mSv a(-1) from combined FDNPP and ambient radionuclides, of which 0.13 mSv a(-1) (14%) was solely from the FDNPP radionuclides and below the 1 mSv a(-1) benchmark for public exposure. PMID:25532541

  7. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment. PMID:23840721

  8. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop residues into the soil. It also shows that the use of nitrification inhibitors can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues over the post-harvest phase. Hence the use of nitrification inhibitors in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid excess soil nitrogen during the postharvest phase.

  9. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

  10. Empirical Evidence for Species-Specific Export of Fish Naïveté from a No-Take Marine Protected Area in a Coastal Recreational Hook and Line Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Puiggrós, Antoni; Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Palmer, Miquel; Rosselló, Rosario; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are assumed to enhance fisheries catch via the “spillover” effect, where biomass is exported to adjacent exploited areas. Recent studies in spearfishing fisheries suggest that the spillover of gear-naïve individuals from protected to unprotected sites increases catch rates outside the boundaries of MPAs. Whether this is a widespread phenomenon that also holds for other gear types and species is unknown. In this study, we tested if the distance to a Mediterranean MPA predicted the degree of vulnerability to hook and line in four small-bodied coastal fish species. With the assistance of underwater video recording, we investigated the interaction effect of the distance to the boundary of an MPA and species type relative to the latency time to ingest a natural bait, which was considered as a surrogate of fish naïveté or vulnerability to fishing. Vulnerability to angling increased (i.e., latency time decreased) within and near the boundary of an MPA for an intrinsically highly catchable species (Serranus scriba), while it remained constant for an intrinsically uncatchable control species (Chromis chromis). While all of the individuals of S. scriba observed within the MPA and surrounding areas were in essence captured by angling gear, only one fifth of individuals in the far locations were captured. This supports the potential for the spillover of gear-naïve and consequently more vulnerable fish from no-take MPAs. Two other species initially characterized as intermediately catchable (Coris julis and Diplodus annularis) also had a shorter latency time in the vicinity of an MPA, but for these two cases the trend was not statistically significant. Overall, our results suggest that an MPA-induced naïveté effect may not be universal and may be confined to only intrinsically highly catchable fish species. This fact emphasizes the importance of considering the behavioural dimension when predicting the outcomes of MPAs, otherwise the effective contribution may be smaller than predicted for certain highly catchable species such as S. scriba. PMID:26275290

  11. Occurrence of demersal fishes in relation to near-bottom oxygen levels within the California Current large marine

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    exhibited significant and positive relationships with near-bottom oxygen concentration. The probability in oxygen concentration. Key words: bottom dissolved oxygen, demersal fish catch, Dover sole, greenstriped.e., the eastern North Pacific. The OMZ is defined by dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations

  12. USE OF A TEMPERATE REEF-FISH COMMUNITY TO IDENTIFY PRIORITIES IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A MARINE PROTECTED AREA

    E-print Network

    to climatic oscillations such as those predicted as part of global warming. This study analysed the fish República, 2900 Setúbal, Portugal. Abstract Few studies have dealt with biodiversity, composition a biogeographical perspective, mainland Portugal is in a transitional zone where many species of cold- and warm

  13. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion in marine teleost fish--source of bicarbonate, pH sensitivity, and consequences for whole animal

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    . Keywords: Calcium carbonate precipitation; Osmoregulation; Water absorption; Chloride­bicarbonate exchange; Calcium and magnesium homeostasis; Acid­base balance 1. Introduction Teleost fish hypo-osmoregulate into the blood. The HCO3 À secretion therefore plays a rather novel role in osmoregulation [9]. Furthermore

  14. REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

  15. Mercury and selenium in seston, marine plankton and fish (Sardinella brasiliensis) as a tool for understanding a tropical food web.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Moreira, Isabel; Kehrig, Helena Amaral

    2015-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were evaluated in a planktivorous fish and four size classes of organisms (FSCO), collected at an oligotrophic bay in the Southeastern Brazilian coast. No significant spatial differences between Hg and Se were found in the FSCO within the five sampling points in the bay. Hg and Se concentrations increased with successive increases in the size class of the analyzed plankton, i.e. approximately 3-and 2-fold, respectively, from microplankton to macroplankton. Hg and Se biomagnified throughout the planktonic food web. The smallest size class of organism, seston, composed of both biotic and abiotic portions, and fish showed the highest Hg concentrations. This indicates that Hg is not biomagnifying in the base of the bay food web. Selenium concentrations in fish were approximately 5.9 times higher than those in seston. Hg and Se concentrations in fish were approximately 3.5 and 14.6 times higher than those found in the plankton, respectively. PMID:26478456

  16. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  17. First Report of a Toxic Nodularia spumigena (Nostocales/ Cyanobacteria) Bloom in Sub-Tropical Australia. I. Phycological and Public Health Investigations

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Glenn B.; Stewart, Ian; Sendall, Barbara C.; Sadler, Ross; Reardon, Karen; Carter, Steven; Wruck, Dan; Wickramasinghe, Wasa

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most conspicuous and widespread waterborne microbial hazards to human and ecosystem health. Investigation of a cyanobacterial bloom in a shallow brackish water recreational cable ski lake in south-eastern Queensland, Australia revealed the dominance of the toxigenic species Nodularia spumigena. The bloom spanned three months, during which time cell concentrations exceeded human guideline thresholds for recreational risk, and concentrations of the hepatotoxic cyanotoxin nodularin exceeded 200 µg L?1. Cyanotoxin origin and identification was confirmed by amplification of the ndaF-specific PCR product and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. From the limited data available leading up to, and throughout the bloom, it was not possible to establish the set of causative factors responsible for its occurrence. However a combination of factors including salinity, hydraulic retention time and nutrient status associated with an extended period of drought are likely to have contributed. This was the first known occurrence of this species in bloom proportions from sub-tropical Australia and as such represents a hitherto uncharacterized risk to human and ecosystem health. It highlights the need for adaptive monitoring regimes to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the potentially toxic cyanobacteria likely to inhabit any given region. Such monitoring needs to recognize that cyanobacteria have a significant capacity for range expansion that has been facilitated by recent changes in global climate. PMID:22851951

  18. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health. PMID:25776604

  19. Assessing the overlap between the diet of a coastal shark and the surrounding prey communities in a sub-tropical embayment.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, A N; Bennett, M B; Huveneers, C; Tibbetts, I R

    2011-05-01

    An elasmobranch survey of sub-tropical Hervey Bay, Australia, captured the slit-eye shark Loxodon macrorhinus at only one of three sites sampled. The dietary composition of this small shark species was compared to the prey communities within Hervey Bay to test whether prey availability was driving this observation. Dietary analysis of prey groups revealed that teleosts dominated the diet, per cent index of relative importance, % I(RI) (79·5%) and per cent geometric index of importance, % G(II) (52·7%), with shrimp-like invertebrates and cephalopods identified as the most important invertebrate prey groups. Baited remote underwater video (BRUV) used to sample prey communities at each site, demonstrated a highly diverse and significantly different community composition among the sites. There was no significant overlap between the diet of L. macrorhinus and any of the prey communities detected by BRUVs according to one-way analysis of similarities and the simplified Morisita index. Habitat electivity analysis revealed affinity of L. macrorhinus for the site with the highest water clarity (Secchi disc depth), opposing that of three other shark species. Overall, the results suggest that the distribution of L. macrorhinus is not driven by prey availability but other factors such as water clarity, predator avoidance or a reduction in interspecies competition. PMID:21539550

  20. Phytoplankton biomass and composition in a well-flushed, sub-tropical estuary: The contrasting effects of hydrology, nutrient loads and allochthonous influences.

    PubMed

    Hart, J A; Phlips, E J; Badylak, S; Dix, N; Petrinec, K; Mathews, A L; Green, W; Srifa, A

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine trends in phytoplankton biomass and species composition under varying nutrient load and hydrologic regimes in the Guana Tolomato Matanzas estuary (GTM), a well-flushed sub-tropical estuary located on the northeast coast of Florida. The GTM contains both regions of significant human influence and pristine areas with only modest development, providing a test case for comparing and contrasting phytoplankton community dynamics under varying degrees of nutrient load. Water temperature, salinity, Secchi disk depth, nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll concentrations were determined on a monthly basis from 2002 to 2012 at three representative sampling sites in the GTM. In addition, microscopic analyses of phytoplankton assemblages were carried out monthly for a five year period from 2005 through 2009 at all three sites. Results of this study indicate that phytoplankton biomass and composition in the GTM are strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, such as water residence times and tidal exchanges of coastal waters, which in turn are affected by shifts in climatic conditions, most prominently rainfall levels. These influences are exemplified by the observation that the region of the GTM with the longest water residence times but lowest nutrient loads exhibited the highest phytoplankton peaks of autochthonous origin. The incursion of a coastal bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis into the GTM in 2007 demonstrates the potential importance of allochthonous influences on the ecosystem. PMID:26385174

  1. ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program

    E-print Network

    1.0 Introduction The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was enacted in 1972 to protect and conserve Information Form 4.1.2 Drift Gillnet Gear Characteristics Form 4.1.3 Drift Gillnet Haul Form 4.1.4 Fish/Shark." The MMPA recognizes marine mammals as integral to an ocean ecosystem, and the Act's primary goal

  2. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Ciguatera Fish Poisoning ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  3. FOCUS: MARINE GEOMORPHOLOGY AS A DETERMINANT FOR

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    FOCUS: MARINE GEOMORPHOLOGY AS A DETERMINANT FOR ESSENTIAL LIFE HABITAT AND MARINE PROTECTED AREA DESIGN Marine Geomorphology in the Design of Marine Reserve Networks William D. Heyman Texas A Geographer explores the development of marine reserve networks based on geomorphology, fish biology

  4. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  5. Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in puerto rico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M P; Legore, R S

    2005-05-01

    In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930's. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1) an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers, collection methods and export volumes, and (2) the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators. The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators, and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits, the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order. To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy, regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1) characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports, (2) describe populations and biology of commercial species, and (3) propose appropriate fisheries management approaches. This paper describes only the first phase of this program. PMID:17465153

  6. Coccolithophores and the Merchant Fishing Corps Along Northern California Shores: Atmospheric Monitoring of DMS and CO at the Bodega Marine Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faloona, I.; Day, D.; Choi, W.; Cox, E.

    2005-12-01

    Two major science steering documents have explicitly identified the importance of the coastal oceans in Earth systems science - the North American Carbon Plan and The Ocean Carbon & Climate Change implementation strategy, and both emphasize the need to augment current monitoring networks in these environments. The Northern California coast is a particularly interesting locale because of the intense upwelling induced there by strong northerly flow leeward of the Pacific High during the spring and summer. This upwelling system, and some four others like it around the globe, sustain the most ecologically bountiful regions in the marine biosphere, and collectively are responsible for almost half of the world's fish catch. There is also some concern about the response of these critically important ecosystems to global climate change. We are operating a continuous, high-rate CO instrument at the Bodega Marine Lab on the Northern California coast in order to better understand and quantify regional sources that may influence what is commonly considered to be the North American background atmosphere. Inspection of the high resolution CO time series reveals frequent spikes during onshore flow thought to represent ship plumes advecting past the sensor. Analysis of these data has rendered an estimate of the CO emissions from local ship traffic, while measurements of dissolved CO in the ocean permit an estimate of the natural emissions from coastal waters. Moreover, a pilot study measuring atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS) during July and August, 2005 indicates concentrations ranging from 30 to 1,300 pptv, confirming that this site is a unique one. We will show some of the main meteorological and sea state variables that control the emissions of these important biogeochemical species, and estimate their contribution to the total CO and aerosol sulfur loading in the coastal boundary layer, all the while emphasizing the unique importance of this monitoring station.

  7. Sustainable production of toxin free marine microalgae biomass as fish feed in large scale open system in the Qatari desert.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J

    2015-09-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae biomass for feed should be cost effective and toxin free. Evaporation loss in Qatar can be as high as 2 cm/d. Hence, production of marine microalgae biomass in Qatar would also require mitigating water loss as there was only very limited groundwater reserve. To address these issues, a combination of four growth conditions were applied to a 25,000 L raceway pond: locally isolated microalgae strain was selected which could grow in elevated salinity; strain that did not require silica and vitamins; volume of the culture would increase over time keeping denser inoculum in the beginning, and evaporation water loss would be balanced by adding seawater only. A local saline tolerant Nannochloropsis sp. was selected which did not require silica and vitamins. When the above conditions were combined in the pond, average areal biomass productivities reached 20.37 g/m(2)/d, and the culture was not contaminated by any toxic microalgae. PMID:26022971

  8. Canopy structure of tropical and sub-tropical rain forests in relation to conifer dominance analysed with a portable LIDAR system

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Shin-ichiro; Akutsu, Kosuke; Onoda, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Globally, conifer dominance is restricted to nutient-poor habitats in colder, drier or waterlogged environments, probably due to competition with angiosperms. Analysis of canopy structure is important for understanding the mechanism of plant coexistence in relation to competition for light. Most conifers are shade intolerant, and often have narrow, deep, conical crowns. In this study it is predicted that conifer-admixed forests have less distinct upper canopies and more undulating canopy surfaces than angiosperm-dominated forests. Methods By using a ground-based, portable light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, canopy structure was quantified for old-growth evergreen rainforests with varying dominance of conifers along altitudinal gradients (200–3100 m a.s.l.) on tropical and sub-tropical mountains (Mount Kinabalu, Malaysian Borneo and Yakushima Island, Japan) that have different conifer floras. Key Results Conifers dominated at higher elevations on both mountains (Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae on Kinabalu and Cupressaceae and Pinaceae on Yakushima), but conifer dominance also varied with soil/substrate conditions on Kinabalu. Conifer dominance was associated with the existence of large-diameter conifers. Forests with higher conifer dominance showed a canopy height profile (CHP) more skewed towards the understorey on both Kinabalu and Yakushima. In contrast, angiosperm-dominated forests had a CHP skewed towards upper canopy, except for lowland dipterocarp forests and a sub-alpine scrub dominated by small-leaved Leptospermum recurvum (Myrtaceae) on Kinabalu. Forests with a less dense upper canopy had more undulating outer canopy surfaces. Mixed conifer–angiosperm forests on Yakushima and dipterocarp forests on Kinabalu showed similar canopy structures. Conclusions The results generally supported the prediction, suggesting that lower growth of angiosperm trees (except L. recurvum on Kinabalu) in cold and nutrient-poor environments results in a sparser upper canopy, which allows shade-intolerant conifers to co-occur with angiosperm trees either as emergents or as codominants in the open canopy. PMID:24197751

  9. Silicate:nitrate ratios of upwelled waters control the phytoplankton community sustained by mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibby, T. S.; Moore, C. M.

    2011-03-01

    Mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical gyres physically perturb the water column and can introduce macronutrients to the euphotic zone, stimulating a biological response in which phytoplankton communities can become dominated by large phytoplankton. Mesoscale eddies may therefore be important in driving export in oligotrophic regions of the modern ocean. However, the character and magnitude of the biological response sustained by eddies is variable. Here we present data from mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea (Atlantic) and the waters off Hawai'i (Pacific), alongside mesoscale events that affected the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) over the past decade. From this analysis, we suggest that the phytoplankton community structure sustained by mesoscale eddies is predetermined by the relative abundance of silicate over nitrate (Si*) in the upwelled waters. We present data that demonstrate that mode-water eddies (MWE) in the Sargasso Sea upwell locally formed waters with relatively high Si* to the euphotic zone, and that cyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea introduce waters with relatively low Si*, a signature that originated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean. We propose that this phenomenon can explain the observed dominance of the phytoplankton community by large-diatom species in MWE and by small prokaryotic phytoplankton in cyclonic features. In contrast to the Atlantic, North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) with high Si* may influence the cyclonic eddies in waters off Hawai'i, which also appear capable of sustaining diatom populations. These observations suggest that the structure of phytoplankton communities sustained by eddies may be related to the chemical composition of the upwelled waters in addition to the physical nature of the eddy.

  10. Silicate:nitrate ratios of upwelled waters control the phytoplankton community sustained by mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibby, T. S.; Moore, C. M.

    2010-10-01

    Mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical gyres physically perturb the water column and can introduce macronutrients to the euphotic zone, stimulating a biological response by which phytoplankton communities can become dominated by large phytoplankton. Mesoscale eddies are therefore important in driving export in oligotrophic regions of the modern ocean. The character and magnitude of the biological response sustained by eddies are, however, variable. Here we present data from mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea (Atlantic) and the waters off Hawai'i (Pacific), alongside mesoscale events that affected the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) over the past decade. From this analysis, we suggest that the phytoplankton community structure sustained by mesoscale eddies is predetermined by the relative abundance of silicate over nitrate (Si*) in the upwelled waters. We present data that demonstrate that mode-water eddies (MWE) in the Sargasso Sea upwell locally formed waters with high Si* to the euphotic zone, and that cyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea introduce waters with low Si*, a signature that originated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean. We propose that this phenomenon can explain the observed abundance of large-diatom species in MWE and small prokaryotic phytoplankton in cyclonic features. In contrast to the Atlantic, cyclonic eddies in waters off Hawai'i induce North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that has high Si* and therefore also appears capable of establishing diatom populations. These observations suggest that the structure of phytoplankton communities sustained by eddies may not be directly related to the physical nature of the eddy but rather to the chemical composition of the upwelled waters. This paper links the biological production and export efficiency of mesoscale eddies to events in spatially and temporally disparate locations.

  11. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma, off Lizard Island. U. seriolae Lester 1982 is reported here from Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi, from sites off Queensland and from Jurien Bay, Western Australia. Comparative genetic analyses also revealed that an unidentified species of Unicapsula from Epinephelus septemfasciatus off Japan whose rDNA sequence data are available on GenBank is consistent with U. seriolae. This suggests that U. seriolae may also exhibit low host specificity and may be distributed widely throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. In comparison to other myxozoan genera, it is clear that the species richness of Unicapsula spp. falls well below that displayed by either Ceratomyxa spp. or Kudoa spp. The discovery of a further new species of Unicapsula in Australia now brings the total worldwide number of formally described Unicapsula species to a modest 11. Nonetheless, this taxon remains of significant interest to commercial and recreational fisheries through the potential production of macroscopic pseudocysts in fish muscle and post-mortem muscle liquefaction, both of which can render fish fillets unpalatable and unmarketable. PMID:23812600

  12. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

  13. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Giacalone, Maximiliano; D'Anna, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Human exploitation has drastically reduced the abundance and distribution of several marine fish and invertebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction. Restocking can potentially mitigate these impacts and help to reconstitute depleted stocks but genetic repercussions must be considered. In the present study, the degree of genetic similarity between white seabream (Diplodus sargus Linnaeus 1758) individuals reared for restocking purposes and the receiving population in the Gulf of Castellammare fishery reserve (Sicily, Italy) was assessed using microsatellites. We also inferred the spatial pattern of the genetic structure of D. sargus and connectivity along Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci and an important reduction in the number of alleles, which could indicate an incipient inbreeding. Both the farmed population and the target one for restocking (Castellammare fishery reserve), showed high and significant values of genetic differentiation due to different allele frequencies, number of privative alleles and total number of alleles. These findings indicate a low degree of genetic similarity between both populations, therefore this restocking initiative is not advisable. The genetic connectivity pattern, highly consistent with oceanographic currents, identified two distinct metapopulations of white seabream around Sicily. Thus it is recommended to utilize broods from the same metapopulation for restocking purposes to provide a better genetic match to the wild populations.

  14. U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service The National Fish Habitat Action Plan

    E-print Network

    Fisheries Service The National Fish Habitat Action Plan The National Fish Habitat Action Plan is a bold new Habitat for the Future The National Fish Habitat Action Plan is a nationwide, partnership-based investment strategy to increase the return on fish habitat conservation efforts. The Action Plan encourages

  15. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  16. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  17. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  18. 78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...fish in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. These are [[Page 39584

  19. Detection of unusual fish trajectories from underwater videos 

    E-print Network

    Beyan, Çigdem

    2015-06-29

    Fish behaviour analysis is a fundamental research area in marine ecology as it is helpful for detecting environmental changes by observing unusual fish patterns or new fish behaviours. The traditional way of analysing ...

  20. Modelingevapotranspirationina sub-tropical climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savabi, M.R.; Cochrane, T.A.; German, E.; Ikiz, C.; Cockshutt, N.

    2007-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) loss is estimated at about 80-85% of annual precipitation in South Florida. Accurate prediction of ET is important during and beyond the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). In the USDA's Everglades Agro-Hydrology Model (EAHM) the soil water intake is linked with the soil water redistribution, soil evaporation, plant transpiration, subsurface lateral flow and subsurface drainage to calculate daily root zone soil water content. Hydrometeorological data from three sites with different soil moisture content and vegetal cover were used to evaluate the EAHM ET routine. In general, the EAHM water balance sub-model simulated the daily ET with acceptable accuracy in the area with standing water (Everglades) while using the Penman method. However, in the area with grass cover, there was a discrepancy between the model simulated and measured ET using either the Penman or the Priestley-Taylor method. The results indicated that in the region with two distinct climate patterns: dry (low humidity, more wind, and less precipitation) and wet (high humidity, less wind and more rainfall) such as South Florida, a combination method like Penman should be used for prediction of daily ET. However, in order to improve the predictability of the ET methods, information about surface albedo is needed for land surfaces with grass vegetation during the growing season.

  1. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs AGENCY: National Marine...regulations implementing the individual fishing quota (IFQ) programs for the commercial...because affected participants are still fishing for these species in the affected...

  2. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  3. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  4. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  6. 50 CFR 80.66 - What requirements apply to allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fisheries projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (b) A resident angler is one who fishes for recreational purposes...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine environments...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine...

  7. 50 CFR 80.66 - What requirements apply to allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fisheries projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (b) A resident angler is one who fishes for recreational purposes...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine environments...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine...

  8. 50 CFR 80.66 - What requirements apply to allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fisheries projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (b) A resident angler is one who fishes for recreational purposes...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine environments...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine...

  9. 50 CFR 80.66 - What requirements apply to allocation of funds between marine and freshwater fisheries projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (b) A resident angler is one who fishes for recreational purposes...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine environments...distribution of resident anglers in the State between those that fish in marine...

  10. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of southern California to Washington, and occasional, seasonal, or transitory associations of coastal pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) may also occur at WECs in these waters. Importantly, our review indicated that negative effects of WEC structures on special-status fish species, such as increased predation of juvenile salmonids or rockfishes, are not likely. In addition, WECs installed in coastal California, especially in southern California waters, have the potential to attract high densities of reef-associated fishes and may even contribute to rockfish productivity, if fish respond to the WECs similarly to oil and gas platforms, which have some of the highest secondary production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat studied globally (Claisse et al. 2014). We encountered some information gaps, owing to the paucity or lack, in key locations, of comparable surrogate structures in which fish assemblages and ecological interactions were studied. TECs are most likely to be used in the Puget Sound area, but suitable surrogates are lacking there. However, in similarly cold-temperate waters of Europe and Maine, benthopelagic fish occurred around tidal turbines during lower tidal velocities, and this type of interaction may be expected by similar species at TECs in Puget Sound. To address information gaps in the near term, such as whether WECs would function as FADs in temperate waters, studies of navigation buoys using hydroacoustics are recommended.

  11. A LABORATORY FOR FISH BEHAVIOR STUDIES

    E-print Network

    fish behavior. The laboratory includes a concrete experimental tank, 60 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 5 of fish passage over dams or other obstruc- tions to migration require interpretation of fish behaviorA LABORATORY FOR FISH BEHAVIOR STUDIES Marine Biological Laboratory !\\^.-. i : i>J;,9 WOODS HOLE

  12. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish, shellfish, crustaceas, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life” mentioned in section 13(a)(5). The exemption...

  13. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish, shellfish, crustaceas, sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life” mentioned in section 13(a)(5). The exemption...

  14. 29 CFR 784.129 - “Marine products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âMarine productsâ. 784.129 Section 784.129 Labor... Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section 13(a)(5) § 784.129 “Marine products”. The marine products which form the basis of the exemption are the “fish,...

  15. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Handling

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Handling fish beneath the sea. NMFS photo. Articles 54(3), 1992 Disease Risks Associated with Importation of Nonindigenous Marine Animals The National Marine and Atmosphere William W. Fox, Jr. Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service

  16. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Anchored

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover: Anchored fish aggregating devices. growing in use Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Rel'iell' tUSPS 090-0ROI is pub- lished monthly by the Scientific Publications Office. National Marine Fisheries Service. OAA, 7600 Sand Point Way

  17. Marine Fisheries On the cover: A drift

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: A drift gill net at John Silva's shad fishing station for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. L. Hobart The Marine Fisheries Review (ISSN 0090-1830) is published quarterly by the Scientific Publica tions Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600

  18. Marine Fisheries On the cover, top to

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover, top to bollom: Yelloweye rock fish, Sebastes ruberrimus., Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. L. Hobart The Marine Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., BinC15700, Seattle, WA 98115. Single copies

  19. Comparison of modern and historical fish catches (AD 750-1400) to inform goals for marine protected areas and sustainable fisheries.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Omukoto, Johnstone O

    2011-10-01

    We tested the unsustainable fishing hypothesis that species in assemblages of fish differ in relative abundance as a function of their size, growth rates, vagility, trophic level, and diet by comparing species composition in historical bone middens, modern fisheries, and areas closed to fishing. Historical data came from one of the earliest and most enduring Swahili coastal settlements (approximately AD 750-1400). Modern data came from fisheries near the archeological site and intensively harvested fishing grounds in southern Kenya. The areas we sampled that were closed to fishing (closures) were small (<28 km(2) ) and permanent. The midden data indicated changes in the fish assemblage that are consistent with a weak expansion of fishing intensity and the unsustainable fishing hypothesis. Fishes represented in the early midden assemblages from AD 750 to 950 had longer life spans, older age at maturity, and longer generation times than fish assemblages after AD 950, when the abundance of species with longer maximum body lengths increased. Changes in fish life histories during the historical period were, however, one-third smaller than differences between the historical and modern assemblages. Fishes in the modern assemblage had smaller mean body sizes, higher growth and mortality rates, a higher proportion of microinvertivores, omnivores, and herbivores, and higher rates of food consumption, whereas the historical assemblage had a greater proportion of piscivores and macroinvertivores. Differences in fish life histories between modern closures and modern fishing grounds were also small, but the life histories of fishes in modern closures were more similar to those in the midden before AD 950 because they had longer life spans, older age at maturity, and a higher proportion of piscivores and macroinvertivores than the modern fisheries. Modern closures and historical fish assemblages were considerably different, although both contained species with longer life spans. PMID:21676028

  20. Levels of total arsenic in edible fish and shellfish obtained from two coastal sectors of the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile: use of non-migratory marine species as bioindicators of sea environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo H; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2011-01-01

    The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the total arsenic content in these products was performed by Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, HG-AAS. The results showed that marine species associated with the CB sector had higher total arsenic levels than the same species in the area of VB, a finding attributed to much higher total arsenic concentrations in the water and soils of CB than VB. The species with the highest total arsenic concentration was the Venus antique (7.50 mg kg (-1)) from the CB, and the lowest total arsenic content was found in Cheilodactylidae variegatus (0.34 mg kg(-1)) from VB. PMID:21879860

  1. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

    2013-05-20

    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  2. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... opportunity for public comment. The Puget Sound Treaty Tribes and the Washington Department of Fish...

  3. 76 FR 5339 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... issued in accordance with and are subject to the ESA and NMFS regulations governing listed fish...

  4. Sea-air CO2 flux in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: Role and influence of Sub-Tropical Mode Water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas J.; Krug, Lilian A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Doney, Scott C.

    2013-07-01

    The uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic Ocean through the production of wintertime Sub-Tropical Mode Water (STMW) also known as Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) is poorly quantified and constrained. Nonetheless, it has been proposed that the EDW could serve as an important short-term sink of anthropogenic CO2. The objective of the present investigation was to determine sea-air CO2 gas exchange rates and seawater CO2 dynamics during wintertime formation of EDW in the North Atlantic Ocean. During 2006 and 2007, several research cruises were undertaken as part of the CLIMODE project across the northwest Atlantic Ocean with the intent to study the pre-conditioning, formation, and the evolution of EDW. Sea-air CO2 exchange rates were calculated based on measurements of atmospheric pCO2, surface seawater pCO2 and wind speed with positive values denoting a net flux from the surface ocean to the atmosphere. Average sea-air CO2 flux calculated along cruise tracks in the formation region equaled -18±6 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and -14±9 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 in January of 2006 and March of 2007, respectively. Average sea-air CO2 flux in newly formed outcropping EDW in February and March of 2007 equaled -28±10 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. These estimates exceeded previous flux estimates in this region by 40-185%. The magnitude of CO2 flux was mainly controlled by the observed variability in wind speed and ?pCO2 with smaller changes owing to variability in sea surface temperature. Small but statistically significant difference (4.1±2.6 ?mol kg-1) in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was observed in two occurrences of newly formed EDW in February and March of 2007. This difference was explained either by differences in the relative contribution from different water masses involved in the initial formation process of EDW or temporal changes owing to sea-air CO2 exchange (˜25%) and vertical and/or lateral mixing (˜75%) with water masses high in DIC from the cold side of the Gulf Stream and/or from below the permanent thermocline. Based on the present estimate of sea-air CO2 flux in newly formed EDW and a formation rate of 9.3 Sv y (Sverdrup year=106 m3 s-1 flow sustained for 1 year), CO2 uptake by newly formed EDW may constitute 3-6% of the total North Atlantic CO2 sink. However, advection of surface waters that carry an elevated burden of anthropogenic CO2 that are transported to the formation region and transformed to mode water may contribute additional CO2 to the total net uptake and sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 to the ocean interior.

  5. Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Gómez, Samuel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were found on 19 wild fish species. The description of Caligus chamelensis n. sp. parasitizing Kyphosus elegans is presented. Among the species of Caligus reported here, Caligus serratus is the most common since it was found infecting 11 fish species. On cultured fish, Lutjanus gutattus and L. peru, only one species of Caligus, C. sclerotinosus was collected. DNA barcodes [mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences] were obtained for the majority of the sea lice species herein reported. The molecular analyses support the recognition of the new species and suggest that neither Caligus nor Lepeophtheirus are monophyletic. COI is shown to be a good candidate for parasitic copepod species identification, although a more robust reference database is needed to expand our ability to accomplish a molecular identification. PMID:24042060

  6. The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    FA124 The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish on the value and trade of the ornamental fish industry do not exist, the value of ornamental fish on many species of marine origin associated with the ornamental trade has greatly increased. For example

  7. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed features that were not previously mentioned (e.g. presence of unpaired cloacal papilla, detailed morphology of cloacal lips), as well as negligible differences in morphometry and caudal papillae arrangement. Observations on the type material of C. carioca suggested affinities with the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902; however, the poor preservation of these specimens does not allow further conclusions. Cucullanus rougetae is considered to be a species inquirenda. PMID:26624480

  8. INJURED AND DEAD FISH IN THE VICINITY OF

    E-print Network

    INJURED AND DEAD FISH IN THE VICINITY OF BONNEVILLE DAM Marine Biological L^bjuiu. I. I B K. .A Service Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 29 INJURED AND DEAD FISH Observations of dead fish. 16 Dead fish below Bonneville 16 Dead fish above Bonneville ........··.··. 19 Dead

  9. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  10. First Report of a Toxic Nodularia spumigena (Nostocales/ Cyanobacteria) Bloom in Sub-Tropical Australia. II. Bioaccumulation of Nodularin in Isolated Populations of Mullet (Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K.; McGregor, Glenn B.; Chong, Roger; Seawright, Alan A.; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha A.; Sadler, Ross; Hunt, Lindsay; Graham, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Fish collected after a mass mortality at an artificial lake in south-east Queensland, Australia, were examined for the presence of nodularin as the lake had earlier been affected by a Nodularia bloom. Methanol extracts of muscle, liver, peritoneal and stomach contents were analysed by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry; histological examination was conducted on livers from captured mullet. Livers of sea mullet (Mugil cephalus) involved in the fish kill contained high concentrations of nodularin (median 43.6 mg/kg, range 40.8–47.8 mg/kg dry weight; n = 3) and the toxin was also present in muscle tissue (median 44.0 ?g/kg, range 32.3–56.8 ?g/kg dry weight). Livers of fish occupying higher trophic levels accumulated much lower concentrations. Mullet captured from the lake 10 months later were also found to have high hepatic nodularin levels. DNA sequencing of mullet specimens revealed two species inhabiting the study lake: M. cephalus and an unidentified mugilid. The two mullet species appear to differ in their exposure and/or uptake of nodularin, with M. cephalus demonstrating higher tissue concentrations. The feeding ecology of mullet would appear to explain the unusual capacity of these fish to concentrate nodularin in their livers; these findings may have public health implications for mullet fisheries and aquaculture production where toxic cyanobacteria blooms affect source waters. This report incorporates a systematic review of the literature on nodularin measured in edible fish, shellfish and crustaceans. PMID:22851952

  11. 50 CFR 224.104 - Special requirements for fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles. 224.104...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.104 Special requirements...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles....

  12. 50 CFR 224.104 - Special requirements for fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles. 224.104...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.104 Special requirements...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles....

  13. 50 CFR 224.104 - Special requirements for fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles. 224.104...COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.104 Special requirements...fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles....

  14. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  15. Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy)

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living boating and shipping is an inevitable factor for local fishes. This study investigates the effects pronounced in the fre- quency range where acoustic communication takes place. Boat noise potentially affects

  16. U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service Diadromous Fish Passage: A Primer on Technology,

    E-print Network

    Fisheries Service Diadromous Fish Passage: A Primer on Technology, Planning, and Design for the Atlantic and Wildlife Service, Northwest Region; Ben Rizzo, Dick Quinn, and Curt Orvis, Hydraulic Engineers with USFWS Fish Passage Team; Dr. Piotr Parasiewicz, Hydraulic Engineer with Rushing Rivers Institute; Jim Turek

  17. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53 % (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08 % (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6 % (17/652) and 34.2 % (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV. PMID:26350771

  18. Career Education: The Marine Science Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farning, Maxwell

    This paper discusses career opportunities in eight broad groups of marine science occupations: (1) harbor construction and maintenance, (2) ship construction, (3) merchant marine activities, (4) towboating, (5) longshoring, (6) fishing and fish farming, (7) petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, and (8) research activities. The…

  19. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking.

    PubMed

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-07-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra- or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture. PMID:23279885

  20. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A.?salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A.?salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presenc