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The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.
Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.
This week's In The News addresses overfishing, an international problem with new and urgent consequences. The nine sites discussed provide information and opinions on overfishing. According to a recent study published in Science (Feb. 6, 1998; Vol. 279), the commercial fishing industry is fishing harder at the lower end of the food web as larger and more commercially valuable species disappear. "Fishing Down," or the catching of second-level creatures normally preyed upon by larger fish, is the fishing industry's response to the depletion of prized species such as tuna, cod, and swordfish. The results of fishing "lower," scientists warn, is impoverished, less-valuable ecosystems. A further, alarming prediction is that this downward trend could lead to a wholesale collapse of marine ecosystems. Author Daniel Pauly and colleagues argue that there is an urgent need for marine protected areas, where fishing is prohibited.
A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish stock discrimination. The results strongly indicate that the overriding factor contributing to overdispersion in these helminths and crustaceans is the number of hosts in the life cycle. This was particularly well shown by juveniles of Anisakis 1 from different fish species. Data on the cestode Otobothrium cysticum and the monogenean Pricea multae appear anomalous and lead to conclusions about their biology not at first evident from the literature. PMID:22390836
This paper reviews the economics of marine aquarium fishes which provide hobbyists with the enjoyment of observing fishes as they are found in their natural environment. Hobbyists in Hawaii are fortunate to be able to choose among the marine aquarium fish...
Marinefish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram (EMG) electrodes. The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish. This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle. PMID:3914726
Assessment of candidates for investigation of bone lipid metabolism yielded the following findings. (1) A tropical marine butterflyfish, Chaetodon ornatissimus, had oil-filled bones (66-80% lipid, percent dry weight) hence may be a suitable condidate. (2) The tropical marinefishes Exallias brevis, Pomacentrus jenkensi, and Chromus agilis, and a Canadian fish Sebastes ruberrimus, had intermediate quantities of oil in their bones (12-49% lipid). (3) In all the foregoing species the major bone lipid was triglyceride, usually more abundant in skull than spine. Sterol and phospholipid were also present. (4) The major fatty acids of the triglycerides (and phospholipids) were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, and C20, C22 acids. Those acids were dominated by 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, and 22:6. (5) There was more total unsaturation in the bone lipids of S. ruberrimus (from 10 degrees C water; 67-72% unsaturation) compared to the tropical fish (from 25 degrees C water; 32-67% unsaturation) with the exception of E. brevis. (6) One of the tropical species (Arothron meleagris) and a Canadian Chimaeran (Hydrolagus colliei) contained only 1-3% lipid in their bones. PMID:1029017
Spillover of adult fish biomass is an expected benefit from no-take marine reserves to adjacent fisheries. Here, we show fisher-naïve behaviour in reef fishes also spills over from marine reserves, potentially increasing access to fishery benefits by making fishes more susceptible to spearguns. The distance at which two targeted families of fishes began to flee a potential fisher [flight initiation distance (FID)] was lower inside reserves than in fished areas, and this reduction extended outside reserve boundaries. Reduced FID persisted further outside reserves than increases in fish biomass. This finding could help increase stakeholder support for marine reserves and improve current models of spillover by informing estimates for spatial changes in catchability. Behavioural changes of fish could help explain differences between underwater visual census and catch data in quantifying the spatial extent of spillover from marine reserves, and should be considered in the management of adjacent fisheries. PMID:23126388
Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Russ, Garry R
We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding
As part of the White Fish Authority of the United Kingdom marinefish cultivation program, a number of aspects of fish rearing are under investigation. The role of economic analysis is to develop a model so that managers can see reasonably quickly what th...
Marine recreational fishing in Rhode Island is a very important part of the economy in the Ocean State. A major tourist attraction, as well as a strong local interest, recreational fishing draws approximately 350,000 people to Rhode Island's waters each year for a total of 1.2 million fishing trips. More than 45 percent of these anglers are from out of
Since the first work of Blaxter in 1953, fish sperm cryopreservation has been attempted on about 30 marine species. The present paper reviews the techniques used and the results published in these species. Particular attention is paid to the handling procedure of sperm before freezing, the problems of semen ageing and semen contamination with urine. The quality of frozen-thawed semen
M. Suquet; C. Dreanno; C. Fauvel; J. Cosson; R. Billard
Steroids play important roles in regulating many physiological functions in marine and freshwater fish. Levels of active steroid in blood and tissues are determined by the balance between synthetic and catabolic processes. This review examines what is known about pathways of catabolism of steroids, primarily sex steroids, in marine and freshwater fish. Cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms present in hepatic microsomes catalyze steroid hydroxylation to metabolites with lower or no activity at estrogen or androgen receptors. Important pathways of steroid catabolism to readily excreted metabolites are glucuronidation and sulfonation of hydroxyl groups. Estradiol, testosterone, DHEA and hydroxylated metabolites of these and other steroids readily form glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in those fish species where these pathways have been examined. Little is known, however, of the structure and function of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes involved in steroid conjugation in fish. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of steroids may be transported into and out of cells by organic anion transporter proteins and multi-drug resistance proteins, and there is growing evidence that these proteins play important roles in steroid conjugate transport and elimination. Induction or inhibition of any of these pathways by environmental chemicals can result in alteration of the natural balance of steroid hormones and could lead to disruption of the endocrine system. Recent studies in this area are presented, with particular focus on phase II (conjugative) pathways. PMID:20955793
1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000?km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2?t?ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45?t?ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.
Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric
The significant infectious and non-infectious diseases of North American marinefishes and shellfishes are described in terms of host species, geographic range, gross lesions, etiology, method of diagnosis, and prognosis. Infectious diseases of fish and s...
The total Hg of 6 marinefish species, caught from the 3 main fishing grounds along the coast of Alexandria, was determined and the distribution among the different organs was studied. It was found that the total Hg levels in fish differed according to species, size, and organs of fish as well as fishing ground. The highest value was found in large size especially in the viscera of Mullus barbatus obtained from El-Mex fishing ground. PMID:3431578
Moharram, Y G; Moustafa, E K; el-Sokkary, A; Attia, M A
Employing a short fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA as a molecular tool we have analyzed commercial samples of three types of fish meal employed to feed aquarium cichlids, farmed salmonids and aquarium marinefish in Spain. We have identified a minimum of eight different marinefish species in their composition, all of them predators belonging to high trophic levels.
A. Ardura; J. L. Horreo; E. Hernandez; A. Jardon; I. G. Pola; J. L. Martinez; E. Garcia-Vazquez
In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marinefish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marinefish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be
Unprecedented declines of marinefish have revealed our inability to predict the susceptibility of populations to collapse and their capacity for subsequent recovery. Lack of knowledge about the behaviour and ecology of exploited species has hindered our understanding of how exploitation influences the resistance of marinefish to catastrophic decline and their resilience thereafter. Based on available data, particularly on
Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT compounds (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexanes) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in 27 species of marine and freshwater fish collected from Cambodia. DDT and its derivatives were the predominantly detected compounds in both marine and freshwater fish. PCBs were the second highest followed by HCHs, CHLs
This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139
Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R
The worldwide decline in coral cover has serious implications for the health of coral reefs. But what is the future of reef fish assemblages? Marine reserves can protect fish from exploitation, but do they protect fish biodiversity in degrading environments? The answer appears to be no, as indicated by our 8-year study in Papua New Guinea. A devastating decline in coral cover caused a parallel decline in fish biodiversity, both in marine reserves and in areas open to fishing. Over 75% of reef fish species declined in abundance, and 50% declined to less than half of their original numbers. The greater the dependence species have on living coral as juvenile recruitment sites, the greater the observed decline in abundance. Several rare coral-specialists became locally extinct. We suggest that fish biodiversity is threatened wherever permanent reef degradation occurs and warn that marine reserves will not always be sufficient to ensure their survival.
Jones, Geoffrey P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Srinivasan, Maya; Eagle, Janelle V.
SYNOPSIS. The major lipids that have a direct role in buoyancy of marinefish are wax esters, squalene, and alkyldiacylglycerols. Wax esters are stored extracellu- larly in certain fishes, such as the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), and therefore buoyancy appears to be their sole function. Some myctophid fishes have wax-invested swimbladders, where the non-compressible wax esters may aid in diurnal
Information on the diets of marinefish larvae found in Australian waters is scarce, particu- larly when we consider that of some 3000 spe- cies of fishes in the waters of the Australian Fishing Zone, there are published data on feed- ing for fewer than twenty species. In the larvae studied so far, diets are dominated by the vari- ous
The report provides a comprehensive economic analysis of marine recreational fishing (MRF) activity between Point Conception, California and the Mexican border during 1983. MRF participation, effort and catch are listed. The report describes the demand fo...
By using Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software, the Ecosim model of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem in 1959-1960 was constructed, which included about 20 functional groups such as fishery, marine mammals, sea-birds, sharks, pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, and benthic crustaceans, etc. Through the comparison with the investigation data in 1997-1999, the effects of fishing on the structure and function of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem were analyzed. The results indicated that with the increasing fishing pressure in past forty years, the ecosystem structure and function shifted drastically, with the biomass of long-lived, high trophic level and piscivorous fishes declined while short-lived and small fishes and benthic invertebrates dominated gradually. The biomass of piscivorous species in 1999 was only 6% of that in 1960, while cephalopods increased 2.7 times or more. The trophic level of the catch declined from 3.2 in 1960 to 2.98 in 1999, which fitted the rule of "fishing down the food web" and suggested that the present exploitation patterns were unsustainable. Based on the data of the 1990s, the changes of the ecosystem under decreasing fishing pressure were predicted. This study validated the feasibility of Ecosim model in predicting the effects of fishing pressure on marine ecosystem. PMID:18839926
Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marinefish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marinefish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle. PMID:19150840
Wilson, R W; Millero, F J; Taylor, J R; Walsh, P J; Christensen, V; Jennings, S; Grosell, M
Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy.
Marinefish larvae undergo major morphological and cellular changes during the first month of life. The ontogeny of the gastrointestinal tract combines these two aspects of the larval development and is very interesting in that the timing of functional changes appears genetically hard-wired. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the gastrointestinal development process in marine
Ocean sequestration of CO 2is proposed as a possible measure to mitigate environmental changes due to the increasing atmospheric concentration of the gas. However, toxic effects of CO 2 on marine organisms are poorly understood. We therefore studied acid–base responses and mortality during exposure to fatal levels of CO 2 in three marinefishes (Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus; yellowtail, Seriola
Riverine fish assemblages in the temperate zone generally show strong longitudinal patterns of faunal turnover and increases in species richness with increasing stream order. We examined the composition and structure of tropical fish assemblages across a complex freshwater\\/marine ecotone in Tortuguero National Park on the Caribbean coast of Central America. Species turnover was high between four characteristic habitats that largely
Trash fish used as aquafeeds in marine cage cultivation sometimes induced environmental risk. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy waste outputs were measured in four marine cage-cultured carnivorous fish species – Sciaenops ocellatus, Plectorhynchus cinctus, Epinephelus coioides, and Rhabdosargus sarba – fed with trash fish for 6 weeks in laboratory. Waste outputs of cultured fish were divided into soft tissues
Zhongneng Xu; Xiaotao Lin; Qin Lin; Yufeng Yang; Yunxing Wang
Fungal diseases are problematic in cultured fish and shellfish, their seeds, and sometimes wild marine animals. In this chapter fungal diseases found in marine animals, especially in Japan, are described. Pathogens in the fungal diseases are divided into two groups. One of them is marine Oomycetes, which cause fungal diseases in marine shellfish and abalones. The diseases caused by the fungi of this group and the fungal characteristics are introduced. The pathogens include members of the genera Lagenidium, Haliphthoros, Halocrusticida, Halioticida, Atkinsiella, and Pythium. On the other hand, some fungal diseases caused by mitosporic fungi are also known in marinefish and shellfish. The diseases caused by these fungi and the fungal characteristics are described. The pathogens include members of the genera Fusarium, Ochroconis, Exophiala, Scytalidium, Plectosporium, and Acremonium. PMID:22222825
The purpose of the Guide is to provide a general source of information on those areas that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The geographical scope of this Guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the co...
An enclosed 32,000-gallon sea-water aquarium with filtration and supply systems and controlled environmental conditions is described. This facility, designed and constructed at the Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory to study the behavior of marinefishes, has been in continuous operation since January, 1965. The elliptically-shaped, multiwindowed aquarium may be operated as an open, closed, or semiclosed circulation system. An artificial lighting
The project is an assessment and evaluation of the marine recreational fishing (MRF) information dissemination system in North Carolina. First, a content analysis and panel evaluation of MRF brochures was conducted to identify the primary informational co...
We present new data and the first rigorous analysis of latitudinal and thermal gradients of diversity, density and biomass\\u000a of marine herbivorous fishes and review proposed explanatory mechanisms. Consistently, negative relationships between latitude,\\u000a and positive relationships between sea surface temperature (SST), and relative richness and relative abundance of herbivorous\\u000a fishes were found worldwide. Significant differences in the strength of gradients
S. R. Floeter; M. D. Behrens; C. E. L. Ferreira; M. J. Paddack; M. H. Horn
The proportion of a fish stock that is killed by fishing activity is often calculated as the catch divided by the estimated stock biomass. However, stock biomass is notoriously difficult to estimate reliably, and moreover, the catch may be uncertain or misreported and does not include losses due to discarding. In all too many fisheries, these difficulties have lead to
The Galápagos Islands harbor some of the least impacted marine ecosystems in the tropics, but there are indications that local artisanal fishing is affecting exploited marine communities. To quantify these effects, I sampled communities of fishes and sea urchins at a number of heavily fished and lightly fished sites throughout the central islands of the archipelago. Sites were selected based
The author notes that 41.2% of all fish species live in less than one one-hundredth of one percent of the available water. Calculations show that there are about 11300 cu km of water per marine species but only about 15 cu km for each freshwater species, ...
Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marinefishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at
Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri; Konstantinos Ganias; Fran Saborido-Rey; Hilario Murua; John R. Hunter
The development of marinefish aquaculture in the US is challenged by a number of complex issues such as political and regulatory constraints, marketing and market competition, health management and biosecurity, and water quality and waste management. However, the most commonly cited constraint to ...
The behavioral-ecological traits of pelagic marinefish larvae diagnostic of specific ecological roles are discussed. Topics considered include: parental effects (egg size, yolk quantity, spawn distribution); swimming behavior; feeding and searching behavior; prey size relation- ships; and abundance and distribution of prey. Pertinent literature is reviewed and unpublished data on the larvae of northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and Pacific mackerel,
The sugar alcohol mannitol is the primary photosynthate of phaeophytes, and as such is an important dietary constituent for many marine herbivorous fishes. Sugar alcohols are not thought to be efficiently digested by vertebrates. Although vertebrates lack intestinal transporters for sugar alcohols, these compounds are thought to serve as substrates for fermentation by hindgut flora. Here, we measured mannitol in
W. L. White; A. H. Coveny; J. Robertson; K. D. Clements
Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production
Douglas O. Mountfort; Jane Campbell; Kendall D. Clements
A histopathological assessment of the gonad of male fish was performed as part of biological field studies carried out in coastal waters and small rivers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, northeastern Germany. In the marine environment the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was selected as sentinel species. The three spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were chosen at freshwater locations. Histopathology of
A histopathological assessment of the gonad of male fish was performed as part of biological field studies carried out in coastal waters and small rivers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, northeastern Germany. In the marine environment the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was selected as sentinel species. The three spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were chosen at freshwater locations. Histopathology of the testis revealed the presence of intersexuality in specimens of all three species. The intersex condition was defined by the simultaneous presence of primary oocytes within the apparently normal testis tissue. In comparison to stickleback and perch the eelpout exhibited the highest intersex prevalence and the most severe histological alterations. Fish with intersex were found at contaminated marine and freshwater stations as well as at sites with apparently little pollution. The findings suggest that feminised male fish were exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in the aquatic environment. PMID:12408630
The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed. PMID:19906668
The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed.
A study to determine total and organic mercury levels in the muscle tissue of certain pelagic and inshore fish of Hawaii which are used for human consumption is reported. In all species, except the Pacific Blue Marlin, there was close correlation between ...
Along the southeastern coast of the United States, hardground systems support a high diversity of sub-tropical and tropical fishes. Many of these hardgrounds occur in deep (ca. ??? 50 m) waters and their fauna is still poorly described; however, with concentrated sampling in these deeper areas, new records of fishes continue to emerge. In the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina, we used the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, remotely operated vehicles, trawling gear, and angling gear to sample deep reef systems (38-248 m). We document five records of fishes new to continental United States waters, including Liopropoma aberrans, Parasphyraenops incisus, Lipogramma regia, Apogon gouldi, and Prognathodes guyanensis. We also report range extensions for eleven species: Gymnothorax hubbsi, Gymnothorax vicinus, Lepophidium staurophor, Cypselurus comatus, Liopropoma mowbrayi, Serranus annularis, Rypticus saponaceus, Caranx lugubris, Prognathodes aculeatus, Centropyge argi, and Canthigaster jamestyleri.
Quattrini, A. M.; Ross, S. W.; Sulak, K. J.; Necaise, A. M.; Casazza, T. L.; Dennis, G. D.
Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marinefishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marinefishes was compiled. PMID:23324945
We examined coral reef communities at 11 sites within Mafia Island Marine Park using a point count method for substrate and visually censused belt transects for fish populations. Multivariate ordinations showed that the benthic habitat differed among reefs. The patterns were mainly attributed to variations in depth, hydrodynamics and benthic composition. In total, the substratum was dominated by dead coral
CO2-enriched seawater was far more toxic to eggs and larvae of a marinefish, silver seabream, Pagrus major, than HCl-acidified seawater when tested at the same seawater pH. Data on the effects of acidified seawater can therefore\\u000a not be used to estimate the toxicity of CO2, as has been done in earlier studies. Ontogenetic changes in CO2 tolerance of two
Atsushi Ishimatsu; Takashi Kikkawa; Masahiro Hayashi; Kyoung-Seon Lee; Jun Kita
Observations of marinefish and invertebrates on an inshore reef were made using TV and acoustic tags one week before, during, and four days after a seismic triple G. airgun (three synchronised airguns, each gun 2.5l and 2000psi) was deployed and repeatedly fired. The guns were fired once\\/min for eight periods on four days at different positions. The structure and
C. S Wardle; T. J Carter; G. G Urquhart; A. D. F Johnstone; A. M Ziolkowski; G Hampson; D Mackie
The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marinefish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed.
Marinefish larvae undergo major morphological and cellular changes during the first month of life. The ontogeny of the gastrointestinal tract combines these two aspects of the larval development and is very interesting in that the timing of functional changes appears genetically hard-wired. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the gastrointestinal development process in marinefish larvae, with particular attention to three species: sea bass; red drum; and sole, since the description of gut maturation in fish larvae was initiated during the last decade with these species. During the early stages, marinefish larvae exhibit particular digestive features. Concerning the exocrine pancreas, amylase expression decreases with age from the third week post-hatching in sea bass and red drum (approximately 400 degree days), whereas expression of other enzymes (trypsin, lipase, phospholipase A2...) increases until the end of the larva period. Moreover, secretory function of the exocrine pancreas progressively develops and becomes efficient after the third week of life. Concerning the intestine, enzymes of the enterocyte cytosol (in particular peptidase) have higher activity in young larvae than in older. Approximately in the fourth week of post-hatching development in sea bass, red drum and sole larvae, the cytosolic activities dramatically decline concurrently with a sharp increase in membranous enzyme activities of the brush border, such as alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, maltase. This process characterises the normal maturation of enterocytes in developing fish larvae and also in other vertebrates' species. The establishment of an efficient brush border membrane digestion represents the adult mode of digestion of enterocytes. This paper also describes the role of diet on the development of the gastrointestinal tract. Indeed, the maturational process of digestive enzyme can be enhanced, stopped, or delayed depending on the composition of the diet. PMID:11738635
This study examined the effect of fishing on the abundance and species richness of families of coral reef fish at two islands\\u000a (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. Natural fishing experiments occurred in marine reserves at each island,\\u000a where long term estimates of fishing intensity were available. Responses to fishing were interpreted in terms of life
Reciprocal agglutination studies using reagents from six fresh water fish species indicated distinct patterns between the behaviour of carp, bullhead and pickerel erythrocytes, and those derived from bass and from sunfish in contrast to perch erythrocytes, which were unreactive in the presence of sera from other fish species. Each of these could be further differentiated from one another by reciprocal absorption experiments or by the use of unabsorbed or absorbed serum from human group O, A, B and AB individuals. In similar fashion, it could be shown that members of three marinefish species differed from one another in regard to agglutinogen content. These were the Conger eel, red hind and the toadfish. Absorption experiments also demonstrated the presence of a factor or factors common to the latter species, but absent in the brown bullhead.
A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marinefish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892
Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki
Within estuaries, seagrasses may represent an order of magnitude greater surface area relative to sediments for the colonization and growth of diatoms. Fossil diatom distributions have proven useful in inferring paleoenvironmental conditions. The strength of these inferences is dependent upon defining the environmental relationships of contempory diatom compositions. The present investigation characterized the modern epiphytic diatom flora on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at seven sites in the sub-tropical Florida Bay estuary and at one Atlantic Ocean site east of the upper Florida Keys. These sites were sampled six times between March 2000 and April 2001. Diatom species composition was related to water quality parameters using multivariate statistics. 338 diatom species were identified. The seven most abundant species from pooled samples were Cocconeis placentula, Brachysira aponina, Nitzschia liebetruthii, Hyalosynedra laevigata, Amphora cf. tenerrima, Mastogloia crucicula, and M. pusilla. These seven species collectively accounted for 51.7 percent of all valves counted and occurred in at least 85 percent of all samples. Analysis of similiarity and NMDS ordination of species relative abundances revealed four distinct diatom communities across the study region. The spatial variability of these communities was correlated with salinity and water-column nutrient availability. Summertime communities were significantly different from winter-spring communities, but these communities showed a gradual temporal progression with much overlap. The temporal variability was correlated with temperature. Indicator species analysis identified many species significantly influencing the four spatial groups. The Atlantic marine site was characterized by many different Mastogloia species and some epipsammic (sand-grain associated) diatoms (i.e., Cymatosira lorenziana, Dimerogramma dubium, and Neofragilaria nicobarica). Mastogloia pusilla, Rhopalodia pacifica, and Cocconeis woodii were strong indicators of the Gulf of Mexico marine site. Reimerothrix floridensis was particularly abundant in the western interior of Florida Bay (i.e., sites 2, 3, and 4) during summer months. The eastern interior of Florida Bay was characterized by high relative abundances of Brachysira aponina and Nitzschia liebetruthii. The optima and tolerance of these indicator species relative to individual water quality parameters were also determined.
Frankovich, T. A.; Gaiser, E. E.; Wachnicka, A.; Zieman, J. C.
Customary management systems (i.e., management systems that limit the use of marine resources), such as rotational fisheries closures, can limit harvest of resources. Nevertheless, the explicit goals of customary management are often to influence fish behavior (in particular flight distance, i.e., distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat), rather than fish abundance. We explored whether the flight distance of reef fishes targeted by local artisanal fishers differed between a customary closure and fished reefs. We also examined whether flight distance of these species affected fishing success and accuracy of underwater visual census (UVC) between customary closed areas and areas open to fishing. Several species demonstrated significant differences in flight distance between areas, indicating that fishing activity may increase flight distance. These relatively long flight distances mean that in fished areas most target species may stay out of the range of spear fishers. In addition, mean flight distances for all species both inside and outside the customary-closure area were substantially smaller than the observation distance of an observer conducting a belt-transect UVC (mean [SE]= 8.8 m [0.48]). For targeted species that showed little ability to evade spear fishers, customary closures may be a vital management technique. Our results show that customary closures can have a substantial, positive effect on resource availability and that conventional UVC techniques may be insensitive to changes in flight behavior of fishes associated with fishing. We argue that short, periodic openings of customary closures may allow the health of the fish community to be maintained and local fishers to effectively harvest fishes. PMID:21129032
Feary, David A; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six
Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle
Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior. PMID:20437967
Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S
Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marinefish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387
Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F
Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO(2)-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO(2). Juveniles from ambient CO(2)-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO(2)-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617
Simpson, Stephen D; Munday, Philip L; Wittenrich, Matthew L; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y
Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production have not been measured. Such information is an important prerequisite to understanding the contribution that gut microorganisms make in satisfying the energy needs of the fish. We have estimated the rates of acetate production in the gut of three species of temperate marine herbivorous fish from northeastern New Zealand: Kyphosus sydneyanus (family Kyphosidae), Odax pullus (family Odacidae), and Aplodactylus arctidens (family Aplodactylidae). Ex vivo preparations of freshly caught fish were maintained with their respiratory and circulatory systems intact, radiolabeled acetate was injected into ligated hindgut sections, and gut fluid was sampled at 20-min intervals for 2 h. Ranges for acetate turnover in the hindguts of the studied species were determined from the slope of plots as the log of the specific radioactivity of acetate versus time and pool size, expressed on a nanomole per milliliter per minute basis. Values were 450 to 570 (K. sydneyanus), 373 to 551 (O. pullus), and 130 to 312 (A. arctidens). These rates are comparable to those found in the guts of herbivorous reptiles and mammals. To determine the contribution of metabolic pathways to the fate of acetate, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured in the fore-, mid-, and hindgut sections of the three fish species. Both rates increased from the distal to proximal end of the hindgut, where sulfate reduction accounted for only a small proportion (<5%) of acetate methyl group transformed to CO(2), and exceeded methanogenesis from acetate by >50-fold. When gut size was taken into account, acetate uptake from the hindgut of the fish species, determined on a millimole per day per kilogram of body weight basis, was 70 (K. sydneyanus), 18 (O. pullus), and 10 (A. arctidens). PMID:11872490
Mountfort, Douglas O; Campbell, Jane; Clements, Kendall D
Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production have not been measured. Such information is an important prerequisite to understanding the contribution that gut microorganisms make in satisfying the energy needs of the fish. We have estimated the rates of acetate production in the gut of three species of temperate marine herbivorous fish from northeastern New Zealand: Kyphosus sydneyanus (family Kyphosidae), Odax pullus (family Odacidae), and Aplodactylus arctidens (family Aplodactylidae). Ex vivo preparations of freshly caught fish were maintained with their respiratory and circulatory systems intact, radiolabeled acetate was injected into ligated hindgut sections, and gut fluid was sampled at 20-min intervals for 2 h. Ranges for acetate turnover in the hindguts of the studied species were determined from the slope of plots as the log of the specific radioactivity of acetate versus time and pool size, expressed on a nanomole per milliliter per minute basis. Values were 450 to 570 (K. sydneyanus), 373 to 551 (O. pullus), and 130 to 312 (A. arctidens). These rates are comparable to those found in the guts of herbivorous reptiles and mammals. To determine the contribution of metabolic pathways to the fate of acetate, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured in the fore-, mid-, and hindgut sections of the three fish species. Both rates increased from the distal to proximal end of the hindgut, where sulfate reduction accounted for only a small proportion (<5%) of acetate methyl group transformed to CO2, and exceeded methanogenesis from acetate by >50-fold. When gut size was taken into account, acetate uptake from the hindgut of the fish species, determined on a millimole per day per kilogram of body weight basis, was 70 (K. sydneyanus), 18 (O. pullus), and 10 (A. arctidens).
Mountfort, Douglas O.; Campbell, Jane; Clements, Kendall D.
Global warming has deeply affected coastal and offshore marine ecosystems and is thought to have a significant impact on the fish stocks and their decline in the northwest Atlantic region in Canada. However, it is difficult for scientists and marine biologists to have a clear and precise insight of this impact. Studying fish aggregations and their evolution in time and
Valérie Carette; Mir Abolfazl Mostafavi; Rodolphe Devillers
Stevens, J. D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N. K., and Walker, P. A. 2000. The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 476-494. The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of
J. D. Stevens; R. Bonfil; N. K. Dulvy; P. A. Walker
Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marinefish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had
Martin J. Genner; David W. Sims; Victoria J. Wearmouth; Emily J. Southall; Alan J. Southward; Peter A. Henderson; Stephen J. Hawkins
Over the past 15 years, there has been an increased interest in sea ranching of local marinefish stocks. In the Pacific, more than 30 fish species have been identified as part of a future sea ranching programme, and in the Atlantic less than 10. The present paper aims to evaluate the economic consequences in sea ranching of several marine
The artificial breeding of marinefish in China has been developed over a period of more than 50 years. Both species diversity and fry production have greatly increased since the 1980s. By the year 2000, at least 52 species belonging to 24 families of marinefish had been successfully bred. Large quantities of cultured fry can meet the needs of
We develop estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise on marine recreational shore fishing in North Carolina. We estimate the relationship between angler behavior and spatial differences in beach width using the Marine Recreational Fishing Statistics Survey and geospatial data. We exploit the empirical relationship between beach width and site choice by simulating the effects of (1) sea
John C. Whitehead; Ben Poulter; Christopher F. Dumas; Okmyung Bin
Quantitative criteria used to assign species to categories of extinction risk may seriously overestimate these risks for marinefishes. Contemporary perception is that marinefishes may be less vulnerable to extinction than other taxa, because of great natural variability in abundance, high fecundity, rapid population growth, and an intrinsically high capability of recovering from low population size. Contrary to perception,
The Minerals Management Service (MMS), Alaska OCS Region funded a pilot survey in 2008 of the offshore marinefishes of the Beaufort Sea. This was the first offshore marinefish survey to have taken place since an opportunistic survey in 1977. This pilot ...
Summary The toxicological and environmental significance of N-containing effluents discharged to seawater from fish farms is difficult to establish. Environmental quality standards for N compounds in seawater are hard to derive in the context of aquaculture because the toxicity of NH3 and NO2- to marinefish is poorly understood. Furthermore, details of aquacultural effluents are not routinely reported. Marine teleosts
There is a growing realization that the scale and degree of population connectivity are crucial to the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. For marine organisms with complex life cycles, experiences during larval life may influence phenotypic traits, performance, and the probability of postsettlement survival. For a Caribbean reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum) on an oceanic island, we used otolith (ear stone) elemental profiles of lead (Pb) to assign recent settlers to a group that developed in waters elevated in Pb concentrations throughout larval life (i.e., nearshore signature) and a group that developed in waters depleted in Pb (i.e., offshore signature), potentially dispersing from upstream sources across oceanic waters. Larval history influenced early life history traits: offshore developers initially grew slowly but compensated with fast growth upon entering nearshore waters and metamorphosed in better condition with higher energy reserves. As shown in previous studies, local production contributed heavily to settlement: at least 45% of settlers developed nearshore. However, only 23% of survivors after the first month displayed a nearshore otolith profile. Therefore, settlers with different larval histories suffered differential mortality. Importantly, selective mortality was mediated by larval history, in that the postsettlement intensity of selection was much greater for fish that developed nearshore, potentially because they had developed in a less selectively intense larval environment. Given the potential for asymmetrical postsettlement source-based survival, successful spatial management of marine populations may require knowledge of “realized connectivity” on ecological scales, which takes into account the postsettlement fitness of individuals from different sources.
Hamilton, Scott L.; Regetz, James; Warner, Robert R.
Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, a holotrichous ciliate parasite of marinefishes, causes ‘marine white spot disease’. In aquaria, C. irritans can cause acute damage and heavy mortalities to marine teleosts. Although first described 60 years ago, only within the last decade has detailed information emerged concerning its life cycle, transmission and pathogenesis. An update of our knowledge of this important
The environmental impact of marinefish-farming depends very much on species, culture method, stocking density, feed type, hydrography of the site and husbandry practices. In general, some 85% of phosphorus, 80–88% of carbon and 52–95% of nitrogen input into a marinefish culture system as feed may be lost into the environment through feed wastage, fish excretion, faeces production and
The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that
Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved concentrations in the ambient environment. We show, using a marinefish ( Leiostomus xanthurus) reared in the laboratory under controlled experimental conditions, that otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios are deposited in proportion to their respective ratios in ambient waters. Temperature significantly affected Sr incorporation but did not affect Ba incorporation in otoliths. Sr/Ca partition coefficients ( DSr) were 0.182 and 0.205 at 20°C and 25°C, respectively. The partition coefficients for Ba/Ca were 0.055 at 20°C and 0.062 at 25°C. A nonlinearity in the relationship between DBa and ambient Ba concentrations suggested that extrapolation beyond the Ba levels used in the experiment was not justified. On the basis of our results, it should be possible to reconstruct Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca levels in environments inhabited by fish based on otolith chemistry. Furthermore, Sr/Ca thermometry may also be possible using fish otoliths, but validation of the temperature dependence of Sr/Ca in otoliths will be required. We believe otoliths represent an excellent, and as yet underused, record of the physicochemical properties of both modern and ancient aquatic environments.
Bath, Gretchen E.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Campana, Steven E.; McLaren, James W.; Lam, Joseph W. H.
Marinefishes (Atlantic herring, American pollock, winter flounder, Atlantic salmon, and cod) were dosed orally and intraperitoneally (i.p.) with “paralytic shellfish toxins” extracted from Bay of Fundy Gonyaulax excavata (tamarensis) cells. The toxins are lethal to these fishes in low oral doses, and in extremely low i.p. doses. Symptoms are the same among these fishes, both for oral and i.p.
Marine protected areas, and other fishery management systems that impart partial or total protection from fishing, are increasingly advocated as an essential management tool to ensure the sustainable use of marine resources. Beneficial effects for fish species are well documented for tropical and reef systems, but the effects of marine protected areas remain largely untested in temperate waters. We compared trends in sport-fishing catches of nine fish species in an area influenced by a large (500-km2) towed-fishing-gear restriction zone and in adjacent areas under conventional fishery management controls. Over the period 1973-2002 the mean reported weight of above-average-sized (trophy) fish of species with early age at maturity and limited home range was greatest within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. The reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature early also declined less and more slowly over time within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. Importantly, the mean reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature late and those that undertake extensive spatial movements declined at the same rate in all areas. Hence these species are likely to require protected areas > 500 km2 for effective protection. Our results also indicated that fish species with a localized distribution or high site fidelity may require additional protection from sport fishing to prevent declines in the number or size of fish within the local population. PMID:16909574
Blyth-Skyrme, Robert E; Kaiser, Michel J; Hiddink, Jan G; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Hart, Paul J B
Seagrass beds have been widely recognised as playing an important role in influencing carbonate sediment facies development. This reflects their role not only as facilitators of fine sediment settling and stabilisation, but also as substrates for epiphytic organisms that, after death, contribute skeletal carbonate to the sediment substrate. In low latitude (reef-related) settings, epiphytic carbonate production rates are often high and this, in combination with the trapping of carbonate mud produced by a range of associated calcareous algal species, typically results in the development of carbonate mud-rich facies. Whilst such environments, and their associated sediment substrates, have been widely documented, studies of seagrass facies in marginal (sub-tropical/warm temperate) marine settings have not been conducted from a sedimentological perspective. This study determines rates of epiphytic carbonate production on two seagrass species Thalassodendron ciliatum and Thalassia hemprichii, and examines seagrass sediment facies from a sub-tropical reef-related environment in southern Mozambique. Dense seagrass beds colonise primarily siliciclastic sediment substrates and are characterised by low rates of epiphytic carbonate production (mean: 43.9 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for T. ciliatum, and 33.4 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for T. hemprichii). Epiphytic encrusters are dominated by thin, monostromatic layers of the crustose coralline red algae Hydrolithon farinosum, along with rotaliid smaller benthic foraminifera (including Asterorotalia cf. gaimardi and Spirillina sp.) and the soritid Peneroplis sp., as well as rare encrusting acervulinid foraminifera, serpulids and bryozoans. Epiphytic calcium carbonate production rates are therefore low and this is reflected in the low (<15%) carbonate content of the seagrass sediments, as well as the low (<1%) sediment fine (<63 ?m size fraction) content. This study suggests that mud-rich sediment facies do not necessarily develop in conjunction with seagrass beds and that mud-poor facies may develop in some seagrass-colonised environments. At these sites (sub-tropical and siliciclastic-sediment dominated) this is suggested to reflect both the low levels of epiphytic and benthic algal carbonate mud production as well as a net outflux of fine-grained sediment due to tidal current-induced sediment resuspension. In keeping with carbonate facies generally there are thus likely to be latitude and environment-related shifts in the composition and character of seagrass related sediment facies.
Information on the distribution, abundance, species composition, habitat use, and lifestage of 121 fish species caught in nearshore marine waters of Alaska is synthesized in this atlas. Data were collected by scientists from the Alaska Fisheries Science C...
A. D. Neff J. F. Thedinga J. M. Maselko M. R. Lindeberg S. W. Johnson
Synopsis A revitalized view of feeding by herbivorous marinefishes is sought through two questions. First, What characteristics of\\u000a major taxa of algae identify them as predictably high or low quality foods? Second, are marine algae valuable foods for fishes\\u000a which do not mechanically disrupt cell walls and do not harbor specialized enzymes or microbes capable of lysing cell walls?\\u000a Energy,
A key to success in the culture of marinefish is the mass production of high quality fry, a process largely dependent on successful first feeding and normal development and growth of fish larvae. In this regard it is important to examine the structural and functional development of the endocrine system during early ontogeny of marinefish. To characterize early
M. Tanaka; J. B. Tanangonan; M. Tagawa; E. G. de Jesus; H. Nishida; M. Isaka; R. Kimura; T. Hirano
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay...Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing Â§ 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing Â§ 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of...
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing Â§ 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is well established as a biomarker of exposure to organophosphate compounds in freshwater fish. By constrast, only a few studies on the enzymology and responsiveness of AChE are available for marine species. In this study, we report characteristics of cholinesterases from brain and muscle tissue of three marine teleosts, Limanda limanda, Platichthys flesus and Serranus cabrilla, to provide
Little is known about the impacts of mine waste disposal, including deep-sea tailings, on tropical marine environments and this study presents the first account of this impact on deepwater fish communities. The Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea has deposited both excavated overburden and processed tailings slurry into the coastal environment since 1997. The abundances of fish species and
D. T. Brewer; D. A. Milton; G. C. Fry; D. M. Dennis; D. S. Heales; W. N. Venables
A preliminary study was done at selected localities to estimate the number of coral reef fish species at Pulau Redang Marine Park. A total of 173 species and 86 genera from 40 families were observed during the study. The most diverse family is Pomacentridae with 37 species, followed by Labridae with 22 species. Other typical coral reef fish observed were
Yusri B Yusuf; Meii Mohd Norizam; Ahyaudin B. Ali; Zaidnuddin Illias
ABSTRACf A multispecies analysis of allozyme data for 10 marine shore fishes was undertaken to identify patterns of genetic differentiation resulting from.larval drift. Previous studies suggest that allele frequencies in these fishes are sensitive primarily to the effects of migration, rather than to natural selection or historical factors. The following patterns recur in most species: 1) Two northern populations (La
The long term goals of our work on acoustic uncertainty due to fish and marine mammals are to: (1) understand the nature of low-to-medium frequency (100-2000 Hz) acoustic scattering (specifically reverberation and attenuation) by fish schools and larger m...
Commercial fishing is one of the most important human impacts on the marine benthic environment. One such impact is through disturbance to benthic habitats as fishing gear (trawls and dredges) are dragged across the seafloor. While the direct effects of such an impact on benthic communities appear obvious, the magnitude of the effects has been very difficult to evaluate. Experimental
S. F. Thrush; J. E. Hewitt; V. J. Cummings; P. K. Dayton; M. Cryer; S. J. Turner; G. A. Funnell; R. G. Budd; C. J. Milburn; M. R. Wilkinson
Carbohydrate uptake and catabolism by the gut microbiota of two species of temperate marine herbivorous fish were investigated using enzyme extracts prepared from microbial pellets. The fish studied were the herring cale Odax cyanomelas (Family Odacidae), which feeds on Ecklonia radiata, and the sea carp Crinodus lophodon (Family Aplodactylidae), which feeds primarily on red and green algae. Constitutive phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase
G. S. Seeto; P. C. Veivers; K. D. Clements; M. Slaytor
The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marinefish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate
The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in the digestibility of algal starches that could affect the diet choices of marine herbivorous fish. We examined nine species of algae from New Zealand. Five of these species were dietary (i.e. species eaten by herbivorous fish); three chlorophytes Enteromorpha sp., Ulva rigida, and Caulerpa geminata, and two rhodophytes Champia
The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria\\u000a that eventually may affect establishment of a ``normal'' mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions\\u000a between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marinefish. Bacterial adhesion\\u000a and colonization of the egg surface occur
Coral reefs, one of the most biologically diverse and important ecosystems on Earth, are experiencing unprecedented and increasing ecological decline, yet the fish faunas of such reefs and other tropical shoreline habitats remain poorly known in many areas. Rotenone, a natural substance traditionally used by subsistence fishers, is a uniquely efficient tool for sampling reef and other shore fishes for marine research. Unfortunately, such sampling is perceived as being highly destructive, and increasing prohibitions against using rotenone in many countries will soon cripple essential research on reef-fish biodiversity worldwide. In this article we dispel common misconceptions about the environmental effects of small-scale rotenone sampling in marine research.
D. Ross Robertson (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute;); William F. Smith-Vaniz (University of Florida;)
No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183
Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marinefish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marinefishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marinefishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806
Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived from marine sources are 13C, 15N and 34S enriched relative to nutrients in freshwater. Here we examine sediment, particulate organic matter (POM), invertebrates and fish in two tidal freshwater tributaries of the James River USA. The d15N of POM became elevated (from 3.8 to 6.5%), coincident with the arrival of anadromous river herring (Alosa sp), indicating a pulse of marine nitrogen. However, the elevated 15N was not observed in sediment samples or among invertebrates, which did not experience a seasonal isotopic shift (there were significant differences however among the guilds of invertebrate). Anadromous Alosa aestivalis captured within the tidal freshwater were 13C and 34S enriched (-19.3 and 17.2%, respectively) relative to resident freshwater fishes (-26.4 and 3.6% respectively) captured within 2 weeks of the Alosa. Although it is likely that marine derived nitrogen was detected in the tidal freshwater, it was not in sufficient abundance to change the isotope signature of most ecosystem components.
The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were corrected for total surface area of terrestrial and aquatic zones, annual catchment sequestration rates were more than 2 orders of magnitude higher compared with catchment and storage emissions. These data suggest subtropical forested catchments to be a major sink of greenhouse gas. Catchment sequestration was dominated by tree trunk growth rates and the major uncertainty associated in quantifying rates was initial tree size with larger size sequestering significantly higher amounts. Catchment and storage emissions were dominated by aquatic methane fluxes when expressed per unit area, however, when corrected for total surface area soil respiration exceeded aquatic methane fluxes by at least one order of magnitude. The major uncertainty associated with aquatic methane fluxes was in identification and intensity of ebullition zones where 2 to 7% of the aquatic surface area emitted over 97% of the total flux. The ebullition zones were consistently found in shallow depositional areas adjacent catchment inflows where substrates were dominated by forest litter. This audit greatly improves our understanding of both the drivers behind greenhouse gas cycling in sub-tropical freshwater storages and catchments as well as identifies the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying greenhouse cycling rates in these systems.
Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marinefish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marinefish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marinefish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources.
Iversen, Lars L?nsmann; M?ller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske
Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marinefish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marinefish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marinefish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584
Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske
The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marinefish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marinefish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea. PMID:23230326
Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Ok-Hee; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok
No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are much advocated as a solution to managing marine ecosystems, protecting exploited species and restoring natural states of biodiversity [1,2]. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that effective marine conservation and management at ecosystem and regional scales requires extensive networks of NTMRs [1,2]. The world's largest network of such reserves was established on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 2004. Closing such a large area to all fishing has been socially and politically controversial, making it imperative that the effectiveness of this new reserve network be assessed. Here we report evidence, first, that the densities of the major target species of the GBR reef line fisheries were significantly higher in the new NTMRs, compared with fished sites, in just two years; and second, that the positive differences were consistent for multiple marine reserves over an unprecedented spatial scale (>1,000 km). PMID:18579091
Russ, Garry R; Cheal, Alistair J; Dolman, Andrew M; Emslie, Michael J; Evans, Richard D; Miller, Ian; Sweatman, Hugh; Williamson, David H
Medical or health-promoting products of marine origin are often regarded with skepticism – some, such as shark fins and cod liver oil, are frequently perceived as low-tech ‘alternative treatments’ largely because they have not been exploited to their full potential. The marine environment is an enormous source of biodiversity – 80% of all life is found under the oceans’ surfaces
Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays
A. Y. Frommel; V. Stiebens; C. Clemmesen; J. Havenhand
The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marinefish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium. PMID:14517103
With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.
Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC
Tim R. McClanahan; Nicholas A. J. Graham; Jacqulyn M. Calnan; M. Aaron MacNeil
The infection status of marinefish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.
Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae
A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and
The different factors that influence the prevalent decline in fish stocks are currently subject to urgent and intense scrutiny. Here we combine the use of remote-sensing satellite data with a long-term data set of haddock recruitment off the eastern continental shelf of Nova Scotia, Canada, to show that the survival of the larval fish depends on the timing of the
No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.
Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.
No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (? 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474
Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J
Amyloodinium ocellatum, a common dinoflagellate ectoparasite of marinefishes, was successfully propagated on a fish gill cell line. In vitro infections were similar in cytopathology and development to those reported on natural hosts, and large numbers of parasites could be produced. Exposure of parasites in cell culture to an antiprotozoal drug produced a dose-dependent inhibition of infectivity that was much more sensitive than a motility assay previously used to assess the toxic effects of a drug on protozoan ectoparasites. This propagation system may be a useful model for studying the biology and control of protozoan skin parasites of fishes and for quantitatively studying hostparasite interaction at cellular interfaces. PMID:17770332
During the grant period a definitive investigation was made on the electron microscopy of a fish venom gland. Two of 72 electron micrographs taken were chosen for particular study, and are described in this report. (Modified author abstract)
The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...
Current procedures for optimising the presentation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to marinefish larvae are reviewed in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of using (a) single-cell eukaryotic organisms or, (b) purified oils, as primary sources of these essential nutrients in larval production systems. For the former option (a), phototrophic and heterotrophic organisms can both be used to
Halichoblelide, a novel macrolide with potent cytotoxicity against tumour cells in culture, has been isolated from a strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus originally separated from the marinefish Halichoeres bleekeri, and the absolute stereostructure has been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and some chemical transformations.
The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, which is a cold temperate region. The study period was August 1987 to September 1995. Standard
Until recently, it was considered impossible to feed newly hatched marinefish species with a compound diet. Substituting a compound diet for live prey was performed several weeks after hatching, depending on the species. Compound diets were well ingested at the early stage but larvae died with a gut full of food, suggesting that larvae were unable to digest the
The possibility of enhancing and studying recruitment of commercially important marinefish stocks is discussed in general, and for North-east Atlantic cod stocks, Gadus morhua L.,in particular . Current knowledge concerning the relative importance of different physical and biological factors influencing survival of early stages is addressed in relation to cost-benefit of release programmes . The cost of producing large
A. FOLKVORD; G. BLOM; O. DRAGESUND; A. JOHANNESSEN
Summary The use of fish diseases to monitor marine pollution is reviewed and evaluated, with particular reference to the North Sea and associated waters. Criteria for epidemiological surveys are outlined, an international overview of research is given, and recent studies in the North Sea area are described and evaluated.
Under the Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996, the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service ( NMFS) has new mandates to characterize and protect essential fish habitat (EFH). EFH for a species is the combined area required to support target production levels and must be described in terms of significant environmental factors, as opposed to simple geographic boundaries. In Canada, the Oceans
In an earlier paper (Doudoroff, 1942) a detailed study of the resistance and accli matization of the marinefish Girella nigricans to extreme high and low temperatures was presented. Some parallel experiments on the temperature tolerance of the relatively hardy species Fundulus parvipinnis and of the very delicate Atherinops affinis are reported here. While no attempt has been made to
The application of large marine enclosures for early life history studies has revealed important information for cultivation methods of fish larvae. During the 1970s and 1980s extensive and semiintensive methods were developed for cultivation of Atlantic cod, turbot, Atlantic halibut, seabass, and sea bream. In Norway, the lagoon enclosure technique was the predominant method in the late 1980s. The extensive
Neither the scale of adaptive variation nor the genetic basis for differential population responses to the environment is known for broadcast-spawning marinefishes. Using a common-garden experimental protocol, we document how larval growth, survival and their norms of reaction differ genetically among four populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). These traits, and their plastic responses to food and temperature, differed
Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Douglas P. Swain; Sherrylynn Rowe; James D. Eddington; Velmurugu Puvanendran; Joseph A. Brown
This work was devoted to the study of the structure-affinity relationships in neutral amino acid transport by intestinal brush border of marinefish (Dicentrarchus labrax). The effects of the length of the side chain on kinetics of glycine, alanine, methionine and amino isobutyric acid were investigated. In the presence of K+ two components were characterized: one is saturable by increased
Three cytochrome P-450 forms (P-450A, P-450B, and P-450E) were highly purified (8-12 nmol/mg) from liver of untreated marinefish S. chrysops (scup). Scup NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, had a specific activit...
Results are reported for chronic marine bioassays exposing the cyprinodontid fish Rivulus marmoratus, to 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. Purpose of the study was to illustrate the value of R. marmoratus as a chronic bioassay animal. Results demonstrated the relative insensitivity of R...
The Wadden Sea is the world's largest intertidal ecosystem and one of the most productive coastal areas worldwide. People have fished and hunted marine resources in the Wadden Sea since its origin ?7500 years ago, but have since depleted the majority of formerly important species and their supporting habitats. Most of these changes have been lost from memory. Here, I
Three species of marinefish Sawara koreana, Chrysophrys major and Trichiurus haumela purchased in a market in Taichung, Taiwan have been found infected with Anisakis-like larvae. The parasites were found in the intestinal wall and surface of the liver. (...
We evaluated movements of 25 species of coral reef fishes from Malindi and Watamu Marine National Parks (created 1968) in coastal Kenya from February 2001 to March 2002. Only three species, the commercially important whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, the sky emperor (SEM), Lethrinus mahsena and the trumpet emperor, L. miniatus, exhibited consistent movements from the parks. At Malindi Park, more
This dissertation investigated growth variability of larval fish, size-selective predation upon them, and their population dynamic response. Larval fish dynamics were investigated using: a general analytical model, an individual-based simulation model, and, a multi-cohort comparison of empirical growth.A generalized analytical model described time-dependent cohort size, both in current numbers and cohort biomass. The model takes larval growth rates in length
In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marinefish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marinefish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6-56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1-2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65-289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.169-0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marinefish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473
O'Leary, Shannon J; Hice, Lyndie A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E; Fast, Mark D; Chapman, Demian D
This guide introduces teachers to the use of data on fish species diversity and relative abundance in the classroom. The data, from the Reef Environmental Educational Foundation (REEF), are collected by divers at sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and are used to address issues relating to fish population dynamics. Topics include relationships between habitats and populations; geographical variations in diversity and abundance; the use of population data in managing and planning aquaculture; and marine sanctuaries and conservation. Students will learn to interpret the data to understand diversity and abundance; understand the interpretation and use of parameters derived from population data, such as density and sighting frequency; and use the data to make and test predictions about relationships between habitats and species. Links are provided to access the data, to additional resources that use it, and to related websites on fish populations and marine conservation.
Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marinefishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marinefish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marinefish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle. PMID:19603131
Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H
Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.
Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.
Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836
Taylor, Brett M; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Kerr, Alexander M
The relationships between fish assemblages, their associated habitat, and degree of protection from fishing were evaluated over a broad spatial scale throughout the main Hawaiian islands. Most fish assemblage characteristics showed positive responses to protection whether it was physical (e.g. habitat complexity), biological (e.g. coral cover growth forms), or human-induced (e.g. marine reserves). Fish biomass was lowest in areas of
A. M. Friedlander; E. K. Brown; P. L. Jokiel; W. R. Smith; K. S. Rodgers
Amino acid and proximate compositions were determined in six raw and cooked marinefish species that are commonly consumed in Turkey. The changes in amino acid and proximate content were found to be significant for all cooking methods in all fish species. Cooking did, in general, significantly increase the contents of essential, semiessential, and other amino acids compared with raw fish species. Grilled Atlantic bonito, anchovy, and bluefish and fried mullet and hake appeared to be more valuable fish dishes for obtaining the officially recommended appropriate daily intake of essential amino acids for humans. Moisture, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents of raw fish ranged between 48.01% and 83.05%, 0.87% and 30.48%, 1.10% and 1.61%, and 0.09% and 8.70%, respectively. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein: 11.20-17.14 g/100 g. Wide variations in protein content (18.11-25.65 g/100 g) between species and methods of cooking were observed. Fried fish had intermediate fat values, whereas grilled and steamed fishes had a comparatively low value. PMID:20874243
We investigated the bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Se, and Zn) in different juvenile sizes of black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli by applying a biokinetic model. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the physiological kinetic parameters, including uptake rate constant of waterborne metals, ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency of dietary metals, efflux rate constant, and specific growth rate as a function of fish size. Body concentration of metals as a function of body size was then simulated by the kinetic model and compared with the actual measurements. The uptake rate constants decreased with increasing fish size, with an allometric exponent (b) of 0.615 to 0.662. Ingestion rate was also negatively correlated with the fish size (b = -0.604). Assimilation efficiencies of Cd were independent of body size, whereas those of Se and Zn increased with fish size. In contrast, efflux rate constants and growth rate constants for metals were comparable in different sizes of fish. Predicted concentrations of Cd and Zn were comparable to actual measurements and were negatively correlated with fish size. Ingestion rate was the most important parameter accounting for the size-dependent bioaccumulation of metals, followed by dietary assimilation. We further showed that the trophic transfer potentials of Se and Zn were > 1 in smaller fish but then reduced to < 1 in larger ones, suggesting that trophic transfer potentials are highly size dependent in marinefish. PMID:17447565
Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved
GRETCHEN E. BATH; S IMON R. THORROLD; CYNTHIA M. JONES; STEVEN E. CAMPANA; JAMES W. MCLAREN; JOSEPH W. H. LAM
Massachusetts has a historical connection to the sea, which began even before the first European settlement at Plymouth. The ocean waters off New England were rich with fish that were important enough for European fishermen to travel across the ocean to c...
Originating from a series of lectures given at the College of Fisheries, University of Washington, in March/April 1975, this volume gives a brief general description of development and objectives of the study of the early life history of fish and continue...
The paper describes the concept of a management system called MOM (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring) which may be used to adjust the local environmental impact of marinefish farms to the holding capacity of the sites. The concept is based on integrating the elements of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of impact and environmental quality standards (EQS) into one system. The amount
Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen; Jan Aure; Anders Stigebrandt; Per Johannessen; Terje Jahnsen
Maximal rates of oxygen consumption in vitro have been measured under standardized conditions at three test temperatures (5°, 15°, 25°C) on minced preparations of red muscle from 10 species of shallow-water marine teleost fishes. These fishes came from three different geographic areas, two with cool average water temperatures (near 15°C: coastal southern California, Galápagos Islands) and one with warm average
Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marinefish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.
Background Marine omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Consumption of fatty fish and marine omega-3 has been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular diseases. Objective We examined the association of fatty fish and marine omega-3 with heart failure (HF) in a population of middle-age and older women. Methods Participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged 48–83 years completed 96-item food-frequency questionnaires. Women without history of HF, myocardial infarction, or diabetes at baseline (n= 36 234) were followed from January 1, 1998 until December 31, 2006 for HF hospitalization or mortality through Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers; 651 women experienced HF events. Cox proportional hazards models accounting for age and other confounders were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to women who did not eat fatty fish, RR were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.10) for <1 serving/week, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.01) for 1 serving/week, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.94) for 2 servings/week, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.40) for ?3 servings/week (Ptrend = 0.049). RR across quintiles of marine omega-3 fatty acids were 1 (reference), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.07), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.02), 0.83 (95% CI 0.65, 1.06), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.96) (Ptrend = 0.04). Conclusion Moderate consumption of fatty fish (one to two servings per week) and marine omega-3 fatty acids were associated with a lower rate of first HF hospitalization or death in this population.
Levitan, Emily B.; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A.
This paper discusses large-scale climate variability for several marine ecosystems and suggests types of ecosystem responses to climate change. Our analysis of observations and model results for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans concludes that most climate variability is accounted for by the combination of intermittent 1–2 year duration events, e.g. the cumulative effect of monthly weather anomalies or the more organized
James E. Overland; Juergen Alheit; Andrew Bakun; James W. Hurrell; David L. Mackas; Arthur J. Miller
Changes in temperature, oxygen content and other ocean biogeochemical properties directly affect the ecophysiology of marine water-breathing organisms. Previous studies suggest that the most prominent biological responses are changes in distribution, phenology and productivity. Both theory and empirical observations also support the hypothesis that warming and reduced oxygen will reduce body size of marinefishes. However, the extent to which such changes would exacerbate the impacts of climate and ocean changes on global marine ecosystems remains unexplored. Here, we employ a model to examine the integrated biological responses of over 600 species of marinefishes due to changes in distribution, abundance and body size. The model has an explicit representation of ecophysiology, dispersal, distribution, and population dynamics. We show that assemblage-averaged maximum body weight is expected to shrink by 14-24% globally from 2000 to 2050 under a high-emission scenario. About half of this shrinkage is due to change in distribution and abundance, the remainder to changes in physiology. The tropical and intermediate latitudinal areas will be heavily impacted, with an average reduction of more than 20%. Our results provide a new dimension to understanding the integrated impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.
Cheung, William W. L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dunne, John; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Deng Palomares, M. L.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel
All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.
Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.
Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances.
Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.
Background Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. Methods and Principal Findings Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. Conclusions Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution.
A survey of coastal recreational boat fishing was conducted in summer 2006 in the marine reserve of Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean) to assess the biological and socioeconomic implications of this leisure activity. Recreational boat fishers employ four different fishing techniques: bottom fishing rod, fluixa, trolling and surface fishing rod. Although the targeted species depend on the fishing method used,
Josep Lloret; Núria Zaragoza; David Caballero; Victòria Riera
Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marinefish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...
Large variability in recruitment of marinefishes creates challenging management problems. In northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), there is a significant linear relation between larval mortality rate and the frequency of calm, low wind speed periods during the spawning season, possibly because calm winds permit maintenance of concentrated patches of larval food. Neither cannibalism on larvae nor offshore transport contributed significantly to interannual variation in early larval mortality. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that wind-driven turbulent mixing affects variability in survival of young fish larvae. However, abundance of recruits does not necessarily reflect abundance of larvae surviving through this early stage. PMID:17750387
Summary Recording the olfactory receptor activity of marinefishes presents problems due to the shunting of the electrical signals by the highly conductive sea water, which results in significant signal loss. By recording the large signal-to-noise ratio D. C. potentials using the underwater electro-olfactogram (EOG), we were able to study olfactory receptor properties of freshwater and marinefishes in a
W. L. Silver; J. Caprio; Joan F. Blackwell; D. Tucker
Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marinefish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had dramatic effects on community composition. Each assemblage contained a subset of dominant species whose abundances were strongly linked to annual mean sea-surface temperature. Species' latitudinal ranges were not good predictors of species-level responses, however, and the same species did not show congruent trends between sites. This suggests that within a region, populations of the same species may respond differently to climatic change, possibly owing to additional local environmental determinants, interspecific ecological interactions and dispersal capacity. This will make species-level responses difficult to predict within geographically differentiated communities.
Genner, Martin J.; Sims, David W.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Southall, Emily J.; Southward, Alan J.; Henderson, Peter A.; Hawkins, Stephen J.
Bioaccumulation of lead was determined in muscle and liver of Barbus xanthopterus, Liza abu, Barbus grypus, Acanthopagrus latus, Platycephalus indicus, Otolithes ruber exposed to lead contaminated river and marine in Khouzestan. Significant variations in metal values were evaluated using student's t test at p < 0.05. In river fish, liver was polluted in comparison with muscle and high level was in B. xanthopterus (2.80 mg kg(-1) wet weight) except for B. grypus in Karkhe River (1.73 mg kg(-1)wet weight). In marinefish, muscle was contaminated than liver and high level was in O. ruber (47.18 mg kg(-1)wet weight) except for O. ruber in Mahshahr seaport (17.85 mg kg(-1) wet weight). PMID:22531841
Summary 1. Two liver oils (Elasmobranch) fromCarcharias melanopterus andPristis cuspidatus, caught off the Madras coast are studied, and their component fatty acids are reported.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The mixed acids were separated into three groups (varying unsaturation) of acids, and their methylesters were fractionated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. The liver oils are found to belong to the fourth group of Tsujimoto’s classification of Elasmobranch fish liver
Parasitic isopods were investigated in marinefishes and decapods from the Aegean Sea during 1997-1998. A total of 10 species belonging to families Cymothoidae, Gnathiidae and Bopyridae was collected from various body parts of fishes and decapods. Ceratothoa capri and Paragnathia formica have been recorded for the first time from Turkish coasts. PMID:19156617
Kirkim, Fevzi; Kocata?, Ahmet; Kata?an, Tuncer; Sezgin, Murat
A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5?m) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs
R. Y. C. Kong; J. P. Giesy; R. S. S. Wu; E. X. H. Chen; M. W. L. Chiang; P. L. Lim; B. B. H. Yuen; B. W. P. Yip; H. O. L. Mok; D. W. T. Au
The effect of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth and behaviour of larvae of four species of marinefishes, i.e.,Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Engraulis japonica, Pagrus major andParalichthys olivaceus, was investigated under laboratory conditions at Hiroshima in 1989. The yolk sac was absorbed earlier with increasing temperature for all species. Morphological characters such as pectoral fin appearance, mouth opening and eye pigmentation
Patterns in marinefish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marinefish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marinefish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marinefish recovery and biodiversity.
Research on the dietary requirements of marinefish larvae has evolved from considerations of optimal dietary levels of n?3 HUFA to considerations of optimal dietary ratios of the two principal HUFAs, 22:6n?3 and 20:5n?3, and more recently to considerations of optimal dietary levels and ratios of all three dietary essential fatty acids, 22:6n?3, 20:5n?3 and 20:4n?6. Our present understanding of
John Sargent; Lesley McEvoy; Alicia Estevez; Gordon Bell; Michael Bell; James Henderson; Douglas Tocher
Combining live feed and manufactured diets (co-feeding) from an early development stage has been shown to improve growth and survival of marinefish larvae compared to the use of live feed only. Co-feeding seems to serve two purposes; it improves and stabilizes the nutrional condition of the larvae and it pre-conditions the larvae to accept the manufactured diet when live
The relationship between egg diameter ((p, mm), temperature (T, °C) and egg development time to hatching (D, in days) was established for approximately spherical, pelagic marinefish eggs as log10D = 7.10 + 0.608 log10 p - 4.09 log10 (T + 26), which explains 82% of the variance of a data set of 140 cases, covering 84 species of teleost
The golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) is a marinefish species in tropical regions. No information about genetic variation and population structure of wild populations\\u000a is available. A first set of 12 polymorphic microsatellites isolated from this species were characterized. The number of alleles\\u000a ranged from 5 to 14 with an average of 8.0 alleles per locus. All 12 markers conformed
Six new coccidian species are described from marinefish collected on the French Mediterranean coast near Banyuls-sur-Mer and on the coast of Newfoundland. All have sporocysts with well-developed Stieda bodies and are placed into the genusEimeria: E. catalana sp. nova from the intestine ofCrenilabrus mediterraneus, E. hexagona sp. nova from the digestive tract ofOnos tricirratus, E. ivanae sp. nova from
Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.
Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo
Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marinefish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marinefishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish. PMID:23085044
Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388
Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo
This paper presents a compartmental model for estimating the ingestion dose, due to 137Cs, arising from the consumption of marinefish in Hong Kong. 137Cs is one of the more important radionuclides released in routine liquid effluents discharged from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station at Daya Bay, which began commercial operation in 1994. In the model, three sea/ocean compartments are considered. Assuming the discharge of this radionuclide is maintained at a constant rate, the model shows that the concentration of 137Cs in the water and in the marinefish in the three sea compartments would become steady after 5 years. The predicted annual dose to an average local individual in Hong Kong, for a release rate of 10 GBq.y(-1), is 3.2 x 10(-5) microSv, which is dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The cumulative collective dose to the local population of 6 million, at 50 years of discharge, amounts to 9.0 x 10(-3) man.Sv. The annual dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers does not exceed 3.0 x 10(-3) microSv. All these doses are small compared to the dose of around 1.2 microSv.y(-1) arising from ingestion of naturally occurring radionuclides found in marinefish. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. Difficulties encountered in model validation are discussed. Despite such difficulties. limited field data that are available show that the predicted results are generally within one order of magnitude with measurements. PMID:11926370
Study of interactions among fishes and benthic invertebrates off southern California's Santa Catalina Island showed the great extent to which taxa are defined by trophic relations. The dominant fishes there are acanthopterygian teleosts, with the serranine serranid Paralabrax clathratus morphologically nearest the evolutionary mainstream. Because mainstream species have morphologies similar to their progenitors, marine communities have a long history of
Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 10 species of fishes caught at Cochin and Rameshwaram coast, and sold in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Species were selected on the basis of their regular availability throughout the year and commercial value. A total of 389 fishes were analyzed for organochlorine residues and their suitability for human consumption was evaluated. Results show varying levels of residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan and dieldrin. Among the 10 species, high concentration of pesticide residues were recorded in Sardinella longiceps, Carangoides malabaricus, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Saurida tumbil and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The variation in total organochlorine residues among species and between places was not significant (P>0.05). Only five species of fishes showed monthly variation in residue levels and there was no significant correlation between the body size and residue levels in the tissue. About 22% of the fishes exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRL) of total HCH prescribed by FAO/WHO for fish products. The calculated dietary intake of total HCH through consumption of C. malabaricus, C. agassizi and S. longiceps exceeded the maximum acceptable dietary intake (ADI) limits prescribed for human consumption. The present study recommends continuous monitoring of environmental contaminants in marinefishes to assess the possible impact on human health. PMID:18849026
|Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…
Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marinefishes collected\\u000a from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China\\u000a (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed
S. Y. Leung; C. K. Kwok; X. P. Nie; K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong
Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.
Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.
Sculpin fishes of the North American Pacific Coast provide an ideal opportunity to examine whether adaptive morphological character shifts have facilitated occupation of novel habitat types because of their well-described phylogeny and ecology. In this group, the basal-rooted species primarily occupy the subtidal habitat, whereas the species in the most distal clades are found in the intertidal. We tested multiple evolutionary models to determine whether changes in body size and changes in number of scales are adaptive for habitat use in sculpins. Based on a statistically robust, highly resolved molecular phylogeny of 26 species of sculpins, in combination with morphometric and habitat affinity data, our analyses show that an adaptive model based on habitat use best explains changes in body size and number of scales. The habitat model was statistically supported over models of neutral evolution, stabilizing selection across all habitats, and three clade-based models. We suggest that loss of scales and reduction of body size in the intertidal may facilitate cutaneous breathing in air when tidepools become hypoxic during low tides. This study demonstrates how the combined use of phylogenetic, ecological and statistical approaches helps to identify traits that are likely adaptive to novel habitats. PMID:23316868
SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marinefish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marinefish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marinefish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes.
Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.
A unique high temporal frequency dataset from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intens...
Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change--particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km(2) study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325
Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Several studies documented the presence of resistant bacteria in humans, livestock, and domestic animals; however, limited research is available on the presence of antibiotic drug resistance in wildlife species. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of resistant bacteria collected from wild-caught, marine predatory fishes. Seven species of sharks and a single teleost species were opportunistically sampled from six different study sites in coastal Belize, coastal and nearshore waters of Louisiana, the Florida Keys, and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. A total of 134 viable bacteria samples were isolated from the cloacal swabs of predatory fishes. Isolates were characterized by Gram-stain morphology and tested for resistance by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Thirteen drugs (penicillin G, piperacillin, ticarcillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftiofur, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole) were selected for this study. Prevalence was calculated as the total number of isolates resistant to one or more drugs against the total number of samples in that study area or fish population. Sharks sampled in the Florida Keys exhibited the greatest resistance to a wide selection of drugs. Resistance to at least one drug was found in each of the six study sites and in all of the fish species sampled. Multidrug resistance was also documented in most of the study sites. Interspecific comparisons between redfish, Sciaenops ocellata, and sharks from Louisiana offshore waters (which represent species of the Carcharhinus genus) demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence in redfish, which may be because of the older age of the population. The findings of this study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in marine predatory fishes from multiple taxa and multiple geographic locations. PMID:20722248
Blackburn, Jason K; Mitchell, Mark A; Blackburn, Mary-Claire Holley; Curtis, Andrew; Thompson, Bruce A
Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.
Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.
Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pH to 7.55) on sperm motility of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, were assessed. We found no significant effect of decreased pH on sperm speed, rate of change of direction or percent motility for the population of cod analyzed. We predict that future ocean acidification will probably not pose a problem for sperm behavior, and hence fertilization success, of Baltic cod.
Frommel, A. Y.; Stiebens, V.; Clemmesen, C.; Havenhand, J.
Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marinefish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marinefish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marinefishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work.
Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.
Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world’s largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marinefishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.
Munoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.
Three new metabolites, chaetomugilin S, dechloro-chaetomugilin A and dechloro-chaetomugilin D, were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marinefish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated based on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and some chemical transformations. Particularly, chaetomugilins T and U are the first compounds without a chlorine atom in azaphilones isolated from this fungal strain, to date. In addition, these compounds moderately inhibited the growth of cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cell lines. PMID:22617549
Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical–biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30–60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28–89%.
Blanchard, Julia L.; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J. Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Barange, Manuel
River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.
von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.
Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marinefish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marinefish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marinefish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marinefish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marinefish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish. PMID:16870232
We tracked the long-term movements of 70 parrotfishes, surgeonfishes and goatfishes captured inside a small (1.3 km2) marine protected area (MPA: Kealakekua Bay Marine Life Conservation District, Hawaii) by implanting them with small transmitters\\u000a and deploying underwater monitoring devices inside the bay and along 100 km of the adjacent west Hawaii coastline. Individual\\u000a fish were detected inside Kealakekua Bay for up to
Carl G. MeyerYannis; Yannis P. Papastamatiou; Timothy B. Clark
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marinefishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marinefishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters. PMID:22779112
Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marinefish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marinefish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent.
Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates-fishes-remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106
Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO(2) and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50-100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO(2)). CO(2) acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO(2) acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO(2) acidification. Elevated CO(2) and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marinefishes. PMID:19556256
Munday, Philip L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Dixson, Danielle L; Endo, Geoff G K
The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation. PMID:20057166
A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marinefish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20
ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER
The fish immune response to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we use a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific to acidophilic granulocytes from the marinefish gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata L.), together with an antiserum specific to interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) from this species, in order to investigate whether these cells are involved in the immune response against the pathogenic
Elena Chaves-Pozo; Pablo Pelegrín; Jesús García-Castillo; Alfonsa García-Ayala; Victoriano Mulero; José Meseguer
The primary factors that control the concentration of total reduced (inorganic) sulfide in coastal sediments are believed\\u000a to be the availability of reactive iron, dissolved sulfate and metabolizable organic carbon. We selected nine sites in shallow\\u000a (<3 m), close to sub-tropical, estuaries and bays along the central Texas coast that represented a range in sediment grain\\u000a size (a proxy for reactive
Otolith microchemistry can provide valuable information about stock structure and mixing patterns when the magnitude of environmental differences among areas is greater than the cumulative influence of any vital effects. Here, the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing element incorporation into the otolith is reviewed. Hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory is employed to explore the differences in chemical behaviours, distributions and affinities between elements. Hard acid cations (e.g. Mg(2+) , Li(+) and Ba(2+) ) tend to be less physiologically influenced and accepted more readily into the otolith crystal lattice but are relatively homogeneous in seawater. Soft acid cations (e.g. Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ) on the other hand, exhibit more varied distributions in seawater, but are more likely to be bound to blood proteins and less available for uptake into the otolith. The factors influencing the geographical distribution of elements in the sea, and their incorporation into the otoliths of marinefishes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on examining physiological processes, including gonad development, on the uptake of elements commonly used in population studies, notably Sr. Finally, case studies are presented that either directly or indirectly compare population structuring or movements inferred by otolith elemental fingerprints with the patterns indicated by additional, alternative proxies. The main obstacle currently limiting the application of otolith elemental microchemistry to infer movements of marinefishes appears to lie in the largely homogeneous distribution of those elements most reliably measured in the otolith. Evolving technologies will improve the discriminatory power of otolith chemistry by allowing measurement of spatially explicit, low level elements; however, for the time being, the combination of otolith minor and trace element fingerprints with alternative proxies and stable isotopic ratios can greatly extend the scope of migration studies. Among the otolith elements that routinely occur above instrument detection limits, Ba, Mn and Li were deemed the most likely to prove reliable geographic markers in marine species. PMID:22803735
Sturrock, A M; Trueman, C N; Darnaude, A M; Hunter, E
The marine-estuarine transition represents an important biogeographic boundary, yet juvenile marine finfish have been observed in both temperate inner continental shelf (ICS) and estuarine habitats during the summer nursery period. In a direct comparison of ICS and estuary nurseries, spatial and temporal patterns in species composition, biodiversity, size structure, and relative abundance of age-0 fishes were tested using contemporaneous data from multiyear (2004-2006) trawl surveys of the Maryland ICS near Assateague Island, MD, and lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (estuary). Survey data from both habitats showed similar seasonal progression of assemblage structure, biodiversity phenologies, and dominant species identities. Late summer densities for four of five numerically dominant species varied by habitat. Densities of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and Atlantic butterfish Peprilus triacanthus were higher in the ICS; whereas summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus density was higher in the estuary. Density of spot Leiostomus xanthurus did not differ between habitats. Apparent daily growth rates of these five species, as estimated by modal length progression, were not significantly different between the two habitats. Although individual species displayed varying affinities for ICS versus estuarine habitats, this study provides strong evidence that the ICS of the Middle Atlantic Bight is capable of functioning interchangeably with polyhaline estuarine regions as nursery habitat for a diverse group of marine finfish.
Woodland, Ryan J.; Secor, David H.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Wilberg, Michael J.
An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and ?-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.
?. WWF's commitment to sustainable seafood The crisis in global marine fisheries is well documented and accepted by most stakeholders. Scientific evidence indicates that 80 per cent of the world's commercial marinefish stocks are either fully exploited or overfished. Mariculture, although having the potential to alleviate mankind's pressure on marine ecosystems, is currently practiced at the cost of, among
The link between metal exposure and toxicity is complicated by numerous factors such as exposure route. Here, we exposed a marinefish (juvenile blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii) to copper either in a commercial fish diet or in seawater. Copper concentrations in intestine/liver were correlated linearly with influx rate, but appeared to be less influenced by uptake pathway (waterborne or dietary exposure). Influx rate best predicted Cu accumulation in the intestine and liver. However, despite being a good predictor of mortality within each pathway, influx rate was not a good predictor of mortality across both exposure pathways, as waterborne Cu caused considerably higher mortality than dietary Cu at a given influx rate. We show that the use of gill Cu accumulation irrespective of the exposure route as a model for observed fish mortality provided a clear relationship between accumulation and toxicity. Investigation of gill Cu accumulation may shed light on the different accumulation strategies from the two exposure pathways. This correlation offers potential for the use of branchial Cu concentration as an indicator of long-term Cu toxicity, allowing for differences in the relative importance of the uptake pathways in different field situations. PMID:22372853
To assess the importance of ice-covered Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for young fish spawned offshore, we monitored the recruitment of marinefish larvae from the Sea of Okhotsk to the lagoon as well as the availability of larval fish prey under the ice cover from 24 February to 23 March 1992. Sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) and walleye
We review the application of multispecies models as tools for evaluating impacts of fishing on marine communities. Four types of model are identified: descriptive multispecies, dynamic multispecies, aggregate system, and dynamic system models. The strengths and weaknesses of multispecies models and their ability to evaluate the causal mechanisms underlying shifts in production are examined. This comparison provides a basis for
Anne B. Hollowed; Nicholas Bax; Richard Beamish; Jeremy Collie; Michael Fogarty; Patricia Livingston; John Pope; Jake C. Rice
The identification of incipient ecological species represents an opportunity to investigate current evolutionary process where adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation are associated. In this study we analysed the genetic structure of marine and estuarine popula- tions of the silverside fish Odontesthes argentinensis using nine microsatellite loci and 396 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Our main objective was
This report includes a brief description of the purposes and functions of the Texas A and M University Systematic Collection of Marine Organisms, a listing of the sources and general localities from which most of the fish specimens were obtained, and a de...
A growth depressing effect of high dietary neutral lipid levels in marinefish larvae has been reported. This may be a result of a decrease in the efficiency or activity of digestive enzymes, a reduction in absorption efficiency and\\/or a decrease in food intake. The present work reviews recent studies carried out on commercially valuable species (Atlantic herring, Senegalese sole,
S. Morais; L. E. C. Conceição; I. Rønnestad; W. Koven; C. Cahu; J. L. Zambonino Infante; M. T. Dinis
In marinefish larvae, the sum of protein deposition, turnover and catabolism necessary for their rapid growth dictates a high amino acid (AA) requirement. Once the yolk is exhausted, the digestive tract becomes the vital organ that ensures a steady supply of dietary AA to the growing larval tissues. In this paper, we discuss the demand and availability of AA
I. Rønnestad; S. K. Tonheim; H. J. Fyhn; C. R. Rojas-Garc??a; Y. Kamisaka; W. Koven; R. N. Finn; B. F. Terjesen; Y. Barr; L. E. C. Conceição
Bivalve trochophore larvae are of an appropriate size (40-60 ?m) for first-feeding marinefish larvae. Unfortunately, the trochophore stage is of short duration and the next stage develops a shell, which may hinder consumption and digestion by larvae. A general method from reviewed literature and the author's experience for arresting development at, or prior to, the trochophore stage by genetic
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay utilizing a molecular beacon for the quantitative detection of a marinefish iridovirus isolated from large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (LYCIV), was developed, which involved the amplification of a 122bp DNA fragment from a conserved region of LYCIV ATPase gene. The specific probe consisting of two short arm and a central loop sequences
In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marinefish farm, involving passive sampling
Ivan Muñoz; María J. Martínez Bueno; Ana Agüera; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba
Specimens of mullet (Mugil cephalus), a marinefish, were given single doses of 3-methylcholanthrene intraperitoneally and the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxygenase system in the liver was measured by the metabolism of benzo(a)-pyrene. The enzyme system was found to...
Marinefish production is now being carried out afteralmost two decades of research. The production ofseabream (Sparus aurata), which reached over 750tons in 1995, is expected to reach an annualproduction ranging between 4000 - 12 700 metric tonsby year 2010. The anticipated introduction of newspecies and its expansion to the Mediterranean shoreline will help in leading the increased maricultureproduction. Two
Esther Lubzens; Gideon Minkoff; Yoav Barr; Odi Zmora
Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marinefishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable
Chris D. B. Leakey; Martin J. Attrill; Simon Jennings; Mark F. Fitzsimons
We investigated the respiratory uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organohalogen pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE #47) in a marine benthic fish, Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae. The respiratory uptake efficiencies (EW) of the chemicals, of which there have been no reports for the majority of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), were obtained by measuring the respiratory uptake rate constants (k1) and the oxygen consumption rates of fish. Fish were exposed to water in which these chemicals were dissolved at environmentally relevant concentrations for 28d, followed by 168d of depuration in clean seawater. The k1 and EW values for 99 compounds were obtained, and they ranged from 2000 to 42000Lkg-lipid(-1)d(-1) and from 0.060 to 1.3, respectively. The EW values of the chemicals, except for PAHs, tended to increase with increasing values of the log octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW) of the chemicals up to a log KOW of 5. For log KOW in the range 3-5, the EW values in this study were much lower than those in a published study (about one-third). As a result of analysis by a two-phase resistance model, the resistance of transport rates to the lipid phase in this study was lower than was the case in the published study. These findings indicate that the EW predicted by the published study for log KOW in the range 3-5 may differ among fish species and water temperature, and further study is needed. PMID:23962382
The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435
Chromatographic and chemical confirmatory evidence is presented for the presence of residues of toxaphene, a polychlorinated camphene pesticide, in herring (Clupea harengus harengus) and cod (Gadus morhua) from widely-separated areas of the Canadian east coast. Toxaphene residues were not detected in a sample of deep-sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Toxaphene was determined by capillary gas chromatography following a combination of chromatography and fuming nitric-concentrated sulfuric acid cleanup, a procedure which greatly simplified the capillary gas chromatograms and eliminated many co-extractives. Concentrations in the fish tissues ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 micrograms/g on a net weight basis and from 2.4 to 12 micrograms/g on a fat weight bais. These data indicate widespread contamination of the marine environment by chlorinated camphenes. PMID:6874201
Intra-abdominal injections of platinum, chromium and cadmium salts to Myoxocephalus scorpius produce nephrotoxic effect which includes the disturbances in magnesium secretion. Basic ultrastructural changes in the nephron cells of the fish after the injection of nephrotoxic substances are similar to those in mammals. Cis-platinum induces significant damage in the terminal part of the proximal tubules. One day after the injection of chromium compounds, total damage of the proximal tubule is observed, whereas cadmium salt affects cells within the whole nephron. After 5 days of administration of cadmium and chromium salts, partial recovery was found with respect to both functional and ultrastructural properties of nephron cells. Administration of nephrotoxic substances which selectively injure different parts of the nephron enabled to perform more exact differentiation of the nephron elements in marine teleosts. PMID:2624030
Currently, ocean acidification is occurring at a faster rate than at any time in the last 300 million years, posing an ecological challenge to marine organisms globally. There is a critical need to understand the effects of acidification on the vulnerable larval stages of marinefishes, as there is potential for large ecological and economic impacts on fish populations and the human economies that rely on them. We expand upon the narrow taxonomic scope found in the literature today, which overlooks many life history characteristics of harvested species, by reporting on the larvae of Rachycentron canadum (cobia), a large, highly mobile, pelagic-spawning, widely distributed species with a life history and fishery value contrasting other species studied to date. We raised larval cobia through the first 3 weeks of ontogeny under conditions of predicted future ocean acidification to determine effects on somatic growth, development, otolith formation, swimming ability, and swimming activity. Cobia exhibited resistance to treatment effects on growth, development, swimming ability, and swimming activity at 800 and 2100 ?atm pCO2 . However, these scenarios resulted in a significant increase in otolith size (up to 25% larger area) at the lowest pCO2 levels reported to date, as well as the first report of significantly wider daily otolith growth increments. When raised under more extreme scenarios of 3500 and 5400 ?atm pCO2 , cobia exhibited significantly reduced size-at-age (up to 25% smaller) and a 2-3 days developmental delay. The robust nature of cobia may be due to the naturally variable environmental conditions this species currently encounters throughout ontogeny in coastal environments, which may lead to an increased acclimatization ability even during long-term exposure to stressors. PMID:23504878
Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, ?st?=?0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis ?st?=?0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.
Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.
Predation is known to influence the distribution of behavioural traits among prey individuals, populations and communities over both evolutionary and ecological time scales. Prey have evolved mechanisms of rapidly learning the identity of predators. Chemical cues are often used by prey to assess predation risk especially in aquatic systems where visual cues are unreliable. Social learning is a method of threat assessment common among a variety of freshwater fish taxa, which incorporates chemosensory information. Learning predator identities through social learning is beneficial to naïve individuals as it eliminates the need for direct interaction with a potential threat. Although social learning is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, no research on the use of this mechanism exists for marine species. In this study, we examined the role of social learning in predator recognition for a tropical damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus. This species was found to not only possess and respond to conspecific chemical alarm cues, but naïve individuals were able to learn a predators' identity from experienced individuals, the process of social learning. Fish that learned to associate risk with the olfactory cue of a predator responded with the same intensity as conspecifics that were exposed to a chemical alarm cue from a conspecific skin extract. PMID:22453926
For many marinefish, intense larval mortality may provide considerable opportunity for selection, yet much less is known about the evolutionary potential of larval traits. We combined field demographic studies and manipulative experiments to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for both larval size and swimming performance for a natural population of a common coral-reef fish, the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). We also examined selection on larval size by synthesizing information from published estimates of selective mortality. We introduce a method that uses the Lande-Arnold framework for examining selection on quantitative traits to empirically reconstruct adaptive landscapes. This method allows the relationship between phenotypic value and fitness components to be described across a broad range of trait values. Our results suggested that despite strong viability selection for large larvae and moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.29), evolutionary responses of larvae would likely be balanced by reproductive selection favoring mothers that produce more, smaller offspring. Although long-term evolutionary responses of larval traits may be constrained by size-number trade-offs, our results suggest that phenotypic variation in larval size may be an ecologically important source of variability in population dynamics through effects on larval survival and recruitment to benthic populations. PMID:20455930
Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica
The proximate composition and fatty acids profiles of the muscle tissues of nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market were examined. The nine studied fish species were: Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), oceanic fish imported from China (walleye pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia).
Zygmunt Usydus; Joanna Szlinder-Richert; Maria Adamczyk; Urszula Szatkowska
Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC model selection techniques, we assessed recovery trends using five ecologically meaningful production models: asymptotic, Ricker, logistic, linear, and exponential. There were clear recovery trends with time for species richness, total and size class density, and wet masses at the level of the taxonomic family. Species richness recovered rapidly to an asymptote at 10 years. The two main herbivorous families displayed differing responses to protection, scarids recovering rapidly, but then exhibiting some decline while acanthurids recovered more slowly and steadily throughout the study. Recovery of the two invertebrate-eating groups suggested competitive interactions over resources, with the labrids recovering more rapidly before a decline and the balistids demonstrating a slower logistic recovery. Remaining families displayed differing trends with time, with a general pattern of decline in smaller size classes or small-bodied species after an initial recovery, which suggests that some species- and size-related competitive and predatory control occurs in older closures. There appears to be an ecological succession of dominance with an initial rapid rise in labrids and scarids, followed by a slower rise in balistids and acanthurids, an associated decline in sea urchins, and an ultimate dominance in calcifying algae. Our results indicate that the unfished "equilibrium" biomass of the fish assemblage > 10 cm is 1100-1200 kg/ha, but these small parks (< 10 km2) are likely to underestimate pre-human influence values due to edge effects and the rarity of taxa with large area requirement, such as apex predators, including sharks. PMID:17555218
McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; Calnan, Jacqulyn M; MacNeil, M Aaron
The restriction of freshwater flow into estuaries, the presence of in-stream barriers and the occurrence of invasive fish species in these habitats are identified as major threats to these young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species. These aspects have been investigated using the distribution and abundance of young estuary- and marine-spawned fish species in the headwater environments of four permanently open estuaries of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Fishes were collected twice per season over the 2009 and 2010 period, using mixed method sampling with seine net hauls and overnight fyke net deployments. Of the 74,751 fishes collected, 37,444 fishes, 18 families and 34 species were taken in fyke net catches, while 34,308 fishes, 21 families and 38 species were caught in seine nets. In the Great Fish, Kowie, Kariega and Sundays River systems, juveniles of estuarine residents dominated headwater catches, followed by juveniles of estuary-dependent marine species. The prevalence of larval and small juvenile stages of estuary- and marine-spawned fish species highlights the potential importance of these transitional areas for young fish.
Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus. PMID:22574119
Sanchez, Laura M; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M; Schulze, Christopher J; Linington, Roger G
Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurements are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was dir...
This is an account of the benthic invertebrates in four distinct marine habitats at Santa Catalina Island, off southern California. Although based on samples taken to identify foods of fishes, it is, to the authors' knowledge, the most comprehensive publi...
Standard culture methods were developed for larvae of two common marinefishes, the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the lined sole Achirus lineatus. Culture methods were described and the relationships of survival, growth and yield to temperature...
In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marinefish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535
Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R
Bacterial diversity in the microbial communities of posterior gut sections of three temperate marine herbivorous fish species\\u000a from New Zealand was characterised using Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis, and 16S rRNA gene amplification and\\u000a sequencing methods. The fish were collected in 1999–2000 in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand (35°54’–36°24’S, 174°48’–175°25’E).\\u000a The gastrointestinal bacterial communities of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther, 1886) (F.
Kendall D. Clements; Isabel B. Y. Pasch; Damian Moran; Susan J. Turner
The Loreto Bay National Park (LBNP) is a large, multi-use marine protected area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where several types of small-scale commercial and recreational fishing are allowed, but where less than 1% of the park is totally protected from fishing. The LBNP was created in 1996; its management plan was completed in 2000, but it was not effectively implemented and enforced until 2003. Between 1998 and 2010, we monitored reef fish populations annually at several reefs inside and outside the LBNP to measure the effects of the park on fish assemblages. We also evaluated reported fisheries landings within the LBNP for the same time series. Our results show that reef fish biomass increased significantly after protection at a small no-take site at LBNP relative to the rest of the park. However, the multi-use part of LBNP where fishing is allowed (99% of its surface) has had no measurable effect on reef fish biomass relative to open access sites outside the park boundaries. Reported fisheries landings have decreased within the park while increasing in nearby unprotected areas. Although the current partial protection management regime has not allowed for reef fish populations to recover despite 15 years as a "protected area," we conclude that LBNP's regulations and management have maintained the conditions of the ecosystem that existed when the park was established. These results suggest that community livelihoods have been sustained, but a re-evaluation of the multi-use management strategy, particularly the creation of larger no-take zones and better enforcement, is needed to improve the reef fish populations in the park in order to ensure sustainable fisheries far into the future. These recommendations can be applied to all multi-use MPAs in Mexico where ecosystem recovery is not occurring despite maintenance of fish stocks. PMID:23416447
Rife, Alexis N; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Hastings, Philip A; Erisman, Brad; Ballantyne, Ford; Wielgus, Jeffrey; Sala, Enric; Gerber, Leah
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five gonad-infecting species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes off the eastern coast of India (Bay of Bengal): Philometra sphyraenae sp. n. (males and females) from the pickhandle barracuda Sphyraena jello Cuvier (Sphyraenidae), Philometra gerrei sp. n. (males and females) from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae), Philometra otolithi sp. n. (single female) from the tigertooth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch et Schneider) (Sciaenidae), Philometra sp. (females) from the Belanger's croaker Johnius belangerii (Cuvier) (Sciaenidae), and Philometroides eleutheronemae sp. n. (females) from the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae). All new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing gonads of marinefishes by morphological (mainly the gubernaculum structure in males and the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus in females) and biometrical features. Philometra rajani Mukherjee, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:23724730
We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (?(13)C and ?(15)N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and ?(15)N values or ?(13)C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption. PMID:22410727
The body length and width of Proales similis (mean±SD; 83±11 µm and 40±6 µm, respectively) is 38.1% smaller and 60.3% narrower than that of Brachionus rotundiformis. Due to its small size, P. similis has potential for rearing marinefish larvae which require first food smaller than B. rotundiformis. We examined the feasibility of using P. similis as live food by analyzing its
Most currently available microparticulate artificial diets for rearing marine suspension feeders, including larval fish, are not effective in retaining low-molecular weight, water-soluble (LMWS) nutrients and other materials [Lopez-Alvarado, J., Langdon, C.J., Teshima, S., Kanazawa, A., 1994. Effects of coating and encapsulation of crystalline amino acids on leaching in larval feeds. Aquaculture 122, 335–346; Baskerville-Bridges, B., Kling, L.J., 2000. Development and
High resolution NMR has been applied for assessment of lipid classes and acyl stereospecific positions of fatty acids in marine phospholipids and triacylglycerols. 1D and 2D NMR techniques in combination with recording of a number of reference standards have been used to interpret the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of fish gonads. 13C NMR spectra gave information regarding the polyunsaturated
Seco-chaetomugilins A and D were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marinefish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, along with the chemical transformation from known chaetomugilins A and D. Seco-chaetomugilin D exhibited growth inhibitory activity against cultured P388, HL-60, L1210, and KB cells.
In vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) experiments were carried out in non-anaesthetized marinefish with a maximum body length of 40 cm using a 4.7 T horizontal magnet. In flow-through animal chambers long-term investigations could be carried out for several days in a sessile benthic zoarcid species, the eelpout Zoarces viviparus, as well as in a pelagic
Christian Bock; Franz-Josef Sartoris; Hans-Otto Portner
Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas.
Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, Jose Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melia, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo
The absorption of Cl(-) and water from ingested seawater in the marinefish intestine is accomplished partly through Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Recently, a H(+) pump (vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase) was found to secrete acid into the intestinal lumen, and it may serve to titrate luminal HCO(3)(-) and facilitate further Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange, especially in the posterior intestine, where adverse concentration gradients could limit Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. The H(+) pump is expressed in all intestinal segments and in gill tissue of gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) maintained in natural seawater. After acute transfer of toadfish to 60 ppt salinity, H(+) pump expression increased 20-fold in the posterior intestine. In agreement with these observations was a fourfold-increased H(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior intestine of animals acclimated to 60 ppt salinity. Interestingly, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was elevated in the anterior intestine and gill, but not in the posterior intestine. Apical acid secretion by isolated intestinal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers fitted with pH-stat titration systems increased after acclimation to hypersalinity in the anterior and posterior intestine, titrating >20% of secreted bicarbonate. In addition, net base secretion increased in hypersalinity-acclimated fish and was ?70% dependent on serosal HCO(3)(-). Protein localization by immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical region of intestinal enterocytes. These results show that the H(+) pump, especially in the posterior intestine, plays an important role in hypersaline osmoregulation and that it likely has significant effects on HCO(3)(-) accumulation in the intestinal lumen and, therefore, the continued absorption of Cl(-) and water. PMID:21865541
Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887
Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo
Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile shoaling zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as shoaling behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced shoaling behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272
Cross-linked protein capsules as a vehicle for delivery of nutrients to marinefish larvae and marine suspension feeders were investigated. The effects of the production process on both qualitative and quantitative changes in protein, lipid and micronutrient concentrations were evaluated. There were no changes in lipid concentration and only minor (but significant) differences in crude protein concentrations as a result
Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.
Single fast fibres and small bundles of slow fibres were isolated from the trunk muscles of an Antarctic (Notothenia neglecta) and various warm water marinefishes (Blue Crevally,Carangus melampygus; Grey Mullet,Mugil cephalus; Dolphin Fish,Coryphaena hippurus; Skipjack-tuna,Katsuwonus pelamis and Kawakawa,Euthynuus affinis). Fibres were chemically skinned with the nonionic detergent Brij 58.
2-Phenoxyethanol was used as an anaesthetic to translocate 102 species of fishes representing 30 families from the Sea World aquarium on Durban's beachfront to uShaka Marine World. Most fishes responded well to a final anaesthetic concentration of 0.150 ml/l and there were no mortalities. PMID:19040133
A new nematode species, Capillaria acanthopagri n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the marinefish (black porgy) Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker) from coastal waters of the western north Pacific Ocean off Kochi, Shikoku Island, Japan. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987 , differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marinefishes (with the exception of C. navonae Timi, Rossin and Lanfranchi, 2006 ) mainly in the length (204-285 microm), shape, and structure of the spicule; and except for C. cooperi Johnston and Mawson, 1945, in markedly small body measurements (males and females 3-4 and 6-10 mm long, respectively). It is characterized by the presence of 33-43 elongate stichocytes; a heavily sclerotized spicule with rough transverse grooves; a spinous spicular sheath; and by eggs measuring 27-30 x 57-60 microm, without protruding polar plugs. Capillaria acanthopagri n. sp. is the first known species of Neocapillaria parasitizing fishes of the perciform Sparidae and the second species of this subgenus recorded from fishes of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:20738201
Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933
Fishes show great variability in hearing sensitivity, bandwidth, and the appropriate stimulus component for the inner ear (particle motion or pressure). Here, hearing sensitivities in three vocal marine species belonging to different families were described in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. In particular, hearing sensitivity to tone bursts of varying frequencies were measured in the red-mouthed goby Gobius cruentatus, the Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis, and the brown meagre Sciaena umbra using the non-invasive auditory evoked potential-recording technique. Hearing thresholds were measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions using a newly developed miniature pressure-acceleration sensor. The brown meagre showed the broadest hearing range (up to 3000 Hz) and the best hearing sensitivity, both in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. The red-mouthed goby and the damselfish were less sensitive, with upper frequency limits of 700 and 600 Hz, respectively. The low auditory thresholds and the large hearing bandwidth of S. umbra indicate that sound pressure may play a role in S. umbra's hearing, even though pronounced connections between the swim bladder and the inner ears are lacking. PMID:19813819
Wysocki, Lidia Eva; Codarin, Antonio; Ladich, Friedrich; Picciulin, Marta
Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marinefishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included. PMID:21898201
Amin, Omar M; O?uz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy
Two new species of philometrid nematodes, Philometra gymnothoracis n. sp. and Philometroides marinus n. sp., are described from female specimens collected from the body cavity of the spotted moray, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) (Muraenidae, Anguilliformes), and the cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Rachycentridae, Perciformes), respectively, from off the Atlantic coast of South Carolina. Philometra gymnothoracis n. sp. is mainly characterized by the conspicuously depressed mouth, the presence of 8 small cephalic papillae arranged in 4 submedian pairs, the esophagus with an anterior bulbous inflation, 2 small papilla-like caudal projections, the body length of the gravid female 435-760 mm, short ovaries, the length of larvae from the uterus 474-544 microm, and by the location in the host (body cavity). Philometroides marinus n. sp. differs from its congeners parasitizing marine and brackish water fishes mainly in having small cuticular bosses only on the anterior part of the body; in possessing 4 markedly large cephalic projections, each with 2 minute papillae, 2 large caudal projections, and in the location in the host (body cavity); the body length of subgravid and gravid females is 130-550 mm and that of larvae from the uterus 600-642 microm. PMID:19115785
Disease has dramatically reduced populations of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Caribbean reefs, contributing to an increased abundance of macroalgae and reduction of coral cover. Therefore, recovery of D. antillarum populations is critically important, but densities are still low on many reefs. Among the many potential factors limiting these densities, the focus of this study is on predation pressure by fishes. Marine reserves provide opportunities to examine large-scale manipulations of predator-prey interactions and, therefore, D. antillarum densities were compared inside and outside a reserve in The Bahamas (Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park; ECLSP). Urchins and their fish predators were surveyed at nine sites inside and outside the ECLSP. Because of lower fishing effort, the total biomass of urchin predators, weighted by their dietary preferences for urchins, was significantly higher inside the ECLSP. Furthermore, fish community structure was significantly different inside the Park because of the increased biomass of the majority of species. No urchins were seen inside the ECLSP and this was significantly lower than the density of 0.04 urchin m-2 outside the Park. Regression analysis indicated that the relationship between the biomass of urchin predators and the proportion of transects containing urchins was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in fish biomass dramatically reduce urchin abundances. The link between lower density of urchins and higher density of their predators inside the ECLSP is strengthened by discounting five alternative primary mechanisms (variations in macroalgal cover, larval supply, environmental setting, density of other urchin species and abundance of predators not surveyed). Caribbean marine reserves have an important conservation role, but increased fish predation appears to reduce densities of D. antillarum. Urchins currently have limited functional significance on Bahamian reefs, but any future recovery of D. antillarum is likely to be limited in reserves, with potentially important ecological consequences.
Harborne, A. R.; Renaud, P. G.; Tyler, E. H. M.; Mumby, P. J.
Two experiments were performed in sub-tropical wet forest (tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) type) at El Verde, Puerto Rico. The first compared seed rain beneath closed canopy with that in natural treefall gaps. The purpose was to determine whether differences in seed rain might account for some part of the reported difference in tree regeneration under the two canopy conditions. The second experiment examined regeneration along transects from beneath the forest canopy across large gaps. Plant colonization patterns clearly showed that gaps are non-uniform environments. The correlation of certain attributes (seed weight, dispersal mode, regeneration route, shade tolerance) within species and among groups of species led to the description of regeneration strategies for species in this and similar forest communities. Silvicultural applications are discussed. 33 figs., 33 tabs.
Trichodesmium sp. has long been recognized as a globally important diazotroph species that contributes to the oceanic nitrogen cycle through input of fixed nitrogen to the upper layers of the ocean. However, it now appears that other species of diazotrophs may also be present and active in open ocean environments (Zehr et al. Nature 2001 vol. 412: 635 -- 638). Here we present additional evidence supporting this claim. The diversity of dizaotrophs was studied during three cruises in the sub-tropical/tropical North Atlantic. NifH gene fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from environmental DNA samples collected in and below the euphotic zone. The new sequence information is discussed in the context of the studz area and other published nifH phylogenetic studies.
Nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary were quantified and material budgets were developed over two years of contrasting freshwater discharge. During both years >74% of the nitrogen and >84% of the phosphorus load entered the estuary during one month when flooding occurred in the catchment. Due to larger flood magnitude, loads during the 1995\\/96 year were
LESTER J. McKEE; BRADLEY D. EYRE; Shahadat Hossain
Nearly all demersal teleost marinefishes have pelagic larval stages lasting from several days to several weeks, during which time they are subject to dispersal. Fish larvae have considerable swimming abilities, and swim in an oriented manner in the sea. Thus, they can influence their dispersal and thereby, the connectivity of their populations. However, the sensory cues marinefish larvae use for orientation in the pelagic environment remain unclear. We review current understanding of these cues and how sensory abilities of larvae develop and are used to achieve orientation with particular emphasis on coral-reef fishes. The use of sound is best understood; it travels well underwater with little attenuation, and is current-independent but location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize sound for orientation will have location-dependent orientation. Larvae of many species and families can hear over a range of ~100-1000 Hz, and can distinguish among sounds. They can localize sources of sounds, but the means by which they do so is unclear. Larvae can hear during much of their pelagic larval phase, and ontogenetically, hearing sensitivity, and frequency range improve dramatically. Species differ in sensitivity to sound and in the rate of improvement in hearing during ontogeny. Due to large differences among-species within families, no significant differences in hearing sensitivity among families have been identified. Thus, distances over which larvae can detect a given sound vary among species and greatly increase ontogenetically. Olfactory cues are current-dependent and location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize olfactory cues will have location-dependent orientation, but must be able to swim upstream to locate sources of odor. Larvae can detect odors (e.g., predators, conspecifics), during most of their pelagic phase, and at least on small scales, can localize sources of odors in shallow water, although whether they can do this in pelagic environments is unknown. Little is known of the ontogeny of olfactory ability or the range over which larvae can localize sources of odors. Imprinting on an odor has been shown in one species of reef-fish. Celestial cues are current- and location-independent, so species that primarily utilize them will have location-independent orientation that can apply over broad scales. Use of sun compass or polarized light for orientation by fish larvae is implied by some behaviors, but has not been proven. Use of neither magnetic fields nor direction of waves for orientation has been shown in marinefish larvae. We highlight research priorities in this area. PMID:21562025
Leis, Jeffrey M; Siebeck, Ulrike; Dixson, Danielle L
Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marinefish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats. PMID:21849308
Leahy, Susannah M; McCormick, Mark I; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O
Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.
New methods of optimally identifying and predicting marine habitat occurrence are needed to help best address management issues such as marine reserve designation, fisheries stock assessment and aquaculture planning across large areas. A combination of video sampling, acoustic remote sensing and learning-based classification methods are proposed as a means of optimally identifying marine habitats. More commonly used in the identification
In this paper, we report on an evaluation of the Marine Broadband Framework that was implemented in 2008, as well as a real-time aquatic resources evaluation system that uses the Marine Broadband Framework. The Marine Broadband Framework is a wireless LAN environment with xDSL equivalent transmission speeds that can be used over a range of approximately 20 km from the
A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marinefish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20 and 40 m from the cage. The data suggest that nitrogen cycling was significantly disrupted directly beneath the fish cage, with inhibition of nitrification and denitrification. Although visual examination indicated some slight changes in sediment appearance at 20 m, all other measurements were similar to those obtained at 40 m, where the sediment was considered pristine. The community structures of proteobacterial ?-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the sampling sites were compared by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), using primers which target this group. PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and with oligonucleotide hybridization probes specific for different ammonia oxidizers. A DGGE doublet observed in PCR products from the highly polluted fish cage sediment sample was present at a lower intensity in the 20-m sample but was absent from the pristine 40-m sample station. Band migration, hybridization, and sequencing demonstrated that the doublet corresponded to a marine Nitrosomonas group which was originally observed in 16S rDNA clone libraries prepared from the same sediment samples but with different PCR primers. Our data suggest that this novel Nitrosomonas subgroup was selected for within polluted fish farm sediments and that the relative abundance of this group was influenced by the extent of pollution.
McCaig, Allison E.; Phillips, Carol J.; Stephen, John R.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Harvey, S. Martyn; Herbert, Rodney A.; Embley, T. Martin; Prosser, James I.
Accurate determination of flushing time is crucial for maintaining sustainable production in fish culture zones (FCZs), as it represents the physical self-purification capability via tidal exchange with clean water in the outer sea. However, owing to the temporal and spatial complexity of the coastal flushing process, existing methods for determining flushing time may not be generally applicable. In this paper, a systematic method for determining the flushing time in FCZs is presented, in which bathymetry, runoff, tidal range and stratification are properly accounted for. We determine the flushing time via numerical tracer experiments, using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models. For FCZs located in sheltered and land-locked tidal inlets, the system boundary can be naturally defined at the connection with the open sea. For FCZs located in open waters, hydrodynamic tracking is first used to assess the extent of tidal excursion and thus delimit the initial boundary between clean water and polluted water. This general method is applied to all designated marine FCZs in Hong Kong for both the dry and wet seasons, including 20 sheltered FCZs (in semi-enclosed waters of Tolo Harbour, Mirs Bay, and Port Shelter) and 6 FCZs in open waters. Our results show that flushing time is the longest in inner Port Shelter (about 40 days in dry season), and the shortest for the FCZs in open waters (less than one week in dry season). In addition, the flushing time in dry season is commonly longer than that in wet season: 20%˜40% for most well-sheltered FCZs; 2.6˜4 times for the others. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the flushing time and distance to open boundary, supporting the view that the flushing time of a FCZ is closely related to its location. This study provides a solid basis for mariculture management such as the determination of carrying capacity of FCZs.
Mao, Jing-Qiao; Wong, Ken T. M.; Lee, Joseph H. W.; Choi, K. W.
Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marinefishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marinefishes.
Polonium-210 radioactivities were measured in organs of 10 oceanic fish from three families. The highest activities were consistently found in the pyloric caecal masses or intestinal contents of these fish. (Author)
One of the most studied fish pathogens is Vibrio anguillarum. Development of the genetics and biochemistry of the mechanisms of virulence in this fish pathogen together with clinical and ecologic studies has permitted the intensive development of microbiology in fish diseases. It is the intention of this review to compile the exhaustive knowledge accumulated on this bacterium and its interaction with the host fish by reporting a complete analysis of the V. anguillarum virulence factors and the genetics of their complexity.
An expert workshop reviewed the health effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and came to the following conclusions. 1. Consumption of fish may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). People at risk for CHD are therefore advised to eat fish once a week. The n-3 PUFA in fish are probably the active agents. People who do not
The occurrence of a resting egg phase in the life cycle of marine and freshwater planktonic copepods is well documented and receiving increasing attention by investigators. The species generally occur in coastal marine waters, freshwater ponds and lakes in areas that undergo strong seasonal fluctuations, though examples have been reported for tropical and sub-tropical areas not subject to such extreme
We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silverside Menidia beryllina; and an amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. Initial tests indicated that only the shrimp was sensitive to
K. T. Ho; A. Kuhn; R. M. Burgess; M. Pelletier; D. G. McGovern; J. Charles; L. Patton
The extent of mercury contamination in Surinamese food fishes due to small-scale gold mining was investigated by determination of the total mercury concentration in 318 freshwater fishes, 109 estuarine fishes, and 110 fishes from the Atlantic Ocean. High background levels were found in the piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus (0.35 microg Hg x g(-1) muscle tissue, wet mass basis) and the peacock cichlid Cichla ocellaris (0.39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. Average mercury levels in freshwater fishes were higher in piscivorous species than in nonpiscivorous species, both in potentially contaminated water bodies (0.71 and 0.19 microg x g(-1), respectively) and in the control site (0.25 and 0.04 microg x g(-1), respectively). Mercury concentrations in piscivorous freshwater fishes were significantly higher in rivers potentially affected by gold mining than in the control site. In 57% of 269 piscivorous freshwater fishes from potentially contaminated sites, mercury levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.5 microg Hg x g(-1). The highest mercury concentrations (3.13 and 4.26 microg x g(-1)) were found in two piranhas S. rhombeus from the hydroelectric reservoir Lake Brokopondo. The high mercury levels in fishes from Lake Brokopondo were to some extent related to gold mining because fishes collected at eastern sites (i.e., close to the gold fields) showed significantly higher mercury concentrations than fishes from western localities. In the estuaries, mercury levels in ariid catfish (0.22 microg x g(-1)) and croakers (0.04-0.33 microg x g(-1)) were distinctly lower than those in piscivorous fishes from contaminated freshwater sites. In the isolated Bigi Pan Lagoon, the piscivores snook Centropomus undecimalis (0.04 microg x g(-1)) and tarpon Megalops atlanticus (0.03 microg x g(-1)) showed low mercury levels. Mercury levels were significantly higher in marinefishes than in estuarine fishes, even with the Bigi Pan fishes excluded. High mercury concentrations were found in the shark Mustelus higmani (0.71 microg x g(-1)), the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (1.17 microg x g(-1)), and the barracuda Sphyraena guachancho (0.39 microg x g(-1)), but also in nonpiscivorous species such as Calamus bajonado (0.54 microg x g(-1)), Haemulon plumieri (0.47 microg x g(-1)), and Isopisthus parvipinnis (0.48 microg x g(-1)). Mercury levels were positively correlated with the length of the fish in populations of the freshwater piscivores S. rhombeus, Hoplias malabaricus, and Plagioscion squamosissimus, in estuarine species (Arius couma, Cynoscion virescens, and Macrodon ancylodon), and in S. guachancho from the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:11437465
The balance between evapotranspiration (ET) loss and rainfall ingress in treatment wetlands (TWs) can affect their suitability for certain applications. The aim of this paper was to investigate the water balance and seasonal dynamics in ET of subsurface horizontal flow (HF) TWs in a sub-tropical climate. Monthly water balances were compiled for four pilot-scale HF TWs receiving horticultural runoff over a two year period (Sep. 1999-Aug. 2001) on the sub-tropical east-coast of Australia. The mean annual wetland ET rate increased from 7.0 mm/day in the first year to 10.6 mm/day in the second, in response to the development of the reed (Phragmites australis) population. Consequently, the annual crop coefficients (ratio of wetland ET to pan evaporation) increased from 1.9 in the first year to 2.6 in the second. The mean monthly ET rates were generally greater and more variable than the Class-A pan evaporation rates, indicating that transpiration is an important contributor to ET in HF TWs. Evapotranspiration rates were generally highest in the summer and autumn months, and corresponded with the times of peak standing biomass of P. australis. It is likely that ET from the relatively small 1 m wide by 4 m long HF TWs was enhanced by advection through so-called "clothesline" and "oasis" effects, which contributed to the high crop coefficients. For the second year, when the reed population was well established, the annual net loss to the atmosphere (taking into account rainfall inputs) accounted for 6.1-9.6 % of the influent hydraulic load, which is considered negligible. However, the net loss is likely to be higher in arid regions with lower rainfall. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of the wetlands in the second year of operation was 1.3 g of above-ground biomass produced per kilogram of water consumed, which is low compared to agricultural crops. It is proposed that system level WUE provides a useful metric for selecting wetland plant species and TW design alternatives to use in arid regions where excessive water loss from constructed wetlands can be problematic. Further research is needed to accrue long-term HF TW water balance data especially in arid climatic zones. PMID:22127043
Background There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on incident stroke in a population-based study in the Netherlands. Methods We prospectively followed 20,069 men and women, aged 20–65 years, without cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Habitual diet was assessed with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of stroke was assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results During 8–13 years of follow-up, 221 strokes occurred. In women, an inverse dose-response relation (P-trend?=?0.02) was observed between EPA-DHA intake and incident stroke, with an HR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27–0.91) in the top quartile of EPA-DHA (median 225 mg/d) as compared to the bottom quartile (median 36 mg/d). In men, the HR (95%CI) for the top quartile of EPA-DHA intake was 0.87 (0.51–1.48) (P-trend?=?0.36). Similar results were observed for fish consumption and stroke incidence. Conclusion A higher EPA-DHA and fish intake is related to a lower stroke risk in women, while for men an inverse association could not be demonstrated.
de Goede, Janette; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M.
There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marinefish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field. PMID:22579710
This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.
Size, sex and seasonal patterns among Carcharhiniformes were examined in shallow regions of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A total of 1259 sharks were caught, comprising 13 species. The Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori and the blacktip complex Carcharhinus limbatus-Carcharhinus tilstoni comprised 55% of all shark individuals. Neonates were observed for five species including the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, which contrary to previous reports was relatively abundant in shallow, predominantly estuarine waters. Three contrasting patterns of occurrence were observed: smaller species were abundant and present throughout much of their ontogeny, larger species were mainly caught as neonates or juveniles and vagrant species were only caught during the warmer months. The shark assemblage differed significantly among seasons. While many species were observed during the warmer months, species diversity was lower in winter when C. obscurus comprised 43% of the catch. Overall, the results indicated that spatial and temporal distribution patterns were not synchronous for all species. The capture of small numbers of neonate C. obscurus in late autumn and winter demonstrates that parturition among Carcharhiniformes is not confined to spring and summer in sub-tropical waters. PMID:23331147
This paper provides baseline information about the total annual dust fall, and its constituents and seasonal variation, from a sub-tropical opencast coalmine area in Bina, India. Dust samples were collected monthly for 2 years (June 2002-May 2004) from five sampling sites in the region and analyzed in the laboratory for water-soluble and -insoluble matter. Water-insoluble components constituted the major fraction of the total annual dust fall. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant variations in dust fall at different sites, over the months and in their interactions. The dust deposition rate was highest during summer (March-June), followed by winter (November-February) and lowest in the rainy season (July-October). Maximum dust fall was observed near the coal handling plant (at site 2) followed by the receiving pit of the coal handling plant (site 3), near the main sub-station (site 4), Jawahar colony (site 1) and Gharasari village (site 5). An inverse and significant relation was observed between dust fall and precipitation. Our studies have shown that the main residential areas are experiencing higher levels of dust fall which makes them unsuitable for living. We suggest that residential areas should be moved farther away from the mining area in the opposite direction of prevalent winds. PMID:17258383
Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Mishra, Virendra Kumar
The general characteristics of middle atmospheric thermal structure have been studied by making use of the Rayleigh lidar data collected over the period of about four years (1998 2001). Here, the data has been used from two different stations in the Indian sub-continent in tropics (Gadanki; 13.5°N, 79.2°E) and in sub-tropics (Mt. Abu; 24.5°N, 72.7°E). The observed monthly mean temperature profiles are compared with different model atmospheres (CIRA-86 and MSISE-90). We observed, the mean temperature profiles have closer agreement with MSISE-90 than CIRA-86. The temperature profiles measured by lidar and HALOE satellite overpass nearby lidar site are generally in agreement with each other. The systematic and statistical errors in deriving temperature are found to be uniform for both the stations, as ˜1 K at 50 km, ˜3 K at 60 km and ˜10 K at 70 km. The special features of mesospheric temperature inversion (MTI) and double stratopause structure (DBS) are also addressed for both the stations.
Sharma, Som; Sivakumar, V.; Bencherif, H.; Chandra, H.; Acharya, Y. B.; Jayaraman, A.; Rao, P. B.; Narayana Rao, D.
Fish oils, often an abundant source of C20 and C22 fatty acids, could supplement rapessed oil in the manufacture of long chain saturated fatty acids. Herring oil, traditionally\\u000a the fish oil of choice, is in very short supply due to depletion of fishery stocks. Menhaden oil, when made from fish caught\\u000a in the Atlantic, could furnish a steady supply with
Sediments and fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fish ponds in the Pearl River Delta (Tanzhou, Sanjiao, Guangzhou, Shipai, Changan, and Mai\\u000a Po) for the analysis of metalloids and heavy metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)].\\u000a The pollution
Anisakid nematodes have complex life-cycles that include invertebrate and vertebrate hosts at various levels of the marine food chain. Different types of habitat disturbances of the marine ecosystem (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) could impoverish the host population size, resulting in concomitant and detrimental effects on parasitic nematode populations. This in turn would lead to the loss of genetic diversity of these parasites at both the species and population levels. In order to test for a correlation existing between the genetic diversity of anisakid nematodes and habitat disturbance, the genetic variability, estimated by nuclear markers (19 allozyme loci), was evaluated among several anisakid populations from fish and marine mammals in various areas of the Boreal and Austral regions. Antarctic and sub-antarctic populations showed significantly (P<0.001) higher levels of genetic diversity (on average, He=0.23) than those from the Arctic and sub-Arctic populations and species (on average, He=0.07). Correlations between the degree of genetic variability and the levels of parasitic infections within their hosts were considered. Data revealed higher intensities in anisakid infections in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic hosts, presumably resulting from a lower degree of habitat disturbance in less stressed areas. The absence of disturbance presumably allowed anisakid species to reach a larger population size, with a reduced probability of genetic drift in their gene pools. This suggests that anisakid nematodes, and their levels of genetic diversity may be suitable indicators of the integrity of marine food webs and of the general biodiversity of a marine ecosystem. PMID:17597303
Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and\\/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by
Roldan C. Muñoz; Brian J. Zgliczynski; Joseph L. Laughlin; Bradford Z. Teer
Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information
Jacquomo Monk; Daniel Ierodiaconou; Euan Harvey; Alex Rattray; Vincent L. Versace
Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland
For marine organisms, decoupling between the planktonic larval stage and the benthic-associated juvenile stage can lead to\\u000a variable patterns of population replenishment, which have the potential to influence the effectiveness of marine reserves.\\u000a We measured spatial and temporal variability in larval supply and recruitment of fishes to coral reefs of different protection\\u000a levels and tested whether protection level influenced the
To evaluate the use of native fish species for assessing genotoxic pollution in the marine environment, micronucleus (MN) analysis was performed in peripheral blood erythrocytes and gill cells of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) from three sampling stations off the southeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The frequencies of blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei and binucleated cells also were evaluated in peripheral erythrocytes. The sampling sites were chosen on the basis of pollution levels; Karaduvar harbor, contaminated by different types of industrial effluents, and Mersin harbor, mainly contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, were selected as polluted areas. Erdemli harbor, a relatively unpolluted site, was used as the control area. Sampling was carried out at four different seasons. The frequencies of both micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in mullets captured from polluted areas were significantly higher than those in mullets from the reference area. In general, gill cells had considerably higher MN frequencies than did erythrocytes, and genotoxic responses were higher in summer than in winter. The results of this study indicate that the MN test in fish is a suitable biomarker for in situ monitoring of genotoxic pollution in the marine environment. As demonstrated in this study, NAs other than micronuclei are also useful indices of chemical exposure and toxic responses. Therefore, measuring both micronuclei and NAs may increase the sensitivity of the test system. PMID:15880416
Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757
Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L
Sulfate reduction and pore water solutes related to sulfur cycling and anaerobic processes (short chain fatty acids (SCFA), SO42-, TCO2, NH4+, dissolved sulfides (?H2S) and CH4) were examined during one year at a marinefish farm. Mineralization of fish farm waste products was rapid in this non-bioturbated, organic rich sediment. Stimulation of sulfate reduction rates (SRR) occurred primarily in the
In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.
Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.
Spatial variation in freshwater fish community structure in a large, structurally monotonous sub-tropical Australian river over 1989–1992 is described. The number of species collected (25) over the period of study, was low, given the large size of the river's catchment. The low diversity of fishes present in the river was suggested to be due to a combination of factors including
Bradley J. Pusey; Angela H. Arthington; Martin G. Read
In 1946 Rhodes University created the Department of Ichthyology with J.L.B. Smith at the helm. Smith's research centred on the fishes of South Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. In his 22 years at the Department he produced the Sea Fishes of Southern Africa (SFSA) and revised numerous taxa based on material collected during his frequent trips to various parts
Most young fishes lack the ability to function as herbivores, which has been attributed to two aspects of the digestive system: elevated nitrogen demand and a critical gut capacity. We compared the digestive morphology and biochemistry of two size classes of the marine herbivore Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio, pre-ontogenetic trophic shift (pre-OTS, <100mm) and post-ontogenetic trophic shift (post-OTS, >100mm), to determine what limits the onset of herbivory and how their digestive processes fit with current models of digestion. Two gut-somatic indices comparing gut length to body length (relative gut length) and body mass (Zihler's Index) demonstrated a significant decrease (RGL 0.59?0.49, P<0.01; ZI 3.24?2.44, P<0.01) in gut length relative to body size. There was little difference in enzyme activity between the two classes, with juveniles showing similar levels of carbohydrase and lipase and less protease compared with adults, indicating that juveniles did not preferentially target nitrogen and were as capable of digesting an herbivorous diet. These findings suggest that herbivory in this fish is not limited by the function of the post-oesophageal digestive tract, but rather the ability of the pharyngeal mill to mechanically process plants. Our findings offer partial support for the current model of stomachless digestion, indicating that further refinement may be necessary. PMID:20884371
Objective. To examine the association between fish and marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in prospective cohort studies. Methods. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) using random effects or fixed effects generic inverse variance model. Publication bias and study heterogeneity were assessed using Egger's test and I2 statistic. Results. We found no significant association between the intake of fish/seafood (pooled RR: 1.04; P = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.2, 549, 955 participants) or marine LC n-3 PUFA (pooled RR: 1.08, P = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.30, 346, 710 participants) and T2D risk. Significant study heterogeneity was observed in fish/seafood and marine LC n-3 PUFA studies (P < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis revealed no obvious sources for high heterogeneity. We also found a significant protective effect of oily fish intake on T2D risk (pooled RR = 0.89, P = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.96). Dose-response analysis suggested that every 80?g per day intake of oily fish may reduce 20% risk of T2D. Conclusion. We found no significant effect of fish/seafood or marine LC n-3 PUFA intake on risk of T2D but a significant effect of oily fish intake on risk of T2D.
Earth's middle atmospheric thermal structure is unique, and having imprints of various physical and chemical processes taking place in the Earth's atmosphere. Nd-YAG laser based Rayleigh lidars are operational at Mt. Abu (24.5°N, 72.7°E) and at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) to study the middle atmospheric temperature structure in the altitude region of 30-75 km. Temperature profiles are derived using Rayleigh lidar measured neutral density profiles. Nightly mean temperature profiles, during 1997-2001, are utilized to obtain average temperature profile for each month over Mt. Abu. Lidar observed temperatures are compared with the temperatures observed by Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), on-board Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), the CIRA-86 and MSISE-90. Observed temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement with CIRA-86 and MSISE-90 model below 50 km, and the agreement is better during winter months. Quantitatively there are significant differences noted, up to 10 K, above 50 km. The temperature profiles are also compared with the equatorial model for the Indian region, based on rocket and balloon measurements. Significant day to day variability is found, which is as high as ±10 K at ˜70 km. The mean values of the stratopause height and temperature are found to be 48 km and 271 K, respectively. Seasonal variation shows equinoctial and summer maxima below 55 km, whereas above 70 km winter maximum with equinoctial minima are present. Comparative study of thermal structure with Gadanki, a tropical station, revealed significant differences in the thermal structure over tropical and sub-tropical locations.
Sharma, Som; Sridharan, S.; Chandra, H.; Lal, S.; Acharya, Y. B.
Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic regions of individuals pa...
Consumers are increasingly concerned about the impacts of global food provision, but especially in the case of marinefish, their unease is complex, locally specific and still evolving. Responding to these apprehensions solely by promoting short local supply chains is restricted to niche markets and leaves other opportunities for increasing sustainability untouched. Additional, complementary strategies for the greening of food
Multiplex panels of nuclear-encoded microsatellites were developed for three species of marinefishes of interest to both public and private aquaculture ventures: red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), and cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The multiplex panels will be useful in a variety of applications, including strain and hybrid identification, parentage assignment, pedigree reconstruction, estimating genetic diversity and\\/or inbreeding, mapping
Mark A. Renshaw; Eric Saillant; S. Coleen Bradfield; John R. Gold
Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marinefish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...
West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine
Djibril Faye; Luis Tito de Morais; Jean Raffray; Oumar Sadio; Omar Thiom Thiaw; François Le Loc’h
The macrobenthic (coral, algae, and sea urchins) and fish communities in 15 back-reef sites on the patch and rock-island reefs of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania (?250 km of coastline) were studied in order to (1) test an overfishing model developed in Kenya’s fringing reef (McClanahan, 1995a, A coral reef ecosystem-fisheries model: impacts of fishing intensity and catch selection on
T. R. McClanahan; N. A. Muthiga; A. T. Kamukuru; H. Machano; R. W. Kiambo
Triplefin fishes reach their greatest diversity in New Zealand with 26 endemic species, and habitat diversification has been\\u000a implicated as a key factor in the divergence of this group. Despite this, it is unknown whether species-specific habitat patterns\\u000a in these sympatric fishes are established by passive processes (e.g. differential mortality) or by habitat selection during\\u000a settlement. We investigate this question
Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or
P. L. Munday; V. Hernaman; D. L. Dixson; S. R. Thorrold
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.
Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.
The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500?m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina.
Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.
A new nematode species, Paraphilometroides nemipteri sp. n. is described from the female specimens collected from the dorsal fin and operculum of the marine perciforme fish, Nemipterus peronii off Kuala Terengganu coastal waters in Malaysia. It considerably differs from all other species in Philometridae in the structure of the head end (presence of wide dorsal and ventral cephalic cuticular alae supported by special inner transverse muscular formations) and, therefore, a new genus Paraphilometroides gen. n. has been erected to accommodate it. Additional characteristic features of P. nemipteri are the presence of cuticular bosses on the body, eight cephalic papillae in the outer circle and four small papillae in the inner circle, and the absence of caudal protrusions. PMID:2488050
Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining ? 13C and ? 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the ? 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between ? 13C- carbonate-? 13C water (? 13C) and temperature: ? 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between ? 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (?) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln ? = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the ? 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the ? 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.
Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.
The halogenated natural product previously named mixed-halogenated compound 1 (MHC-1) was isolated from the red seaweed Plocamium cartilagineum harvested in Helgoland, Germany. A total of 1.9 mg of pure MHC-1 was obtained from 1g air-dried seaweed. The 1H and 13C NMR data matched those reported for a natural monoterpene isolated from this species. Thus, the structure of MHC-1 was established to be (1R,2S,4R,5R,1'E)-2-bromo-1-bromomethyl-1,4-dichloro-5-(2'-chloroethenyl)-5-methylcyclohexane. Moreover, the isolated monoterpene proved to be identical with the compound previously detected in marine mammals and fish from different locations. In addition we examined two samples of P. cartilagineum from Ireland and from the Antarctic; however MHC-1 was only present at low levels. Not only the concentrations were lower but also the pattern of polybrominated compounds differed from MHC-1. A calibrated solution of MHC-1 was used to determine correct concentrations from samples where previously only estimates existed relative to the gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC/ECD) response of trans-chlordane, which underrated the MHC-1 concentrations by more than factor 2. The highest MHC-1 concentration determined to date in marine mammals is 0.14 mg kg(-1) blubber. Significantly higher MHC-1 concentrations were determined in farmed fish with up to 2.2 mg kg(-1) lipids. The samples with high concentrations of MHC-1 have in common that they were collected in proximity of the natural habitats of P. cartilagineum. PMID:18656231
Vetter, Walter; Rosenfelder, Natalie; Kraan, Stefan; Hiebl, Josef
Analysis for the presence of 16 priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out in fish, sediment and water samples of a fishing settlement in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria which is supposed to be extensively polluted by seepages from oil discharge terminals. The determination and quantification of PAHs in water, fish and sediment samples were done by GC-MS with the aid of isotopically labeled internal standards. The 16 priority PAHs, namely naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, flourene, phenanthrene, anthracene, flouranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]flouranthene, benzo[k]flouranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were found to be present in significant amount in all three samples. PMID:15909537
Anyakora, Chimezie; Ogbeche, Anthony; Palmer, Pete; Coker, Herbert
For the last two decades, Rayleigh Lidar has become a dynamic atmospheric probe for providing height profile of temperature in the middle atmospheric height region (30-80 km). Here, we use the Rayleigh lidar data collected for about three years of period (1998-2001) at two different stations in the Indian sub-continent, such as tropics, (Gadanki; 13.5N, 79.2E) and sub-tropics (Mt. Abu; 24.5° N, 72.7° E). Basically, the temperature profiles are derived from photon count profiles followed by Hauchecorne and Chanin (1980). The obtained temperature profiles from both the stations do exhibit similar trend. The systematic and statistical errors in deriving temperature are found to be uniform for both the stations (as ˜ 1 K at 50 km, ˜ 3 K at 60 km and ˜ 10 K at 70 km). The studies from both the stations reveal the following salient features, such as; The obtained monthly mean temperature profiles are compared with the three different model atmospheres (CIRA-86, MSISE-90 and Local low latitude model). Below to the stratopause height region, the models are in good agreement, whereas above to the stratopause height, MSISE-90 found to be in comparable magnitude than CIRA-86 and Local low latitude model. Addition to the comparison between the models, the lidar derived temperature profiles are compared with the UARS-HALOE satellite data for both the stations, and found their agreement between each other. The mean stratopause height and its temperature are found to be at 47-48 km and 268-271 K. The obtained mean values are in accord with the result obtained from Rocket observation over Thumba (8.5° N, 76.9° E). The monthly mean stratopause height and its temperature variation show a semi-annual trend for both the stations. Few interesting features, such as occurrence of mesospheric temperature inversion at 65-80 km and the existence of double stratopause structure at 40-60 km, are also delineated for both the stations.
Sharma, Som; Sivakumar, V.; Chandra, H.; Jayaraman, A.; Rao, P. B.
During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L?1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L?1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L?1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L?1 d?1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L?1 d?1 (1?, n?=?65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic.
Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdottir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.
During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940
Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P
The use of bioindicators to evaluate exposure to the biological effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms constitutes a new tool in the monitoring field. The establishment of a North Sea monitoring network in 1991, involving such international organizations as the North Sea Task Force, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, and the Intergovernmental Oceanography Commission, led French researchers to develop an enzymatic biomarker to monitor biological effects within the National Observation Network. The biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), dependent on the CP450 system, has been monitored biannually since 1992 in several species of fish (Callionymus lyra, Limanda limanda, Serranus sp., Mullus barbatus) in two coastal sites particularly exposed to industrial and domestic pollution. A rapid method is used to assay EROD enzymatic activity determined along a pollution gradient, and results are interpreted on a microplate reader. The strategy of this approach is to assess the effects on the marine ecosystem during prolonged exposure to specific pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. PMID:7533706
n dinoflagellate Herbivorous marine zooplankton were fed cultures of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulux excauata, and the removal of Gonyaulux and the toxin content of the zooplankters were measured. The copepod Acartia clausii and barnacle nauplii (Balanus sp.) rapidly ingested G. excavata and accumulated maximum levels of its toxins within 6 h, with no apparent adverse effect. Toxins were retained in
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine a model for conceptualizing the impacts of environmental management strategies on travel and recreation choice making behavior that considers tolerance thresholds in visitor responses to destination change. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey involving a sample of 347 regular campers and fishers in the Ningaloo Marine Park, Australia, is analyzed to discern
Determining the origin of genetic structure is of wide interest because of its use in stock discrimination in marine organisms. Schematically, genetic differentiation can result from historical patterns maintained over geological time or from present-day isolation attributable to biological characteristics of the species. We used a comparative approach to population genetic analysis based on allozyme polymorphism to determine the impact
Until now, almost all of the concept studies been aiming at an improvement of the social system have been plans of a land replacing method, that is, to install arL zrtificipl pedestal on the ocean. In this treatise, giving a remark on the iter-marine organism system and persuing a method of reproduction, we have such a proposition of the unique
The collection of shells is a popular tourist activity in coastal areas of tropical countries. Tourists also buy shells, particularly large gastropods, which may be important species in marine ecosystems. While some, though outdated, information exists on the magnitude of the international trade with ornamental shells, virtually nothing is known about the extent of the regional tourist-related curio trade. A
Stefan Gössling; Timo Kunkel; Kim Schumacher; Maiken Zilger
Through this final rule, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) delays the effective date of new seasonal pinger requirements for the New England component of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (HPTRP). Specifically, NMFS will delay implementation of new seasonal pinger requirements within the Stellwagen Bank and Southern New England Management Areas from March 22, 2010, to September......
The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared
Philip L. Munday; Danielle L. Dixson; Jennifer M. Donelson; Geoffrey P. Jones; Morgan S. Pratchett; Galina V. Devitsina; Kjell B. Døving
Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment.
Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.
Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847
Wakefield, Corey B; Lewis, Paul D; Coutts, Teresa B; Fairclough, David V; Langlois, Timothy J
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293), proliferation (HEK293 and ASK), apoptosis (ASK), oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293), and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK). DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA) or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA). However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg.
N?stbakken, O. J.; Bredal, I. L.; Olsvik, P. A.; Huang, T. S.; Torstensen, B. E.
In order to analyse the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the marine waters around Denmark, staff from the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research participated in 5 research cruises during 1998 to 2002 as a follow-up to 4 research cruises performed in 1996 to 1997. In total, 16,655 fish were examined virologically as 3569 samples. Forty fish species and 3 invertebrate species were represented. VHSV was isolated from 133 samples representing 8 species: herring Clupea harengus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, dab Limanda limanda, flounder Platichthys flesus, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, cod Gadus morhua, sand eel Ammodytes sp. and sand goby Pomatochistus minutus. Calculations showed that VHSV was more prevalent in the Baltic Sea in an area between Zealand and the island of Bornholm and the waters surrounding Bornholm than in the Kattegat, Skagerrak and along the North Sea coast of Denmark. This is the first report on the isolation of VHSV from dab, flounder and plaice and the first publication on VHSV from sand eel from Europe and sand goby. PMID:16231640
Fish stocks fluctuate both in abundance and productivity (net population increase), and there are many examples demonstrating that productivity increased or decreased due to changes in abundance caused by fishing and, alternatively, where productivity shifted between low and high regimes, entirely unrelated to abundance. Although shifts in productivity regimes have been described, their frequency and intensity have not previously been assessed. We use a database of trends in harvest and abundance of 230 fish stocks to evaluate the proportion of fish stocks in which productivity is primarily related to abundance vs. those that appear to manifest regimes of high or low productivity. We evaluated the statistical support for four hypotheses: (i) the abundance hypothesis, where production is always related to population abundance; (ii) the regimes hypothesis, where production shifts irregularly between regimes that are unrelated to abundance; (iii) the mixed hypothesis, where even though production is related to population abundance, there are irregular changes in this relationship; and (iv) the random hypothesis, where production is random from year to year. We found that the abundance hypothesis best explains 18.3% of stocks, the regimes hypothesis 38.6%, the mixed hypothesis 30.5%, and the random hypothesis 12.6%. Fisheries management agencies need to recognize that irregular changes in productivity are common and that harvest regulation and management targets may need to be adjusted whenever productivity changes. PMID:23322735
Vert-pre, Katyana A; Amoroso, Ricardo O; Jensen, Olaf P; Hilborn, Ray
Response rates to tactile stimulation and subsequent escape speeds were measured using a video-recording system during early development and starvation of fish larvae. The species studied included the yolk-sac larvae of Clyde and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.), cod (Gadus morhua L.), flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and older larvae of Clyde herring. The proportion of larvae responding (response rate) was
Lipid spray beads (LSB) composed singly or of mixtures of trilaurin, methyl palmitate (MP), menhaden stearine (MS), spermaceti and coconut oil were prepared and their performances were compared for delivering glycine and tyrosine to the early stages of fish larvae. Measures of performances of LSB included inclusion (IE), encapsulation (EE), retention (RE) and delivery efficiencies (DE) in addition to T50
Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...
Induction of benzo (a) pyrene monooxygenase (BPMO) activity occurred in Blennius pavo, a species with a restricted territorial range, in response to exposure to a Diesel 2 oil. A response delay of 14 days was found at a concentration of 170 ppb and of 3 days when the water was saturated with Diesel 2 oil. When induced fish were transferred
B. Kurelec; S. Britvi?; M. Rijavec; W. E. G. Müller; R. K. Zahn
In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).
Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.
To assess the effect of crude oil on selected gastrointestinal parasites of fish, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) naturally infected with a digenetic trematode (Steringophorus furciger), were exposed to contaminated sediment or water soluble fractions of Venezuelan crude oil for 34 and 160 days respectively. Similarly, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) harboring an acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus gadi), were treated with extracts of Hibernia
A brief history of the development of underwater bioacoustics (from the early 1960s on) is provided, particularly as it relates to the theoretical problems confronting directional hearing in fishes and its experimental resolution as well as the resulting change that occurred in the interests of many workers, i.e., from understanding the acoustical and associated functional problems confronting the whole animal
We assessed the performance of two estimators of species richness, the Chao2 and the Coleman 'random placement curve'. Using a dataset of intertidal fish from the Norwegian Skagerrak coast, we found that Chao2 was effective for low sampling intensity, often reaching asymptotic values for few samples, but for higher sampling intensity the performance deteriorated. For large samples, the Coleman random placement curve was more effective than the Chao2 estimates when comparing spatio-temporal patterns of species richness. Spatial patterns were clearly and consistently identified by both methods, whereas the coastal fish communities displayed too much variability in the early summer for any sensible measure of temporal patterns of fish-species richness to be made. To control for spurious results due to systematic differences in mean abundance of the samples the analyses were performed also on data standardised by the number of individuals in the samples, without any significant change in the results. We conclude that modest sampling effort is sufficient to characterise spatial patterns of coastal fish-species richness, while a detailed and high-precision description of seasonal patterns could not be obtained with any reasonable sampling effort. PMID:15800740
Lekve, Kyrre; Ellingsen, Kari E; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Stenseth, Nils Chr
Examinations of the electrocardiogram of Pagrus major exposed to Chattonella marina, a planktonic organism causing red tide, were made to determine the physiological effects on fish. The heart rate decreased as a result of the extention in the interval between T and P waves. The decrease in heart rate with the extended intervals between T and P waves was also
Eyespots have long been thought to confer protection against predators, but empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of these markings and their survival value in the wild is limited. Using a mark--recapture experiment, I examined the functional significance of the eyespot on the dorsal fin of a juvenile tropical fish to its survival on coral reefs. None of the juveniles recaptured
Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent
The presently reported study investigated seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence in four species of Nerocila infesting commercially exploited marinefishes representing the families Engraulidae, Clupeidae and Ambassidae, from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India). Seven of 56 fish species belonging to 23 families were infested by either one or two species of Nerocila. All the collected Nerocila species showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence of infestation, reaching maximum from October through April and minimum (or total absence of the parasites) from May through September. Such fluctuations were analyzed based on environmental parameters. Body surface, postero-ventral side of the head and the lateral line of the host fish form the major infestation site for the recovered Nerocila species. Skin lesion and hemorrhages were observed on the fish parasitized with these cymothoids. PMID:23377916
The route of NO2? uptake and subsequent physiological effects were examined in the marine teleost, European flounder (Platichthys flesus), during exposure to 1 mM ambient NO2? for up to 11 days. Drinking of seawater resulted in a similar nitrite concentration in the anterior part of the intestine as in the ambient water. The NO2? concentration decreased along the gastro-intestinal tract,
Cobia Rachycentron canadum is a marine finfish species with emerging global potential for mariculture. Positive culture attributes include capacity for natural and induced tank spawning, growth rates in excess of 6 kg\\/year, high disease resistance, high survival rates (post-larviculture stage) in tanks and net pens, adaptability to commercially available extruded diets, and high-quality fillets suitable for the sashimi as well as
G. Joan Holt; Cynthia K. Faulk; Michael H. Schwarz
The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO2-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity.
Munday, Philip L.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Devitsina, Galina V.; D?ving, Kjell B.
The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO(2)-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity. PMID:19188596
Munday, Philip L; Dixson, Danielle L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Pratchett, Morgan S; Devitsina, Galina V; Døving, Kjell B
... by marine toxins? General guidelines for safe seafood consumption: Although any person eating fish or shellfish containing ... same food safety regulations as seafood for human consumption. Back to Top What is the government doing ...
Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe. PMID:23017951
Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E
The peridinian dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was propagated by serial passage in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis). Each 25-50-mm fish was exposed to 4,000-6,000 dinospores in 400 ml of artificial seawater for 30 min. Two days after exposure, trophonts were harvested by immersing the fishes in fresh water. After encystment, tomonts were axenized by multiple washes with sterile distilled water and sterile artificial seawater containing penicillin and streptomycin, and then incubated in the antibiotic solution. High yields of both tomonts and dinospores of the same sizes and ages were obtained, and host mortalities were eliminated. Microbial growth in incubating cultures was inhibited until after dinospores had emerged from tomonts, and dinospores remained infective for at least 4 days at 26 C. PMID:3572670
We investigated levels of the pollutant tributyltin (TBT) in blood of pufferfishes (six species), Japanese sea perch, red sea bream, Japanese common goby, Japanese flounder, rockfish, conger eel, and sea mullet collected off the coast of northern Kyushu, Japan. We found considerable levels of TBT (1.4-190 ng/mL) accumulated in the blood of these fish. Blood TBT concentrations were 1.3-22.5 times liver concentrations and 4.9-78 times muscle concentrations, except in conger eel and mullet. We detected TBT (16-111 ng/mL-blood) in the plasma of the fine-patterned puffer (Takifugupoecilonotus) year-round, without any apparent seasonal trend. These results suggest that fish inhabiting coastal areas of Kyushu, Japan, continue to be contaminated with TBT. PMID:21945558
The evolution of subtropical (30–35°N) upper ocean temperatures through the Cretaceous is inferred from the oxygen isotope compositions of 64 fish teeth (enamel) coming from the western Tethyan platform. Mean ?18O values of 22‰ at the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary decrease, with oscillations to 18.5‰ around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, and progressively increase to 21.5‰ by the end of the Cretaceous. The similarity
Emmanuelle Pucéat; Christophe Lécuyer; Simon M. F. Sheppard; Gilles Dromart; Stéphane Reboulet; Patricia Grandjean
Recent studies of the forces behind the diversification of parasite assemblages have shed light on many aspects of parasite biodiversity. By using only parasite species richness as their measure of diversity, however, previous investigations have ignored the relatedness among parasite species and the taxonomic structure of the assemblages, which contain much information about their evolutionary origins. Here, we performed a comparative analysis across 50 species of fish from the coast of Brazil; we evaluated the effects of several host traits (body size, social behaviour, feeding habits, preference for benthic vs. pelagic habitats, depth range, and ability to enter brackish waters) on the diversity of their assemblages of metazoan parasites. As measures of diversity, we used parasite species richness, as well as the average taxonomic distinctness of the assemblage and its variance; the latter measures are based on the average taxonomic distance between any two parasite species in an assemblage. Unlike parasite species richness, taxonomic distinctness was unaffected by the number of host individuals examined per species. Fish body length proved to be the main predictor of parasite species richness, even when controlling for the confounding influences of host phylogeny and sampling effort, although it did not correlate with measures of parasite taxonomic distinctness. Predatory fish also had higher parasite species richness than planktivores, but this trend could not be confirmed using phylogenetically independent contrasts between host taxa. The main host feature associated with the taxonomic diversity of parasites was schooling behaviour, with schooling fish having more taxonomically diverse parasite assemblages than those of their non-schooling relatives. When focusing on endoparasite species only, both predatory feeding habits and a broad depth range were associated with the taxonomic distinctness of parasites. Our results suggest that certain host traits (i.e. body size) determine how many parasite species a host can accumulate over evolutionary time, whereas different host features influence the processes causing the taxonomic diversification of parasite assemblages. PMID:15206470
Summary Specimens ofPorichthys notatus, which are naturally luminous along the coast of California, are non-luminous in Puget Sound. However, luminescence capability may be induced in the adult Puget SoundPorichthys by the administration of purifiedCypridina (ostracod) luciferin, syntheticCypridina luciferin, orCypridina organisms. The bioluminescence emission spectra produced by the Puget Sound fish following induction is similar, if not identical, to that of
Frederick I. Tsuji; Basil G. NAFPAKTITISt; Toshio Goto; Milton J. Cormier; John E. Wampler; James M. Anderson
The antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate (C6H6O3) extracted from Streptomyces VITSDK1 spp. was studied in cultured Sahul Indian Grouper Eye (SIGE) cells infected with fish nodavirus (FNV). The nodavirus infection in the SIGE cells was confirmed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate was assessed by cytopathic effect, as well as reduction in nodaviral
K. Suthindhiran; V. Sarath Babu; K. Kannabiran; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; A. S. Sahul Hameed
Conspecific cell lines provide an efficient experimental system with many applications for improving the productivity of commercial fish species. A continuous cell line SAF-1 has been developed from fin tissues of an adult gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata) without immortalising treatments. The cells grow in DME-F12 basal medium supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum at the optimal temperature of 25 °C
Forty-seven retail samples of fish (28 species) were tested for levels of free histidine, histamine and aerobic plate counts. Five samples had elevated levels (? 20 mg\\/100 g) of histamine and all had < 100 mg\\/100 g. Three species had free histidine levels of more than 1000 mg\\/l00 g and these have been implicated in scombroid poisoning in New Zealand.
Graham C. Fletcher; Graeme Summers; Robert V. Winchester; Ron J. Wong
Risk analysis is a tool often used by management to aid decision-making. We present a risk-analysis framework that was developed to facilitate managing New Zealand fisheries. Using catch-effort and observer data, the likelihood that a certain fishery will impact upon five effects of fishing (EoF) issues (non-target species, biodiversity, habitat, trophic interactions, and legislated protected species) is determined. The consequences
Oil samples collected from three fishes namely Sting Ray (Dasyatis uarrnak), Anchovy (Setipinna taty), and Eel (Congresox talabonoides) from the Bay of Bengal were analyzed to determine their fatty acid composition with the aid of Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). The saturated fatty acid contents were 52.95, 45.28 and 52.29 %; and the unsaturated fatty acid contents were 43.97, 54.72 and
Habibur R. Bhuiyan; K. K. Nath; P. Seal; Mir Ezharul Hossain
Since no artificial feed formulation is yet available to completely substitute for Artemia, feeding live prey to young fish larvae still remains essential in commercial hatchery operations. The nutritional quality of commercially available Artemia strains being relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), it is essential and common practice to enrich these live prey
Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper Florida Keys was monitored monthly for 7 years (2003-2009) to establish a baseline and test whether recruitment varied between reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruits <30 days old were surveyed in two primary habitat types (reef and rubble) in each of two replicate reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruitment of all fish species peaked in the summer and early fall; winter recruitment was consistently low. Some interannual recruitment patterns were roughly similar among species, with recruitment generally lower in 2004 for several taxa, possibly reflecting a system-wide process. During 7 peak recruitment months each year, overall recruitment to reef habitat was significantly higher in non-reserve sites in 2 of 7 years. In contrast, recruitment to rubble habitat was significantly higher in reserves in 3 of 7 years. Specific fish taxa had variable patterns of recruitment to reserves and non-reserves: Despite high interannual variation in recruitment magnitude, Scaridae (parrotfish) densities were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves. Densities of two abundant goby taxa ( Gnatholepis thompsoni and Coryphopterus spp.) were also higher in reserves than in non-reserves, but the magnitude varied among years. Recruitment of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, did not differ consistently between reserves and non-reserves. Densities of Thalassoma bifasciatum had an opposite trend relative to other taxa, with densities typically higher in non-reserves than in reserves (in 6 of 7 years; significant in only 2 years). Higher recruit densities (scarids, gobies, and all rubble taxa together) within reserves were coupled with significantly lower densities of intermediate-sized piscivores and significantly greater cover of Dictyota spp. macroalgae and turfs relative to non-reserves. Reserves may be areas of relative refuge from predation for some fish recruits due to a combination of reduced predator abundance and enhanced small-scale structural habitat.
Sponaugle, S.; Walter, K. D.; Grorud-Colvert, K.; Paddack, M. J.
The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and their extracellular products (ECPs) from 16 strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae isolated from 7 epizootic outbreaks were evaluated. On the basis of their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values (about 1 x 10(50 CFU), these strains may be considered as moderately virulent. However, their ECPs were strongly lethal for redbanded seabream Pagrus auriga causing fish death within 2 h post-inoculation (protein concentration ranged between 2.1 and 6.41 microg g(-1) fish). The bacterial ECPs tested exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as amylase, lipase, phospholipase, alkaline phosphatase, esterase-lipase, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucosaminidase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on 4 fish and 2 mammalian cell lines, although this activity disappeared when ECPs were heated at 100 degrees C. The virulence of the strains tested could not be related to the hemolytic activity or to the production of the toxin damselysin. Therefore, another unknown type of toxin could play an important role in the virulence mechanisms of this bacterial pathogen. PMID:21166312
The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed for the hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) CA-9703 strain from Korea, and the DNA was sequenced. The 3'-end of genomic RNA was cloned by poly(A)-tailing of the genomic RNA before reverse transcription, and the 5'-end of the genome was cloned by poly(G)- or poly(C)-tailing of the first strand, followed by PCR. The remainder of the genomic DNA was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers that were based on the published rhabdovirus sequences. The complete genome of HIRRV CA-9703 strain comprises 11,034 nucleotides and encodes six genes in the order of: 3'-leader, N, P, M, G, NV, L, and 5'-trailer. These genes are separated by conserved sequences or gene junctions, with one-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 16 of the 19 nucleotides at the ends of the HIRRV genome are complementary, and the first four nucleotides at the 3'-ends of the HIRRV, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) genomes are identical. The HIRRV proteins share the highest amino acid sequence homology (ranging from 72% to 92%) with the proteins of IHNV, of all the known fish rhabdoviruses, and the highest sequence homology with respect to the L protein was shared among HIRRV, IHNV, VHSV, and SHRV. Although there were differences in the degrees of relatedness, phylogenetic trees that were derived from multiple sequence alignments of the rhabdovirus proteins showed similar patterns of relationship among these viruses, in which fish Novirhabdoviruses formed a separate clade from spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), unassigned fish rhabdovirus that was closer to mammalian rhabdoviruses. PMID:15567027
Kim, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hae-Keun; Eou, Joung-Im; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Koo; Oh, Myung-Joo; Nam, Soo-Wan; Choi, Tae-Jin
Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068
Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P
Leeches within the Piscicolidae are of great numerical and taxonomic importance, yet little is known about bacteria that associate with this diverse group of blood-feeding marine parasites of fish and elasmobranchs. We focused primarily on the bacteria from a deep-sea leech species of unknown identity, collected at ??600?m depth in Monterey Canyon, CA, along with two shallow-living leech genera, Austrobdella and Branchellion, from Los Angeles Harbor, CA. Molecular analysis of all five leech species revealed a dominance of gammaproteobacteria, which were distinct from each other and from previously reported freshwater leech symbionts. Bacteria related to members of the genus Psychromonas (99% similarity in 16S rRNA) were dominant in the deep-sea leech species (80-94% of recovered ribotypes) collected over 19 months from two different locations. Psychromonas was not detected in cocoons or 2-16 week-old juveniles, suggesting that acquisition is via the environment at a later stage. Transmission electron microscopy did, however, reveal abundant bacteria-like cells near areas of thinning of the juvenile epithelial surface, as well as Psychromonas sparsely distributed internally. Electron and fluorescence in situ microscopy of adults also showed Psychromonas-like bacteria concentrated within the crop. Despite the apparent non-transient nature of the association between Psychromonas and the deep-sea leech, their functional role, if any, is not known. The prevalence, however, of an abundant bacterial genus in one piscicolid leech species, as well as the presence of a dominant bacterial species in singular observations of four additional marine species, suggests that members of the Piscicolidae, possibly basal within the class Hirudinea, form specific alliances with microbes. PMID:22681178
The binding properties of A1 adenosine receptors in brain membranes were compared in two congeneric marine teleost fishes which differ in their depths of distribution. Adenosine receptors were labeled using the A1 selective radioligand [3H]cyclohexyladenosine ([3H]CHA). The A1 receptor agonist [3H]CHA bound saturably, reversibly and with high affinity to brain membranes prepared fromSebastolobus altivelis andS. alascanus; however, the meanKd values
Cytochrome P450-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism was investigated in the marinefish scup,Stenotomus chrysops.Liver microsomes incubated with AA and NADPH produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, DHETs), midchain conjugated dienols (midchain HETEs), and C16- through C20-alcohols of AA (?-terminal HETEs), all identified by HPLC and GC\\/MS. Gravid females had 4-fold lower AA metabolism rates than males
Jennifer J. Schlezinger; Carol Parker; Darryl C. Zeldin; John J. Stegeman
Intestinal fluid was collected from 11 marine teleost fish from the Baltic sea and the Pacific ocean. The anterior, mid and posterior segments of the intestine contained 33–110 mM of HCO3- equivalents (with exception of the Atlantic cod which contained only 5–15 mM). Considering literature values of transepithelial potentials and concentration gradients, these high levels of HCO3- equivalents are probably the result
M. Grosell; C. N. Laliberte; S. Wood; F. B. Jensen; C. M. Wood
We investigate the use of multivariate life-history indices to assess the performance of no-take zones with re- spect to ameliorating the impacts of harvest on exploited coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. A range of life-history parameters were estimated for the two major target species of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) line fishery, common coral
Gavin A. Begg; Bruce D. Mapstone; Ashley J. Williams; Samantha Adams; Campbell R. Davies; Dong C. Lou
The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in marinefish from four areas of China (South China Sea, Bohai Sea, East China Sea, and Yellow Sea) using GC/NCI-MS and GC/ITMS, respectively. Total concentrations of eight PBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) in all samples ranged from 0.3ngg(-1)ww (wet weight) to 700 ng g(-1)ww, with median and mean values of 85 ng g(-1)ww and 200 ng g(-1)ww, respectively. BDE-209 and BDE-47 were the major congeners in all samples, contributing 54% and 19% to the total concentration, respectively. The sum of seven indicator PCB levels (CB-28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1)ww to 3.1 ?g g(-1)ww, with median and mean values of 6.4 ng g(-1)ww and 398 ng g(-1)ww, respectively. High contributions of CB-138 (32%) and CB-153 (25%) were found in all samples. In general, pollutants measured in this study were at high levels when compared with previous studies from other regions in the world. The relative abundance of BDE-209 may suggest that deca-BDE sources existed in studied area. And principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there were other PBDE sources in Yellow Sea. The pattern and PCA showed that PCB pollutions came from similar sources in the studied areas. In addition, concentrations of ?(7)PBDEs (u/209) were strongly correlated with those of ?(7)PCBs in all fish (r=0.907, n=44). PMID:21220147
The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marinefish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marinefish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494pgg(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827pgg(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141ngg(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006. PMID:23859426
Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E
Although body size can affect individual fitness, ontogenetic and spatial variation in the ecology of an organism may determine the relative advantages of size and growth. During an 8-year field study in the Bahamas, we examined selective mortality on size and growth throughout the entire reef-associated life phase of a common coral-reef fish, Stegastes partitus (the bicolour damselfish). On average, faster-growing juveniles experienced greater mortality, though as adults, larger individuals had higher survival. Comparing patterns of selection observed at four separate populations revealed that greater population density was associated with stronger selection for larger adult size. Large adults may be favoured because they are superior competitors and less susceptible to gape-limited predators. Laboratory experiments suggested that selective mortality of fast-growing juveniles was likely because of risk-prone foraging behaviour. These patterns suggest that variation in ecological interactions may lead to complex patterns of lifetime selection on body size. PMID:20149026
Three nematode species of the family Cucullanidae, intestinal parasites of marine perciform fishes, are reported from off New Caledonia: Cucullanus bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992 from the crimson jobfish Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes) and the goldflag jobfish Pristipomoides auricilla (Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka) (new host record) (both Lutjanidae); Dichelyne etelidis n. sp. from the deep-water red snapper Etelis carbunculus Cuvier (type-host) and the deep-water longtail red snapper Etelis coruscans Valenciennes (both Lutjanidae); and Dichelyne sp. (only one female) from the trumpet emperor Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) (Lethrinidae). Detailed light and electron microscopical studies revealed in C. bourdini some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the location of the excretory pore, nature of the vulva and the size of fully-developed eggs. The new species, D. etelidis, is characterised mainly by the length of the spicules (462-748 ?m), a single intestinal caecum, the location of the deirids and excretory pore, the arrangement of the genital papillae and the host group. PMID:21279559
Continental glaciation has played a major role in shaping the present-day phylogeography of freshwater and terrestrial species in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent work suggests that coastal glaciation during ice ages may have also had a significant impact on marine species. The bay pipefish, Syngnathus leptorhynchus, is a near-shore Pacific coast fish species with an exceptionally wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from Bahia Santa Maria, Baja California to Prince William Sound, Alaska. Survey data indicate that S. leptorhynchus is experiencing a range expansion at the northern limit of its range, consistent with colonization from southern populations. The present study uses six novel microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to study the present-day population genetic structure of four coastal populations of S. leptorhynchus. Deficits in mtDNA and nuclear DNA diversity in northern populations from regions glaciated during the last glacial maximum (LGM) [c. 18 000 years before present (bp)] suggest that these populations were effected by glacial events. Direct estimates of population divergence times derived from both isolation and isolation-with-migration models of evolution are also consistent with a postglacial phylogenetic history of populations north of the LGM. Sequence data further indicate that a population at the southern end of the species range has been separated from the three northern populations since long before the last interglacial event (c. 130 000 years bp), suggesting that topographical features along the Pacific coast may maintain population separation in regions unimpacted by coastal glaciation. PMID:16689903
The genus Leuresthes displays reproductive behavior unique among marinefish in which mature adults synchronously emerge completely out of the water to spawn on beach land. A limited number of sandy beaches, which are suitable for these spawning events, are present in discontinuous locations along the geographic range of the species, potentially limiting gene flow and the degree of genetic homogeneity between intraspecific populations. Here, we tested for molecular genetic differentiation between 363 individuals, representing 3 populations of California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, by employing 2 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear DNA markers. We include temporally diverse sampling to evaluate contemporary and temporal divergence, and we also analyze 28 individuals from one population of Gulf grunion (restricted to the Gulf of California), Leuresthes sardina, at the same markers to evaluate the molecular evidence for their separate species distinction. We find no significant differences between temporal samples, but small significant differences among all populations of L. tenuis, and unequivocal support for the separate species distinction of L. sardina. Genetic data suggest that the Monterey Bay population of L. tenuis near the species' most northern range likely represents a relatively recent colonization event from populations along the species' more traditional range south of Point Conception, California. We conclude that both the topographic features of the California and Baja California coastlines and the grunions' unique reproductive behavior have influenced the genetic structure of the populations. PMID:23616479
Byrne, Rosemary J; Bernardi, Giacomo; Avise, John C
This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154
Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana
Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.
Rice-wheat cropping in the sub-tropics is energy intensive, requiring a major input from fossil fuel. These crops produce lots of residue, part of which is often wasted in burning, the incorporation of which is beneficial when applied with fertilizer. Reserves of fossil fuel is decreasing at an increasing rate. Therefore, it is more important to know the effect of application
The Sub-Tropical Front off the SE coast of New Zealand is an enigmatic ocean boundary that separates sub-tropical waters that are generally warm, low in nutrients, and sustain high levels of phytoplankton growth (primary productivity) from sub-antarctic waters that are generally cold, high in nutrients, and low in productivity. This region regularly exhibits evidence of nutrient transport across the Sub-Tropical Front that suggests significant ocean mixing across the front resulting in the transfer of iron from sub-tropical to sub-antarctic waters. Conventional ship-based oceanographic methods are incapable of observing these processes due to their sporadic and spatially-constrained nature. Seismic oceanographic methods have been shown to provide a means to image water body interactions such as these. However, a significant deficiency in current seismic oceanography imaging (i.e., using standard airgun profiles) is a failure to image the upper ~150 m of the ocean. This is due to: (1) the masking of shallow reflections by high-amplitude direct arrivals, and (2) the relatively large setback of the first receivers (typically ~200 m), which restricts shallow reflections to large angles of incidence. High-resolution profiling methods, usually used for shallow sub-bottom profiling, address both of these points, given (1) the low energy level of the sources and (2) the close proximity of the hydrophones. In addition to being a new technique for imaging the water column, such methods (with frequency characteristics that cover a large range of possible targets) have the potential to fill in a critical gap in existing seismic oceanography techniques. These methods also are much less expensive (at least over some depth ranges) than conventional methods that use large dedicated seismic vessels. We present first results from a 55-km-long coast-perpendicular transect across the Sub-Tropical Front off the SE coast of New Zealand. The transect is divided into seven segments by eight equally spaced conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations. High-resolution electro-acoustic boomer data have been collected for each segment and anchored by CTD casts on both outward- and inward-running surveys. The surface position of the Sub-Tropical Front is clearly seen in profiles of surface conductivity and temperature. CTD cast data show sharp contrasts in temperature and salinity that result in convincing reflections in synthetic seismograms. Boomer profiles with low signal-to-noise ratios contain tantalizing reflections of sub-horizontally stratified water bodies that may be related to the interface between sub-tropical and sub-antarctic waters.
Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance.
Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D
Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO concentrations suitable for aquatic organisms (such as fish) persisted for only a relatively small period during the tide (˜1 h), with hypoxic conditions for the remainder. This combination of conditions is favourable to immature mosquitoes.
Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus
Longitudinal sampling of four cohorts of Neopomacentrus filamentosus, a common tropical damselfish from Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, revealed the evolution of size structure after settlement. Light traps collected premetamorphic individuals from the water column ("settlers") to establish a baseline for each cohort. Subsequently, divers collected benthic juveniles ("recruits") at 1-3-month intervals to determine the relative impacts of post-settlement mortality during the first three months. Growth trajectories for individual fish were back-calculated from otolith records and compared with nonlinear mixed-effects models. Size-selective mortality was detected in all cohorts with the loss of smaller, slower growing individuals. Three months after settlement, recruits showed significantly faster growth as juveniles, faster growth as larvae, and larger sizes as hatchlings. The timing and intensity of post-settlement selection differed among cohorts and was correlated with density at settlement. The cohort with the greatest initial abundance experienced the strongest selective mortality, with most of this mortality occurring between one and two months after settlement when juveniles began foraging at higher positions in the water column. Significant genetic structure was found between settlers and three-month-old recruits in this cohort as a result of natural selection that changed the frequency of mtDNA haplotypes measured at the control region. The extent of this genetic difference was enlarged or reduced by artificially manipulating the intensity of size-based selection, thus establishing a link between phenotype and haplotype. Sequence variation in the control region of the mitochondrial genome has been linked to mitochondrial efficiency and weight gain in other studies, which provides a plausible explanation for the patterns observed here. PMID:17536412
Vigliola, Laurent; Doherty, Peter J; Meekan, Mark G; Drown, Devin M; Jones, M Elizabeth; Barber, Paul H
In the flesh (skinless fillet) of chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. keta, O. kisutch, O. gorbuscha, and O. nerka, respectively), sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from several sites in the northeast Pacific sampled between 2002 and 2008, tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (BDE 47, 49, 99, and 100) dominated the congener distribution. Chinook and sablefish contained the highest concentrations, followed by sockeye, coho, and pink salmon, and pollock. In sockeye from the Bering Sea - Aleutians and from the Gulf of Alaska, total tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations fell significantly between 2002 and 2005; in sablefish from Gulf of Alaska, there was a steady but statistically nonsignificant decline in BDE concentrations between 2002 and 2008. Relative proportions of the main BDE congeners did not change appreciably over time, within species or location. All species except sockeye salmon showed a clear southeastward increase in BDE concentrations, implying an increasing gradient in general ecosystem contamination. In chinook, coho, and sablefish, especially, the southeastward trend in increasing total concentrations was associated with increasing proportions of BDEs 47 and 100. Chinook returning to western North American natal streams appeared to accumulate most of their PBDE burden towards the end of their migration. Fish from more northern sampling sites often had higher proportions of more highly brominated congeners than those from more southern sites, perhaps reflecting contamination from Asian sources where higher-brominated commercial PBDE formulations are used. In sablefish and pollock, the relative proportions of BDEs 99 and 47 varied inversely in almost a 1:1 ratio, implying debromination of BDE 99 to 47. PMID:21360729
Ikonomou, Michael G; Teas, Howard J; Gerlach, Robert; Higgs, Dave; Addison, Richard F
|This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the aquarium for…
Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was < 6/12 in either eye. Near vision was assessed using N notation chart binocularly. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA < 6/18 in the better eye. Presbyopia is defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects with binocular distance VA of 6/18 or better. Results The data collection was completed in <12 weeks using two teams each consisting of one paramedical ophthalmic personnel and two community eye health workers. The prevalence of visual impairment was 30% (95% CI, 27.6-32.2). This included 111 (7.1%; 95% CI, 5.8-8.4) individuals with blindness. Cataract was the leading cause of visual impairment followed by uncorrected refractive errors. The prevalence of blindness according to WHO definition (presenting VA < 3/60 in the better eye) was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9-3.5). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marinefishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI) reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.
Rice–fish-farming systems constitute a unique agro-landscape across the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Rice is a globally important staple food crop, with a wide distribution and constituting diversified varieties. The introduction of fish rearing to rice farming creates an integrated agro-ecological system. China boasts a history of 1700 years in rice–fish-farming practice. It is no longer a sole agro-production
Infection of marinefish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015
Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...
Laboratory feeding trials were conducted to determine the growth and food processing rates and gut retention times of a wild, cool-temperate zone fish fed its simulated summer diet of seaweeds and two higher protein diets more typical of those of carnivorous fishes. When this stichaeid fish, Cebidichthys violaceus (Girard), was fed for 12 wk on a pelleted natural summer diet
Michael H. Horn; Kristin F. Mailhiot; Michael B. Fris; Lon L. McClanahan
A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted in March/April 2007 at Agnes Water, a remote coastal site just south of the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Particle and ion size distributions were continuously measured during the campaign. Coastal nucleation events were observed in clean, marine air masses coming from the south-east on 65% of the days. The events usually began at ~10:00 local time and lasted for 1-4 h. They were characterised by the appearance of a nucleation mode with a peak diameter of ~10 nm. The freshly nucleated particles grew within 1-4 h up to sizes of 20-50 nm. The events occurred when solar intensity was high (~1000 W m-2) and RH was low (~60%). Interestingly, the events were not related to tide height. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of freshly nucleated particles (17-22.5 nm), simultaneously measured with a volatility-hygroscopicity-tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA), were used to infer chemical composition. The majority of the volume of these particles was attributed to internally mixed sulphate and organic components. After ruling out coagulation as a source of significant particle growth, we conclude that the condensation of sulphate and/or organic vapours was most likely responsible for driving particle growth at sizes greater than 10 nm during the nucleation events. Although there was a possibility that the precursor vapours responsible for particle formation and growth had continental sources, on the balance of available data we would suggest that the precursors were most likely of marine/coastal origin. Furthermore, a unique and particularly strong nucleation event was observed during northerly wind. The event began early one morning (08:00) and lasted almost the entire day resulting in the production of a large number of ~80 nm particles (average modal concentration during the event was 3200 cm-3). The Great Barrier Reef was the most likely source of precursor vapours responsible for this event.
Modini, R. L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Johnson, G. R.; He, C.; Surawski, N.; Morawska, L.; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.
Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670
We examined the impact of a 1:3 year return period flood on benthic and pelagic coupling in the river-dominated sub-tropical Brunswick Estuary. The flood had a significant impact on the study site flushing it with freshwater, reducing the flushing time 0.6 days, increasing nutrient concentrations in the water column and scouring the sediment surface. In the three weeks post-flood the benthic and pelagic systems alternated between being coupled and un-coupled via dissolved, particulate and living material pathways. Immediately post-flood benthic and pelagic coupling via the deposition of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells was reduced due to the scouring of the top sediment layers, and benthic respiration and productivity and NH4+ effluxes all decreased correspondingly. In contrast, benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake and denitrification of NO3- due to elevated NO3- concentrations in the water column. Some of the NO3- consumed by the sediments may have also been converted to DON. Two weeks post-flood benthic and pelagic coupling was significantly enhanced via the deposition of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells associated with a phytoplankton bloom in the water column. This increased supply of phyto-detritus and viable algal cells rapidly increased benthic respiration and productivity and NH4+ efflux. The depletion of water column DIN by the phytoplankton bloom resulted in a de-coupling of the benthic and pelagic systems via the uptake and denitrification of NO3-. However, benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake of NH4+ by benthic microalgae. Three weeks post-flood the phytoplankton bloom had collapsed and the coupling between the benthic and pelagic systems via the deposition of phyto-detritus and living algal cells had diminished. Again benthic and pelagic coupling was enhanced via the uptake and denitrification of NO3- due to elevated NO3- concentrations in the water column associated with the recycling of bloom material. Overall the sediments became less heterotrophic (increasing benthic productivity/respiration ratio) following the flood. Floods can cause rapid and complex changes in the coupling between benthic and pelagic systems in sub-tropical estuaries.
The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites. PMID:19452254
The aim of this research was to compare mercury (Hg) accumulation (total and organic) and tissue distribution in two marinefish species with contrasting feeding tactics. Thus, juvenile specimens of European sea bass and Golden grey mullet were surveyed in an estuary historically affected by Hg discharges. Total Hg was preferentially accumulated in intestine, muscle, and liver, whereas gills and brain presented the lowest Hg levels observed in both species. Significant differences between species were only verified for muscle, with D. labrax's levels being greater than L. aurata's. Muscle accounted for >87% of the Hg relative tissue burden, whereas liver did not exceed 11%. Organic Hg accumulation occurred mainly in liver and muscle, with D. labrax evidencing significantly greater loads. Moreover, organic Hg in consumed prey items was also significantly greater in D. labrax. Accumulation of organic Hg in liver, intestine, and muscle seemed to vary as a function of the consumed prey items contamination, suggesting fish feeding strategies as the dominant factor determining metal accumulation. For both fish species, a stable ratio was observed between Hg increments from the reference to the contaminated site, possibly indicating that the organic Hg content of diet may regulate the internal levels of this contaminant. Thus, this ratio might prove to be a useful contamination predictor tool in early life stages of fish. PMID:22189708
Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E
Thorough evaluation of normalization approaches is a fundamental aspect in real-time quantitative RT-PCR experiments to avoid artificial introduced intergroup variations. In our study, we tested three normalization strategies in an experimental data set derived from a toxicological exposure of Scophthalmus maximus to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonist WY-14643. Juvenile turbots were exposed by repeated injections to 5 mg or 50 mg WY-14643/kg, and liver samples were taken at day 1, 7 and 21. Specifically, the mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (prdx5) was normalized to the cDNA content, to the mRNA expression of single reference genes (b-actin, b-act; elongation factor 1 ?, ef1a; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gapdh; ribosomal protein L8, rpl8; tata-box binding protein, tbp; tubulin beta 2C chain, tubb2c; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3, ub2l3) or to a combination of multiple reference genes using geNorm, BestKeeper or NormFinder algorithms. Four single reference genes (ef1a, rpl8, tubb2c, tbp) did not show any significant differences between the treatment groups over time, while significant intergroup variations were observed for cDNA content, gapdh, b-act and ub2l3. The normalization of prdx5 to the valid (not altered) single reference genes led to significant up-regulated (prdx5/rpl8), not-regulated (prdx5/ef1a; prdx5/tbp) or down-regulated (prdx5/tubb2c) mRNA expression pattern. The multiple reference gene approaches resulted in different rankings and combinations of the most stable expressed reference genes (geNorm: ef1a>rpl8>b-act; BestKeeper: ub2l3>gapdh>ef1a; NormFinder: b-act>ef1a). However, the normalization with the three multiple reference gene procedures demonstrated consistent expression pattern with a significant up-regulation of prdx5 in response to the higher concentration after 21 days. Concluding, even if not yet established as "gold" standard for expression profiling in environmental toxicology or physiology using freshwater or marinefish models, the multiple reference gene approach is recommended, since it eliminates any biased results, which represented the major flaw of single reference genes. PMID:23517768
Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I
End-to-end models that represent ecosystem components from primary producers to top predators, linked through trophic interactions and affected by the abiotic environment, are expected to provide valuable tools for assessing the effects of climate change and fishing on ecosystem dynamics. Here, we review the main process-based approaches used for marine ecosystem modelling, focusing on the extent of the food web modelled, the forcing factors considered, the trophic processes represented, as well as the potential use and further development of the models. We consider models of a subset of the food web, models which represent the first attempts to couple low and high trophic levels, integrated models of the whole ecosystem, and size spectrum models. Comparisons within and among these groups of models highlight the preferential use of functional groups at low trophic levels and species at higher trophic levels and the different ways in which the models account for abiotic processes. The model comparisons also highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate spatial dimension for representing organism dynamics. Many of the reviewed models could be extended by adding components and by ensuring that the full life cycles of species components are represented, but end-to-end models should provide full coverage of ecosystem components, the integration of physical and biological processes at different scales and two-way interactions between ecosystem components. We suggest that this is best achieved by coupling models, but there are very few existing cases where the coupling supports true two-way interaction. The advantages of coupling models are that the extent of discretization and representation can be targeted to the part of the food web being considered, making their development time- and cost-effective. Processes such as predation can be coupled to allow the propagation of forcing factors effects up and down the food web. However, there needs to be a stronger focus on enabling two-way interaction, carefully selecting the key functional groups and species, reconciling different time and space scales and the methods of converting between energy, nutrients and mass.
This project sought to derive the ecological boundaries within a bottom trawl survey by treating benthic fish and invertebrate species as biological indicators in assemblage analyses. A secondary goal was to determine if these ecological boundaries match the strata boundaries of the bottom trawl survey. Most fishery-independent bottom trawl surveys are driven by management needs for relative biomass estimation of commercial stocks within certain strata, and the strata boundaries are often abiotic features such as political borders, capes and submarine canyons, or arbitrary depths. However, these surveys also generate a great deal of under-utilized data—such as the abundance of non-commercial benthic species and the occurrence of size-groups of commercial species—that can be used for defining ecological boundaries that are independent of the strata boundaries. For an example data set, this analysis used the National Marine Fisheries Service US west coast bottom trawl survey, which has sampled the same 610 stations in three surveys (1995, 1998, and 2001). This analysis determined the geographic extent of three biologically distinct assemblages which occurred in a total of 9 analyses across three bottom trawl surveys and across three assemblage analysis methods: hierarchical clustering, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). Most trawl survey stations were consistently grouped into the same assemblage in a majority of the 9 analyses, indicating that the assemblages were stable with respect to time and to interpretation from the different assemblage analyses. Kriging on the percent agreement of the 9 analyses at each station defined boundaries of agreement (edges of assemblages), areas of disagreement (transition zones between assemblages), and clear differences from the arbitrary latitude/depth bottom trawl survey stratification scheme. The temporal and statistical consistency, and the geographical continuity of the assemblages, along with significant differences in depth and bottom water temperature among assemblages, indicated the utility of using benthic species for deriving the number and geographic extent of ecological boundaries within the bottom trawl survey area.
A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted in March/April 2007 at Agnes Water, a remote coastal site just south of the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Particle and ion size distributions were continuously measured during the campaign. Coastal nucleation events were observed in clean, marine air masses coming from the south-east on 65% of the days. The events usually began at ~10:00 local time and lasted for 1-4 h. They were characterised by the appearance of a nucleation mode with a peak diameter of ~10 nm. The freshly nucleated particles grew within 1-4 h up to sizes of 20-50 nm. The events occurred when solar intensity was high (~1000 W m-2) and RH was low (~60%). Interestingly, the events were not related to tide height. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of freshly nucleated particles (17-22.5 nm), simultaneously measured with a volatility-hygroscopicity-tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA), were used to infer chemical composition. The majority of the volume of these particles was attributed to internally mixed sulphate and organic components. After ruling out coagulation as a source of significant particle growth, we conclude that the condensation of sulphate and/or organic vapours was most likely responsible for driving particle growth during the nucleation events. We cannot make any direct conclusions regarding the chemical species that participated in the initial particle nucleation. However, we suggest that nucleation may have resulted from the photo-oxidation products of unknown sulphur or organic vapours emitted from the waters of Hervey Bay, or from the formation of DMS-derived sulphate clusters over the open ocean that were activated to observable particles by condensable vapours emitted from the nutrient rich waters around Fraser Island or Hervey Bay. Furthermore, a unique and particularly strong nucleation event was observed during northerly wind. The event began early one morning (08:00) and lasted almost the entire day resulting in the production of a large number of ~80 nm particles (average modal concentration during the event was 3200 cm-3). The Great Barrier Reef was the most likely source of precursor vapours responsible for this event.
Modini, R. L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Johnson, G. R.; He, C.; Surawski, N.; Morawska, L.; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.
On-farm field experiments were carried out at two sites having 38- and 10-year-old orchard cropping systems under sub-tropical climatic regions to evaluate changes in organic carbon accumulation and chemical and microbiological properties of the soils. Under a system of different intercropped fruit trees, the cultivation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) intercropped with guava (Psidium guajava L.) enhanced the soil microbial
The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).
Gadusol, C8H12O6, has been isolated from roes of the cod (Gadus morhua L.), i.e., ovaries that contain ripe eggs just before spawning. The concentration is about 4 g/kg dry wt. It has been identified as 1,4,5-trihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methoxycyclo-hex-1-en-3-one and this structure was confirmed by synthesis of the anhydro tetra-acetate derivative from methyl 3,5-diacetoxy-4-methoxybenzoate. Concentrations of gadusol in the roes of other marine teleost fish examined are of the same order as in cod roes. Gadusol has some properties similar to ascorbic acid and both compounds, after oxidation, react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in the commonly-used assay procedure for ascorbic acid. Specific assays showed that the concentrations of gadusol in the roes of marinefish are severalfold greater than those of ascorbic acid. Gadusol is structurally related to the mycosporines previously reported from a number of different organisms.
Plack, P A; Fraser, N W; Grant, P T; Middleton, C; Mitchell, A I; Thomson, R H
Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a common non-viral delivery system for the study of gene function and for gene therapy. However, the effects of epinecidin-1 (epi) on bacterial growth and immune system modulation following its electrotransfer into the muscle of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a marinefish species, have not been addressed. In this study, pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid was electroporated into grouper muscle, and its effect on subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus was examined. Over-expression of epi efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after infection, and augmented the expression of immune-related genes in muscle and liver, inducing a moderate innate immune response associated with pro-inflammatory infiltration. Furthermore, electroporation of pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid without V. vulnificus infection induced moderate expression of certain immune-related genes, particularly innate immune genes. These data suggest that electroporation-mediated gene transfer of epi into the muscle of grouper may hold potential as an antimicrobial therapy for pathogen infection in marinefish. PMID:23973381
Marine and freshwater fishing gear and methods are described from the lower Mesopotamian plain. In this region, there are four main fishing methods in the marshlands and three in the local marine habitat. The most popular fishing technique in those areas is the use of nets. Both active and passive fishing gear are categorised in the studied area. Locally-designed fishing
The Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem supports multimillion-dollar commercial and recreational fisheries. The ecological effects caused by fishing gear that is lost when cut or broken after snagging on the bottom is a growing concern to managers and scientists. Few data exist, however, to assess the impacts of lost fishing gear to benthic organisms and habitat structure. In this study,
During the course of a study of the reactions of the erythrocytes of fishes to vital dyes (Dawson, 1932) in which brilliant cresyl blue was used to produce patterns of reticulation, it became increasingly obvious that the numbers of immature erythrocytes present in the circulation varied widely in different species. In some fishes the numbers of im mature cells were
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used in numerous ways to identify the presence or absence of complementary nucleic acid sequences in a cell. Nucleotide probes are labeled with fluorescent molecules and designed to target genes or any complementary nucleic acid sequence of interest. In microbial ecology, FISH is used for the identification of microorganisms based on their 16s
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Geographic distributions of most temperate marinefishes are affected by postglacial recolonisation events, which have left complex genetic imprints on populations of marine species. This study investigated population structure and demographic history of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by combining inference from both mtDNA and microsatellite genetic markers throughout the species' distribution. We compared effects from genetic drift and mutation for both genetic markers in shaping genetic differentiation across four transition zones. Microsatellite markers revealed significant isolation by distance and a complex population structure across the species? distribution (overall ?ST=0.038, P<0.01). Across transition zones markers indicated larger effects of genetic drift over mutations in the northern distribution of sprat contrasting a stronger relative impact of mutation in the species' southern distribution in the Mediterranean region. These results were interpreted to reflect more recent divergence times between northern populations in accordance with previous findings. This study demonstrates the usefulness of comparing inference from different markers and estimators of divergence for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in species with weak genetic structure, as is the case in many marine species.
Limborg, M T; Hanel, R; Debes, P V; Ring, A K; Andre, C; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Bekkevold, D
Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.
West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.
Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François
This study better defines the long-term toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of tributyltin released from antifouling paint to marine species. Because of the increasing evidence of the presence of tributyltin in environmental samples, the eastern oyster...
This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus ; the inlan...
Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Khan, R.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's (Canada))
The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the
Lorena Cornejo-Ponce; Hugo H. Lienqueo; Bernardo T. Arriaza
Acanthochromis polyacanthus is an unusual tropical marine damselfish that uniquely lacks pelagic larvae and has lost the capacity for broad-scale dispersal among coral reefs. On the modern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), three color morphs meet and hydridize at two zones of secondary contact. Allozyme electrophoreses revealed strong differences between morphs from the southern zone but few differences between morphs from the northern counterpart, thus suggesting different contact histories. We explore the phylogeography of Acanthochromis polyacanthus with mitochondrial cytochrome b region sequences (alignment of 565 positions) obtained from 126 individuals representing seven to 12 fish from 13 sites distributed over 12 reefs of the GBR and the Coral Sea. The samples revealed three major clades: (1) black fish collected from the southern GBR; (2) bicolored fish collected from the GBR and one reef (Osprey) from the northern Coral Sea; (3) black and white monomorphs collected from six reefs in the Coral Sea. All three clades were well supported (72-100%) by bootstrap analyses. Sequence divergences were very high between the major clades (mean = 7.6%) as well as within them (2.0-3.6%). Within clades, most reefs segregated as monophyletic assemblages. This was revealed both by phylogenetic analyses and AMOVAs that showed that 72-90% of the variance originated from differences among groups, whereas only 5-13% originated within populations. These patterns are discussed in relation to the known geological history of coral reefs of the GBR and the Coral Sea. Finally, we ask whether the monospecific status of Acanthochromis should be revisited because the sequence divergences found among our samples is substantially greater than those recorded among well-recognized species in other reef fishes. PMID:11794786
The virulence plasmid pJM1 enables the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a gram-negative polarly flagel- lated comma-shaped rod bacterium, to cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic septicemic disease in salmonids and other fishes, leading to epizootics throughout the world. The pJM1 plasmid 65,009-nucleotide sequence, with an overall GC content of 42.6%, revealed genes and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding iron transporters, nonribosomal
Manuela Di Lorenzo; Michiel Stork; Marcelo E. Tolmasky; Luis A. Actis; David Farrell; Timothy J. Welch; Lidia M. Crosa; Anne M. Wertheimer; Qian Chen; Patricia Salinas; Lillian Waldbeser; Jorge H. Crosa
Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n23 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification in a general older population. Design: Diet was assessed between 1990 and 1993 by using a semiquantitative 170-item food-frequency
R. C. Heine-Bröring; I. A. Brouwer; P. R. Vliegenthart; Rooij van F. J. A; A. Hofman; M. Oudkerk; J. C. M. Witteman; J. M. Geleijnse
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia Â§ 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...
Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:14703908
Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman
Background Numerous studies have found associations between extreme temperatures and human mortality but relatively few studies have been done in sub-tropical and tropical cities, especially in Asia. In this study we examine the impact of cold temperatures, cold waves and other meteorological and environmental variables on cool season mortality in 2 subtropical Asian cities. Methods Separate analysis of daily mortality time-series from Hong Kong and Taipei using Generalized Additive Models with natural mortality as the outcome daily mean temperature as the main explanatory variable and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), respirable suspended particulates (PM10), ozone (O3), seasonality and day of the week controlled as potential confounders. Lags up to 35 days were considered for temperature, and distributed lag models were used to determine the number of lags for final models. Subgroup analyses were also done by gender, age group, cause of death and geographical area of residence. Results Cold temperatures were strongly associated with higher mortality with lagged effects persisting up to 3 weeks in Hong Kong and 2 weeks in Taipei. Cold effects were much stronger for deaths among older people and non-cancer deaths. Prolonged cold spells modestly but significantly raised mortality after accounting for the effects of individual cold days. Higher daily ozone levels were also strongly associated with higher short-term mortality in Taipei and Hong Kong, while relative humidity and solar radiation were weakly and inconsistently associated with mortality. Conclusions Cold temperatures and cold spells substantially increase short-term mortality in sub-tropical Asian cities particularly among the elderly. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adverse health effects of cold temperatures. Interventions including provisions of shelters, cold weather warnings and education about the possible health effects of cold temperature should be carried out in sub-tropical areas.
Teleosts are a highly diverse group of animals occupying all kind of aquatic environment. Data on routine mass specific metabolic rate were re-examined correcting them for the Boltzmann's factor. Teleostean fish were grouped in five broad groups, corresponding to major environmental classifications: polar, temperate, sub-tropical, tropical and deep-water. The specific routine metabolic rate, temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor (MR), and the average base composition of genomes (GC%) were calculated in each group. Fish of the polar habitat showed the highest MR. Temperate fish displayed a significantly higher MR than tropical fish, which had the lowest average value. These results were apparently in agreement with the cold adaptation hypothesis. In contrast with this hypothesis, however, the MR of fish living in deep-water environment turned out to be not significantly different from that of fish living in tropical habitats. Most probably, the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water directly affects MR adaptation. Regarding the different habitats, the genomic GC levels showed a decreasing trend similar to that of MR. Indeed, both polar and temperate fish showed a GC level significantly higher than that of both sub-tropical and tropical fish. Plotting the genomic GC levels versus the MR a significant positive correlation was found, supporting the hypothesis that metabolic rate can explain not only the compositional transition mode (e.g. amphibian/mammals), but also the compositional shifting mode (e.g. fish/fish) of evolution observed for vertebrate genomes. PMID:21798194
Uliano, Erminia; Chaurasia, Ankita; Bernà, Luisa; Agnisola, Claudio; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe
Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related compounds has been performed in liver samples of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. PFOS was the predominant fluorochemical in the biota analyzed, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). PFOS was found at concentrations above LOQ (10 ng/g wet weight) in 13 out of 16 samples from Greenland and in all samples from the Faroe Islands. The results from Greenland showed a biomagnification of PFOS along the marine food chain (shorthorn sculpin < ringed seal < polar bear). The greatest concentration of PFOS was found in liver of polar bear from east Greenland (mean: 1285 ng/g wet weight, n = 2). The geographical distribution of perfluorinated compounds in Greenland was similar to that of persistent organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), with the highest concentrations in east Greenland, indicating a similar geographical distribution to that of OHCs, with higher concentrations in east Greenland than in west Greenland. PMID:15840540
Bossi, Rossana; Riget, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Fauser, Patrik; Dam, Maria; Vorkamp, Katrin
One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occur periodically along the central west coast of Florida. Mass mortalities of marine birds have long been associated with these blooms, yet there is little data documenting the accumulation of brevetoxins in the tissues of birds and their prey items. An intense HAB event impacted the region from Tampa Bay