Sample records for sub-tropical marine fish

  1. Sunrise ozone destruction found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ippei; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    A new mechanism of ozone loss is found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer over the north Pacific. This ozone destruction occurs just after sunrise (hereafter Sunrise Ozone Destruction, SOD) and is commonly found throughout the year. SOD is a predominant ozone loss mechanism in winter, which takes place after sunrise in a few hours with 1?2 ppbv of ozone depletion for 40?50 ppbv of background ozone, while, in summer, SOD is weaker than in winter with small ozone depletion for 10?20 ppbv of background ozone. In summer, daytime ozone destruction (hereafter, DOD) associated with UV photolysis and subsequent HOx reaction is more active. Since DOD is not active in early morning, SOD should be a new ozone loss mechanism. After demonstrating the observational findings, halogen chemistry associated with sea-salt aerosols is described as a possible mechanism.

  2. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed. PMID:18061624

  3. National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

  4. Swimming activity in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Wardle, C S

    1985-01-01

    Marine fish are capable of swimming long distances in annual migrations; they are also capable of high-speed dashes of short duration, and they can occupy small home territories for long periods with little activity. There is a large effect of fish size on the distance fish migrate at slow swimming speeds. When chased by a fishing trawl the effect of fish size on swimming performance can decide their fate. The identity and thickness of muscle used at each speed and evidence for the timing of myotomes used during the body movement cycle can be detected using electromyogram (EMG) electrodes. The cross-sectional area of muscle needed to maintain different swimming speeds can be predicted by relating the swimming drag force to the muscle force. At maximum swimming speed one completed cycle of swimming force is derived in sequence from the whole cross-sectional area of the muscles along the two sides of the fish. This and other aspects of the swimming cycle suggest that each myotome might be responsible for generating forces involved in particular stages of the tail sweep. The thick myotomes at the head end shorten during the peak thrust of the tail blade whereas the thinner myotomes nearer the tail generate stiffness appropriate for transmission of these forces and reposition the tail for the next cycle. PMID:3914726

  5. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. I. Sediment quality and community structure.

    PubMed

    Shin, P K S; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Qian, P Y; Cheung, S G

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of improvement in sediment quality and recovery of macrobenthic community upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Median sediment particle diameter (Mdphi) and levels of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP), as well as macrobenthic species composition and abundance were determined bi-monthly at three inside-harbour and two outside-harbour locations. At the two inside-harbour locations, significantly higher levels of TOC, TKN, NH(3)-N and TP in sediments were observed than the outside-harbour locations. However, no significant temporal change of nutrient levels was detected at all sampling locations during the two-year study, except a significant decrease in TKN and NH(3)-N levels at one outside-harbour location and a decline in NH(3)-N content at another outside-harbour location. Spatially, the highest in mean total species number, individual number, species diversity H' and lowest evenness J was found at one outside-harbour location, whereas the other four locations had relatively similar values. H' was negatively correlated with TOC, TKN, NH(3)-N and TP content in sediments while J was positively correlated with MDphi. Across the study period, the patterns of macrobenthic community were significantly different among all samplings and that the spatial difference of benthic community was best correlated with MDphi, TOC, TKN and water depth. A weak sign of recovery in macrobenthic community structure was detected at inside-harbour locations, with replacement of opportunistic by ubiquitous species over the two-year study. The slow recovery of macrobenthic community was related to sediment characteristics. Results of a larval settlement bioassay using the polychaete Capitella sp. I also demonstrated that the inside-harbour sediments were still unfavourable for colonization and larval settlement of species sensitive to pollution. The slow biodegradation of the organic pollutants and continuous presence of heavy metals in the sediment may hinder settlement and colonization of benthic animals. However, increases of H' and J were observed in a longer time scale when comparing the present data with those obtained four years ago. This suggested that a detectable recovery of benthic community in the harbour may take at least three years and a complete recovery may even take longer duration. PMID:18061627

  6. An overview of marine fish cytogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Galetti Jr; C. T. Aguilar; W. F. Molina

    2000-01-01

    The number of cytogenetic studies of marine fish has increased in recent years. Fish groups, such as Perciformes, which comprises many of the extant marine teleosts of economic importance, show little divergence in chromosome number and most species display a diploid number of 48 acrocentric chromosomes. In the Serranidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae (Perciformes) and Mugilidae (Mugiliformes) small chromosome variations are restricted

  7. Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeleine M. Jones

    1995-01-01

    The loss and disposal of fishing gear has been recognized internationally as a major environmental issue for several decades. This paper reviews the available data on fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. In some regions debris from deep-water trawl, longline and rock lobster fisheries has harmed marine wildlife and littered beaches. The highest documented incidence of wildlife entanglement by

  8. Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis E. C. Conceição; Cláudia Aragão; Nadège Richard; Sofia Engrola; Paulo Gavaia; Sara Mira; Jorge Dias

    2010-01-01

    Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance\\u000a of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is\\u000a one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several\\u000a novel methodologies have contributed to

  9. Shrimp, Crabs, and Marine Game Fish Records

    E-print Network

    Shrimp, Crabs, and Marine Game Fish Records · ... With high salinities, low rainfall, and no cold spells, 1976 was hailed an "excellent year for shrimp production" by the Texas Parks and Wildlife De- partment. Brown shrimp in Texas bays grew so fast last spring that the de- partment closed the Gulf

  10. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  11. A review of mycobacteriosis in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J M; Stine, C B; Baya, A M; Kent, M L

    2009-02-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a serious and often lethal disease of fish, affecting a wide range of species globally both in culture and wild settings. Caused by several species of the genus Mycobacterium, the disease has received considerable attention in recent years because of the discovery of new species in piscine hosts, epizootics in wild fisheries, and the ability of a few species to infect humans. The impact of this disease in aquaculture and the aquaria trade has been well reported and there is currently no widely accepted cure other than depopulation and facility disinfection. However, the impact on wild fisheries is poorly understood and may relate to species-specific interactions (host-pathogen) and possibly environmental stressors. In this review, much of what is known about mycobacteriosis in marine fish is summarized with particular attention to an epizootic in striped bass, Morone saxatilis, (Walbaum), in Chesapeake Bay, USA. PMID:19261041

  12. The definition of marine recreational fishing in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Pawson; H. Glenn; G. Padda

    2008-01-01

    To describe marine recreational fisheries, their socio-economic importance and interactions with other fisheries and the environment, it is necessary to define what is meant by recreational fishing. A review of European Member States’ national legislation revealed considerable variation in ownership and access to coastal waters\\/fisheries, and in the legal distinction between sport fishing and other recreational uses of marine fisheries

  13. Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey P. Jones; Mark I. McCormick; Maya Srinivasan; Janelle V. Eagle

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide decline in coral cover has serious implications for the health of coral reefs. But what is the future of reef fish assemblages? Marine reserves can protect fish from exploitation, but do they protect fish biodiversity in degrading environments? The answer appears to be no, as indicated by our 8-year study in Papua New Guinea. A devastating decline in

  14. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  15. Marine reserves: Fish life history and ecological traits matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Paolo Domenici; F. Badalamenti; M. Milazzo; J. M. Falcón; I. Bertocci; L. Benedetti-Cecchi; J. A. García-Charton; R. Goñi; J. A. Borg; A. Forcada; G. A. de Lucia; Á Pérez-Ruzafa; P. Afonso; A. Brito; I. Guala; L. Le Diréach; P. Sanchez-Jerez; P. J. Somerfield; S. Planes

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data

  16. Marine Fish Population Collapses: Consequences for Recovery and Extinction Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY A. HUTCHINGS; JOHN D. REYNOLDS

    2004-01-01

    Rapid declines threaten the persistence of many marine fish. Data from more than 230 populations reveal a median reduction of 83% in breeding population size from known historic levels. Few populations recover rapidly; most exhibit little or no change in abundance up to 15 years after a collapse. Reductions in fishing pressure, although clearly necessary for population recovery, are often

  17. Nutritional Properties of Recreationally Caught Marine Fishes

    E-print Network

    ). For low calorie diets (as for weight re duction), species of fish in category A are especially desirable as other flesh foods. Category B corre sponds to fish having composition com parable to meat (excepting, changes due to spawning conditions and migra tions, and other factors. Fish Composition Compared

  18. A Large Experimental Aquarium System for Marine Pelagic Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bori L. Olla; Warren W. Marchioni; Harvey M. Katz

    1967-01-01

    An enclosed 32,000-gallon sea-water aquarium with filtration and supply systems and controlled environmental conditions is described. This facility, designed and constructed at the Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory to study the behavior of marine fishes, has been in continuous operation since January, 1965. The elliptically-shaped, multiwindowed aquarium may be operated as an open, closed, or semiclosed circulation system. An artificial lighting

  19. Artificial propagation and breeding of marine fish in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Yong

    2002-03-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum ( Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream ( Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip ( Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy ( Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper ( Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt ( Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt ( Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  20. Introduction Tropical marine fish species, such

    E-print Network

    the mean target strength (acoustic backscatter) of each group. Ten species of fish were measured, including (Mycteroperca spp.). In general, the mean target strength results from the caged fish experiments were in agreement with published target strength length relationships, with the exception of white grunt and pluma

  1. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  2. Degradation and responses of coprostanol and selected sterol biomarkers in sediments to a simulated major sewage pollution event: A microcosm experiment under sub-tropical estuarine conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pratt; Jan Warnken; Rhys Leeming; Michael J. Arthur; Darren I. Grice

    2008-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation of coprostanol and related sterol biomarkers and Escherichia coli in ‘natural’ sediments from a highly mixed (marine and estuarine) sub-tropical environment following a simulated pollution event. This experiment revealed that sterols are synthesised and degraded over time by auto- and hetero trophic organisms within the sediment matrix from a onetime addition

  3. MARINE TROPHIC INTERACTIONS BY DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF FISH SPECIES

    E-print Network

    of metabolism, food consumption, reproductive ef- fort, and the structure of the trophic' web upon the weight. The energy balance of the individual animal was modeled so that growth and reproduction respond to food ecological sources. Functions and parameters are especially applicable to marine fish species. Trophic webs

  4. FURUNCULOSIS OF FISH Marine Biological Laboratoiy

    E-print Network

    and survival of B. salmonicida in dead fish -. 10 Cultural characters 10 Relation to free oxygen 10 Agar. 10 examination (Furunculosis Committee 1930 49 Heart blood 50 Kidney 50 Comparison with ulcer disease 52

  5. Exploring Marine Conservation in the Classroom: Using Fish Population Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide introduces teachers to the use of data on fish species diversity and relative abundance in the classroom. The data, from the Reef Environmental Educational Foundation (REEF), are collected by divers at sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and are used to address issues relating to fish population dynamics. Topics include relationships between habitats and populations; geographical variations in diversity and abundance; the use of population data in managing and planning aquaculture; and marine sanctuaries and conservation. Students will learn to interpret the data to understand diversity and abundance; understand the interpretation and use of parameters derived from population data, such as density and sighting frequency; and use the data to make and test predictions about relationships between habitats and species. Links are provided to access the data, to additional resources that use it, and to related websites on fish populations and marine conservation.

  6. Juvenile marine fishes of Harbor Island, Texas

    E-print Network

    Bonin, Robert Eugene

    1977-01-01

    cht~hs 1 ethost~ima P ll htht Pth ge, ~ rilg) F. Clupeidae {to family only) F. Cy/IUB IUsS idee ~g, I ~li ha F. Cyprinodontidae Adinia venica t. y)krirlodon vari~eatus Fu;ieuIus grandis kucania parva , to family only) F. El op. idee ~EIU... of the fish, however, were collec- ted at an average wate! temperature of 12. 0 C. 0 Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard ? Gul f killifish Thirty six fish were acquired from stations on the flats. 4'ith the exception of one specimen obtained in March, all...

  7. Marine fish as source of protein supplement in meat.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, J G

    1987-01-01

    For the past 2 decades, a great deal of research has been done in fish technology, particularly in the area of mechanically deboned minced fish. Minced fish is the edible muscle flesh of fish that has been mechanically separated from the bones and skin. Ideally, the product is prepared from a high quality fish and resembles hamburger meat. In its final form, minced fish is used either as an ingredient or as an extender in seafood or in food products that require further processing. On the basis of technological advancements, the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Fisheries Institute jointly petitioned the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1980 to add minced fish at a level of 15% in the meat formulation of frankfurters. This paper explores certain aspects of processing, production, acceptance, and hazard assessment of minced fish ingredients as possible protein supplements in meat and poultry food products relative to this request. PMID:3558285

  8. Juvenile marine fishes of Harbor Island, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Bonin, Robert Eugene

    1977-01-01

    ph, pr I I July TIME Oct Jan 1976 Fio. 'i Cgprinodon variegatus-total seasonal abundance I- on t ie ilats. 28 equal to 29. 6 /oo. The fish were captured at relatively low water 0 temperatures (9. 4 to 19. 9 C), with maximum abundance occurring...

  9. PEARSON, J. C. 1941. The young of some marine fishes taken in lower

    E-print Network

    :70-102. RICHARDS, C. E., AND M. CASTAGNA. 1970: Marine fishes of Virginia's eastern shore (inlet and marsh, seaside!. Mar. Fish. Serv., Curro Fish. Stat. 7519, 7498,7561,7580,7600,7620,7639,7659. 1979. FRS Oregon II. FRS Oregon II cruise 106 report. NOAA, Nat!. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southeast Fish. Cent., Pascagoula, Miss

  10. Occurrence of cymothoid isopod from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Priya, E Rethna; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Leng, Alex Goh Kwang

    2015-06-01

    To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science. PMID:26064001

  11. Marine fish spermatozoa are racing ephemeral swimmers : how external conditions control motility and energetic parameters.

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Marine fish spermatozoa are racing ephemeral swimmers : how external conditions control motility, marine fish spermatozoa are delivered at male spawning in sea water at the same time as ova. In most fish with the sperm energetic content (ATP), a general model is proposed which offers a guide-line for understanding

  12. Urea-requiring lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Yancey; George N. Somero

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic properties — apparentKm of pyruvate, pyruvate inhibition pattern, and maximal velocity — of M4 (skeletal muscle) lactate dehydrogenases of marine elasmobranch fishes resemble those of the homologous lactate dehydrogenases of non-elasmobranchs only when physiological concentrations of urea (approximately 400 mM) are present in the assay medium. Urea increases the apparentKm of pyruvate to values typical of other vertebrates

  13. A new hemogregarine from marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    1978-02-01

    Haemogregarina uncinata sp. n. is described from the blood of 2 marine eelpouts, Lycodes lavalaei and Lycodes vahlii (Perciformes: Zoarcidae). Erythrocytic schizogony occurred in peripheral and cardiac blood, but mature schizonts were restricted to the latter site. Mature and rupturing schizonts contained 10 to 30 merozoites, which were short and thick in small schizonts while slender and long in larger schizonts. Gametocytes developed in mature erythrocytes and displayed morphologic and morphometric characters that distinguished them from other species described. Syzygy and gamete formation occurred in the gut of a leech, Johanssonia sp. Each microgametocyte produced up to 4 apparently nonflagellated gametes. Oocysts developed intracellularly in the epithelial wall of the intestine and at maturity produced under 100 sporozoites from (apparently) several germinal centers. Sporozoites subsequently migrated to the probosces of the leeches. The failure to transmit the parasite to a sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) and 3 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) via regurgitation by the leeches might be indicative of host specificity. PMID:415129

  14. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  15. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  16. DNA barcodes identify marine fishes of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Amanda de Oliveira; Caires, Rodrigo Antunes; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Pereira, Luiz Henrique Garcia; Hanner, Robert; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are an increasing threat to the diversity of fishes, especially in areas around large urban centres, and many effective conservation actions depend on accurate species identification. Considering the utility of DNA barcoding as a global system for species identification and discovery, this study aims to assemble a DNA barcode reference sequence library for marine fishes from the coastal region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The standard 652 bp 'barcode' fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was PCR amplified and bidirectionally sequenced from 678 individuals belonging to 135 species. A neighbour-joining analysis revealed that this approach can unambiguously discriminate 97% of the species surveyed. Most species exhibited low intraspecific genetic distances (0.31%), about 43-fold less than the distance among species within a genus. Four species showed higher intraspecific divergences ranging from 2.2% to 7.6%, suggesting overlooked diversity. Notably, just one species-pair exhibited barcode divergences of <1%. This library is a first step to better know the molecular diversity of marine fish species from São Paulo, providing a basis for further studies of this fauna - extending the ability to identify these species from all life stages and even fragmentary remains, setting the stage for a better understanding of interactions among species, calibrating the estimations about species composition and richness in an ecosystem, and providing tools for authenticating bioproducts and monitoring illegal species exploitation. PMID:22958713

  17. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Review Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2 to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond , Nicholas B. Goodwin3 and Jeffrey A. Hutchings4 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

  18. Fatty fish, marine ?-3 fatty acids and incidence of heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E B Levitan; A Wolk; M A Mittleman

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:Marine ?-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Consumption of fatty fish and marine ?-3 has been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular diseases. We examined the association of fatty fish and marine ?-3 with heart failure (HF) in a population of middle-aged and older women.Subjects\\/Methods:Participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort aged 48–83 years completed 96-item food-frequency

  19. Links between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip P. Molloy; John D. Reynolds; Matthew J. G. Gage; Iago Mosqueira; Isabelle M. Côté

    2008-01-01

    Sex change is widespread among marine fishes, including many species that are fished heavily, and is thought to be of conservation concern under some circumstances. As such, an important question in conservation is whether the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs), which is a commonly used marine conservation tool, works as effectively for sex-changers as for non-sex-changers. To address this

  20. The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands Kent E. Carpentera

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands Kent E integration, conservation Synopsis Multiple datasets show global maxima of marine biodiversity in the Indo scale and identifies a peak of marine biodiversity in the central Philippine Islands and a secondary

  1. Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian D. Olden; Zeb S. Hogan; M. Jake Vander Zanden

    2007-01-01

    Aim In light of the current biodiversity crisis, there is a need to identify and protect species at greatest risk of extinction. Ecological theory and global-scale analyses of bird and mammal faunas suggest that small-bodied species are less vulnerable to extinction, yet this hypothesis remains untested for the largest group of vertebrates, fish. Here, we compare body-size distributions of freshwater

  2. Effects of fish feeding by snorkellers on the density and size distribution of fishes in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Milazzo; F. Badalamenti; T. Vega Fernández; R. Chemello

    2005-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that supplementary feeding by humans in terrestrial environments causes pronounced changes in the distribution and behaviour of wild animals, at present very little is known about the potential for such effects on marine fish. This study evaluated the consequences of feeding by snorkellers on fish assemblages in the no-take area

  3. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wantiez; P. Thollot; M. Kulbicki

    1997-01-01

    The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that

  4. Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Roessig; Christa M. Woodley; Lara J. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    Global climate change is impacting and will continue to impact marine and estuarine fish and fisheries. Data trends show global climate change effects ranging from increased oxygen consumption rates in fishes, to changes in foraging and migrational patterns in polar seas, to fish community changes in bleached tropical coral reefs. Projections of future conditions portend further impacts on the distribution

  5. Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Roessig; Christa M. Woodley; Joseph J. Cech; Lara J. Hansen

    2005-01-01

    page 251 Abstract Global climate change is impacting and will continue to impact marine and estuarine fish and fisheries. Data trends show global climate change effects ranging from increased oxygen consumption rates in fishes, to changes in foraging and migrational patterns in polar seas, to fish community changes in bleached tropical coral reefs. Projections of future conditions portend further impacts

  6. Utilization of soybean products in non-salmonid marine fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current feeds for marine finfish are heavily dependend on fish meal and fish oil to meet their critical protein and lipid requirements. Due to the increased demand, uncertain availability, and rising costs of fish meal and oil, however, several ingredients of plant origin have been evaluated as pote...

  7. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  8. Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Michael B; Claus, C Anne; Naidoo, Robin

    2010-10-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs. The ability of most fishing groups to govern MPA resources changed. Increased resource rights were positively correlated with MPA zoning and compliance with MPA regulations. Small sample sizes precluded statistical tests of the impacts of MPAs on employment, community organization, and income. Our results demonstrate that MPAs shape the social well-being and political power of fishing communities; impacts (positive and negative) vary within and among social groups; and social impacts are correlated with some--but not all--commonly hypothesized explanatory factors. Accordingly, MPAs may represent a viable strategy for enhancing food security and empowering local communities, but current practices negatively affect at least a minority of fishers. To inform policy making, further research must better document and explain variation in the positive and negative social impacts of MPAs. PMID:20507354

  9. Marine macroalgae as foods for fishes: an evaluation of potential food quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Linn Montgomery; Shelby D. Gerking

    1980-01-01

    Synopsis  A revitalized view of feeding by herbivorous marine fishes is sought through two questions. First, What characteristics of\\u000a major taxa of algae identify them as predictably high or low quality foods? Second, are marine algae valuable foods for fishes\\u000a which do not mechanically disrupt cell walls and do not harbor specialized enzymes or microbes capable of lysing cell walls?\\u000a Energy,

  10. Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

  11. Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination of marine fish: a guide to procedures and methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K MacKenzie; P Abaunza

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for parasitologists and fishery biologists to the use of parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination of marine fish. Key literature on parasitology and fisheries biology is listed, and the following topics are covered: (1) the general principles involved in the use of parasites as tags in fish population studies

  12. Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12 Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine

    E-print Network

    survey trial A practical trial of undertaking seabed habitat mapping surveys from a fishing vessel sidescan sonar marine habitats survey trial - A practical trial of undertaking seabed habitat mapping. The project was a novel programme in which a commercial fishing vessel undertook an acoustic seabed survey

  13. PATTERNS OF LARVAL DRIFT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MARINE SHORE FISHES INFERRED FROM ALWZYME DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBIN S. WAPLES; RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT

    1987-01-01

    ABSTRACf A multispecies analysis of allozyme data for 10 marine shore fishes was undertaken to identify patterns of genetic differentiation resulting from.larval drift. Previous studies suggest that allele frequencies in these fishes are sensitive primarily to the effects of migration, rather than to natural selection or historical factors. The following patterns recur in most species: 1) Two northern populations (La

  14. DEEPWATER HABITAT AND FISH RESOURCES ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIG CREEK MARINE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGOR CAILLIET; ROBERT N. LEA; H. GARY GREENE

    2002-01-01

    Big Creek Marine Ecological Reserve (BCER), lo- cated off the central California coast, has been closed to fishing since January 1994. We used side scan sonar and an occupied submersible to collect baseline infor- mation on species-habitat relationships, density, and species and size composition of fish inside and outside BCER. Forty-three dives were made in the fall of 1997 and

  15. Bacterial Interactions in Early Life Stages of Marine Cold Water Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Hansen; J. A. Olafsen

    1999-01-01

    The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria\\u000a that eventually may affect establishment of a ``normal'' mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions\\u000a between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marine fish. Bacterial adhesion\\u000a and colonization of the egg surface occur

  16. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  17. BIOACCUMULATION OF DDT AND PCB IN TISSUES OF MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes of commercial importance were monitored in New England coastal waters in 1974 to determine whether synthetic organic residues in the fish were large enough to affect the utilization of such fish as food by man or to interfere with their ability to reproduce. About 700 fish...

  18. The marine medaka Oryzias melastigma--a potential marine fish model for innate immune study.

    PubMed

    Bo, Jun; Cai, Ling; Xu, Jia-He; Wang, Ke-Jian; Au, Doris W T

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a potential marine fish model for innate immune and immunotoxicological studies. Hepcidin plays an important role in innate immune system. Two hepcidin genes (OM-hep1 and OM-hep2) were identified and characterized in the O. melastigma, which were highly conserved with other reported hepcidins. During embryogenesis, significant elevation of OM-hep1 and OM-hep2 transcripts were coincided with liver development in the embryos. In adult medaka, differential tissue expressions of both hepcidin transcripts were evident: high in liver, moderate in spleen and low in non-immune tissues. After bacterial challenge, the two hepcidin mRNAs were rapidly and remarkably induced in liver and spleen, suggesting the two OM-hepcidins in O. melastigma play a complementary role in innate defense. Gender difference in time of induction and extent of the two hepcidin mRNAs elevation in infected O. melastigma should be considered in immunotoxicological studies. PMID:21683423

  19. Extinction Risk and Overfishing: Reconciling Conservation and Fisheries Perspectives on the Status of Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Trevor D.; Baum, Julia K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

  20. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of ?13C and ?15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean ?15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted ?15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  1. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of ?13C and ?15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean ?15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted ?15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  2. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

  3. Climate controls on marine ecosystems and fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Alheit, Juergen; Bakun, Andrew; Hurrell, James W.; Mackas, David L.; Miller, Arthur J.

    2010-02-01

    This paper discusses large-scale climate variability for several marine ecosystems and suggests types of ecosystem responses to climate change. Our analysis of observations and model results for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans concludes that most climate variability is accounted for by the combination of intermittent 1-2 year duration events, e.g. the cumulative effect of monthly weather anomalies or the more organized El Niño/La Niña, plus broad-band "red noise" intrinsic variability operating at decadal and longer timescales. While ocean processes such as heat storage and lags due to ocean circulation provide some multi-year memory to the climate system, basic understanding of the mechanisms resulting in observed large decadal variability is lacking and forces the adoption of a "stochastic or red noise" conceptual model of low frequency variability at the present time. Thus we conclude that decadal events with rapid shifts and major departures from climatic means will occur, but their timing cannot be forecast. The responses to climate by biological systems are diverse in character because intervening processes introduce a variety of amplifications, time lags, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Decadal ecosystem variability can involve a variety of climate to ecosystem transfer functions. These can be expected to convert red noise of the physical system to redder (lower frequency) noise of the biological response, but can also convert climatic red noise to more abrupt and discontinuous biological shifts, transient climatic disturbance to prolonged ecosystem recovery, and perhaps transient disturbance to sustained ecosystem regimes. All of these ecosystem response characteristics are likely to be active for at least some locations and time periods, leading to a mix of slow fluctuations, prolonged trends, and step-like changes in ecosystems and fish populations in response to climate change. Climate variables such as temperatures and winds can have strong teleconnections (large spatial covariability) within individual ocean basins, but between-basin teleconnections, and potential climate-driven biological synchrony over several decades, are usually much weaker and a highly intermittent function of the conditions prevailing at the time within the adjoining basins. As noted in the recent IPCC 4th Assessment Report, a warming trend of ocean surface layers and loss of regional sea ice is likely before 2030, due to addition of greenhouse gases. Combined with large continuing natural climate variability, this will stress ecosystems in ways that they have not encountered for at least 100s of years.

  4. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  5. Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

    2013-08-01

    With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

  6. Gone gene fishing: how to catch novel marine antimicrobials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksander Patrzykat; Susan E. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Medical or health-promoting products of marine origin are often regarded with skepticism – some, such as shark fins and cod liver oil, are frequently perceived as low-tech ‘alternative treatments’ largely because they have not been exploited to their full potential. The marine environment is an enormous source of biodiversity – 80% of all life is found under the oceans’ surfaces

  7. Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

    2001-01-01

    The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

  8. Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  9. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (? 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  10. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in commercially important marine fishes from Mumbai Harbor, India.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, A; Satheesh Kumar, P; Ram, Anirudh; Chinnadurai, S

    2014-04-15

    Seventeen commercially important marine fish species were caught in Mumbai Harbor using a trawl net and evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and ICP-OES. It was found that certain species of fish contained lower levels of all metals tested. J. elongatus and C. dussumieri had the highest levels of all 8 metals tested. The heavy metal concentrations were significantly varied within and between the studied fishes (p<0.05). However, a significant correlation among heavy metals was observed. This investigation indicated that various levels of heavy metals exist in the fish species sampled, but those concentrations are within the maximum residual levels recommended by the European Union and FAO/WHO. Therefore, fish caught in Mumbai Harbor can be considered safe for human consumption. PMID:24631401

  12. Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is a pelagic marine fish that is dis-

    E-print Network

    127 Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is a pelagic marine fish that is dis- tributed over a large- nitude (Gold et al., 1993). Red drum supports highly valu- able commercial and recreational fisheries the status of red drum spawning stocks. Because there have been no prolonged offshore fisheries for adult red

  13. LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

  14. Substitution of live food by formulated diets in marine fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Cahu; José Zambonino Infante

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, it was considered impossible to feed newly hatched marine fish species with a compound diet. Substituting a compound diet for live prey was performed several weeks after hatching, depending on the species. Compound diets were well ingested at the early stage but larvae died with a gut full of food, suggesting that larvae were unable to digest the

  15. Do Mediterranean fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs differ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bussotti; P. Guidetti

    2009-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs were investigated in the Salento Peninsula (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea) by using visual census methods. Sampling was done at three sites, each of which included 4 habitat types: the external and the internal portions of caves, and shallow and deep rocky cliffs. 10 and 13 species were found exclusively inside cave

  16. Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions be either described as acoustic displacement, particle velocity, or particle acceleration, each of which can

  17. Renaissance of a caveat: Allee effects in marine fish Jeffrey A. Hutchings1,2*

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Renaissance of a caveat: Allee effects in marine fish Jeffrey A. Hutchings1,2* 1 Department: +1 902 494 3736; e-mail: jeff.hutchings@dal.ca. Hutchings, J. A. Renaissance of a caveat: Allee to the Danish Academy of Natural Sciences entitled "Renaissance of the Individual". It was intended to place his

  18. James T.. Golden Hatfield Marine Science Center. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    James T.. Golden Hatfield Marine Science Center. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Building 3"-Potential effects of parental stock size and environ- mental factors on year-class strength (YCS) of petrale sole larval stages are most abundant. A regression model based on indices of offshore Ekman transport from

  19. Osmoregulation in marine fish Three distinct strategies for maintaining salt and water

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    . Under steady state conditions at constant salinities, hagfish, elasmobranchs and coelacanths presumably and extra-renal fluid loss to the hypertonic marine environment in hypo-osmoregulating fish was compensated drinking when exposed to elevated ambient salinity, and evidence for components of the rennin

  20. Requirements for marine protected areas to conserve the biodiversity of rocky reef fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Gladstone

    2007-01-01

    This study describes spatial patterns in the biodiversity (species, assemblages) of rocky reef fishes at a spatial scale relevant to management, and compared the outcomes for this biodiversity from alternative procedures for selecting marine protected areas (MPAs) and from the selection of MPAs for fisheries-related objectives. 2. The study area included 104 species in two assemblage types; 36 species and

  1. Marine Recreational Fishing and Associated State-Federal Research in

    E-print Network

    composition and weights. All salmon boat anglers are excluded from the survey as each state estimates its own boat slips and berths (Morash, 1986), and continued interest in quality fishing and fishery products

  2. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  3. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  4. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

  5. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-01-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  6. Microenvironmental variability and species diversity in treefall gaps in a sub-tropical broadleaved forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Barik; H. N. Pandey; R. S. Tripathi; P. Rao

    1992-01-01

    Microenvironmental variability and species diversity in gaps and forest understorey were studied to assess the role of treefall gaps in maintaining composition and patchy distribution in a broad-leaved sub-tropical climax forest, Mawphlang, Meghalaya, India. Photon flux density was higher in gaps than in the surrounding understorey. Relative humidity was low and the litter layer was relatively thin in gaps throughout

  7. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Williamson, David H; Evans, Richard D; Almany, Glenn R; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Feldheim, Kevin A; van Herwerden, Lynne; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves, the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km(2) study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. PMID:22633811

  8. First detection of piscine reovirus (PRV) in marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Løvoll, Marie; Sandlund, Nina; Faller, Randi; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Bang Jensen, Britt

    2012-01-24

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. several months after the fish have been transferred to seawater. Recently, a new virus called piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified in Atlantic salmon from an outbreak of HSMI and in experimentally challenged fish. PRV is associated with the development of HSMI, and has until now only been detected in Atlantic salmon. This study investigates whether the virus is also present in wild fish populations that may serve as vectors for the virus. The virus was found in few of the analyzed samples so there is probably a more complex relationship that involves several carriers and virus -reservoirs. PMID:22422096

  9. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  10. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, Andrew L; Tlusty, Michael F; Schofield, Pamela J; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A; Bruckner, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  11. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATORY FISH, FORAGE FISHES, AND JUVENILE SALMONID MARINE SURVIVAL OFF THE COLUMBIA RIVER: A SIMPLE TROPHIC MODEL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT L. EMMETT; DAVID B. SAMPSON

    A trophic model that simulates interactions between a predatory fish (Pacific hake, Merluccius productus), for- age fish, and juvenile salmon off the Columbia River was constructed to identify if trophic interactions could account for marine mortality of Columbia River juve- nile salmon. The model estimates the number of juve- nile salmon that are eaten annually by Pacific hake off the

  12. Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming I. The concept of the MOM system (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen; Jan Aure; Anders Stigebrandt; Per Johannessen; Terje Jahnsen

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the concept of a management system called MOM (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring) which may be used to adjust the local environmental impact of marine fish farms to the holding capacity of the sites. The concept is based on integrating the elements of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of impact and environmental quality standards (EQS) into one system. The amount

  13. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel Mabragaña; Juan Martín Díaz de Astarloa; Robert Hanner; Junbin Zhang; Mariano González Castro

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded

  14. Threat and decline in fishes: an indicator of marine biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas K. Dulvy; Simon Jennings; Stuart I. Rogers; David L. Maxwell

    2006-01-01

    Recent policy commitments aim to reduce biodiversity loss and integrate environmental concerns into fisheries management. However, there are few operational indicators for reporting biodiversity trends and judging progress in relation to management objectives. Here we develop a threat indicator based on the population status of a suite of 23 North Sea fishes from 1982 to 2001 estimated using World Conservation

  15. Nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae and broodstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. IZQUIERDO; CANARIO DE CIENCIAS MARINAS

    ~~ of different components of broodstock diets such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids and phosphoglycerides. Some authors have also studied the nutritional quality of raw components used in broodstock diets for these species. However, few of them deal with Mediterranean fish species. A considerable amount of research has been devoted lately to study the nutritional

  16. 1994 Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service

    E-print Network

    Wildlife and Plants: Notice of Interagency Cooperative Policy for Peer Review in Endangered Species Act by the Services under authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, and associated of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ARLSQ 452, 18th and C Streets, NW., Washington, D

  17. Strontium and barium uptake in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRETCHEN E. BATH; S IMON R. THORROLD; CYNTHIA M. JONES; STEVEN E. CAMPANA; JAMES W. MCLAREN; JOSEPH W. H. LAM

    2000-01-01

    Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved

  18. Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Kong, R Y C; Giesy, J P; Wu, R S S; Chen, E X H; Chiang, M W L; Lim, P L; Yuen, B B H; Yip, B W P; Mok, H O L; Au, D W T

    2008-01-31

    A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5microm) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, V(v)) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8+/-0.2 mgO(2)L(-1) for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment. PMID:18055030

  19. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  20. Climate controls on marine ecosystems and fish populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Overland; Juergen Alheit; Andrew Bakun; James W. Hurrell; David L. Mackas; Arthur J. Miller

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses large-scale climate variability for several marine ecosystems and suggests types of ecosystem responses to climate change. Our analysis of observations and model results for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans concludes that most climate variability is accounted for by the combination of intermittent 1–2 year duration events, e.g. the cumulative effect of monthly weather anomalies or the more organized

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

  2. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  3. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several fields, from fisheries and conservation programs to control of fish products authenticity. PMID:25222272

  4. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  5. Marine and farmed fish on the Polish market: Comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD\\/Fs and other contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Szlinder-Richert; Zygmunt Usydus; Ma?gorzata Malesa-Cie?wierz; Lucyna Polak-Juszczak; Wies?awa Ruczy?ska

    Chemical analyses were performed in nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market. These included Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), marine fish imported from China (Alaska pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia). The nutritional composition (amino acid, micro- and macronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins – A1, D3,

  6. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-01-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  7. Multi-biomarker responses in fishes from two typical marine aquaculture regions of South China.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuting; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Xinyu; Pan, Debo; Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Ximei

    2012-11-01

    The impact of typical pollutants upon the fish-farming was assessed by use of a battery of biomarkers in two typical marine aquaculture regions in South China. Biotransformation parameters including 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in five cultured fish species. Pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), heavy metals and antibiotics (quinolones and sulfonamides) in sediments were characterized. Higher pollutant residue levels were observed in Dapeng Cove. EROD, APND and ERND activities were lower in fish from Dapeng Cove compared with fish from Hailing Island, while it is just on the contrary for GST and MDA. ERND, APND and GST showed sensitivity corresponding to different pollutants. Small fish species seemed to exhibit more sensitive to pollutants. The study further supports usefulness of multi-biomarker approach considering multiple species to define the effects of anthropogenic inputs in marine aquaculture systems. PMID:23010653

  8. Digestive chitinolytic activity in marine fishes of Monterey Bay, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena A. Gutowska; Jeffrey C. Drazen; Bruce H. Robison

    2004-01-01

    Chitinolytic activities, both chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) and minimum chitobiase (?-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase; EC 3.2.1.30), were measured in stomach and intestinal tissues and their contents, from 13 fish species. Higher activities were found in the tissues than in the gut contents, and higher activities were seen in the stomachs than in the intestines. Demersal species exhibited chitobiase activities very close to their chitinase

  9. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

  10. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

  11. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  12. Embryonic exposure to PFOS induces immunosuppression in the fish larvae of marine medaka.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Huang, Qiansheng; Ye, Ting; Chen, Yajie; Liu, Liangpo; Kang, Mei; Lin, Yi; Shen, Heqing; Dong, Sijun

    2013-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a global pollutant that has been studied because of its health risks. PFOS has been shown to have immune toxicity. However, few studies have focused on the immune responses of fish larvae exposed to PFOS at early embryonic stages. In this study, the larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were evaluated for postnatal immune toxicity after embryonic exposure to PFOS (0, 1, 4 and 16mg/L) from 2 days post fertilization (dpf). The physiological indices, survival rates, PFOS elimination kinetics, liver histology and gene transcription in the fish larvae were examined after depuration. The elimination rate constant (ke) of PFOS in the fish larvae ranged from 0.04±0.00 to 0.07±0.01d(-1). Embryonic exposure to PFOS severely compromised the postnatal survival of fish larvae after depuration. The survival rate and body width decreased in a concentration dependent manner. PFOS impaired the liver structure in the fish larvae by enlarging the cell nuclei and damaging the cell structure. To explore the toxic mechanisms that affect the immune responses, fish larvae at 27 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to elicit an inflammatory response. The inflammatory response and immune-related genes were generally up-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 0mg/L PFOS. In contrast, the genes were all markedly down-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 1 and 4mg/L PFOS. These results suggest that early life exposure to PFOS could alter immunoregulation functions, leading to functional dysfunction or weakness of the immune system in fish larvae. The immunosuppression effects caused by PFOS could reduce the efficiency of immune defense mechanisms and increase the susceptibility to infectious agents, which may contribute to various detrimental health effects in the fish larvae. PMID:23545396

  13. A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brice X. Semmens; Eric R. Buhle; Anne K. Salomon; Christy V. Pattengill-Semmens

    2004-01-01

    Invasions of non-native species in marine ecosystems can be ecologically damaging and economically costly. Identifying 'hot-spots' of non-native species and their sources of introduction is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of invasion quarantine programs. We use a large spatially explicit marine fish database to show that there are a surprising number of non-native fishes on the reefs of southeast Florida,

  14. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in the closing remarks delivered by Joseph Gaydos, SeaDoc Society and Chair of the Puget Sound Science Panel. Dr. Gaydos’ presentation referenced the 2011 paper by Murray Rudd in the journal Conservation Biology, “How research-prioritization exercises affect conservation policy.” The paper points out that policy makers and funding agencies are more likely to gain a full understanding of issues when they are presented with research findings from an aligned research program. That is, compared to unaligned research strategies, where work is not based on identified research priorities.

  15. LARVAL FISHES OF YAQUINA BAY, OREGON: A NURSERY GROUND FOR MARINE FISHES?

    E-print Network

    is an important nursery area for these species. Of the 44 types of larval fishes found in the bay. C. h. pall'ls area. For this reason man's infringement on them for recreation, land development, harbors. agriculture

  16. Effects of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth, and behaviour of unfed marine fish-larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Fukuhara

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth and behaviour of larvae of four species of marine fishes, i.e.,Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Engraulis japonica, Pagrus major andParalichthys olivaceus, was investigated under laboratory conditions at Hiroshima in 1989. The yolk sac was absorbed earlier with increasing temperature for all species. Morphological characters such as pectoral fin appearance, mouth opening and eye pigmentation

  17. A CARD-FISH protocol for the identification and enumeration of epiphytic bacteria on marine algae.

    PubMed

    Tujula, Niina A; Holmström, Carola; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Crocetti, Gregory R

    2006-06-01

    A CARD-FISH protocol was developed and applied to analyse surface-associated bacteria on the marine algae Ulva lactuca, Delisea pulchra, Corallina officinalis, Amphiroa anceps, Porphyra sp. and Sargassum linearifolium. The combination of Alexa(546)-labelled tyramide as the reporter molecule with SYBR Green II counterstain allowed for superior detection of the hybridised probe fluorescence against plant tissue from which pigment autofluorescence has been reduced. PMID:16216355

  18. Do Mediterranean fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussotti, S.; Guidetti, P.

    2009-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs were investigated in the Salento Peninsula (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea) by using visual census methods. Sampling was done at three sites, each of which included 4 habitat types: the external and the internal portions of caves, and shallow and deep rocky cliffs. 10 and 13 species were found exclusively inside cave habitats (e.g. Corcyrogobius lichtensteini, Thorogobius ephippiatus and Grammonus ater) or in rocky cliffs (e.g. Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa, Sparisoma cretense, Spondyliosoma cantharus), respectively. The four habitat types shared 10 species, and the external portions of the caves shared the most species (both with the internal cave portions and the external rocky cliffs). As a general rule, dissimilarity in the fish assemblage structure between habitats was far greater than dissimilarity between sites. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with caves) and Chromis chromis (typifying rocky cliffs, mainly the deep ones) mostly contributed to dissimilarities between caves and rocky cliffs. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with internal caves) and Coris julis (mainly associated to external cave portions) contributed strongly to dissimilarities between internal and external cave portions, while C. chromis, Symphodus mediterraneus and C. julis (associated with the deeper cliffs) and Thalassoma pavo (mostly present in shallow cliffs) differentiated deep and shallow cliffs. Diplodus vulgaris, Oblada melanura and Mullus surmuletus showed a marked increase in density during the cold season in the caves. These results show that fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs rich in marine caves (in terms of relative densities, species composition, species richness, exclusive species and presence of juveniles of some valuable species) may be affected by the peculiar ecological conditions within caves, which could provide additional resources for fishes (e.g. food availability, refuge against predators, sand patches within a rocky matrix) compared to rocky reefs without caves. These results suggest that stretches of rocky coasts rich in marine caves should be considered within management/conservation programs (e.g. when establishing Marine Protected Areas).

  19. Measuring marine fishes biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Julia K. Baum

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions

  20. In situ ontogeny of behaviour in pelagic larvae of three temperate, marine, demersal fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Leis; Amanda C. Hay; Thomas Trnski

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of behaviour relevant to dispersal was studied in situ with reared pelagic larvae of three warm temperate, marine,\\u000a demersal fishes: Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Acanthopagrus australis and Pagrus auratus (both Sparidae). Larvae of 5–14 mm SL were released in the sea, and their swimming speed, depth and direction were observed\\u000a by divers. Behaviour differed among species, and to some extent,

  1. Effects of GillNet Fishing on Marine Birds in a Biological Hotspot in the Northwest Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GAIL K. DAVOREN

    2007-01-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland

  2. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  3. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  4. Dietary modulation of some digestive enzymes and Metabolic processes in developing marine fish: Applications to diet formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Zambonino Infante; C. L. Cahu

    2007-01-01

    During these last 20 years, many studies have focussed on the development of the digestive tract in marine fish larvae. Most of the studies aimed at acquiring knowledge on the optimal form of dietary supply for different nutrients, in order to formulate a compound diet able to totally replace live preys in the fish larvae feeding sequence. Consequently, most of the

  5. Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Subramaniyan; Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Jayanthi, Palaniyappan

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 10 species of fishes caught at Cochin and Rameshwaram coast, and sold in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Species were selected on the basis of their regular availability throughout the year and commercial value. A total of 389 fishes were analyzed for organochlorine residues and their suitability for human consumption was evaluated. Results show varying levels of residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan and dieldrin. Among the 10 species, high concentration of pesticide residues were recorded in Sardinella longiceps, Carangoides malabaricus, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Saurida tumbil and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The variation in total organochlorine residues among species and between places was not significant (P>0.05). Only five species of fishes showed monthly variation in residue levels and there was no significant correlation between the body size and residue levels in the tissue. About 22% of the fishes exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRL) of total HCH prescribed by FAO/WHO for fish products. The calculated dietary intake of total HCH through consumption of C. malabaricus, C. agassizi and S. longiceps exceeded the maximum acceptable dietary intake (ADI) limits prescribed for human consumption. The present study recommends continuous monitoring of environmental contaminants in marine fishes to assess the possible impact on human health. PMID:18849026

  6. Immunotoxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the marine fish Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiansheng; Chen, Yajie; Chi, Yulang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Huanteng; Fang, Chao; Dong, Sijun

    2015-05-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have both been reported to induce adverse effects including immunotoxicity. Despite the widespread presence of these two chemicals in estuaries and seawater, their health effects on marine fish have received little attention. Oryzias melastigma is a potential marine fish model for immunological studies. In the present study, immune-related genes in O. melastigma were enriched at the transcriptome level. Three-month-old fish were exposed to PFOS and DEHP (single or combined) for one week. The liver index-hepatosomatic index (HSI) of the fish was higher in the PFOS-exposed group and combined group than in the control group. This result indicates that PFOS might lead to liver toxicity. The mRNA level of interleukin-1 beta (IL1?) was upregulated after exposure. For catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), single exposure did not affect mRNA levels, but the combined exposure did significantly alter the expression of these genes. In all, our study provides a useful reference for immunotoxicological studies with O. melastigma; it also highlights the importance of assessing the combined effects of pollutant mixtures when determining the risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:25687394

  7. The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-01-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

  8. Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

  9. Risk Assessment of Residual DDTs in Freshwater and Marine Fish Cultivated Around the Pearl River Delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Leung; C. K. Kwok; X. P. Nie; K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

    2010-01-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected\\u000a from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China\\u000a (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed

  10. Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

    Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

  11. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  12. Bacterial Interactions in Early Life Stages of Marine Cold Water Fish.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Olafsen

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract The intensive rearing of various fish species in aquaculture has revealed intimate relationships between fish and bacteria that eventually may affect establishment of a "normal" mucosal microflora or result in disease epizootics. Interactions between bacteria and mucosal surfaces play important roles both at the egg and larval stages of marine fish. Bacterial adhesion and colonization of the egg surface occur within hours after fertilization. The diverse flora which eventually develops on the egg appears to reflect the bacterial composition and load of the ambient water, but species-specific adhesion at the egg surface may also play a role in development of the egg epiflora. Proteolytic enzymes produced by members of the adherent epiflora may cause serious damage to the developing egg and may also affect further adhesion of the epiflora. Ingestion of bacteria at the yolk sac stage results in establishment of a primary intestinal microflora which seems to persist beyond first feeding. Establishment of a gut microflora is likely to undergo several stages, resulting in an "adult" microflora weeks to months after first feeding. Ingested bacteria may serve as an exogenous supply of nutrients or essential factors at an early life stage. Early exposure to high bacterial densities is probably important for immune tolerance, and thus for the establishment of a protective intestinal microflora. Successful rearing of early life stages of several marine fish species depends on knowledge of the complex interactions among the cultured organisms and the bacterial communities which develop at the mucosal surfaces and in the ambient water and rearing systems. The routine use of antibiotics during rearing of fish larvae is not advisable, since it may increase the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the indigenous microflora of the larvae. The use of probiotics has proven advantageous in domestic animal production, and the search for effective probiotics may have a great potential in aquaculture of marine organisms. Bacteria with antagonistic effects against fish pathogens have been successfully administered to several fish species, resulting in decreased mortality or increased growth rate.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/38n1p1.html PMID:10384006

  13. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  14. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11) g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12) g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9) g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10) g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10) g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  15. Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

    2014-10-01

    Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ?6/?3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality. PMID:24799210

  16. Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

  17. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.A. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration. PMID:24401080

  19. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  20. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

  1. A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work. PMID:22558244

  2. Applying population genetics for authentication of marine fish: the case of saithe (Pollachius virens).

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Konstanze; Rehbein, Hartmut; von Appen, Annika; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-28

    The number of fishery products with a quite detailed description of the origin is increasing. This trend is driven by the interest of consumers and the fight against illegal unregulated and unreported fisheries. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to prove this information experimentally besides the document-based traceability assessments. For marine fish population genetics is a promising strategy, but research is concentrated only on a few species. Saithe is a commercially important fish species, despite the fact that genetic knowledge is scarce regarding the specification of populations. For a comparative study cost- and time-effective strategies were tested: We found RAPD-PCR to be a useful method for low-budget research or prestudies. Adoption of microsatellites from closely related species turned out to be possible with limited success quota. Our results suggest a clustered structure of populations within the Northeast Atlantic, probably overlapping in the northern North Sea. PMID:25557424

  3. Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world’s largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  4. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

  5. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

  6. Culture of harpacticoid copepods: potential as live feed for rearing marine fish.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Copepods are useful as food for marine fish cultivation, in terms of both nutrition and ease of culture. Harpacticoid copepods are favoured over calanoids, since harpacticoids, as a result of their benthic habitat, can be reared at much higher densities. However, their benthic nature also makes mass culture difficult, since large surface areas must be provided. Within Harpacticoida, Tisbe spp. seem most useful, having high overall fecundity, and positive phototaxis of the nauplii. Harpacticoids can synthesise de novo several nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA), making them desirable as food for rearing marine fish. However, a diet rich in EFAs (e.g. animal derived feed) improves the productivity of copepod cultures, suggesting that the synthesis of EFA is rate-limiting for their reproduction. The nature of the substratum is also important in maintaining a good population, since harpacticoid biomass is more dependent on surface area than volume of a culture. Heterogeneous substrates can support large cultures because of their high surface area, but efficient cleaning methods are necessary. Frequent harvesting of populations will maintain good water quality and an overall low density of sexually mature copepods, raising naupliar productivity overall. Over-harvesting will naturally deplete the population. Harpacticoids are generally tolerant of environmental fluctuations but they do have temperature and salinity optima, and these will be species- and strain-dependent. Harpacticoid copepods are better food for fish larvae than Artemia, because of their ability to synthesise EFAs. The nauplii of harpacticoids are energetically poor but appear to have an appetite-stimulatory effect. Uneaten nauplii grow within the fish rearing tanks and graze on the walls, building up their own nutritional value and maintaining tank hygiene. PMID:12846044

  7. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  8. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.

    PubMed

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  9. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  10. Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activity by coastally caught marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-10-01

    Many commercially important marine fishes are found in estuaries, particularly as juveniles. The estuaries may provide a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Here, carbon ( ?13C) and sulphur ( ?34S) stable isotope data from coastally caught common sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) were used in independent mixing models to determine relative contributions of estuarine prey to white muscle composition. The influence of assumed trophic fractionation was also investigated with sensitivity analysis. At the population level, there was evidence for estuarine contributions to muscle tissue in both species (means from 16.37% to 61.28%), though among-individual variability was considerable. ?13C and ?34S model outputs implied different estuarine contributions for the same individual, likely reflecting the slower turnover of ?34S than ?13C. Sole exhibited population level plasticity in their feeding as juveniles, separating into two distinct juvenile sub-populations; but they are less plastic as older fish when they adopt increasingly marine diets. Whiting show individual plasticity as both juveniles and adults, feeding on prey of estuarine and coastal origin.

  11. Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20

  12. Ecophysiology of marine fish recruitment: A conceptual framework for understanding interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, William H.; Miller, John M.; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    Present data and our application of logic do not permit confident rejection of the null hypothesis: Interannual variation in recruitment of marine fishes (typified by certain flatfishes) is independent of ecophysiological factors. Our inability to reject this hypothesis reflects not its likely validity, but rather a lack of conceptual structure and appropriate data for realistic evaluation of alternative hypotheses. Therefore, in this paper, we set aside as presently intractable the problem of understanding in any generalizable way the specific effects of environment on interannual variation in marine fish recruitment. Instead, we return to a conceptual scheme first proposed almost 50 years ago by F.E.J. Fry for considering effects of environmental factors on the physiology of fishes. We first extend this scheme to population-level responses, including recruitment, and then even further, to community/ecosystem-level responses. Fry supposed that all of environment can be resolved into five classes of physiological effects—controlling (which set the pace of metabolism), limiting (which constrain maximum metabolism), lethal (which completely interdict metabolism), masking (which increase obligatory metabolic work), and directive (which release and unload metabolism by guiding enviroregulatory responses). We suggest that corresponding effects can be recognized at the levels both of population and community/ecosystem. The key analogy is that environment operates on individuals through metabolism, on populations through recruitment, and on communities/ecosystems through abiotic and biotic diversification. In the context of marine-fish populations, we propose that scope for population increase is the difference between maximum and maintenance recruitment to the spawning stock. Maintenance recruitment is the product of critical spawner density and spawner mortality rate; this product varies with environment as the resultant of controlling effects on the metabolism of individuals, and is increased by loading due to masking factors— e.g., predation—that increase one or both multiplicands. Maximum recruitment is limited by deficiencies of resources, primarily food, but also, potentially, by low spawner density. Population-level lethal factors cause extinction, by reducing population scope to sub-zero values for a time exceeding the generation interval. Directive factors distribute the population in space and time, influencing not only habitat use and zoogeographic range, but also providing context for genetic adaptation and speciation. Exploration of this conceptual scheme from the perspective of flatfish life-history strategies and population dynamics, leads to several testable ecophysiological hypotheses about recruitment.

  13. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and ?-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  14. The First Attempt to Understand China's Seafood Issues Marine Capture Fishery, Mariculture, Re-processing Industry, and Consumption of Live Reef Fish and Shark Fin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songlin Wang

    ?. WWF's commitment to sustainable seafood The crisis in global marine fisheries is well documented and accepted by most stakeholders. Scientific evidence indicates that 80 per cent of the world's commercial marine fish stocks are either fully exploited or overfished. Mariculture, although having the potential to alleviate mankind's pressure on marine ecosystems, is currently practiced at the cost of, among

  15. The bottom line: An investigation of the economic, cultural and social costs of industrial longline fishing in the Pacific and the benefits of sustainable use marine protected areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ovetz

    2006-01-01

    Industrial longline fishing can be understood as a case study of the cultural, economic, environmental and social impacts of unsustainable fishing technology. While much attention has been attributed to the impact of industrial longlines on the marine ecosystem, little is known about the impact of longline fishing on local food security, employment, cultural belief systems and traditions, revenue generation from

  16. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Muñoz; María J. Martínez Bueno; Ana Agüera; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling

  17. Depth-Mediated Reversal of the Effects of Climate Change on Long-Term Growth Rates of Exploited Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Thresher; J. A. Koslow; A. K. Morison; D. C. Smith

    2007-01-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861.

  18. CORRELATION OF MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITY WITH ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF A MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specimens of mullet (Mugil cephalus), a marine fish, were given single doses of 3-methylcholanthrene intraperitoneally and the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxygenase system in the liver was measured by the metabolism of benzo(a)-pyrene. The enzyme system was found to...

  19. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-01-01

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast. PMID:25947787

  20. [Dengue: a growing risk to travellers to tropical and sub-tropical regions].

    PubMed

    da Silva-Voorham, Júlia M; Tami, Adriana; Juliana, Amadu E; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Wilschut, Jan C; Smit, Jolanda M

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most common arboviral infection worldwide. Due to global climate change and other factors, the vector of the virus - the Aedes mosquito - has spread considerably over the past decades. Dengue is endemic in almost all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world; meaning that approximately 40% of the world population is at risk of acquiring a dengue infection. The clinical features of dengue vary from a non-specific febrile illness (dengue fever) to at times fatal serious conditions such as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Considering the limited possibilities of prevention it is anticipated that the incidence of dengue will increase in the future. It is expected that health-care providers in non-endemic regions will encounter dengue-infected patients with increasing frequency in their practices. PMID:20025792

  1. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the variability in site features amongst estuaries highlighted the tolerance of these species to different available environmental conditions and provided fundamental information for future spatially explicit modelling of their distribution. This should ultimately enable the prediction of species response to habitat alterations.

  2. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  3. Benggang erosion in sub-tropical granite weathering crust geo-ecosystems: an example from Guangdong Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZENG GUOHUA

    Within a theoretical framework of geo-ecology, this paper deals with benggang erosion processes in areas of China with a sub­ tropical climate and a granite weathering crust. Benggang erosion and its associated erosional morphology occur as the result of the reverse succession of vegetation induced by man's destruction of the forest. In this study, a threshold model for the initiation

  4. CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

  5. Assessment of risk to humans of bisphenol A in marine and freshwater fish from Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi; Huang, Yeqing; Wong, Ming H; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production-volume chemical used in the manufacture of a wide variety of consumer products. However it is also a ubiquitous contaminant that can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. China is the "world factory" and the Pearl River Delta is the major manufacturing center and is consequently polluted. Concentrations of BPA in meats of marketable fish had not been previously reported for this region. In the study upon which we report here concentrations of BPA were determined in 20 common species of freshwater and marine fish, collected from markets in Hong Kong, SAR, China. A comprehensive analytical method based on SPE extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied. The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 and 1.25 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. BPA was detected in 19 species of fish at concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ng g(-1) ww. Average daily BPA intake per person ranged from 1.1×10(2) ng d(-1) for marine fish and 2.2×10(2) ng d(-1) for freshwater fish. Concentrations of BPA in fish from Hong Kong markets unlikely would be causing adverse population-level effects in humans. PMID:21700311

  6. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. PMID:25102953

  7. Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

    1987-01-01

    A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

  8. Life in the unthinking depths: energetic constraints on encephalization in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, T L; Dornburg, A; Brandley, M C; Alfaro, M E; Warren, D L

    2015-05-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the limitation of brain size in vertebrates. Here, we test three hypotheses of brain size evolution using marine teleost fishes: the direct metabolic constraints hypothesis (DMCH), the expensive tissue hypothesis and the temperature-dependent hypothesis. Our analyses indicate that there is a robust positive correlation between encephalization and basal metabolic rate (BMR) that spans the full range of depths occupied by teleosts from the epipelagic (< 200 m), mesopelagic (200-1000 m) and bathypelagic (> 4000 m). Our results disentangle the effects of temperature and metabolic rate on teleost brain size evolution, supporting the DMCH. Our results agree with previous findings that teleost brain size decreases with depth; however, we also recover a negative correlation between trophic level and encephalization within the mesopelagic zone, a result that runs counter to the expectations of the expensive tissue hypothesis. We hypothesize that mesopelagic fishes at lower trophic levels may be investing more in neural tissue related to the detection of small prey items in a low-light environment. We recommend that comparative encephalization studies control for BMR in addition to controlling for body size and phylogeny. PMID:25818759

  9. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen. PMID:24879010

  10. Marine and farmed fish in the Polish market: Comparison of the nutritional value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zygmunt Usydus; Joanna Szlinder-Richert; Maria Adamczyk; Urszula Szatkowska

    2011-01-01

    The proximate composition and fatty acids profiles of the muscle tissues of nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market were examined. The nine studied fish species were: Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), oceanic fish imported from China (walleye pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia).

  11. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in northwest Gulf of Mexico marine fish and invertebrates: indicators of offshore petroleum contamination 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Cynthia Marie

    1994-01-01

    marine fish and invertebrates were collected in the vicinity of offshore petroleum platforms in the northwest Gulf of Mexico and subdivided with respect to distance from the platforms (i.e. "near", 3000 m). Hepatic tissues were analyzed...

  12. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  13. Fish FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

  14. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Brendan P; Coleman, Melinda A; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

  15. Cloning of matrix Gla protein in a marine cartilaginous fish, Prionace glauca : preferential protein accumulation in skeletal and vascular systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Ortiz-Delgado; D. C. Simes; C. S. B. Viegas; B. J. Schaff; C. Sarasquete; M. L. Cancela

    2006-01-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and\\u000a Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft tissue extracts, while the accumulation of the protein\\u000a was found mainly in calcified tissues. More recently, the MGP gene expression was also studied in marine teleost fish where

  16. Occurrence and molecular identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from marine fish in southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Anshary, Hilal; Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  17. Regulation of apical H?-ATPase activity and intestinal HCO?? secretion in marine fish osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Guffey, S; Esbaugh, A; Grosell, M

    2011-12-01

    The absorption of Cl(-) and water from ingested seawater in the marine fish intestine is accomplished partly through Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Recently, a H(+) pump (vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase) was found to secrete acid into the intestinal lumen, and it may serve to titrate luminal HCO(3)(-) and facilitate further Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange, especially in the posterior intestine, where adverse concentration gradients could limit Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. The H(+) pump is expressed in all intestinal segments and in gill tissue of gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) maintained in natural seawater. After acute transfer of toadfish to 60 ppt salinity, H(+) pump expression increased 20-fold in the posterior intestine. In agreement with these observations was a fourfold-increased H(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior intestine of animals acclimated to 60 ppt salinity. Interestingly, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was elevated in the anterior intestine and gill, but not in the posterior intestine. Apical acid secretion by isolated intestinal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers fitted with pH-stat titration systems increased after acclimation to hypersalinity in the anterior and posterior intestine, titrating >20% of secreted bicarbonate. In addition, net base secretion increased in hypersalinity-acclimated fish and was ?70% dependent on serosal HCO(3)(-). Protein localization by immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical region of intestinal enterocytes. These results show that the H(+) pump, especially in the posterior intestine, plays an important role in hypersaline osmoregulation and that it likely has significant effects on HCO(3)(-) accumulation in the intestinal lumen and, therefore, the continued absorption of Cl(-) and water. PMID:21865541

  18. Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

  19. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

  20. Shoaling behaviour enhances risk of predation from multiple predator guilds in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile shoaling zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as shoaling behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced shoaling behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272

  1. A preliminary study on the diversity of fish species and marine fish faunas of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Zhang, Meizhao; Li, Fengqi; Chen, Dagang

    2008-05-01

    There are 3048 species of fish occurring in the China Seas (CS), of which at least 2321 species are found in the South China Sea (SCS), belonging to 35 orders, 236 families and 822 genera. The fish species diversity is analyzed in this paper based on biogeography, biostatistics, fishing methods, etc. It is found that the regional environment, especially biological factors, plays an important role in the distribution of faunas, and there are two fish faunas in the SCS, one in the north and another in the center and south. This regional division is of value for sustainable fishery production and efficient management of fishery resources.

  2. Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2013-08-01

    An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

  3. Evaluation of changes in nutrient composition during production of cross-linked protein microencapsulated diets for marine fish larvae and suspension feeders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Nordgreen; Manuel Yúfera; Kristin Hamre

    2008-01-01

    Cross-linked protein capsules as a vehicle for delivery of nutrients to marine fish larvae and marine suspension feeders were investigated. The effects of the production process on both qualitative and quantitative changes in protein, lipid and micronutrient concentrations were evaluated. There were no changes in lipid concentration and only minor (but significant) differences in crude protein concentrations as a result

  4. Identification of renal transporters involved in sulfate excretion in marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akira; Chang, Min-Hwang; Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Ogoshi, Maho; Nakazato, Takeru; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Shigehisa; Romero, Michael F

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is the second most abundant anion in seawater (SW), and excretion of excess SO(4)(2-) from ingested SW is essential for marine fish to survive. Marine teleosts excrete SO(4)(2-) via the urine produced in the kidney. The SO(4)(2-) transporter that secretes and concentrates SO(4)(2-) in the urine has not previously been identified. Here, we have identified and characterized candidates for the long-sought transporters. Using sequences from the fugu database, we have cloned cDNA fragments of all transporters belonging to the Slc13 and Slc26 families from mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). We compared Slc13 and Slc26 mRNA expression in the kidney between freshwater (FW) and SW mefugu. Among 14 clones examined, the expression of a Slc26a6 paralog (mfSlc26a6A) was the most upregulated (30-fold) in the kidney of SW mefugu. Electrophysiological analyses of Xenopus oocytes expressing mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mouse Slc26a6 (mSlc26a6) demonstrated that all transporters mediate electrogenic Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-), Cl(-)/oxalate(2-), and Cl(-)/nHCO(3)(-) exchanges and electroneutral Cl(-)/formate(-) exchange. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated that the SO(4)(2-)-elicited currents of mfSlc26a6A is quite large (approximately 35 microA at +60 mV) and 50- to 200-fold higher than those of mfSlc26a6B and mSlc26a6. Conversely, the currents elicited by oxalate and HCO(3)(-) are almost identical among mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mSlc26a6. Kinetic analysis revealed that mfSlc26a6A has the highest SO(4)(2-) affinity as well as capacity. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that mfSlc26a6A localizes to the apical (brush-border) region of the proximal tubules. Together, these findings suggest that mfSlc26a6A is the most likely candidate for the major apical SO(4)(2-) transporter that mediates SO(4)(2-) secretion in the kidney of marine teleosts. PMID:19812358

  5. Cloning and expression of a hepcidin gene from a marine fish ( Pseudosciaena crocea) and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic peptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Jian Wang; Jing-Jing Cai; Ling Cai; Hai-Dong Qu; Ming Yang; Min Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin gene is widely expressed in various fish, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide is a very important component in the innate immune system. Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the important economic species of marine-cultured fish but knowledge of its innate immune mechanism is lacking. In this study, we characterize a P. crocea hepcidin gene named as PC-hepc.

  6. 2-Phenoxyethanol as anaesthetic in removing relocating 102 species of fishes representing from Sea World to uShaka Marine World, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D B; Penning, M R; Christison, K W

    2008-09-01

    2-Phenoxyethanol was used as an anaesthetic to translocate 102 species of fishes representing 30 families from the Sea World aquarium on Durban's beachfront to uShaka Marine World. Most fishes responded well to a final anaesthetic concentration of 0.150 ml/l and there were no mortalities. PMID:19040133

  7. Timing and habitat preferences for settlement of juvenile fishes in the Marine Protected Area of Torre Guaceto (south-eastern Italy, Adriatic Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Bussotti; Paolo Guidetti

    2011-01-01

    Timing and habitat preferences for settlement of juvenile fishes were investigated at the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Torre Guaceto (SE Adriatic Sea) from April 2005 to March 2006. Data were obtained by visual census (on a fortnightly basis) in 10 habitat types identified within the depth range 0–6 m. A total of 22 taxa of juvenile fish was recorded:

  8. Recruitment patterns of scleractinian corals in an isolated sub-tropical reef system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriott, V. J.

    1992-12-01

    The density of recruits of scleractinian corals on settlement plates at Lord Howe Island, a small isolated sub-tropical island 630 km off the Australian coastline, was within the range of values reported for comparable studies on the Great Barrier Reef. However, there was a difference in the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, with recruitment at Lord Howe Island during the summer of 1990/91 dominated by corals from the Family Pocilloporidae, Family Poritidae, and sub-genus Acropora (Isopora) (in order of abundance). By contrast, on the Great Barrier Reef, recruits are generally predominantly species from the Family Acroporidae (other than the Acropora (Isopora) group). Both the recruits and the established coral communities at Lord Howe Island are dominanted by corals which release brooded planulae, as opposed to the pattern of mass-spawning with external fertilisation more typical of Great Barrier Reef corals. I hypothesise that the release of brooded planulae would be advantageous in an isolated reef community because (a) brooded larvae can travel large distances and survive the journey to the isolated reef and/or (b) brooded larvae have a shorter period before they are competent to settle and are therefore more likely to be retained on the parental reef once a population has been established.

  9. Predicting landslides from rainfall in a humid, sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Gerald G.; Olivier, Mervin J.

    1993-11-01

    Topography, geology and a humid, sub-tropical climate make the Durban region on the east coast of South Africa particularly prone to sliding mass movements. Records of individual landslides and landslide events between 1970 and 1990 were compared with 22 rainfall variables calculated for the same period. Correlation coefficients demonstrated statistically significant relationships between annual and wet season landslide frequencies and maximum 3-day and maximum monthly wet season rainfall, whereas precipitation for shorter and longer periods was unrelated. Envelopes of critical values for cycle and total coefficients based on the percent of mean annual rainfall were identified for both the timing and magnitude of landslide events. They suggest a two-stage equilibrium condition for the rainfall-mass movement relationship, controlled by average wet season rainfall. Moreover, once the pattern of rainfall for any particular wet season is established, the envelopes allow the prediction of rainfall conditions necessary for landslides to occur. The likelihood of an inaccurate prediction is approximately 10%.

  10. Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica; Hixon, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Correlated genetic responses have been hypothesized as important components of fishery-induced evolution, although predictive data from wild populations have been difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate substantial genetic correlations between a trait often subjected to fishery selection (adult body length) and traits that affect survival of larvae (length and swimming performance) in a wild population of a marine fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Through both genetic covariance and size-dependent maternal effects, selection on adult size may cause a considerable, correlated response in larval traits. To quantify how variation in larval traits may affect survival, we introduce a flexible method that uses information from selection measurements to account for frequency dependence and estimate the relationship between phenotype and relative survival across a broad range of phenotypic values. Using this method, we synthesize studies of selective mortality on larval size for eight species of fish and show that variation in larval size may result in considerable variation in larval survival. We predict that observed rates of fishery selection on adult marine fishes may substantially reduce larval size and survival. The evolution of smaller larvae in response to fishery selection may therefore have substantial consequences for the viability of fished populations. PMID:25568010

  11. Growth and nutrient content of perennial grasslands following burning in semi-arid, sub-tropical Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Bennett; T. S. Judd; M. A. Adams

    2003-01-01

    Fire often increases the productivity of perennial tussock grasslands inmesic environments but can reduce growth for one or more growing seasons inaridand semi-arid environments. We examined effects of single-burns on growth andnutrient content of grasslands in sub-tropical, northwestern Australia. Thesegrasslands were dominated by Themeda triandra, a speciesoften managed by regular burning in wetter temperate and tropical zones. Burnswere in the

  12. Influence of redox potential on phosphate-uptake by sediments in two sub-tropical eutrophic lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Olila; K. R. Reddy

    1997-01-01

    Biogeochemical reactions in shallow eutrophic lakes areaffected bythe changes in redox potential (Eh) as bottom sedimentsundergotemporal resuspension and settling. The stability of varioussediment P fractions and kinetics of P-uptake were evaluatedfortwo sub-tropical lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee,Florida)using sediment suspensions in closed systems maintained atvariousEh levels ranging from -235 to 555 mV. Redox potential hadminimal effect on the stability of

  13. Fluctuations in food supply drive recruitment variation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Daniel K; Schmitt, Russell J; Holbrook, Sally J; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-11-22

    Reproductive rates and survival of young in animal populations figure centrally in generating management and conservation strategies. Model systems suggest that food supply can drive these often highly variable properties, yet for many wild species, quantifying such effects and assessing their implications have been challenging. We used spatially explicit time series of a well-studied marine reef fish (black surfperch Embiotoca jacksoni) and its known prey resources to evaluate the extent to which fluctuations in food supply influenced production of young by adults and survival of young to subadulthood. Our analyses reveal: (i) variable food available to both adults and to their offspring directly produced an order of magnitude variation in the number of young-of-year (YOY) produced per adult and (ii) food available to YOY produced a similar magnitude of variation in their subsequent survival. We also show that such large natural variation in vital rates can significantly alter decision thresholds (biological reference points) important for precautionary management. These findings reveal how knowledge of food resources can improve understanding of population dynamics and reduce risk of overharvest by more accurately identifying periods of low recruitment. PMID:23015631

  14. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  15. Osmoregulation and epithelial water transport: lessons from the intestine of marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    For teleost fish living in seawater, drinking the surrounding medium is necessary to avoid dehydration. This is a key component of their osmoregulatory strategy presenting the challenge of excreting excess salts while achieving a net retention of water. The intestine has an established role in osmoregulation, and its ability to effectively absorb fluid is crucial to compensating for water losses to the hyperosmotic environment. Despite this, the potential for the teleost intestine to serve as a comparative model for detailed, integrative experimental studies on epithelial water transport has so far gone largely untapped. The following review aims to present an assessment of the teleost intestine as a fluid-transporting epithelium. Beginning with a brief overview of marine teleost osmoregulation, emphasis shifts to the processing of ingested seawater by the gastrointestinal tract and the characteristics of intestinal ion and fluid transport. Particular attention is given to acid-base transfers by the intestine, specifically bicarbonate secretion, which creates the distinctly alkaline gut fluids responsible for the formation of solid calcium carbonate precipitates. The respective contributions of these unique features to intestinal fluid absorption, alongside other recognised ion transport processes, are then subsequently considered within the wider context of the classic physiological problem of epithelial water transport. PMID:21735220

  16. The potential for spatial distribution indices to signal thresholds in marine fish biomass.

    PubMed

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  17. Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Richard M.; Wendt, Dean E.; Barnes, Cheryl L.; Marks, Corina I.; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T.; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L.; Hall, Nathan C.; Yochum, Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California’s temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

  18. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  19. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Roži?, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

  20. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

  1. Marine and farmed fish on the Polish market: comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD/Fs and other contaminants.

    PubMed

    Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Usydus, Zygmunt; Malesa-Cie?wierz, Ma?gorzata; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Ruczy?ska, Wies?awa

    2011-12-01

    Chemical analyses were performed in nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market. These included Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), marine fish imported from China (Alaska pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia). The nutritional composition (amino acid, micro- and macronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins - A(1), D(3), E) and certain contaminants (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs; indicator polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB(6); polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs; dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dl-PCBs; organotin compounds, OCTs; dyes, malachite green and crystal violet; veterinary drug residues, nitrofurans and chloramphenicol; toxic metals, Cd, Pb, Hg) in the muscle tissues of fish were determined. It was confirmed that the fish species analyzed were excellent sources of amino acids, and were rich in phosphorous and selenium. Baltic Sea fish (salmon, herring), fish farmed in Poland (carp and trout), and tilapia were also rich in vitamin D(3). Traces of OCP, PCB(6), OCT, dyes, veterinary drug residues, and heavy metals were detected in concentrations which do not pose a threat to consumers at the current rate of fish consumption in Poland. However, the problem might arise from the content of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fatty Baltic fish. The fish species analyzed, differed in their nutritional values and degrees of contamination. We suggest that for optimum health and safety, it is advisable that consumers include a variety of different fish species in their diets. PMID:22014661

  2. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    PubMed

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. PMID:24943478

  3. Tidal flushing time of marine fish culture zones in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jing-Qiao; Wong, Ken T. M.; Lee, Joseph H. W.; Choi, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate determination of flushing time is crucial for maintaining sustainable production in fish culture zones (FCZs), as it represents the physical self-purification capability via tidal exchange with clean water in the outer sea. However, owing to the temporal and spatial complexity of the coastal flushing process, existing methods for determining flushing time may not be generally applicable. In this paper, a systematic method for determining the flushing time in FCZs is presented, in which bathymetry, runoff, tidal range and stratification are properly accounted for. We determine the flushing time via numerical tracer experiments, using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models. For FCZs located in sheltered and land-locked tidal inlets, the system boundary can be naturally defined at the connection with the open sea. For FCZs located in open waters, hydrodynamic tracking is first used to assess the extent of tidal excursion and thus delimit the initial boundary between clean water and polluted water. This general method is applied to all designated marine FCZs in Hong Kong for both the dry and wet seasons, including 20 sheltered FCZs (in semi-enclosed waters of Tolo Harbour, Mirs Bay, and Port Shelter) and 6 FCZs in open waters. Our results show that flushing time is the longest in inner Port Shelter (about 40 days in dry season), and the shortest for the FCZs in open waters (less than one week in dry season). In addition, the flushing time in dry season is commonly longer than that in wet season: 20%˜40% for most well-sheltered FCZs; 2.6˜4 times for the others. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the flushing time and distance to open boundary, supporting the view that the flushing time of a FCZ is closely related to its location. This study provides a solid basis for mariculture management such as the determination of carrying capacity of FCZs.

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

    1984-03-01

    The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P?.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high cytotoxic or genotoxic potential.

  5. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and ?-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while ?-tubulin, V-type ATPase ? subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, ?-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of the differences in gene expression and phenotypes among the different stages of parasitic infection, and might be considered as a source of candidate proteins for disease diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:25997646

  6. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  7. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  8. On the economic optimality of marine reserves when fishing damages habitat

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Holly Villacorta

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I expand a spatially-explicit bioeconomic fishery model to include the negative effects of fishing effort on habitat quality. I consider two forms of effort driven habitat damage: First, fishing effort may ...

  9. Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  10. Basolateral NBCe1 plays a rate-limiting role in transepithelial intestinal HCO3- secretion, contributing to marine fish osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J R; Mager, E M; Grosell, M

    2010-02-01

    Although endogenous CO2 hydration and serosal HCO3- are both known to contribute to the high rates of intestinal HCO3- secretion important to marine fish osmoregulation, the basolateral step by which transepithelial HCO3- secretion is accomplished has received little attention. Isolated intestine HCO3- secretion rates, transepithelial potential (TEP) and conductance were found to be dependent on serosal HCO3- concentration and sensitive to serosal DIDS. Elevated mucosal Cl- concentration had the unexpected effect of reducing HCO3- secretion rates, but did not affect electrophysiology. These characteristics indicate basolateral limitation of intestinal HCO3- secretion in seawater gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. The isolated intestine has a high affinity for serosal HCO3- in the physiological range (Km=10.2 mmol l(-1)), indicating a potential to efficiently fine-tune systemic acid-base balance. We have confirmed high levels of intestinal tract expression of a basolateral Na+/HCO3- cotransporter of the electrogenic NBCe1 isoform in toadfish (tfNBCe1), which shows elevated expression following salinity challenge, indicating its importance in marine fish osmoregulation. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, isolated tfNBCe1 has transport characteristics similar to those in the isolated tissue, including a similar affinity for HCO3- (Km=8.5 mmol l(-1)). Reported affinity constants of NBC1 for Na+ are generally much lower than physiological Na+ concentrations, suggesting that cotransporter activity is more likely to be modulated by HCO3- rather than Na+ availability in vivo. These similar functional characteristics of isolated tfNBCe1 and the intact tissue suggest a role of this cotransporter in the high HCO3- secretion rates of the marine fish intestine. PMID:20086131

  11. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

  12. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-12-01

    An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification. PMID:23009091

  13. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  14. Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

    2011-01-01

    During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

  15. Environmental Forcing of Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical and Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdóttir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L?1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L?1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L?1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L?1 d?1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L?1 d?1 (1?, n?=?65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

  16. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monaco, M.E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, C.; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, R.

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  18. Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacquomo Monk; Daniel Ierodiaconou; Euan Harvey; Alex Rattray; Vincent L. Versace

    2012-01-01

    Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information

  19. Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roldan C. Muñoz; Brian J. Zgliczynski; Joseph L. Laughlin; Bradford Z. Teer

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and\\/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by

  20. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  1. Observations of migrant exchange and mixing in a coral reef fish metapopulation link scales of marine population connectivity.

    PubMed

    Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757

  2. Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

    2012-06-01

    In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

  3. Wintertime observations of SubTropical Mode Water formation within the Gulf Stream

    E-print Network

    Joyce, Terrence M.

    with a dissolved oxygen sensor, fluorometer, and a pressure sensor. The SeaSoar fish was at the end of 1000m laboratory calibrations of the sensors with final corrections made against shipboard CTD/bottle data 2 #12

  4. CAN TISSUE ANOMALIES THAT OCCUR IN MARINE FISH IMPLICATE SPECIFIC POLLUTANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advantage of using tissue abnormalities in wild fish as a measure of fish health is that the abnormality, unlike sensitive biochemical anomalies, cannot be said to have occurred during capture or transport. This paper is concerned with factors (chemical, physical, or biologic...

  5. A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

  6. 78 FR 26751 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...Limited entry permit holders will commonly fish 20 to 30 traps per string, as opposed to open access fishermen who fish several smaller strings of one to eight strings with three to four traps per string (NMFS 2010), each with a float...

  7. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE) are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host-pathogen interactions and evolutionary history of immunogenetics from fish to mammals. PMID:20707909

  8. Host tropism of infectious salmon anaemia virus in marine and freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, M; Dale, O B; McBeath, A; Falk, K

    2015-08-01

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) causes a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Although some ISA outbreaks are caused by horizontal transmission of virus between farms, the source and reservoir of the virus is largely unknown and a wild host has been hypothesized. Atlantic salmon are farmed in open net-pens, allowing transmission of pathogens from wild fish and the surrounding environment to the farmed fish. In this study, a large number of fish species were investigated for ISAV host potential. For orthomyxoviruses, a specific receptor binding is the first requirement for infection; thus, the fish species were investigated for the presence of the ISAV receptor. The receptor was found to be widely distributed across the fish species. All salmonids expressed the receptor. However, only some of the cod-like and perch-like fish did, and all flat fish were negative. In the majority of the positive species, the receptor was found on endothelial cells and/or on red blood cells. The study forms a basis for further investigations and opens up the possibility for screening species to determine whether a wild host of ISAV exists. PMID:25048819

  9. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Page; Jane McKenzie; Rebecca McIntosh; Alastair Baylis; Adam Morrissey; Norna Calvert; Tami Haase; Mel Berris; Dave Dowie; Peter D. Shaughnessy; Simon D. Goldsworthy

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data

  10. The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent E. Carpenter; Victor G. Springer

    2005-01-01

    Synopsis  Multiple datasets show global maxima of marine biodiversity in the Indo–Malay–Philippines archipelago (IMPA). Analysis of distribution data for 2983 species reveals a pattern of richness on a finer scale and identifies a peak of marine biodiversity in the central Philippine Islands and a secondary peak between peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. This pattern is repeated in diverse habitat and higher taxa

  11. The impact of postglacial marine invasions on the genetic diversity of an obligate freshwater fish, the longnose dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ), on the Quebec peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Girard; Bernard Angers

    2006-01-01

    Postglacial seas are expected to have had significant effects on the genetic structure of populations of obli- gate freshwater fishes. To assess this influence, mitochondrial DNA variability was evaluated in 32 populations of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) of the Quebec peninsula located within and outside of the maximum extent of marine invasions of the Champlain and Laflamme seas. Three clades

  12. Application of a real-time underwater surveillance camera in monitoring of fish assemblages on a shallow coral communities in a marine park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Lam; Robin S. Bradbeer; P. K. S. Shin; K. K. K. Ku; P. Hodgson

    2007-01-01

    An underwater surveillance camera has been designed for monitoring fish species activity on an inshore coral reef in a Marine Park in Hong Kong. The system consisted of a high-resolution camera. It was connected to the shore base station via a fibre-optic cable with power conductors. The camera could record video on a DVD recorder with hard disk in real

  13. Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djibril Faye; Luis Tito de Morais; Jean Raffray; Oumar Sadio; Omar Thiom Thiaw; François Le Loc’h

    2011-01-01

    West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine

  14. Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37–66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2009–2017. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:23636803

  15. Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds 

    E-print Network

    Rossberg, Karen Sue

    1979-01-01

    the suitability of cultured shrimp and fishes for human consumption, tissue samples were assayed for concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, Pb) and pesticides (pp'DDE, dieldrin, toxaphene, PCB) Shrimp and pompano samples...

  16. 78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ...above PBR. Given the overall reductions in fish landings, however...79,883 variance). (CV = 0.47...33 Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan Implementing Regulations...consultation with the Take Reduction Team, revise the...

  17. 78 FR 61821 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ...Background The Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (Plan) was implemented...above PBR. Given the overall reductions in fish landings, however...Abundance (coefficient of variance...Team deliberations, bycatch reduction goals, and the Other...

  18. An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers

    E-print Network

    Epps, Brenden P

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

  19. The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. McClanahan; N. A. Muthiga; A. T. Kamukuru; H. Machano; R. W. Kiambo

    1999-01-01

    The macrobenthic (coral, algae, and sea urchins) and fish communities in 15 back-reef sites on the patch and rock-island reefs of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania (?250 km of coastline) were studied in order to (1) test an overfishing model developed in Kenya’s fringing reef (McClanahan, 1995a, A coral reef ecosystem-fisheries model: impacts of fishing intensity and catch selection on

  20. Effect of small versus large clusters of fish school on the yield of a purse-seine small pelagic fishery including a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Brochier, Timothée; Tri, Nguyen-Huu; Auger, Pierre; Brehmer, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    We consider a fishery model with two sites: (1) a marine protected area (MPA) where fishing is prohibited and (2) an area where the fish population is harvested. We assume that fish can migrate from MPA to fishing area at a very fast time scale and fish spatial organisation can change from small to large clusters of school at a fast time scale. The growth of the fish population and the catch are assumed to occur at a slow time scale. The complete model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with three time scales. We take advantage of the time scales using aggregation of variables methods to derive a reduced model governing the total fish density and fishing effort at the slow time scale. We analyze this aggregated model and show that under some conditions, there exists an equilibrium corresponding to a sustainable fishery. Our results suggest that in small pelagic fisheries the yield is maximum for a fish population distributed among both small and large clusters of school. PMID:24833401

  1. Jones P.J.S. (2008) Fishing industry and related perspectives on the issues raised by no-take marine protected area proposals. Marine Policy 32(4), 749-758. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.009

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    2008-01-01

    -take marine protected area proposals. Marine Policy 32(4), 749-758. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.009 1 Fishing(4), 749-758. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.009 #12;Jones P.J.S. (2008) Fishing industry and related:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.12.009 2 Introduction No-take marine protected areas (NTMPAs) can be defined

  2. Identification of intestinal bicarbonate transporters involved in formation of carbonate precipitates to stimulate water absorption in marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Kato, Akira; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mistry, Abinash C; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2008-04-01

    Marine teleost fish precipitate divalent cations as carbonate deposits in the intestine to minimize the potential for excessive Ca2+ entry and to stimulate water absorption by reducing luminal osmotic pressure. This carbonate deposit formation, therefore, helps maintain osmoregulation in the seawater (SW) environment and requires controlled secretion of HCO3(-) to match the amount of Ca2+ entering the intestinal lumen. Despite its physiological importance, the process of HCO3(-) secretion has not been characterized at the molecular level. We analyzed the expression of two families of HCO3(-) transporters, Slc4 and Slc26, in fresh-water- and SW-acclimated euryhaline pufferfish, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus), and obtained the following candidate clones: NBCe1 (an Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter) and Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B (putative Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B have potent HCO3(-)-transporting activity as electrogenic Cl(-)/nHCO3(-) exchangers, whereas mefugu NBCe1 functions as an electrogenic Na+-nHCO3(-) cotransporter. Expression of NBCe1 and Slc26a6A was highly induced in the intestine in SW and expression of Slc26a6B was high in the intestine in SW and fresh water, suggesting their involvement in HCO3(-) secretion and carbonate precipitate formation. Immunohistochemistry showed staining on the apical (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B) and basolateral (NBCe1) membranes of the intestinal epithelial cells in SW. We therefore propose a mechanism for HCO3(-) transport across the intestinal epithelial cells of marine fish that includes basolateral HCO3(-) uptake (NBCe1) and apical HCO3(-) secretion (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B). PMID:18216137

  3. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem integrity. PMID:17650253

  4. Factors determining ?13C and ?18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining ? 13C and ? 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the ? 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between ? 13C- carbonate-? 13C water (? 13C) and temperature: ? 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between ? 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (?) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln ? = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the ? 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the ? 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  5. Methyl chloride emission from a fern growing in sub-tropical, temperate and cool-temperate climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Takenaka, Akio; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hiura, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl chloride(CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the troposphere, and is known as a natural stratospheric ozone depletion compound. Amongst its various sources, tropical forests are likely the largest contributor, followed by biomass burning, oceans and salt marshes. There have been unsolved questions why CH3Cl-emitting plants are dominated by tropical plants. Recently we found that a fern, Osmunda japonica, collected from temperate zone emits as high as several ?g-g(dw)-1-h-1 of CH3Cl. This fern has a wide natural distribution, covering sub-tropical, temperate and cool-temperate climate, making it possible to study the CH3Cl emission rate from one species under different climate conditions. In this presentation, we report seasonal and spatial variation of the CH3Cl emission rate from O. japonica, and discuss its controlling factors.

  6. Intra- and inter-annual variability in the different forms of diffuse nitrogen and phosphorus delivered to seven sub-tropical east Australian estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley D. Eyre; David Pont

    2003-01-01

    Intra- and inter-annual variability in the different forms of diffuse nitrogen and phosphorus delivered to seven sub-tropical east Australian estuaries was examined using river concentration data collected in 1996 and historical flow records. Rainfall during the study period was above average due to high rainfall in January, May and November (southern catchments only) which resulted in early January and May,

  7. Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Phyto-restoration of arsenic-polluted soil ecosystems in the sub/tropics

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida Phyto-restoration of arsenic-polluted soil ecosystems in the sub/tropics Ma, L. Q. and G. Martinez 10/2002-9/2005 Arsenic is of great environmental of this research is to determine the effectiveness of using ferns, especially Brake ferns, to restore arsenic

  8. Morphology and phylogeny of two new species of Sphaeromyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from marine fish (Clinidae and Trachichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Kuchta, Roman; Reed, Cécile C

    2015-04-01

    Our survey of marine fish from South Africa and Indonesia revealed the presence of two new myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa for which we provide morphological and sequence data. Sphaeromyxa clini n. sp. detected in three Clinus spp. and Muraenoclinus dorsalis from South Africa is morphologically similar to Sphaeromyxa noblei previously described from Heteroclinus whiteleggii from Australia and to several other sphaeromyxids with arcuate spores and rounded ends. This similarity is reflected by phylogenetic positioning of S. clini n. sp. which clusters within the 'incurvata' group of the Sphaeromyxa clade. It differs from morphologically similar species by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. Sphaeromyxa limocapitis n. sp., described from Gephyroberyx darwinii from Java, is morphologically similar to sphaeromyxids with straight spores and to marine Myxidium species with spindle-shaped spores but differs from them by spore and polar capsule dimensions, host specificity and geographic distribution. S. limocapitis n. sp. represents a separate lineage of the Sphaeromyxa clade and appears to be a missing link in the evolution of sphaeromyxids. PMID:25417699

  9. Activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by hepatic S-9 from a marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Milling. D.M.; Maddock, M.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper reports initial efforts to characterize the in vitro metabolism of several weakly carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic (in mammals) PAH's by hepatic S-9 preparations from the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) to Salmonella mutagens. The objective was to identify PAH's, if any, which were substantially more mutagenic with fish than with mammalian S-9. However, the results of these studies supported their previous experience and that of others that the mutagenicities of metabolism-dependent genotoxic chemicals are similar with fish and mammalian activation systems.

  10. Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

  11. 75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...stock of Steller sea lions because mortality and serious injury of these stocks incidental...insignificant levels approaching a zero mortality and serious injury rate. Recovery plans...but are required to report injuries or mortalities of marine mammals incidental to...

  12. Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nøstbakken, O. J.; Bredal, I. L.; Olsvik, P. A.; Huang, T. S.; Torstensen, B. E.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293), proliferation (HEK293 and ASK), apoptosis (ASK), oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293), and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK). DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA) or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA). However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg. PMID:22654480

  13. How to detect polymorphisms undergoing selection in marine fishes? A review of methods and case studies, including flatfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinand, Bruno; Lemaire, Christophe; Bonhomme, François

    2004-05-01

    Populations of marine organisms are potentially affected by numerous selective pressures such as temperature and salinity, or anthropogenic pressures such as xenobiotics that may preclude adaptation to particular habitats. Such selective pressures may also affect their demography. Examples include modifications of the population dynamics through shifts in growth rate, and in life history traits affecting fitness such as size or age of first reproduction. However, the documentation of variation in phenotypically plastic traits specific to distinct environments cannot be taken as the ultimate proof that natural selection has occurred. Measurement of the impact of selection and subsequent local adaptation of fish populations based exclusively on morphological or physiological characters is one of the most difficult things to achieve because it depends on the use of phenotypic characters that closely match the genotype. Molecular markers can help to overcome this problem and, under some circumstances, can record the footprints of selection. A combination of polymorphisms that are under selection and those that are not can provide complementary information. In this paper, we review how and why selection can be detected at the molecular level, using genetic markers analysed in a population genetic framework. We then report and discuss case studies in fish.

  14. [Morphological and taxonomical studies on anisakidae larvae found in marine fishes of China. II. Gulf of Tong King].

    PubMed

    Sun, S Z; Tsutomu, K; Noboru, K

    1992-01-01

    A survey on Anisakidae larvae in 29 species (134 specimens) of marine fishes in the Gulf of Tong King has been carried out. Anisakidae larvae were detected in 15 out of 29 species. The detected specimens were identified as larvae of Anisakis simplex, Hysterothylacium and Pseudoterranova. The parasitization rate of Anisakis simplex larvae, the main pathogen of anisakiasis, in fishes was 30.6% (41/134), while the parasitization rates of Hysterothylacium and Pseudoterranova larvae were comparatively low. Hysterothylacium larvae China type I detected from Muraenesox cinereus and Trichiurus haumela was a new record. Their morphological characteristics were summarized as follows: 1. Length 10.78-14.18 mm, Width 0.25-0.38 mm, the length of the esophagus is 1.14-1.73 mm, intestinal cecum 0.77-1.24 mm and ventricular appendage 6.27-8.40 mm, extending parallelly with the intestine to the last quarter of the larva; 2. Boring tooth was present, but mucron was absent; 3. No genital anlage was observed. PMID:1394905

  15. [Residues and health risk assessment of sulfonamides in sediment and fish from typical marine aquaculture regions of Guangdong Province, China].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Ting; Wang, Qi; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Yong-Tao; Cheng, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of sulfonamides including sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidin (SM2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in sediments, muscle and liver tissues of 7 kinds of fish species collected from two marine aquaculture regions along the coast of Guangdong Provice were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a ultraviolet detector. Assessment of the health risks were conducted based on the values of maximum residue limits (MRL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results showed that sulfonamides were found in all the sediment samples. The concentrations (dry wet) ranged from 2.1 - 35.2 ng x g(-1), the detected frequency of the 3 sulfonamide antibiotics ranked as SDZ (85.7%) > SM2 (71.4%) > SMX (28.6%). The detection rate of sulfonamides in samples from Daya Bay was higher than that from Hailing Island. Higher concentrations were detected in liver tissues rather than in muscle tissues (P < 0.05). The residues of SDZ, SM2 and SMX in fish muscle tissues (wet weight) ranged from 11.6-37.9, 16.3-27.8 and 4.9-20.0 ng x g(-1), respectively. The calculated daily intakes of sulfonamides in the present study ranged from 3.37-36.72 ng x kg(-1), which accounted for 0.007% -0.073% of the ADI (50 microg x kg(-1)). Health risks to human body were negligible as the estimated intake was less than 1% ADI, therefore the security of dietary was high. PMID:25244861

  16. Relationships between hepatic neoplasms and related lesions and exposure to toxic chemicals in marine fish from the US West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M.S.; Landahl, J.T.; Krahn, M.M.; McCain, B.B. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    English sole (Parophrys vetulus) inhabiting polluted waterways and embayments of Puget Sound, Washington, are affected with a variety of multiple, co-occurring idiopathic hepatic lesions, including unique degenerative conditions, putatively preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, and neoplasms. Results of a statistical analysis of the patterns of co-occurrence of these lesions in wild English sole are consistent with the concept that these lesions represent morphologically identifiable steps forming a sequence of progression ultimately leading to the development of hepatic neoplasms. The rationale for the hypothesis that these lesions in wild English sole can be caused by exposure to certain hepatoxic and hepatocarcinogenic xenobiotic compounds in the marine environment is based on the demonstration of significant and consistent statistical associations between levels of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in sediment and prevalences of these idiopathic liver lesions; a significant contribution by sediment AHs to the variability in hepatic neoplasm prevalence in a logistic regression model; significantly increased probabilities for several idiopathic lesions in sole from chemically contaminated site in Puget Sound; significant correlations between uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and prevalences of several hepatic lesion types; and experimental induction of unique degenerative, proliferative, and putatively preneoplastic focal lesions in English sole injected with either benzo(a)pyrene or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) enriched fraction of an extract from a contaminated urban sediment from Puget Sound. Because PAHs are extensively metabolized in the liver of fish, sensitive and reliable methods for detection of PAH metabolites in fish tissues need to be developed before credible assessments of human health risk due to consumption of PAH-contaminated fish muscle can be conducted.

  17. Predator Responses, Prey Refuges, and Density-Dependent Mortality of a Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd W. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Detection of density dependence in animal populations is a primary goal of population ecology, and the processes causing density dependence play a major role in population regulation. Predation can strongly regulate populations by populational and behavioral responses of predators to their prey. Here I evaluate the existence and strength of density-dependent mortality in local populations of a reef fish, the

  18. Concentrations of rare earth elements in sediments, mussels and fish from a Danish marine environment, Lillebaelt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Drabaek; P. Eichner; L. Rasmussen

    1987-01-01

    Results for the content of the rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in sediments, mussels and fish are presented for an area polluted by REE. The REE are emitted with the process waste water stream from a fertilizer production plant. The method of analysis has been INAA. An attempt to combine the INAA

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase induction in marine fish-molecular response to oil pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kurelec; S. Britvi?; M. Rijavec; W. E. G. Müller; R. K. Zahn

    1977-01-01

    Induction of benzo (a) pyrene monooxygenase (BPMO) activity occurred in Blennius pavo, a species with a restricted territorial range, in response to exposure to a Diesel 2 oil. A response delay of 14 days was found at a concentration of 170 ppb and of 3 days when the water was saturated with Diesel 2 oil. When induced fish were transferred

  20. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A MARINE FISH, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...

  1. APPARENT ABUNDANCE OF SOME PELAGIC MARINE FISHES OFF THE SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COAST AS SURVEYED

    E-print Network

    December 1969, commercial aerial fish spotter pilots esti- mated tonnage of species observed during flights-latitude "block ,areas." A total of over 17,593 flight hours was involved, surveying 57,628 block areas-37,186 during the day and 20,442 during the night. Data from each block area were used to compute diurnal

  2. Engineering and functional properties of protein powders from underutilized marine fish and by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel processing methods are needed to convert seafood by-products into marketable products. Protein derived from seafood by-products can have a range of good functional properties and can potentially be used as binders and emulsifiers. Functional properties of fish proteins are related to their phy...

  3. International NOAA Fisheries International | Working to Combat IUU Fishing and Protect Marine Resources Globally

    E-print Network

    The High Seas Driftnet Fishing Moratorium Protection Act (the Act) directs the United States to strengthen on the United States to: · promote improved monitoring, control, and surveillance for high seas and fisheries controls, market-related measures, and the adoption of measures to prohibit the removal of any shark fins

  4. Characterization of lipid spray beads for delivery of glycine and tyrosine to early marine fish larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umur Önal; Chris Langdon

    2004-01-01

    Lipid spray beads (LSB) composed singly or of mixtures of trilaurin, methyl palmitate (MP), menhaden stearine (MS), spermaceti and coconut oil were prepared and their performances were compared for delivering glycine and tyrosine to the early stages of fish larvae. Measures of performances of LSB included inclusion (IE), encapsulation (EE), retention (RE) and delivery efficiencies (DE) in addition to T50

  5. The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 ?m bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

  6. Seasonal fluctuation of the prevalence of cymothoids representing the genus Nerocila (Crustacea, Isopoda), parasitizing commercially exploited marine fishes from the Malabar Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Arshad, Keethadath; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2013-03-01

    The presently reported study investigated seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence in four species of Nerocila infesting commercially exploited marine fishes representing the families Engraulidae, Clupeidae and Ambassidae, from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India). Seven of 56 fish species belonging to 23 families were infested by either one or two species of Nerocila. All the collected Nerocila species showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence of infestation, reaching maximum from October through April and minimum (or total absence of the parasites) from May through September. Such fluctuations were analyzed based on environmental parameters. Body surface, postero-ventral side of the head and the lateral line of the host fish form the major infestation site for the recovered Nerocila species. Skin lesion and hemorrhages were observed on the fish parasitized with these cymothoids. PMID:23377916

  7. Short-term dissolved oxygen patterns in sub-tropical mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO concentrations suitable for aquatic organisms (such as fish) persisted for only a relatively small period during the tide (?1 h), with hypoxic conditions for the remainder. This combination of conditions is favourable to immature mosquitoes.

  8. A coupled stable isotope-size spectrum approach to understanding pelagic food-web dynamics: A case study from the southwest sub-tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Allain, V.; Menkes, C.; Lorrain, A.; Graham, B.; Rodier, M.; Pagano, M.; Carlotti, F.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the food web structure of the oligotrophic picophytoplankton-dominated pelagic ecosystem in the vicinity of New Caledonia, within the Archipelagic Deep Basin (ARCH) province of the southwest sub-tropical Pacific. Nitrogen stable isotope (?15N) data were collected for mesozooplankton (0.2-2 mm), macrozooplankton (2-20 mm), micronekton (20-200 mm) and nekton (>200 mm) during 2002-2004 and 2011. Using a coupled ?15N size-spectrum approach, we estimated (1) organism trophic level (TL); (2) food chain length (FCL); (3) predator prey mass ratio (PPMR); and (4) transfer efficiency (TE). The role of phytoplankton size structure in determining these parameters was investigated. Applying a trophic enrichment factor (TEF) of 3.4, maximum TL was calculated at ~5. The number of TLs spanned by each length class was 1.97 for mesozooplankton, 2.07 for macrozooplankton, 2.75 for micronekton, and 2.21 for nekton. Estimated PPMR was 10,099:1 for mesozooplankton, 3683:1 for macrozooplankton/micronekton, and 2.44×105:1 for nekton, corresponding to TEs of 6.3%, 8.5% and 2.4%, respectively. PPMR and TE were strongly influenced by the TEF used, and TEF 3.4 likely over and underestimated PPMR and TE, respectively, for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton. Comparatively low PPMR for mesozooplankton and macrozooplankton/micronekton indicated longer food chains and higher connectivity within these groups than for the nekton. Conversely, the high PPMR yet high trophic niche width for the nekton indicated that they prey primarily on macrozooplankton/micronekton, with a relatively high degree of dietary specialisation. Our results are discussed in the context of other marine food webs. The ARCH food chain was found to be 1-1.5 trophic levels longer than the eutrophic micro-/nanophytoplankton-dominated Californian upwelling system, providing empirical support for the role of phytoplankton size in determining FCL. Group specific PPMR estimates demonstrated that it is changes in trophic pathways across the mesozooplankton/macrozooplankton/micronekton groups that are primarily responsible for higher FCL under oligotrophic conditions. Finally, we discuss consistently low ?15N values to the east of New Caledonia, and implications for the contribution of diazotroph nitrogen to the pelagic food web in this region.

  9. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuwen Ren; Jing Li; Huashi Guan

    2010-01-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive\\u000a extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in\\u000a protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few\\u000a studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such

  10. Implications of the divergent use of a suite of estuaries by two exploited marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Potter, I C; Chuwen, B M; Hesp, S A; Hall, N G; Hoeksema, S D; Fairclough, D V; Rodwell, T M

    2011-09-01

    Biological characteristics of the marine species King George whiting Sillaginodes punctatus and Australian herring Arripis georgianus in three seasonally open estuaries (Broke, Irwin and Wilson Inlets), one permanently open estuary (Oyster Harbour) and one normally closed estuary (Wellstead Estuary) on the south coast of Western Australia have been determined and compared. Sillaginodes punctatus enters the seasonally and permanently open estuaries early in life and reaches total lengths (L(T)) >280 mm at which it can be legally retained and thus contributes to commercial and recreational fisheries in these systems. This sillaginid almost invariably emigrates from these estuaries before reaching its typical size at maturity (L(T50)) and does not return after spawning in marine waters. In contrast, virtually all female A. georgianus (? 98%) in the three seasonally open estuaries and the majority in the normally closed (89·5%) and permanently open estuaries (83%) exceeded the L(T50) of this species at maturity, reflecting the fact that the nursery areas of this species are predominantly located much further to the east. Although adult females of A. georgianus in seasonally open and normally closed estuaries had developed mature ovaries by autumn, at which time they were prevented from migrating to the sea by closure of the estuary mouths, this species did not spawn in those estuaries. The oocytes in their ovaries were undergoing extensive atresia, a process that had been incipient prior to oocyte maturation. As the adult females of A. georgianus in the permanently open Oyster Harbour at this time all possessed resting gonads, i.e. their oocytes were all previtellogenic, the adults that were present in that estuary earlier and were destined to spawn in autumn must have emigrated from that permanently open estuary to their marine spawning areas prior to the onset of gonadal recrudescence. The body masses at length of A. georgianus, which were almost invariably higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, were greater in the very productive environments of the seasonally open and normally closed estuaries than in the less productive and essentially marine environment of Oyster Harbour and coastal marine waters. In general, the same pattern of differences between water bodies was exhibited by the growth of A. georgianus and by the more restricted data for body mass at L(T) and growth of S. punctatus. Despite an increase in anthropogenic activities in Wilson Inlet over the last two decades, the growth of both species was very similar to that recorded 20 years earlier. The fisheries implications of the results for the two species are discussed. PMID:21884106

  11. Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Sorgeloos; P Dhert; P Candreva

    2001-01-01

    Since no artificial feed formulation is yet available to completely substitute for Artemia, feeding live prey to young fish larvae still remains essential in commercial hatchery operations. The nutritional quality of commercially available Artemia strains being relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), it is essential and common practice to enrich these live prey

  12. Marine fish oils are not equivalent with respect to B-cell membrane organization and activation.

    PubMed

    Gurzell, Eric A; Teague, Heather; Duriancik, David; Clinthorne, Jonathan; Harris, Mitchel; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported that docosahexaenoic-acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (DFO) feeding altered B-cell membrane organization and enhanced B-cell function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether menhaden oil (MO) and eicosapentaenoic-acid (EPA)-enriched fish oil (EFO) alters B-cell function/phenotype similarly. Mice were fed control (CON), MO, EFO or DFO diets for 5weeks. We evaluated the fatty acid composition of B-cell phospholipids, membrane microdomain organization, ex vivo B-cell functionality and in vivo B-cell subsets. Red blood cells and B cells were found to be strongly (r>0.85) and significantly (P<.001) correlated for major n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Compared to CON, MO and DFO resulted in decreased clustering of membrane microdomains, whereas EFO increased clustering. All fish oil treatments had 1.12-1.60 times higher CD40 expression following stimulation; however, we observed 0.86 times lower major histocompatibility complex class II expression and 0.7 times lower interleukin (IL)-6 production from EFO, but 3.25 times higher interferon-? from MO and 1.5 times higher IL-6 from DFO. By 90min of incubation, MO had 1.11 times higher antigen uptake compared to CON, whereas EFO was 0.86 times lower. All fish oil treatments resulted in decreasingly mature splenic and bone marrow B-cell subsets. We conclude that diets high in n-3 LCPUFAs may elicit similar B-cell phenotypes but different organizational and functional outcomes. More specifically, these data suggest that the EPA and DHA content of a diet influences immunological outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding how specific n-3 LCPUFAs modulate B-cell development and function. PMID:25616447

  13. Effects of Endrin on Blood and Tissue Chemistry of a Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eisler; Philip H. Edmunds

    1966-01-01

    Adult northern puffers, Sphaeroides maculatus, were exposed to graded concentrations of endrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, at 20 C, 24‰ salinity, and pH 8.0. All animals subjected to 10.0 ppb of endrin died within 24 hours. At concentrations of 1.0 ppb of endrin, or lower, no mortality occurred within 96 hours.Blood and tissue samples from fish surviving the 96-hour exposure

  14. Energy Content of Antarctic Mesopelagic Fishes: Implications for the Marine Food Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Van de Putte; Hauke Flores; Filip Volckaert; Jan Andries van Franeker

    2006-01-01

    For a better understanding of the role of mesopelagic fish in the Southern Ocean food web, the energy and water content of Bathylagus antarcticus, Electrona antarctica and Gymnoscopelus braueri from the Lazarev Sea were investigated. Mean dry weight energy content of B. antarcticus (20.4 kJ g?1) was significantly lower than in E. antarctica and G. braueri (both 29.4 kJ g?1). In E. antarctica, an

  15. Colonisation of artificial mangroves by reef fishes in a marine seascape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; Faunce, C. H.

    2007-11-01

    Mangroves have been shown to host a variety of fish species that originate from coral reefs. In this study we compare the colonisation of experimental mangrove units, placed on a shallow coral reef and in an adjacent embayment, with species that are commonly observed and believed to rely on the presence of bays containing natural mangroves and seagrass beds (i.e., nursery species) and by other species. After 28 days, density and consequent colonisation rates of both species groups showed a negative trend with increasing distance from the coral reef into the bay, although no significant differences were found among sites. Colonisation rates did not differ between nursery species and other species at any site. Despite the similarity in colonisation rate between the two functional groups, nursery species accounted for over half of the total fish density at each site. These results suggest that nursery species likely dominate the fish assemblage within bay mangroves simply because they occur more abundantly at inland locations than other species, and not because nursery species possess a greater competitive advantage for mangroves compared to other species.

  16. Review of rice–fish-farming systems in China — One of the Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbo Lu; Xia Li

    2006-01-01

    Rice–fish-farming systems constitute a unique agro-landscape across the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Rice is a globally important staple food crop, with a wide distribution and constituting diversified varieties. The introduction of fish rearing to rice farming creates an integrated agro-ecological system. China boasts a history of 1700 years in rice–fish-farming practice. It is no longer a sole agro-production

  17. Environmental selection on transcriptome-derived SNPs in a high gene flow marine fish, the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Limborg, Morten T; Helyar, Sarah J; De Bruyn, Mark; Taylor, Martin I; Nielsen, Einar E; Ogden, Rob; Carvalho, Gary R; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2012-08-01

    High gene flow is considered the norm for most marine organisms and is expected to limit their ability to adapt to local environments. Few studies have directly compared the patterns of differentiation at neutral and selected gene loci in marine organisms. We analysed a transcriptome-derived panel of 281 SNPs in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a highly migratory small pelagic fish, for elucidating neutral and selected genetic variation among populations and to identify candidate genes for environmental adaptation. We analysed 607 individuals from 18 spawning locations in the northeast Atlantic, including two temperature clines (5-12 °C) and two salinity clines (5-35‰). By combining genome scan and landscape genetic analyses, four genetically distinct groups of herring were identified: Baltic Sea, Baltic-North Sea transition area, North Sea/British Isles and North Atlantic; notably, samples exhibited divergent clustering patterns for neutral and selected loci. We found statistically strong evidence for divergent selection at 16 outlier loci on a global scale, and significant correlations with temperature and salinity at nine loci. On regional scales, we identified two outlier loci with parallel patterns across temperature clines and five loci associated with temperature in the North Sea/North Atlantic. Likewise, we found seven replicated outliers, of which five were significantly associated with low salinity across both salinity clines. Our results reveal a complex pattern of varying spatial genetic variation among outlier loci, likely reflecting adaptations to local environments. In addition to disclosing the fine scale of local adaptation in a highly vagile species, our data emphasize the need to preserve functionally important biodiversity. PMID:22694661

  18. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Benjamin H.; Roering, Joshua J.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km3 lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

  19. Bioeconomic analysis of the environmental impact of a marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Rabassó, Miguel; Hernández, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the environmental impact of aquaculture installations is nowadays a common social demand in many countries. The usual scientific approach to this question has been to assess the outcome from an ecological perspective, focussing on the effects produced on benthos or the water column and interactions with marine flora and fauna. In this paper, a bioeconomic model is developed to extend this traditional approach, to determine both the amount of total settled matter, its dispersion on the ocean floor and impacts on the marine ecosystem, while also taking into account other social considerations such as discounted net profits and investment returns. The model was applied to the case of off-shore gilthead seabream production in a coastal area of the Canary Isles archipelago, where the tidal current is predominant. Cage emissions and the degree of degradation of seagrass meadows on the seabed were taken as ecological impact indicators, while the net present value (NPV) for a specific time period was used as an economic indicator. By analysing the simulation results obtained by the bioeconomic model, we were able to determine the combination of production volume and harvest quantity which yields the greatest economic efficiency for different levels of degraded area. PMID:25942562

  20. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of the Marine Bacterial Genus Tenacibaculum Suggests Parallel Evolution of Fish Pathogenicity and Endemic Colonization of Aquaculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E.; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species. PMID:24973065

  1. Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

  2. Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

  3. Spatial niche partitioning in sub-tropical solitary ungulates: four-horned antelope and barking deer in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Differential resource use allows a diversity of species to co-exist in a particular area by specializing in individual ecological niches. Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has a restricted distribution in Nepal and India; however, the barking deer Muntiacus vaginalis is relatively common throughout its wide distribution range. We wanted a better understanding of their habitats and how these two similarly sized solitary ungulates manage to coexist in lowland Nepal. We used fecal pellet belt transect surveys in the Babai valley, Bardia National Park to study the habitat associations of both species. We found empirical evidence that four-horned antelope prefer hill sal forest and deciduous hill forest at higher elevations, whereas barking deer preferred riverine and sal forest in lower elevations. We found a clear niche differentiation of four-horned antelope and barking deer that made the coexistence of these similarly sized solitary ungulates possible. Hence, resource partitioning is the key to coexistence of these solitary ungulates, and the fine-grained habitat mosaic of different forest types in the study landscape appears to be the underlying feature. Therefore, maintaining the habitat mosaic and preserving valuable hill sal and deciduous hill forests will facilitate the coexistence of herbivores in sub-tropical regions. PMID:25714092

  4. A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N.; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Blandon, Abigayil; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Booth, Hollie L.; Day, Julie; De Palma, Adriana; Harrison, Michelle L. K.; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Pynegar, Edwin; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Mace, Georgina M.; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Purvis, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity. Tropical forests harbour among the highest levels of terrestrial species diversity and are likely to experience rapid land-use change in the coming decades. Synthetic analyses of observed responses of species are useful for quantifying how land use affects biodiversity and for predicting outcomes under land-use scenarios. Previous applications of this approach have typically focused on individual taxonomic groups, analysing the average response of the whole community to changes in land use. Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups—invertebrates, ‘herptiles’ (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds—respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests. We show significant independent impacts of land use, human vegetation offtake, forest cover and human population density on both occurrence and abundance of species, highlighting the value of analysing multiple explanatory variables simultaneously. Responses differ among the four groups considered, and—within birds and mammals—between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species. PMID:25143038

  5. Incidence and Distribution of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water quality is usually determined by its pathogenic bacterial content. However, the potential of water-borne spores as a source of nosocomial fungal infection is increasingly being recognised. This study into the incidence of microfungal contaminants in a typical Australian municipal water supply was carried out over an 18 month period. Microfungal abundance was estimated by the membrane filtration method with filters incubated on malt extract agar at 25 °C for seven days. Colony forming units were recovered from all parts of the system and these were enumerated and identified to genus level. The most commonly recovered genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Nonparametric multivariate statistical analyses of the data using MDS, PCA, BEST and bubble plots were carried out with PRIMER v6 software. Positive and significant correlations were found between filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria. This study has demonstrated that numerous microfungal genera, including those that contain species which are opportunistic human pathogens, populate a typical treated municipal water supply in sub-tropical Australia. PMID:20617048

  6. Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy).

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Wysocki, Lidia E; Ladich, Friedrich; Picciulin, Marta

    2009-12-01

    The WWF-Natural Marine Reserve of Miramare (Trieste, Italy) is located in a major industrial and vacation area in the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, noise emanating from boating and shipping is an inevitable factor for local fishes. This study investigates the effects of ambient and ship noise on representatives of three vocal fish families with different hearing abilities. Ambient and ship noise were recorded, their sound pressure levels measured and played back in the lab. Auditory sensitivity was determined in Chromis chromis, Sciaena umbra and Gobius cruentatus, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. Compared to lab conditions, hearing thresholds determined during ambient noise playbacks were barely masked. Contrary, the noise emanating from a cabin-cruiser substantially reduced auditory sensitivity relative to thresholds in ambient noise. This masking effect was most pronounced in the frequency range where acoustic communication takes place. Boat noise potentially affects acoustic communication in fishes inhabiting the reserve. PMID:19666180

  7. Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

  8. Depth-mediated reversal of the effects of climate change on long-term growth rates of exploited marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Koslow, J. A.; Morison, A. K.; Smith, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861. Six of the eight species show significant changes in growth rates during the last century, with the pattern differing systematically with depth. Increasing temperatures near the ocean surface correlate with increasing growth rates by species found in depths <250 m, whereas growth rates of deep-water (>1,000 m) species have declined substantially during the last century, which correlates with evidence of long-term cooling at these depths. The observations suggest that global climate change has enhanced some elements of productivity of the shallow-water stocks but also has reduced the productivity, and possibly the resilience, of the already slow-growing deep-water species. PMID:17460046

  9. Development and characterization of a new tropical marine fish cell line from grouper, Epinephelus coioides susceptible to iridovirus and nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Qin, Q W; Wu, T H; Jia, T L; Hegde, A; Zhang, R Q

    2006-01-01

    The development and characterization of a new tropical marine fish cell line (GS), derived from the spleen of orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides is described. The GS cells grow well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been subcultured more than 200 times. The optimal growth temperature was 27 degrees C. The GS cell culture consisted of mostly fibroblastic cells. The modal diploid chromosome number was 48. GS cell cultures showed advanced cytopathic effects after infection with a pathogenic grouper iridovirus (Singapore grouper iridovirus, SGIV) or with a grouper nodavirus (Epinephelus tauvina nervous necrosis virus, ETNNV). Analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of SGIV and ETNNV particles in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells, respectively, indicative of high sensitivity to these two viruses. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that iridovirus-infected GS cells reacted strongly with monoclonal antibody against the grouper iridovirus. It is suggested that the GS cell line has good potential as a diagnostic tool for isolation and propagation of iridovirus and nodavirus. When the GS cells were transfected with pEGFP vector DNA, significant fluorescent signals were observed suggesting that the GS cell line can be used as a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. PMID:16137774

  10. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  11. Depth-mediated reversal of the effects of climate change on long-term growth rates of exploited marine fish.

    PubMed

    Thresher, Ronald E; Koslow, J A; Morison, A K; Smith, D C

    2007-05-01

    The oceanographic consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, but the biological impacts of this change on marine species much less so, in large part because of few long-term data sets. Using otolith analysis, we reconstructed historical changes in annual growth rates for the juveniles of eight long-lived fish species in the southwest Pacific, from as early as 1861. Six of the eight species show significant changes in growth rates during the last century, with the pattern differing systematically with depth. Increasing temperatures near the ocean surface correlate with increasing growth rates by species found in depths <250 m, whereas growth rates of deep-water (>1,000 m) species have declined substantially during the last century, which correlates with evidence of long-term cooling at these depths. The observations suggest that global climate change has enhanced some elements of productivity of the shallow-water stocks but also has reduced the productivity, and possibly the resilience, of the already slow-growing deep-water species. PMID:17460046

  12. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Nicholas Rountrey, Adam; Jane Meeuwig, Jessica; John Newman, Stephen; Zinke, Jens; Gregory Meekan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations. PMID:26052896

  13. Incidence of Clostridium botulinum Type E in Salmon and Other Marine Fish in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Craig, James M.; Hayes, Sidney; Pilcher, K. S.

    1968-01-01

    Salmon, sole, cod, oysters, clams, and crabs from ocean waters along the coast of Oregon and Washington were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type E. The organism was detected by identification of the type E toxin in enrichment cultures of the viscera of individual fish. Of 369 salmon specimens, 48 yielded cultures containing toxin lethal to mice, and almost half of the toxic cultures were shown to contain botulinal toxin, chiefly type E. Eighteen of 113 sole and cod specimens, 4 of 22 Dungeness crab specimens, 5 of 16 oyster specimens, and 27 of 115 clam specimens gave rise to cultures containing botulinal toxin which was usually type E, although types A and B were occasionally encountered. PMID:4869616

  14. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite—a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  15. Evaluation of Targeted Yield Precision Model for Soybean and Toria Crops on Farmers' Fields under SubHumid, Sub-Tropical, Northwestern Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai Paul; V. K. Suri; Sanjeev K. Sandal; Anil K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Twenty seven on farm trials were conducted on soybean (Glycine max L.) and toria (Brassica campestris L. ssp oleifera) on farmers' fields during 2003–2006 to verify targeted yield precision models for achieving specific yield targets in the sub-humid, sub-tropical, northwestern Himalayas. Experimental results revealed that grain yield, as well as additional yield gains and additional net profits over the farmers'

  16. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie K. Barbour; Houssam H. Itani; Fawwak T. Sleiman; Maya F. Saade; Steve Harakeh; Afif M. Abdel Nour; Houssam A. Shaib

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy\\u000a mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment.\\u000a The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood\\u000a cell count. The second objective compared the

  17. Fish species and community distributions as proxies for sea-floor habitat distributions: the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (northwest Atlantic, Gulf Of Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, Peter J.; Joy, Kevin; Valentine, Page C.

    2001-01-01

    Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

  18. Fish species and community distributions as proxies for seafloor habitat distributions: The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (Northwest Atlantic, Gulf of Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Joy, K.; Valentine, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

  19. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING Marine Biological I · ·' iw« L I B R >*· ** Y JUL 3 -1350 WOODS POISONING By William Arcisz, Bacteriologist, Formerly with the Fishery Research Laboratory Branch in which Fish Poisoning is Prevalento........... 3 Symptoms of Ciguatera ...... 00

  20. First occurrence of Norileca triangulata (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2015-03-01

    An ectoparasitic isopod, Norileca triangulata was found in the branchial cavity of Sardinella gibbosa at Parangipettai coastal waters. The present findings represent the first record of N. triangulata and herein reported. Until now, this species was distributed from Tanimdao Island, Philippines and from Queensland-Eel Reef, Cape York; Michaelmas Cay, near Cairns and Mooloobah, south-eastern Queensland. The range is here extended and now includes to the Southeast coast of India. The materials examined were deposited at the Annamalai University, India (collection Ravichandran). The parasites has been found on 16 out of 16 specimens of S. gibbosa. The prevalence of N. triangulata on S. gibbosa was 7.5 % and mean intensity was 1. The host fish length ranges from 140 to 182 mm. It is further confirmed that the parasites were specific in the selection of host S. gibbosa. Previously N. triangulata was reported from two hosts Parexocoetus brachypterus. Females of N. triangulata ranges 12-18 mm but not found in males. As summarized comparative characteristic feature of two species of parasitic isopods of Norileca indica and N. triangulata. Host species were captured on pelagic region from the coast of Parangipettai. N. triangulata can be distinguished from N. indica by several characters. A related species N. indica has the head to the anterior, and the abdomen facing outwards, pressed against the gill operculum, positioned ventrally in the gill cavity. PMID:25698856

  1. Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W.N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J.R.; Dopazo, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

  2. Oceanographic drivers of offspring abundance may increase or decrease reproductive variance in a temperate marine fish.

    PubMed

    Lotterhos, Katie E; Markel, Russell W

    2012-10-01

    In species that reproduce into uncertain environments, the relationship between mean reproductive success (the abundance of new recruits) and the variance in reproductive success (whether adults contribute disproportionally more offspring) may not be straightforward because of stochastic environmental processes that create high variance in reproductive success among adults. In this study, we investigated the relationships between oceanography, reproductive success and reproductive variance in the black rockfish, Sebastes melanops, a long-lived temperate reef fish with pelagic larvae. We quantified black rockfish recruitment, genetic diversity and growth rates from otolith microstructure over 5 years (2005-2009) during which oceanographic conditions differed. We used cross-correlations to determine windows of time during which oceanographic variables were significantly correlated with the resulting abundance or genetic diversity of recruits. We found that warmer ocean temperatures were positively correlated with the abundance of recruits, as well as the effective number of breeders. In contrast, the strength of coastal upwelling during settlement was positively correlated with the annual abundance of new recruits, but was negatively correlated with the effective number of breeders. Larval growth rates were explained substantially more by temperature than by upwelling and suggested that temperature affected survival through growth, while upwelling affected survival through transport. Our results indicated that cold ocean temperatures and intense upwelling caused sweepstakes-like processes to operate on black rockfish populations, despite high abundances of recruits. We propose that a decoupling of the mean and variance in reproductive success may be characteristic of organisms that reproduce into uncertain environments. PMID:22978484

  3. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids: fishing for clues for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 intake ratio of 1:10 favoring inflammation. Cohort and/or case control studies suggest EPA and DHA are promising for breast, colon, and prostate cancer risk reduction. Mechanistic studies largely in preclinical models suggest EPA and DHA reduce synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and other inflammatory cytokines, decrease aromatase activity and proliferation, promote differentiation and apoptosis, and enhance insulin sensitivity. Animal models using 7% to 20% omega-3 added to chow are promising; however, this amount of omega-3 in a diet is unlikely to be acceptable to humans. The optimal EPA:DHA ratio or the lowest effective dose of EPA and DHA for cancer prevention is unclear, but it is likely to be more than 600 mg/day, which is six times the average American intake. Most phase II prevention trials use 1 to 3.3 g of EPA and DHA, which is safe and well tolerated. Two grams of EPA was associated with fewer polyps in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Identification of serum risk biomarkers modulated by EPA and DHA in healthy humans has remained elusive, but phase II prevention trials with tissue obtained for risk and response biomarkers are ongoing. PMID:23714467

  4. Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    Interactions among watershed nutrient loading, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine the capacity of estuaries to accommodate introduced nutrients. Baseline quantification of loading, flushing time, export, and internal processes is essential to understand responses of sub-tropical estuaries to variable climate and nutrient loading. The goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002-2008 spanning various climatic conditions. The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Biogeochemical Model was used to generate water, salt, and (DIN and DIP) budgets. The predicted increase in internal DIN production for the CRE vs. the SLE was associated with increased external DIN loading. Water column DIN concentrations decreased and stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to > 10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy or balanced metabolism across all seasonal budgets. Although the SLE was also sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy and net ecosystem metabolism increased with DIP loading to this estuary. This included a huge DIP consumption and bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification offered a loss pathway for inorganic nitrogen in the CRE, this potential was not evident for the smaller and more anthropogenically altered St. Lucie Estuary. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that management actions should examine the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in attempts to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the SLE. Establishment of quantitative loading limits for anthropogenically impacted estuaries requires an understanding of the inter-seasonal and inter-annual relationships for both N and P, circulation and flushing, variability in plankton community composition, and the dynamics of DON.

  5. Three Potential Sources of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

    2011-01-01

    Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system. PMID:21556175

  6. Cloning and expression of a hepcidin gene from a marine fish (Pseudosciaena crocea) and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Cai, Jing-Jing; Cai, Ling; Qu, Hai-Dong; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Min

    2009-04-01

    Hepcidin gene is widely expressed in various fish, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide is a very important component in the innate immune system. Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the important economic species of marine-cultured fish but knowledge of its innate immune mechanism is lacking. In this study, we characterize a P. crocea hepcidin gene named as PC-hepc. It consists of an open reading frame of 258 bases encoding 85 amino acids and has a conserved sequence in common with other known hepcidins. The genomic DNA of PC-hepc contains three exons and two introns, the same organization as other reported hepcidins, indicating that PC-hepc is one member of the hepcidin family in fish. The tissue-specific expression of PC-hepc gene in normal fish and the expression pattern in LPS-challenged fish at the time course of stimulation were investigated. The expression of PC-hepc mRNA was significantly increased in the spleen, heart and stomach but not significantly induced in the liver after LPS challenge. An interesting finding is the demonstration of high amounts of PC-hepc transcripts in the kidney in normal fish and their maintenance through 48h exposure to LPS challenge. The synthetic PC-hepc demonstrated a rather wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity in vitro against bacteria and fungi tested, and particularly showed strong activity against the principal fish pathogens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemloyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harvryi. The study indicates that PC-hepc may play a role with a tissue-specific mode in the innate immunity of P. crocea. PMID:19150638

  7. Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Renick, Violet Compton; Anderson, Todd W; Morgan, Steven G; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-03-01

    Coastal development has generated multiple stressors in marine and estuarine ecosystems, including habitat degradation and pollutant exposure, but the effects of these stressors on the ecology of fishes remain poorly understood. We studied the separate and combined effects of an acute 4 h sublethal exposure of the pyrethroid pesticide esfenvalerate and structural habitat complexity on behavior and predation risk of larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Larvae were exposed to four nominal esfenvalerate concentrations (control, 0.12, 0.59, 1.18 ?g/L), before placement into 12 L mesocosms with a three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) predator. Five treatments of artificial eelgrass included a (1) uniform and (2) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a low density (500 shoots per m(2)), a (3) uniform and (4) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a high density (1,000 shoots per m(2)), and (5) the absence of eelgrass. The capture success of predators and aggregative behavior of prey were observed in each mesocosm for 10 min of each trial, and mortality of prey was recorded after 60 min. Exposure to esfenvalerate increased the proportion of larvae with swimming abnormalities. Surprisingly, prey mortality did not increase linearly with pesticide exposure but increased with habitat structure (density of eelgrass), which may have been a consequence of compensating predator behavior. The degree of prey aggregation decreased with both habitat structure and pesticide exposure, suggesting that anti-predator behaviors by prey may have been hampered by the interactive effects of both of these factors. PMID:25421633

  8. ESTIMATION OF TOXICITY TO MARINE SPECIES WITH STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY MODELS DEVELOPED TO ESTIMATE TOXICITY TO FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...

  9. Food of marine origin: Between benefits and potential risks. Part I. Canned fish on the Polish market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zygmunt Usydus; Joanna Szlinder-Richert; Lucyna Polak-Juszczak; Justyna Kanderska; Maria Adamczyk; Ma?gorzata Malesa-Ciecwierz; Wies?awa Ruczynska

    2008-01-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on 12 of the most popular varieties of canned fish on the Polish market. The contents of the nutritive substances of canned fish (protein, micro and macroelements, vitamins A1, D3, E, and fatty acids) and certain contaminants were determined. It was confirmed that canned fish is a good source of digestible proteins, fluoride, iodine, selenium, and

  10. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  11. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, M. U.; Asaduzzaman, Kh.; Nawi, S. M.; Usman, A. R.; Amin, Y. M.; Daar, E.; Bradley, D. A.; Ahmed, H.; Okhunov, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrouding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance. PMID:26075909

  12. Redescription of the male and first description of the female of Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a parasite of the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vargas Vázquez, J; Mendoza Franco, E; Vivas Rodríguez, C

    1995-01-01

    A redescription of the male and the first description of the female of the intestinal nematode Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 are presented on the basis of specimens collected from the type host, the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Tetraodontoidei), from the Lagoon of Yucalpetén in the northern coast of Yucatan (Gulf of Mexico), Mexico. This species is characterized by a well-sclerotized spicule and by the presence of two large ventrolateral lobe-like papillae on the male caudal end and, therefore, is assigned to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987. C. carioca is reported from Mexico for the first time. PMID:8570582

  13. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

  14. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

  15. Fishing Gear and Methods of the Lower Mesopotamian Plain with Reference to Fishing Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laith A. Jawad

    2006-01-01

    Marine and freshwater fishing gear and methods are described from the lower Mesopotamian plain. In this region, there are four main fishing methods in the marshlands and three in the local marine habitat. The most popular fishing technique in those areas is the use of nets. Both active and passive fishing gear are categorised in the studied area. Locally-designed fishing

  16. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  17. Genetic diversity and infection levels of anisakid nematodes parasitic in fish and marine mammals from Boreal and Austral hemispheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Mattiucci; Giuseppe Nascetti

    2007-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes have complex life-cycles that include invertebrate and vertebrate hosts at various levels of the marine food chain. Different types of habitat disturbances of the marine ecosystem (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) could impoverish the host population size, resulting in concomitant and detrimental effects on parasitic nematode populations. This in turn would lead to the loss of genetic diversity of these

  18. Hypoxia induces telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression in non-tumor fish tissues in vivo: the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Richard MK; Chen, Eric XH; Kong, Richard YC; Ng, Patrick KS; Mok, Helen OL; Au, Doris WT

    2006-01-01

    Background Current understanding on the relationships between hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression are largely based on in vitro studies in human cancer cells. Although several reports demonstrated HIF-1- mediated upregulation of the human TERT gene under hypoxia, conflicting findings have also been reported. Thus far, it remains uncertain whether these findings can be directly extrapolated to non-tumor tissues in other whole animal systems in vivo. While fish often encounter environmental hypoxia, the in vivo regulation of TERT by hypoxia in non-neoplastic tissues of fish remains virtually unknown. Results The adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was employed as a model fish in this study. We have cloned and characterized a 3261-bp full-length TERT cDNA, omTERT, which encodes a protein of 1086 amino acids. It contains all of the functional motifs that are conserved in other vertebrate TERTs. Motif E is the most highly conserved showing 90.9–100% overall identity among the fish TERTs and 63.6% overall identity among vertebrates. Analysis of the 5'-flanking sequence of the omTERT gene identified two HRE (hypoxia-responsive element; nt. – 283 and – 892) cores. Overexpression of the HIF-1? induced omTERT promoter activity as demonstrated using transient transfection assays. The omTERT gene is ubiquitously expressed in fish under normoxia, albeit at varying levels, where highest expression was observed in gonads and the lowest in liver. In vivo expression of omTERT was significantly upregulated in testis and liver in response to hypoxia (at 96 h and 48 h, respectively), where concomitant induction of the omHIF-1? and erythropoietin (omEpo) genes was also observed. In situ hybridization analysis showed that hypoxic induction of omTERT mRNA was clearly evident in hepatocytes in the caudal region of liver and in spermatogonia-containing cysts in testis. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time, hypoxic regulation of TERT expression in vivo in a whole fish system. Our findings support the notion that hypoxia upregulates omTERT expression via omHIF-1 in non-neoplastic fish liver and testis in vivo. Overall, the structure and regulation of the TERT gene is highly conserved in vertebrates from fish to human. PMID:16961934

  19. Electrotransfer of the epinecidin-1 gene into skeletal muscle enhances the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of a marine fish, grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Lee, Lin-Han; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2013-11-01

    Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a common non-viral delivery system for the study of gene function and for gene therapy. However, the effects of epinecidin-1 (epi) on bacterial growth and immune system modulation following its electrotransfer into the muscle of grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a marine fish species, have not been addressed. In this study, pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid was electroporated into grouper muscle, and its effect on subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus was examined. Over-expression of epi efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after infection, and augmented the expression of immune-related genes in muscle and liver, inducing a moderate innate immune response associated with pro-inflammatory infiltration. Furthermore, electroporation of pCMV-gfp-epi plasmid without V. vulnificus infection induced moderate expression of certain immune-related genes, particularly innate immune genes. These data suggest that electroporation-mediated gene transfer of epi into the muscle of grouper may hold potential as an antimicrobial therapy for pathogen infection in marine fish. PMID:23973381

  20. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Zwi, Anthony B.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M.; Soomro, Abdul Qadeem; Baig, Rashid; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ? 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons) had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart), satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12). 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women’s eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18) compared with men’s eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001) after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women’s than men’s eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8%) or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144) of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0.001). Conclusions The quality of cataract surgery in this marginalised population, especially among women, falls well below the WHO recommended standards. Gender disparities, in particular, deserve proactive attention in policy, service delivery, research and evaluation. PMID:26186605

  1. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Khan

    1990-01-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

  2. Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: Algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Mumby

    2005-01-01

    Many species of coral reef fish undertake ontogenetic migrations between seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. A recent study from the Caribbean found that the availability of mangrove nursery habitat had a striking impact on the community structure and bio- mass of reef fish in their adult, coral reef habitat. The biomass of several species more than doubled when the

  3. Spatial variability of fish fauna in sheltered and exposed shallow rocky reefs from a recently established Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pais; E. Azzurro; P. Guidetti

    2007-01-01

    Coastal exposure may affect the structure of littoral fish assemblages. To evaluate its effects, fish assemblages associated with shallow (0–3 m depth) rocky reefs were investigated by visual census at the Asinara Island National Park (northwestern Sardinia, Italy, Mediterranean Sea) during autumn 2003. Distribution patterns of ichthyofauna in sheltered and exposed rocky reefs were assessed over the spatial scales of locations

  4. The Trends in Excess Mortality in Winter vs. Summer in a Sub-Tropical City and Its Association with Extreme Climate Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    While there is literature on excess winter mortality, there are few studies examining the evolution of its trend which may be changing in parallel with global warming. This study aimed to examine the trend in the excess mortality in winter as compared to summer among the older population in a sub-tropical city and to explore its association with extreme weather. We used a retrospective study based on the registered deaths among the older population in Hong Kong during 1976-2010. An Excess Mortality for Winter versus Summer (EMWS) Index was used to quantify the excess number of deaths in winter compared to summer. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the trends and its association with extreme weather. Overall, the EMWS Index for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, pneumonia, and other causes were 43.0%, 34.2%, 42.7%, 23.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Significant decline was observed in the EMWS Index for chronic lower respiratory diseases and other causes. The trend in the index for cerebrovascular diseases depended on the age group, with older groups showing a decline but younger groups not showing any trend. Meteorological variables, in terms of extreme weather, were associated with the trends in the EMWS Index. We concluded that shrinking excess winter mortality from cerebrovascular diseases and chronic lower respiratory diseases was found in a sub-tropical city. These trends were associated with extreme weather, which coincided with global warming. PMID:25993635

  5. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (p<0.05). The third objective compared the immune responses (hemagglutination-HA titers) and complement fixation (CF) titers in mature does of the two breeds to chicken red blood cells (c-RBC). The HA titers showed a significant seroconversion only in imported Saanen (p<0.05) but not in local does; however, the CF titers increased significantly at 4 weeks following priming with c-RBC in local (p<0.05) but not in the imported Saanen does. The impact of the differences in blood immune components and responses to antigens in the compared goats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed. PMID:21720787

  6. Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

    2011-05-01

    West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.

  7. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  8. Marine Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  9. Marine Conservation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  10. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  11. USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

  12. Development of a promising fish model (Oryzias melastigma) for assessing multiple responses to stresses in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been "taken into labs" by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

  13. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata. In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

  14. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O Pörtner; B Berdal; R Blust; O Brix; A Colosimo; B De Wachter; A Giuliani; T Johansen; T Fischer; R Knust; G Lannig; G Naevdal; A Nedenes; G Nyhammer; F. J Sartoris; I Serendero; P Sirabella; S Thorkildsen; M Zakhartsev

    2001-01-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special

  15. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments. PMID:24570061

  16. Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

  17. METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus ; the inlan...

  18. RNA–DNA ratio and other nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition of marine fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Buckley; E. Caldarone; T.-L. Ong

    1999-01-01

    Nucleic acid analysis has provided useful tools to study recent growth and mortality of young fishes and their responses to environmental variability. The ratio of RNA–DNA (R\\/D) has been shown to respond to changes in feeding conditions and growth after periods as short as 1–3 days in a variety of fish species. The earliest studies used primarily UV-based methods, but

  19. Molecular Analysis of Anisakis Type I Larvae in Marine Fish from Three Different Sea Areas in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

  20. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in the East China Sea. The identification of A. typica, recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, H. amoyense and H. fabri is first reported in this area. The wide diversity and substantial geographical distributions of these nematodes will provide a foundation for future studies of Anisakidae family. The high prevalence of these nematodes in marine fishes off the East China Sea may pose considerable food safety problems, which is a potential cause of human anisakiasis. PMID:25617845

  1. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawra, Hideki; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the Hg concentration, and ?¹³C and ?15N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher ?15N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and ?15N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal)-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the ?15N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with ?15N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a ?¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the ?¹³C value of the marine food web. PMID:26065892

  2. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawra, Hideki; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the Hg concentration, and ?¹³C and ?15N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher ?15N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and ?15N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal)-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the ?15N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with ?15N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a ?¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the ?¹³C value of the marine food web. PMID:26065892

  3. Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

  4. Temperature-dependent toxicities of nano zinc oxide to marine diatom, amphipod and fish in relation to its aggregation size and ion dissolution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stella W Y; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-01

    This study, for the first time, concurrently investigated the influence of seawater temperature, exposure concentration and time on the aggregation size and ion dissolution of nano zinc oxides (nZnO) in seawater, and the interacting effect of temperature and waterborne exposure of nZnO to the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum, amphipod Melita longidactyla and fish Oryzias melastigma, respectively. Our results showed that aggregate size was jointly affected by seawater temperature, nZnO concentration and exposure time. Among the three factors, the concentration of nZnO was the most important and followed by exposure time, whereas temperature was less important as reflected by their F values in the three-way analysis of variance (concentration: F3, 300?=?247.305; time: F2, 300?=?20.923 and temperature: F4, 300?=?4.107; All p values <0.001). The aggregate size generally increased with increasing nZnO concentration and exposure time. The release of Zn ions from nZnO was significantly influenced by seawater temperature and exposure time; the ion dissolution rate generally increased with decreasing temperature and increasing exposure time. Growth inhibition of diatoms increased with increasing temperature, while temperature and nZnO had an interactional effect on their photosynthesis. For the amphipod, mortality was positively correlated with temperature. Fish larvae growth rate was only affected by temperature but not nZnO, while the two factors interactively modulated the expression of heat shock and metallothionein proteins. Evidently, temperature can influence aggregate size and ion dissolution and thus toxicity of nZnO to the marine organisms in a species-specific manner. PMID:24219175

  5. Implementation of a minimal set of biological tests to assess the ecotoxic effects of effluents from land-based marine fish farms.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A

    2012-04-01

    Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. PMID:22137361

  6. Radiological dose rates to marine fish from the Fukushima Daiichi accident: the first three years across the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Mathew P; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Higley, Kathryn; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    A more complete record is emerging of radionuclide measurements in fish tissue, sediment, and seawater samples from near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and across the Pacific Ocean. Our analysis of publicly available data indicates the dose rates to the most impacted fish species near the FDNPP (median 1.1 mGy d(-1), 2012-2014 data) have remained above benchmark levels for potential dose effects at least three years longer than was indicated by previous, data-limited evaluations. Dose rates from (134,137)Cs were highest in demersal species with sediment-associated food chains and feeding behaviors. In addition to (134,137)Cs, the radionuclide (90)Sr was estimated to contribute up to approximately one-half of the total 2013 dose rate to fish near the FDNPP. Mesopelagic fish 100-200 km east of the FDNPP, coastal fish in the Aleutian Islands (3300 km), and trans-Pacific migratory species all had increased dose rates as a consequence of the FDNPP accident, but their total dose rates remained dominated by background radionuclides. A hypothetical human consumer of 50 kg of fish, gathered 3 km from the FDNPP in 2013, would have received a total committed effective dose of approximately 0.95 mSv a(-1) from combined FDNPP and ambient radionuclides, of which 0.13 mSv a(-1) (14%) was solely from the FDNPP radionuclides and below the 1 mSv a(-1) benchmark for public exposure. PMID:25532541

  7. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment. PMID:23840721

  8. Diatom community response to climate variability over the past 37,000 years in the sub-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Hembrow, Sarah C; Taffs, Kathryn H; Atahan, Pia; Parr, Jeff; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-01-15

    Climate change is impacting global surface water resources, increasing the need for a deeper understanding of the interaction between climate and biological diversity. This is particularly the case in the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics, where little information exists on the aquatic biota response to climate variations. Palaeolimnological techniques, in particular the use of diatoms, are well established and can significantly contribute to the understanding of climatic variability and the impacts that change in climate have on aquatic ecosystems. A sediment core from Lake McKenzie, Fraser Island (Australia), was used to investigate interactions between climate influences and aquatic ecosystems. This study utilises a combination of proxies including biological (diatom), geochemical and chronological techniques to investigate long-term aquatic changes within the perched-dune lake. A combination of (210)Pb and AMS (14)C dates showed that the retrieved sediment represented a history of ca. 37,000 cal.yBP. The sedimentation rate in Lake McKenzie is very low, ranging on average from 0.11 mm to 0.26 mm per year. A sediment hiatus was observed between ca. 18,300 and 14,000 cal.yBP suggesting a period of dry conditions at the site. The diatom record shows little variability over the period of record, with benthic, freshwater acidic tolerant species dominating. Relative abundance of planktonic species and geochemical results indicates a period of increased water depth and lake productivity in the early Holocene and a gradual decrease in effective precipitation throughout the Holocene. Results from this study not only support earlier work conducted on Fraser Island using pollen reconstructions but also demonstrate that diatom community diversity has been relatively consistent throughout the Holocene and late Pleistocene with only minor cyclical fluctuation evident. This record is consistent with the few other aquatic palaeoecological records from the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics. PMID:24076501

  9. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 1433. 1998 Distribution and abundance of the fished population of Loligo

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    April 1997. G. J. Pierce: Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB to climatic factors. 1998 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Key words: squid, Loligo and Fisheries Department (SOAEFD) Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, Victoria Road, Torry, Aberdeen AB11 9DB, UK

  10. MECHANISMS OF ACID EXTRUSION BY TWO MARINE FISHES: THE TELEOST, OPS ANUS BETA, AND THE ELASMOBRANCH, SQUALUS ACANTHIAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID H. EVANS

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Rates of efflux of H+ and ammonia from a marine teleost and an elasmobranch were measured. 2. Hypercapnia stimulated H+ efflux from both species, stimulated ammonia efflux from the elasmobranch, and inhibited ammonia efflux from the teleost. 3. In both species the H+ and ammonia efflux were predominantly across the branchial epithelium. In Na+-free sea water, the H+

  11. Halogenated organic contaminants in marine fish and mussels from southern Greenland--pilot study on relations to trophic levels and local sources.

    PubMed

    Glasius, Marianne; Christensen, Jan H; Platz, Jesper; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2005-02-01

    Mussels and marine fish (shorthorn sculpin and Greenland cod) were sampled at three locations with varying human activity. Fish livers and mussels were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated pesticides including chlordane and toxaphene. Levels of chlorinated contaminants in shorthorn sculpins from the background location, [capital Sigma]PCB (217-224 ng g(-1) lw), [capital Sigma]DDT (180 ng g(-1) lw) and hexachlorobenzene (32-44 ng g(-1) lw), were in the same range as previously observed in eastern Greenland but exceeded the levels previously observed in southern and western Greenland. Multivariate analysis showed that pollutant concentrations were mainly explained by trophic levels of the species (cod > sculpins > mussels). A pooled sample of shorthorn sculpins from the harbour of Qaqortoq had significantly higher PCB and PBDE concentrations with a different congener pattern compared to the background site, while other contaminants were comparable. This points towards local pollution sources, possibly accumulated emissions from burning of waste. PMID:15690093

  12. Rapid speciation analysis of mercury in seawater and marine fish by cation exchange chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopan; Han, Chao; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Hu, Lei

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a hybrid method for the rapid speciation of mercury compounds by cation exchange chromatographic separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is reported. Effective separation of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg) and phenylmercury (PhHg) within 2-2.5min was achieved on two consecutive 12.5-mm strong cation exchange guard columns with 2.0mM l-cysteine or thiourea (pH 2.0) as the mobile phase. This separation met the requirements of green analytical chemistry such as the prevention of toxic waste, safer HPLC mobile phases, and short separation times to reduce operating costs. The detection limits for Hg(2+), MeHg, EtHg and PhHg were 0.019, 0.027, 0.031 and 0.022?gL(-1), each, and the repeatabilities of peak height and peak area (5.0?gL(-1) for each Hg species) were all lower than 3%. Contents of Hg species and total mercury in certified reference materials of seawater (GBW(E) 080042) and fish tissue (GBW 10029) were in good accordance with the certified values, and satisfactory recoveries (96-102% for GBW(E) 080042 and 94-101% for GBW 10029) validated the developed method. The developed method was applied for the speciation of mercury in five seawater sample and five marine fish samples. The concentrations of mercury species in all analyzed fish samples did not exceed the permissible levels of the National Standard of China. PMID:24063982

  13. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  14. REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

  15. 2.-EXTENSION OF THE RECORDED RANGE OF CERTAIN MARINE AND FRESH-WATER FISHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST OF

    E-print Network

    through the dry bed of a mill pond. The fish were in association with Salvelinus fon- tinalis, Oatostomus. Eye,3. Dorsal.S, Anal, 9. Scales, 80-27; scales before dorsal, 40. Teeth, 4-5. Lat- eral line absent and faint on posterior third of body, the lower decurved and broader, running from eye to base of caudal

  16. A review of the NEMURO and NEMURO.FISH models and their application to marine ecosystem investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michio J. KishiShin-ichi; Shin-ichi Ito; Bernard A. Megrey; Kenneth A. Rose; Francisco E. Werner

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography (NEMURO) family of models to study\\u000a marine ecosystems is reviewed. Applications throughout the North Pacific have shown the models to be robust and to be able\\u000a to reproduce 1D, 2D and 3D components of nutrient, carbon cycle and biogeochemical cycles as well as aspects of the lower\\u000a trophic

  17. ACTIVITIES OF AMMONIA ASSIMILATION ENZYMES AS INDICATORS OF THE RELATIVE SUPPLY OF NITROGEN SUBSTRATES FOR MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SUB-TROPICAL COASTAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The supply of nitrogen substrates available for bacterial production in seawater was determined using the activities of ammonia assimilation enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Expression of GS and GDH by bacteria in pure culture is generally ind...

  18. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of two commercial fatty acid supplements (EfaVet and DVM Derm Caps), evening primrose oil, and cold water marine fish oil in the management of allergic pruritus in dogs: a double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H; Decker, G A; Wellington, J R

    1992-07-01

    Twenty dogs with atopy or idiopathic pruritus were treated in a double-blinded clinical trial with computer-randomized and computer-generated sequences of 4 fatty acid-containing products: evening primrose oil, cold water marine fish oil, DVM Derm Caps, and EfaVet. Each dog received each product for a 2-week period. Five of 20 dogs (25%) had a good-to-excellent reduction in their level of pruritus with at least 1 of the products: evening primrose oil (2 dogs), DVM Derm Caps (1), EfaVet (1), DVM Derm Caps and cold water marine fish oil (1). Only 1 dog experienced a side effect (loose stools). Clinical response to fatty acid supplements appeared to be quite individualized, and independent of age, breed, sex, weight, duration of disease, specific diagnosis, or number of positive intradermal test reactions. PMID:1643883

  19. Characterization of two TonB systems in marine fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus : their roles in iron utilization and virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiyao Wang; Qin Liu; Xiaodan Cao; Minjun Yang; Yuanxing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the TonB\\/ExbB\\/ExbD complex is required to energize the specific high-affinity receptors mediating\\u000a iron uptake processes. In fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus MVP01, which exhibited capacities to scavenge iron sources with various specific iron uptake systems, we identified and characterized\\u000a two sets of TonB systems. In V. alginolyticus, TonB1 and TonB2 systems were arrayed as TonB1–ExbB1–ExbD1 and ExbB2–ExbD2–TonB2, respectively.

  20. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  1. Mr. And Mrs. Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An award-winning marine education program that comes to elementary schools all over the world to perform hilarious, yet highly educational assembly programs about life in the sea. Site features information on marine life, links to additional information, merchandise information, and background on Mr. and Mrs. Fish.

  2. Parathyroid hormone-related protein-stanniocalcin antagonism in regulation of bicarbonate secretion and calcium precipitation in a marine fish intestine.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Juan; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2010-07-01

    Bicarbonate secretion in the intestine (duodenum) of marine fish has been suggested to play a major role in regulation of calcium availability for uptake. However, while the end process may lead to carbonate precipitation, regulation of transport of calcium and/or bicarbonate may actually result in fine-tuning of calcium availability for transport. To test this hypothesis, sea bream (Sparus auratus) duodenal preparations were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and the effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and stanniocalcin 1 (STC 1) on the control of intestinal bicarbonate secretion and calcium transport was analyzed. As expected, PTHrP increased net calcium uptake, as a result of an increase of calcium uptake without changes in calcium efflux. In contrast, purified sea bream STC 1 caused a minor decrease of calcium uptake and a two- to threefold increase in calcium efflux. As a result, STC 1 was able to invert the calcium flux from net calcium uptake to net calcium loss, which is in keeping with its known actions as a hypocalcemic factor. Furthermore, both PTHrP and STC 1 regulate intestinal bicarbonate secretion. PTHrP increased calcium uptake and simultaneously reduced the single factor that induces calcium precipitation, bicarbonate secretion. In contrast, STC 1, while reversing the calcium net flux to make it secretory, promoted intestinal bicarbonate secretion, both actions directed to decrease the calcium gradient across the epithelium and promote immobilization in the form of bicarbonate in the intestinal lumen. Together our results provide robust evidence to support an antagonistic action of PTHrP and STC 1 in the fine control of movements of both calcium and bicarbonate in the intestine of seawater fish. PMID:20410471

  3. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop residues into the soil. It also shows that the use of nitrification inhibitors can lead to elevated N2O emissions by storing N in the soil profile that is available to soil microbes during the decomposition of the vegetable residues over the post-harvest phase. Hence the use of nitrification inhibitors in vegetable systems has to be treated carefully and fertiliser rates need to be adjusted to avoid excess soil nitrogen during the postharvest phase.

  4. Sustainable production of toxin free marine microalgae biomass as fish feed in large scale open system in the Qatari desert.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J

    2015-09-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae biomass for feed should be cost effective and toxin free. Evaporation loss in Qatar can be as high as 2cm/d. Hence, production of marine microalgae biomass in Qatar would also require mitigating water loss as there was only very limited groundwater reserve. To address these issues, a combination of four growth conditions were applied to a 25,000L raceway pond: locally isolated microalgae strain was selected which could grow in elevated salinity; strain that did not require silica and vitamins; volume of the culture would increase over time keeping denser inoculum in the beginning, and evaporation water loss would be balanced by adding seawater only. A local saline tolerant Nannochloropsis sp. was selected which did not require silica and vitamins. When the above conditions were combined in the pond, average areal biomass productivities reached 20.37g/m(2)/d, and the culture was not contaminated by any toxic microalgae. PMID:26022971

  5. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Giacalone, Maximiliano; D'Anna, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Human exploitation has drastically reduced the abundance and distribution of several marine fish and invertebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction. Restocking can potentially mitigate these impacts and help to reconstitute depleted stocks but genetic repercussions must be considered. In the present study, the degree of genetic similarity between white seabream (Diplodus sargus Linnaeus 1758) individuals reared for restocking purposes and the receiving population in the Gulf of Castellammare fishery reserve (Sicily, Italy) was assessed using microsatellites. We also inferred the spatial pattern of the genetic structure of D. sargus and connectivity along Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci and an important reduction in the number of alleles, which could indicate an incipient inbreeding. Both the farmed population and the target one for restocking (Castellammare fishery reserve), showed high and significant values of genetic differentiation due to different allele frequencies, number of privative alleles and total number of alleles. These findings indicate a low degree of genetic similarity between both populations, therefore this restocking initiative is not advisable. The genetic connectivity pattern, highly consistent with oceanographic currents, identified two distinct metapopulations of white seabream around Sicily. Thus it is recommended to utilize broods from the same metapopulation for restocking purposes to provide a better genetic match to the wild populations.

  6. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

  7. Comparative study of pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Percidae; Linnaeus, 1758) eggs and larvae from wild females or from captive females fed chopped marine fish.

    PubMed

    Ben Khemis, I; Hamza, N; Ben Messaoud, N; Ben Rached, S; M'Hetli, M

    2014-04-01

    Morphometric characteristics, proximal composition and fatty acids profiles of eggs and larvae at hatching and mouth opening were studied as indicators for assessing the potential differences between spawns obtained from wild or captive females of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Captive females were acclimated to hatchery conditions and fed to satiation with chopped marine fish for more than a year, guaranteeing that captivity covered the full cycle of gonad maturation. The number of larvae obtained from the spawnings did not differ between captive and wild females, but both mean diameter and mean weight of the eggs collected from the captive females were significantly larger. Proximal compositions were similar in eggs and larvae from both groups, but fatty acids (FA) profiles showed striking differences: polyunsaturated FA consisted mainly of linoleic acid in eggs and larvae from wild females, while they consisted mainly of long chains of n-3 series in eggs and larvae from captive females. The diet of captive females largely modified the FA profiles of eggs and of hatching or mouth opening larvae, but did not affect the growth potential of early larvae, demonstrating that they were able to satisfy their early physiological needs regardless of the striking differences in their FA. PMID:23995948

  8. Cryptosporidium molnari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) infecting two marine fish species, Sparus aurata L. and Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2002-07-01

    Cryptosporidium molnari n. sp. is described from two teleost fish, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). The parasite was found mainly in the stomach epithelium and seldom in the intestine. Oocysts were almost spherical, with four naked sporozoites and a prominent residuum, and measured 3.23-5.45 x 3.02-5.04 (mean 4.72 x 4.47) microm in the type host, gilthead sea bream (shape index 1-1.17, mean 1.05). Sporulation was endogenous, as fully sporulated oocysts were found within the fish, both in the stomach epithelium and lumen, and in faeces. Oocysts and other stages of C. molnari fit most of the diagnostic features of the genus Cryptosporidium, but differ from hitherto described species, including piscine ones. All stages were located within a host contributed parasitophorous vacuole lined by a double host microvillar membrane. Merogonial and gamogonial stages appeared in the typical extracytoplasmic position, whereas oogonial and sporogonial stages were located deeply within the epithelium. Ultrastructural features, including the characteristic contact zone of the parasite with the host epithelial surface, were mostly coincident with those of other Cryptosporidium spp. Mitochondria were found in dividing meronts, merozoites, microgamonts and sporozoites. Pathological effects were more evident in gilthead sea bream, which also exhibited a clearly higher prevalence (24.4 versus 4.64% in sea bass). External clinical signs, consisting of whitish faeces, abdominal swelling and ascites, were rarely observed, in contrast with important histopathological damage. The wide zones of epithelium invaded by oogonial and sporogonial stages appeared necrotic, with abundant cell debris, and sloughing of epithelial cells, which detached to the lumen. No inflammation reaction was observed and the cellular reaction was limited to the cells involved in the engulfing of intraepithelial stages and debris, probably macrophages. PMID:12076630

  9. EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING

    E-print Network

    463 EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING by Keith A. Smith Marine Biolcgica! Labcratory Ul a R AR. McKernan, Director EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING by Keith A. Smith International Inshore explorations 1 Herring winter habitat 6 Coastal gill net fishing 8 Summary 9 lii #12

  10. Ouabain-sensitive bicarbonate secretion and acid absorption by the marine teleost fish intestine play a role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Grosell, M; Genz, J

    2006-10-01

    The gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) intestine secretes base mainly in the form of HCO3- via apical anion exchange to serve Cl- and water absorption for osmoregulatory purposes. Luminal HCO3- secretion rates measured by pH-stat techniques in Ussing chambers rely on oxidative energy metabolism and are highly temperature sensitive. At 25 degrees C under in vivo-like conditions, secretion rates averaged 0.45 micromol x cm(-2) x h(-1), of which 0.25 micromol x cm(-2) x h(-1) can be accounted for by hydration of endogenous CO2 partly catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. Complete polarity of secretion of HCO3- and H+ arising from the CO2 hydration reaction is evident from equal rates of luminal HCO3- secretion via anion exchange and basolateral H+ extrusion. When basolateral H+ extrusion is partly inhibited by reduction of serosal pH, luminal HCO3- secretion is reduced. Basolateral H+ secretion occurs in exchange for Na+ via an ethylisopropylamiloride-insensitive mechanism and is ultimately fueled by the activity of the basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase. Fluid absorption by the toadfish intestine to oppose diffusive water loss to the concentrated marine environment is accompanied by a substantial basolateral H+ extrusion, intimately linking osmoregulation and acid-base balance. PMID:16709644

  11. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Toonen, Robert J; Bowen, Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai'i began a remarkable, if unintentional, 'experiment' with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (F(ST) = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (F(ST) = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (F(ST) = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  12. A new leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 from marine fish grouper, Epinephelus coioides: molecular cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingguang; Guo, Minglan; Cui, Huachun; Yan, Yang; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-10-01

    Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a multifunctional protein involved in cell growth, differentiation and autoimmunity. In this study, a new leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (EcLECT2) gene was cloned from grouper, Epinephelus coioides, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence of EcLECT2 was 595 bp in size, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 44 bp and a 3'-UTR of 83 bp. The deduced protein sequence of the open reading frame (465 bp) showed highest similarity (81%) to the LECT2 of the fresh-water fish Larimichthys crocea. An abundant transcription of the determined EcLECT2 mRNA has been detected in liver and skin of grouper, E. coioides. Furthermore, the expression of EcLECT2 was differentially up-regulated in liver after infection with Staphyloccocus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), while the expression was down-regulated after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A). Recombinant mature EcLECT2 (rEcLECT2) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the antiserum against EcLECT2 was obtained for further investigations. EcLECT2 may be an important molecule in the innate immunity of grouper. PMID:21763428

  13. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

  14. Assessment of risk of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in marine and freshwater fish in Pearl River Delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wei; K. S. Leung; M. H. Wong; J. Giesy; Z. W. Cai; Chris K. C. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is known to be beneficial to human health. However since the age of industrialization, the released\\/disposed chemical pollutants into water systems make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. In oceanic cities with heavy industrial activities, fish products contribute the greatest proportion of exposure to pollutants. In this study, risks and potential effects of dioxins to

  15. 75 FR 67948 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey) AGENCY: National...Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey. MRIP is testing alternative...timeliness of recreational fishing statistics. II. Method of Collection...Individuals or households, business or other for- profit...

  16. Levels of total arsenic in edible fish and shellfish obtained from two coastal sectors of the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile: use of non-migratory marine species as bioindicators of sea environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Ponce, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo H; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2011-01-01

    The Camarones (CB) and Vitor (VB) Bays are situated in the middle of Atacama Desert, and their economies are based on activities entirely associated with the extraction of marine produce. The aim of this study was to determine the total arsenic content in three species of fish and seven species of shellfish from these two bays. The quantification of the total arsenic content in these products was performed by Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, HG-AAS. The results showed that marine species associated with the CB sector had higher total arsenic levels than the same species in the area of VB, a finding attributed to much higher total arsenic concentrations in the water and soils of CB than VB. The species with the highest total arsenic concentration was the Venus antique (7.50 mg kg (-1)) from the CB, and the lowest total arsenic content was found in Cheilodactylidae variegatus (0.34 mg kg(-1)) from VB. PMID:21879860

  17. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  18. Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Gómez, Samuel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were found on 19 wild fish species. The description of Caligus chamelensis n. sp. parasitizing Kyphosus elegans is presented. Among the species of Caligus reported here, Caligus serratus is the most common since it was found infecting 11 fish species. On cultured fish, Lutjanus gutattus and L. peru, only one species of Caligus, C. sclerotinosus was collected. DNA barcodes [mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences] were obtained for the majority of the sea lice species herein reported. The molecular analyses support the recognition of the new species and suggest that neither Caligus nor Lepeophtheirus are monophyletic. COI is shown to be a good candidate for parasitic copepod species identification, although a more robust reference database is needed to expand our ability to accomplish a molecular identification. PMID:24042060

  19. Visual censuses of reef fish have been used to monitor fish communities as

    E-print Network

    72 Visual censuses of reef fish have been used to monitor fish communities as indicators and are used to monitor changes in the relative abundance or mean length of reef fish within marine protected of three common species of reef fish from New Zealand. Length estimates from a stereo-video system had much

  20. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging from 3 to 104, depending on species and sites. The lowest enrichment values were found for Hg. Based on liver values, the specimens of S. rivulatus from the OBS had the highest levels, as well as D. sargus and L. mormyrus from JFA, contrary to the known relative environmental status of the sites.

  1. Tropical Transpacific Shore Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack S. Grove; John E. McCosker

    2004-01-01

    Tropical transpacific fishes occur on both sides of the world's largest deep-water barrier to the migration of marine shore organisms, the 4,000- to 7,000-km-wide Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). They include 64 epipelagic oce- anic species and 126 species of shore fishes known from both the tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) and the central and West Pacific. The broad distributions of 19

  2. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  3. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  4. Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos the approach, we develop a physics­based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes. As in nature, the detailed motions of artificial fishes in their vir­ tual habitat are not entirely predictable

  5. Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos-based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes that can swim hydrodynamically of artificial fishes in their virtual habitat are not entirely predictable because they are not scripted. 1

  6. Essential Fish Habitat and Critical Habitat

    E-print Network

    Essential Fish Habitat and Critical Habitat: A comparison NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service #12;Essential fish habitat (EFH) is identified for species managed in Fishery Management Plans under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. Essential fish habitat is the habitat necessary

  7. From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems, with case studies from temperate Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey

    Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of Ecosystem Based Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We

  8. Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diets of post-smolt Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar): changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil “wash out”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gordon Bell; Fiona McGhee; Patrick J Campbell; John R Sargent

    2003-01-01

    Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed five practical-type diets in which the added oil was 100% fish oil (FO)\\/0% rapeseed oil (0% RO), 90% FO\\/10% RO (10% RO), 75% FO\\/25% RO (25% RO), 50% FO\\/50% RO (50% RO) or 100% RO for 16 weeks. After sampling, the remaining fish were switched to a commercial grower diet containing FO

  9. Utilization of Fish Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Perez Galvez; Jean-Pascal Berge

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of marine resources calls for the implementation of new technological processes for providing a better utilization of waste and by-products from fisheries and fish processing activities. Most of these by-products are currently used as raw materials for animal feed. It is estimated that their utilization in human foodstuffs, nutraceuticals, pharmacy, or cosmetics would increase their value fivefold. This

  10. PRESENCE OF FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Pacific Marine States Fisheries Commission (PMSFC) were acquired into summary tables and used by Region 10 gis staff to highlight the Northwest Reach file. Data may not be complete for specific areas and users should consult with local fish and wildlife data source...

  11. U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service

    E-print Network

    of domestically caught fish and shellfish by the commercial fishing industry was approximately $4.0 billion of fishery products for domestic and foreign markets, the commercial marine fishing industry contributed $35 in the recreational fishing industry to design a new data collection program for our nation's marine recreational

  12. First report of a toxic Nodularia spumigena (Nostocales/ Cyanobacteria) bloom in sub-tropical Australia. II. Bioaccumulation of nodularin in isolated populations of mullet (Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K; McGregor, Glenn B; Chong, Roger; Seawright, Alan A; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha A; Sadler, Ross; Hunt, Lindsay; Graham, Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Fish collected after a mass mortality at an artificial lake in south-east Queensland, Australia, were examined for the presence of nodularin as the lake had earlier been affected by a Nodularia bloom. Methanol extracts of muscle, liver, peritoneal and stomach contents were analysed by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry; histological examination was conducted on livers from captured mullet. Livers of sea mullet (Mugil cephalus) involved in the fish kill contained high concentrations of nodularin (median 43.6 mg/kg, range 40.8-47.8 mg/kg dry weight; n = 3) and the toxin was also present in muscle tissue (median 44.0 ?g/kg, range 32.3-56.8 ?g/kg dry weight). Livers of fish occupying higher trophic levels accumulated much lower concentrations. Mullet captured from the lake 10 months later were also found to have high hepatic nodularin levels. DNA sequencing of mullet specimens revealed two species inhabiting the study lake: M. cephalus and an unidentified mugilid. The two mullet species appear to differ in their exposure and/or uptake of nodularin, with M. cephalus demonstrating higher tissue concentrations. The feeding ecology of mullet would appear to explain the unusual capacity of these fish to concentrate nodularin in their livers; these findings may have public health implications for mullet fisheries and aquaculture production where toxic cyanobacteria blooms affect source waters. This report incorporates a systematic review of the literature on nodularin measured in edible fish, shellfish and crustaceans. PMID:22851952

  13. Steve Jeffries Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Network. Extensive experience with examining marine mammals from regional fishery bycatch and strandings96 Steve Jeffries Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Marine Mammal Program 7801 Phillips Rd and Wildlife's Marine Mammal Investigation unit. Primary response center for Northwest Marine Mammal Stranding

  14. 46 CFR 105.15-5 - Authority of marine inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Inspection Required § 105.15-5 Authority of marine inspectors. (a) Marine inspectors may at any...

  15. 74 FR 34552 - Northeast Region Fishing Gear Exchange Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-16

    ...0907021106-91110-01] RIN 0648-ZC09 Northeast Region Fishing Gear Exchange Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...or killed through incidental entanglement in fishing gear. Based on gear retrieved from entangled whales, interactions can...

  16. BUREAU' OF COMMERCIAL FISHE_..__ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    ---------------------------------------------- 77 Jellyfish----------------------------------------------- 79 Environment: Marine, the Anadromous Fish Act of 1965, and the Jellyfish Act of 1966. Information presented is intended to provide

  17. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    , Bishop, California 93514, USA 4 Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Star sampling zones. Resident fish abundance was not significantly different among zones. Dominant shrimp. KEY WORDS: Propeller scarring · Edge · Seagrass · Thalassia testudinum · Decapoda · Shrimp · Fish

  18. Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Zaffino, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

  19. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Stockin, Karen

    , gulls, terns), predatory pelagic fish (e.g. tuna, sharks) and mammals (e.g. sea lions, whales, dolphins and capture (Cunningham 1866). Gannets plunge dive for fish and squid (Nel- son 1978), at times in feeding). Some marine mammals herd fish towards the surface, where the fish remain within diving depth

  20. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  1. The culture of marine fish and their use as biological monitors of water quality in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a power station 

    E-print Network

    Linder, Donald Ray

    1974-01-01

    to escape into the ponds' drainage system. This pond flooding complicated the interpretation of survival data for the first 7 months of the study. Survival of all species except striped mullet (47. 5-85. 2$) was poor (0. 2-37. 3$). Survival of pinfish... in Thermal Effluents. Fish Mariculture in the United States 3 3 7 8 DESCRIPTION OF AREA. Power Plant Ponds EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS. 11 11 11 15 METHODS. Pond Preparation. Procurement of Stock and Stocking Hydrological Data Fish Sampling...

  2. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 4. Key to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the fourth of a series which was produced to help students and teachers gather…

  3. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary,...

  4. 50 CFR 216.24 - Taking and related acts incidental to commercial fishing operations by tuna purse seine vessels...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...mortality or serious injury of marine mammals. Live marine mammals may not be brailed, sacked up...intentional taking of marine mammals may not engage in fishing operations...safety panel must consist of small mesh webbing not to exceed...

  5. The culture of selected marine fish in ponds receiving thermal effluent from a power station and their use as biological monitors of water quality

    E-print Network

    Pane, Joseph John

    1976-01-01

    to determine their significance in thermal effluent fish culture. This study was conducted from March 24, 1975 to June 8, 1976. Striped mullet, NugLL oephaLus, was cultured with Florida pompano, Tzachinotus caroLinus; Atlantic croaker, Nioropogon undu...

  6. Darwin College Weekly Menu 8th December 2014 All Fish used are sourced from sustainable sources conforming to The Marine Stewardship Council Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    Darwin College Weekly Menu 8th December 2014 All Fish used are sourced from sustainable sources on http://www.darwin.cam.ac.uk/catering/feedback Monday Lunch Soup Spinach And Celery Soup With Herb Of Homemade Desserts Fruit Salad Yoghurt And Fresh Fruit #12;Darwin College Weekly Menu 8th December 2014 All

  7. Fish products available in Polish market – Assessment of the nutritive value and human exposure to dioxins and other contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zygmunt Usydus; Joanna Szlinder-Richert; Lucyna Polak-Juszczak; Katarzyna Komar; Maria Adamczyk; Ma?gorzata Malesa-Ciecwierz; Wies?awa Ruczynska

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on one hundred and twenty of the most popular varieties of fish products (smoked fish, salted fish, and marinated fish) of the fish market in Poland. The contents of the nutritive substances of fish products (protein, micro- and macronutrients, vitamins A1, D3, E, and fatty acids) and the chosen contaminant (toxic metals – mercury, cadmium, lead,

  8. Rangewide microsatellite phylogeography of the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a genetically subdivided coastal fish with limited marine dispersal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dent A. Earl; Kristina D. Louie; Carolyne Bardeleben; Camm C. Swift; David K. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    The federally endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, is the most locally differentiated vertebrate with marine dispersal on the California Coast. It inhabits seasonally closed\\u000a estuaries along the California coast; a habitat heavily impacted by anthropogenic filling and artificial opening, and exhibits\\u000a varied metapopulation behavior as a consequence of hydrologic variation and anthropogenic impact. We describe 19 taxon-specific\\u000a microsatellite loci, and

  9. Intraspecific diversity of Aureobasidium pullulans strains from different marine environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Liu; Zhiqiang Liu; Zhenming Chi; Liang Zhang; Dechao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Totally more than 500 yeast strains were isolated from seawater, sea sediments, mud of sea salterns, marine fish guts and\\u000a marine algae. The results of routine and molecular biology identification methods show that nine strains among these marine\\u000a yeasts belong to Aureobasidium pullulans, although the morphologies of their colonies are very different. The marine yeasts isolated from different marine environments

  10. A stochastic model for the assessment of the transmission pathways of heart and skeleton muscle inflammation, pancreas disease and infectious salmon anaemia in marine fish farms in Norway.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Magne; Storvik, Bård; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jansen, Peder A

    2010-01-01

    Salmon farming is threatened, economically and ecologically, by infectious diseases. To reduce the risk of epidemics, authorities have developed regulations. These are based on quantitative understanding of pathways of infection, representing disease specific risks. A stochastic model was fitted to historical data, to estimate risk factors associated with competing spread mechanisms. Three infectious diseases were compared, heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), pancreas disease (PD) and infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). This study was based on space-time data, from Norway from 2003 to 2007, describing the susceptible fish cohorts and the reported infections. Particular interest was given to seaway distances between farms and their local management organisation. The parameter measuring the effect of distance to an infectious fish farm was positive and significant for all diseases, implying that the risk involved with proximate infectious fish farms increased with decreasing distance. For HSMI and PD there was a significant effect of sharing a contact network with an infectious farm. For HSMI, but not for PD or ISA, there was a significant effect of previous infected cohorts on the same farm. The relative contribution of each transmission pathway was dominated by seaway distance for PD and HSMI, while other non-defined pathways dominated for ISA. This comparative study highlights that the three diseases have different patterns of spread, with important consequences for disease prevention and management. PMID:19811843

  11. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Scharf, Fred

    INTRODUCTION A common goal of food habits research is to predict the composition of the diet of an animal given Predator size-prey size relationships of marine fish predators: interspecific variation and effects relationships for 18 species of marine fish predators from continental shelf waters off the northeast US coast

  12. The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Read

    2008-01-01

    Direct fisheries interactions pose a serious threat to the conservation of many populations and some species of marine mammals. The most acute problem is bycatch, unintended mortality in fishing gear, although this can transition into unregulated harvest under some circumstances. A growing issue in some fisheries is depredation, in which marine mammals remove captured fish from nets or lines. Depredation

  13. High diversity of skin-associated bacterial communities of marine fishes is promoted by their high variability among body parts, individuals and species.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Marlène; Villéger, Sébastien; Bouvier, Corinne; Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvier, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Animal-associated microbiotas form complex communities, which are suspected to play crucial functions for their host fitness. However, the biodiversity of these communities, including their differences between host species and individuals, has been scarcely studied, especially in case of skin-associated communities. In addition, the intraindividual variability (i.e. between body parts) has never been assessed to date. The objective of this study was to characterize skin bacterial communities of two teleostean fish species, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), using a high-throughput DNA sequencing method. In order to focus on intrinsic factors of host-associated bacterial community variability, individuals of the two species were raised in controlled conditions. Bacterial diversity was assessed using a set of four complementary indices, describing the taxonomic and phylogenetic facets of biodiversity and their respective composition (based on presence/absence data) and structure (based on species relative abundances) components. Variability of bacterial diversity was quantified at the interspecific, interindividual and intraindividual scales. We demonstrated that fish surfaces host highly diverse bacterial communities, whose composition was very different from that of surrounding bacterioplankton. This high total biodiversity of skin-associated communities was supported by the important variability, between host species, individuals and the different body parts (dorsal, anal, pectoral and caudal fins). PMID:26048284

  14. The changing focus of marine mammal conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Hofman

    1995-01-01

    Overexploitation has been the principal focus of marine mammal conservation. Less attention has been paid to bycatch in commercial fisheries; entanglement in lost and discarded fishing gear; food shortages owing to climate change and\\/or overharvesting of essential prey; point and non-point source pollution; and diseases. Also, relatively little attention has been paid to situations where marine mammals pose threats to

  15. SONIC EQUIPMENT FOR TRACKING INDIVIDUAL FISH

    E-print Network

    SONIC EQUIPMENT FOR TRACKING INDIVIDUAL FISH Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRAEY AUG y- 1956 WOODS scope, intended to aid or direct management or utilization practices and as guides for administrative of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, John L . Farley, Director SONIC EQUIPMENT

  16. DIRECTING THE MOVEMENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY

    E-print Network

    DIRECTING THE MOVEMENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY Marine Biological Laboratory APR 21 1953 WOODS HOLE, Albert M. Day, Director DIRECTING THE MOVH-IENT OF FISH WITH ELECTRICITY by Alberton L. McLain Fishery of an electrical leading device 21 Literature cited. ..,...,..,..........·· 2k ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Diagram

  17. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    42) ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1961 Marine Biological. McKeman, Director ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1961--Fisheries No. 421 Washington, D. C. April 1962 #12;Rock Island Dam, Columbia River, Washington ii #12;CONTENTS

  18. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF FISH TAGGING PINS

    E-print Network

    CORROSION RESISTANCE OF FISH TAGGING PINS [Marine Biological Laboratoryj WOODS HOLE, MASS. SPECIAL A, Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner CORROSION RESISTANCE were tagged with nickel and Type 304 stainless steel pins to compare the corrosion resistance

  19. The Impact of Ocean Noise Pollution on Marine Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Weilgart

    Most marine animals, particularly marine mammals and fish, are very sensitive to sound. Noise can travel long distances underwater, blanketing large areas, and potentially preventing marine animals from hearing their prey or predators, finding their way, or connecting with mates, group members, or their young. Decreased species diversity in whales and dolphins was related to an increase in seismic noise.

  20. Fishing for data and sorting the catch: assessing the data quality, completeness and fitness for use of data in marine biogeographic databases.

    PubMed

    Vandepitte, Leen; Bosch, Samuel; Tyberghein, Lennert; Waumans, Filip; Vanhoorne, Bart; Hernandez, Francisco; De Clerck, Olivier; Mees, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Being able to assess the quality and level of completeness of data has become indispensable in marine biodiversity research, especially when dealing with large databases that typically compile data from a variety of sources. Very few integrated databases offer quality flags on the level of the individual record, making it hard for users to easily extract the data that are fit for their specific purposes. This article describes the different steps that were developed to analyse the quality and completeness of the distribution records within the European and international Ocean Biogeographic Information Systems (EurOBIS and OBIS). Records are checked on data format, completeness and validity of information, quality and detail of the used taxonomy and geographic indications and whether or not the record is a putative outlier. The corresponding quality control (QC) flags will not only help users with their data selection, they will also help the data management team and the data custodians to identify possible gaps and errors in the submitted data, providing scope to improve data quality. The results of these quality control procedures are as of now available on both the EurOBIS and OBIS databases. Through the Biology portal of the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet Biology), a subset of EurOBIS records--passing a specific combination of these QC steps--is offered to the users. In the future, EMODnet Biology will offer a wide range of filter options through its portal, allowing users to make specific selections themselves. Through LifeWatch, users can already upload their own data and check them against a selection of the here described quality control procedures. Database URL: www.eurobis.org (www.iobis.org; www.emodnet-biology.eu/). PMID:25632106

  1. A 25-year partnership between Pacific Marine

    E-print Network

    the Nation #12;Right Whale Bowhead Whales Humpback Whale Steller Sea Lion #12;Marine Transportation, Oil, fish, cetaceans, and pinnipeds surveys; and understand these species' dependence on sea ice. Current Scenarios Humans Humpback and fin whales Commercial/subsistence fish: Pollock, cod, arrowtooth flounder

  2. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality less than 40% by 14 d postchallenge. Received July 31, 2014; accepted March 11, 2015. PMID:26030196

  3. Dichelyne (Dichelyne) spinigerus sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the marine fish Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) off Iran and first description of the male of Philometra otolithi Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 (Nematoda: Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Khosheghbal, Maryam; Pazooki, Jamileh

    2014-06-01

    Recent parasitological examinations of the marine perciform fish (tigerteeth croaker) Otolithes ruber (Bloch et Schneider) (Sciaenidae) from off Iran yielded one new and one previously known nematode species: Dichelyne (Dichelyne) spinigerus sp. nov. (Cucullanidae) from the host's intestine in the Persian Gulf and Philometra otolithi Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 (Philometridae) from the ovary in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. The new species D. spinigerus is mainly characterized by the tail tip of both sexes terminating in two shaply pointed spikes (one dorsal and one ventral) and bearing a pair of minute lateral cuticular spines at its base, situation of both deirids and the excretory pore well posterior to the level of the posterior end of oesophagus, absence of a precloacal sucker and the presence of one or two intestinal caeca. The male and small mature females of the gonad-infecting species P. otolithi are described for the first time, based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies. The male of P. otolithi is most similar to that of P. johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013, but differs from it by the structure of the cephalic end and the number of caudal papillae; both species also differ from each other by the presence of transverse lamellae in the buccal cavity of gravid and subgravid females of P. otolithi, which are missing in those of P. johnii. PMID:24827091

  4. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khalid, Nur Qamarina; Shaharoum-Harrison, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20?mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24?hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298?hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483?hr period to complete a life cycle. PMID:25574379

  5. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    The Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed, apportioned as follows: Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) 1,467,000 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 163 operator at the completion of fishing operations. Vessel operators must notify ADF&G within 72 hours

  6. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 127 PS.-PBOTE(ITING THE OYSTER BEDS FROB1 STAR-FISH DEPBE-

    E-print Network

    BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 127 PS.-PBOTE(ITING THE OYSTER BEDS FROB1 STAR-FISH,de- structive modes of dredging, unusual deposits of sediment, depredat`lO1lB of enemies-such as star-fishes. Marine eneinies of the oyster are niimerous and very destructive; star- fish, "fivefingers

  7. Vol. 115: 21-30,1994 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES

    E-print Network

    Grutter, Alexandra "Lexa"

    at the northern locat~on,Lizard Island. Parasite numbers and species composition among fish species at Lizard composition of marine ectoparasites vary both among and within fish species. Variation in parasites within in parasites can also affect the factors they influence. For instance, the diet of cleaner fish or the cleaning

  8. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    et al. 2007). Whether the introduction of lion- fish to the Atlantic occurred as a single event. 1998). While invasions by marine fishes are relatively uncommon and their ecological effects are largely unknown, introductions of predatory fresh- water fishes have often proven to be devastating

  9. Interactions of free copper (II) ions alone or in complex with iron (III) ions with erythrocytes of marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Labieniec, Magdalena; Milowska, Katarzyna; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Rucinska, Agata; Sadowska, Magdalena; Jokiel, Marta; Brichon, Gerard; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2009-09-01

    As a consequence of human activity, various toxicants - especially metal ions - enter aquatic ecosystems and many fish are exposed to considerable levels. As the free ion and in some complexes, there is no doubt that copper promotes damage to cellular molecules and structures through radical formation. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of copper uptake by the red blood of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and its oxidative action and effects on cells in the presence of complexed and uncomplexed Fe3+ ions. Erythrocytes were exposed to various concentrations of CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, and K3Fe(CN)6 for up to 5h, and the effects of copper ions alone and in the combination with iron determined. The results show that inside the cells cupric ion interacts with hemoglobin, causing methemoglobin formation by direct electron transfer from heme Fe2+ to Cu2+. Potassium ferricyanide as a source of complexed iron decreases Met-Hb formation induced by copper ions unlike Fe(NO3)3. We also found that incubation of fish erythrocytes with copper increased hemolysis of cells. But complexed and uncomplexed iron protected the effect of copper. CuSO4 increased the level of lipid peroxidation and a protective effect on complexed iron was observed. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper ions resulted in the loss of a considerable part of thiol content at 10 and 20 microM. This effect was decreased by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(NO3)3 only after 1 and 3h of incubation. The level of nuclear DNA damage assayed by comet assay showed that 20 microM CuSO4 as well as 20 microM Fe(NO3)3 and 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 induce single- and double-strand breaks. The lower changes were observed after the exposure of cells to K3Fe(CN)6. The data suggest that complexed iron can act protectively against copper ions in contrast to Fe(NO3)3. PMID:19524693

  10. THE RESPONSE OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strong association is documented between variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and changes in various trophic levels of the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Examples are presented for phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fish, marine diseases, whales and s...

  11. 76 FR 68429 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...the following vacant seats on the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Research; Chamber of Commerce/Tourism/Recreation; Marine Business/ Ports/Industry; Conservation; Commercial Fishing (alternate position only)....

  12. Estuarine recruitment of a marine goby reconstructed with an isotopic clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jef Guelinckx; Joachim Maes; Bram Geysen; Frans Ollevier

    2008-01-01

    Information on movement patterns of marine fishes between estuarine populations and stocks at sea is fundamental to understanding\\u000a their population dynamics, life history tactics and behavior. Furthermore, understanding estuarine habitat use by marine fishes\\u000a is crucial for their effective conservation and integrated estuarine management. Although large numbers of young marine fish\\u000a make use of temperate estuaries in highly predictable abundance

  13. Marine Biology106, 315-321 (1990) .............. BiOlOgy@ Springer-Verlag1990

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1990-01-01

    Marine Biology106, 315-321 (1990) Marine .............. BiOlOgy@ Springer-Verlag1990 Na +-K and locomotory activity level A. Gibbs * and G.N. Somero Marine Biology +-adenosine triphosphatase activities in gills of marine teleost fishes: changes with depth, size

  14. Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes (Tripterygiidae)

    E-print Network

    Shima, Jeff

    Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes Habitat availability Habitat configuration Settlement Tripterygiidae To survive, most benthic marine organisms must find suitable settlement habitat. For reef fishes, settlement hab- itat is often structurally

  15. Review of Recreational Economic Data at the National Marine Fisheries For the Center for Independent Experts

    E-print Network

    . · With reasonable expectations about the growth of marine recreational fishing, greater research funds will have in the allocation of fish stocks. The reviewers doubt that funds for large-scale national surveys would be the most

  16. Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

    2012-07-01

    The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10 g) were sprayed with 2.0 ml of 1,600 AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18 °C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4 °C to >21 days as against <14 days observed in the untreated samples. The total count of spoilage bacteria was reduced by 2.5 logarithmic units in the treated sample during the 14th day of storage as against the control. Chemical analysis revealed a significant change (P?

  17. HCO (3)(-) secretion and CaCO3 precipitation play major roles in intestinal water absorption in marine teleost fish in vivo.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Cooper, Christopher A; Wilson, Rod W

    2010-04-01

    The intestine of marine teleosts must effectively absorb fluid from ingested seawater to avoid dehydration. This fluid transport has been almost exclusively characterized as driven by NaCl absorption. However, an additional feature of the osmoregulatory role of the intestine is substantial net HCO(3)(-) secretion. This is suggested to drive additional fluid absorption directly (via Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange) and indirectly by precipitating ingested Ca(2+) as CaCO(3), thus creating the osmotic gradient for additional fluid absorption. The present study tested this hypothesis by perfusing the intestine of the European flounder in vivo with varying [Ca(2+)]: 10 (control), 40, and 90 mM. Fractional fluid absorption increased from 47% (control) to 73% (90 mM Ca(2+)), where almost all secreted HCO(3)(-) was excreted as CaCO(3). This additional fluid absorption could not be explained by NaCl cotransport. Instead, a significant positive relationship between Na(+)-independent fluid absorption and total HCO(3)(-) secretion was consistent with the predicted roles for anion exchange and CaCO(3) precipitation. Further analysis suggested that Na(+)-independent fluid absorption could be accounted for by net Cl(-) and H(+) absorption (from Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and CO(2) hydration, respectively). There was no evidence to suggest that CaCO(3) alone was responsible for driving fluid absorption. However, by preventing the accumulation of luminal Ca(2+) it played a vital role by dynamically maintaining a favorable osmotic gradient all along the intestine, which permits substantially higher rates of solute-linked fluid absorption. To overcome the resulting hyperosmotic and highly acidic absorbate, it is proposed that plasma HCO(3)(-) buffers the absorbed H(+) (from HCO(3)(-) production), and consequently reduces the osmolarity of the absorbed fluid entering the body. PMID:20130226

  18. Investigation of Fishing and Climate Effects on the Community Size Spectra of Eastern Bering Sea Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Boldt; Shannon C. Bartkiw; Pat A. Livingston; Gerald R. Hoff; Gary E. Walters

    2012-01-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) is a highly productive subarctic marine ecosystem that is exposed to considerable climate variability and is noted for conservative management of its fishery resources. The community size spectrum (CSS; relationship between animal abundance and size) of fish captured in EBS shelf bottom trawl surveys was examined for evidence of change over time and fishing and

  19. Vegetable lipid sources for gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata): effects on fish health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Montero; T Kalinowski; A Obach; L Robaina; L Tort; M. J Caballero; M. S Izquierdo

    2003-01-01

    Commercial feeds for gilthead seabream are highly energetic, containing fish oil as the main lipid source. The steady production and raising prices of fish oil encourage the inclusion of vegetable oils in fish feeds. Fish oil could be at least partially substituted by vegetable oils in diets for marine species, being this substitution resulted in good feed utilization and maintenance

  20. Using stable isotope systematics and trace metals to constrain the dispersion of fish farm pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Torchinsky; A. E. Shiel; M. Price; D. A. Weis

    2010-01-01

    Fish farming is a growing industry of great economic importance to coastal communities. Unfortunately, open-net fish farming is associated with the release of organic and metal pollution, which has the potential to adversely affect the coastal marine environment. The dispersion of fish farm pollution and its environmental impact are not well understood\\/quantified. Pollutants released by fish farms include organic products

  1. U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service Bycatch Reduction Engineering

    E-print Network

    interactions can prevent the recovery of endangered marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, and fish. Bycatch. Importance of Bycatch Reduction Bycatch occurs when fishing operations discard fish or interact with marine mammals, seabirds, or sea turtles. Bycatch can have significant biological, economic, and social impacts

  2. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  3. Marine biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Thurman; H. H. Webber

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began

  4. Entrenching environmental obligation in marine regulation.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jill

    2015-01-15

    The institutional frameworks addressing issues in connection with the marine commons agreed by States are set out in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which is the basis of the European Union's common fisheries policy. Despite a substantial body of environmental legislation, provisions concerning the protection of ecosystems and bioversity have not been incorporated into any international measure or EU to control fishing, leading to ecosystem degradation. Regulation should impose the responsibility for rectifying damage to fish stocks and ecosystems as a result of fishing activity on the fishing industry. PMID:25499963

  5. Fish Prints

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Academy of Sciences

    2008-01-01

    In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

  6. Marine Technology: Training & Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video from Pathways to Technology, learn about the field of marine technology. The ocean is crucial to human life, so it is important to understand the ocean and the challenges it faces today. From mapping the ocean floor to tracking fish populations to monitoring pollution, marine technicians help generate and gather information about whatâ??s happening in the ocean for the benefit of those back on land and the organisms that live in the sea.The video runs 1:21 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  7. Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

    2014-05-30

    The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. PMID:24876495

  8. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...Regional Administrator, NMFS Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601...

  9. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    The Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed) 2,123,100 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 235,900 pounds Total 2,359,000 pounds The 2011

  10. Vol. 119: 25-35,1995 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES

    E-print Network

    Limburg, Karin E.

    containing marine fishmeal) in fresh water. The switch from freshwater plankton to artificial diet resulted. Otoliths were assayed from fish reared on known diets (freshwater zooplankton, followed by artificial diet

  11. 65 FR 42978 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-07-12

    ...the Gulf of Mexico; Commercial Fishing Gear; Control Date AGENCY: National Marine...rulemaking; notice of control date for gear eligibility...there is a need to limit participation by gear type in the commercial reef fish...

  12. Long-term prediction of fish growth under varying ambient temperature using a multiscale dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadav S Bar; Nicole Radde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feed composition has a large impact on the growth of animals, particularly marine fish. We have developed a quantitative dynamic model that can predict the growth and body composition of marine fish for a given feed composition over a timespan of several months. The model takes into consideration the effects of environmental factors, particularly temperature, on growth, and it

  13. Fishes of southern South America: a story driven by temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Cussac; D. A. Fernández; S. E. Gómez; H. L. López

    2009-01-01

    The latitudinal extension of southern South America imposes a thermal gradient that affects the structure of marine and freshwater\\u000a fish assemblages and the biology of the species through direct exposure to the temperature gradients or by means of a web\\u000a of historical and ecological relationships. We have reviewed biological and ecological data of marine and freshwater fishes\\u000a from the southern

  14. Travel Characteristics of Marine Anglers Using Oil and Gas Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    of 75.5 km (40.7 n.mi.) to andfrom offshore fishing locations. In fishing an average of 6.5 platformsTravel Characteristics of Marine Anglers Using Oil and Gas Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico tures. In an intercept approach, marine recreationalfisherman were asked to iden tify near and offshore

  15. La MER: Louisiana Marine Education Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A repository for Louisiana regional marine science resources. Hands-on Aquatic Education Projects available: attend field trips/camps in a marsh ecosystem; set-up a classroom nursery aquarium for protected fish species; Teacher workshop on microscopy as a teaching tool; and more. Classroom Resources include lesson plans covering: oyster biology and issues; manatee conservation; invasive species; the Dead Zone issue with data; using microscopes to study of marine and aquatic materials.

  16. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  17. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on seafloor habitats in the gulf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic): Implications for conservation of fish populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Auster; Richard J. Malatesta; Richard W. Langton; Les Watting; Page C. Valentine; Carol Lee S. Donaldson; Elizabeth W. Langton; Andrew N. Shepard; War G. Babb

    1996-01-01

    Fishing gear alters seafloor habitats, but the extent of these alterations, and their effects, have not been quantified extensively in the northwest Atlantic. Understanding the extent of these impacts, and their effects on populations of living marine resources, is needed to properly manage current and future levels of fishing effort and fishing power. For example, the entire U.S. side of

  18. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela C. M. Vaz; Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos; Rui J. M. Rocha; Isabel Lopes; Ruth Pereira; Armando C. Duarte; Peter J. Rubec; Ricardo Calado

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the

  19. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  20. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  1. Fish Face

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

  2. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  3. Developments in Fish Food Technology – Implications for Capture Fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grimur Valdimarsson

    1998-01-01

    It is estimated that the marine fisheries are presently at its full potential, i.e. 82-83 million tons per year. As wild fish select their own food they provide the most natural source of animal protein available to mankind. Yet, there is significant potential in better utilization of the marine resources. One third of the ocean catch, or 27 million tons,

  4. The immunotoxicity of environmental contaminants to marine wildlife: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Ross; Rik L. De Swart; Henk Van Loveren; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Joseph G. Vos

    1996-01-01

    Virus-associated mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations inhabiting industrialized coastal areas have generated an interest in wildlife immunotoxicology. Despite the isolation of previously uncharacterized viruses from victims, a contribution of immunotoxic contaminants to the severity of the outbreaks could not be ruled out. Fish-eating marine mammals, including seals, occupy high trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and accumulate

  5. The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different…

  6. Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Bax; Angela Williamson; Max Aguero; Exequiel Gonzalez; Warren Geeves

    2003-01-01

    Invasive alien marine species threaten biodiversity, marine industries (including fishing and tourism) and human health, and unlike oil spills only get worse with time. While some progress is being made internationally on the 10,000 species estimated to be in transit around the world in the ballast water, effective solutions are a long way off; meanwhile the majority of vectors is

  7. Artificial Fishes: Autonomous Locomotion, Perception, Behavior, and Learning

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    after animals as evolved as those in the superclass Pisces. It demonstrates a virtual marine world awareness of their dynamic habitat. Individual and emergent collective behaviors include caudal and pectoral fishes in the deceptively peaceful habitat. Prey fishes swim around contentedly until the sight

  8. Kinematics and performance of maneuvering control surfaces in teleost fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Walker

    2004-01-01

    Many fishes routinely exploit resources in high-energy marine habitats of interest to ocean engineers, including rocky coasts and coral reefs. How fishes modulate fin motions to correct perturbations to the preferred heading or to maneuver in complex structure should interest both biologists and ocean engineers. These fin motions are reviewed in order to generate simple models of causal relationships between

  9. USE OF INFRARED RADIATION IN THE STUDY OF FISH BEHAVIOR

    E-print Network

    USE OF INFRARED RADIATION IN THE STUDY OF FISH BEHAVIOR Marine Biological Laboratory LIBRARY MAY 8 OF INFRARED RADIATION IN THE STUDY OF FISH BEHAVIOR by Rea E . Duncan Fishery Research Biologist Special Scientific Report- -Fisheries No. 170. Washington, D. C. March 1956 #12;ABSTRACT Infrared radiation can

  10. -continued-ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME

    E-print Network

    ALLOWABLE CATCH ANNOUNCED The Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service. Blue king crab biomass estimates were calculated using the catch-survey analysis model. ADF&G model: Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) 1,440,000 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 160,000 pounds Total 1

  11. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed analysis of NMFS Fishing Quota (IFQ) 80,004,600 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 8,889,400 pounds Total 88 longitude and 56° 30' N latitude to 57° 00' N latitude. The associated ADF&G statistical areas are: 675730

  12. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    and IPQ) may be delayed. Community development quota (CDQ) permits are issued by ADF&G and will therefore of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed analysis of NMFS long (EBT): Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) 1,316,700 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 146

  13. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    development quota (CDQ) permits are issued by ADF&G and will therefore not be delayed. The TAC for 2013 of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed analysis of NMFS Fishing Quota (IFQ) 48,584,700 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 5,398,300 pounds Total 53

  14. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    of Fish & Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed analysis of NMFS trawl on abundance and biomass estimates from the ADF&G length-based analysis model. The Bristol Bay red king crab: Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) 7,067,700 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 785,300 pounds Total 7

  15. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES

    E-print Network

    of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) have completed analysis of NMFS Fishing Quota (IFQ) 59,715,000 pounds Community Development Quota (CDQ) 6,635,000 pounds Total 66 lat, 170° W long. The associated closed ADF&G statistical areas are: 675730, 675800, 685730, 695730

  16. The presence of a juxtaglomerular apparatus in elasmobranch fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Lacy; Enrico Reale

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that a juxtaglomerular apparatus evolved in phylogenetic groups “higher” than elasmobranch fishes. The present study shows for the first time a distinct juxtaglomerular apparatus in four marine elasmobranchs, the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), the little skate (Raja erinacea), and the cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Serial semithin sections of these fishes' kidneys

  17. PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING COUGH (GILL PURGE) RATES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cough (gill purge) is an interruption in the normal ventilatory cycle of fish that serves to clean the gills of accumulated particulate matter. A review of the literature shows that the cough occurs in a variety of freshwater and marine fish; that both mechanical and chemical...

  18. Predator-Induced Demographic Shifts in Coral Reef Fish Assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin I. Ruttenberg; Scott L. Hamilton; Sheila M. Walsh; Mary K. Donovan; Alan Friedlander; Edward DeMartini; Enric Sala; Stuart A. Sandin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower

  19. Building Links with the Fishing, Aquaculture and Management Communities

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Chapter 7 Building Links with the Fishing, Aquaculture and Management Communities Alida Bundy, Gary.1 Introduction Globally, fish are an important source of protein, and fisheries and aquaculture are critical and Thomson, 2005; Chassot et al., 2007), climate change, and marine aquaculture. However, the scope of remote

  20. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  1. The changing focus of marine mammal conservation.

    PubMed

    Hofman, R J

    1995-11-01

    Overexploitation has been the principal focus of marine mammal conservation. Less attention has been paid to bycatch in commercial fisheries; entanglement in lost and discarded fishing gear; food shortages owing to climate change and/or overharvesting of essential prey; point and non-point source pollution; and diseases. Also, relatively little attention has been paid to situations where marine mammals pose threats to the existence and human uses of other marine species. As overexploitation is addressed, focus must be shifted to these problems that are no less significant. PMID:21237105

  2. Surveillance and Poaching on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. F. DAVIS; G. R. RUSS; D. H. WILLIAMSON; R. D. EVANS

    2004-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, is managed under the GBR Marine Park Act (1975) and is seen as a shining example of marine resource management. The principle tool of management is zoning for multiple use. We examined surveillance and illegal fishing around two inshore islands (Magnetic and Orpheus) of the GBR Marine Park in 2000\\/2001. Both islands are near

  3. Chemical composition of dietary species of marine unicellular algae and rotifers with emphasis on fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ben-Amotz; R. Fishler; A. Schneller

    1987-01-01

    The lipid profiles of a few species of marine unicellular algae and yeast were studied with emphasis on fatty acids as part of a search for the nutritional value of plankton to the diet of marine fish larvae commonly used in marine hatcheries. The general proximate chemistry of rotifers was closely related to the proximate chemistry of the diet organism,

  4. Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch Bryan P. Wallace1,2

    E-print Network

    Lewison, Rebecca

    REVIEW Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch Bryan P. Wallace1,2 , Rebecca L. Lewison3 , Sara L 27708, USA Keywords Bycatch rates; fisheries bycatch; fishing effort; gillnets; longlines; marine of population declines in several species of marine megafauna (e.g., elasmobranchs, mammals, seabirds, turtles

  5. Acoustic methods of reducing or eliminating marine mammal-fishery interactions: do they work?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Jefferson; Barbara E. Curry

    1996-01-01

    Although a great deal of effort has been directed toward attempts to use sound to reduce or eliminate marine mammal incidental capture in fisheries and predation on fish, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of such methods in solving marine mammal-fishery conflicts. Passive methods of increasing a net's reflectivity are hypothesized to result in lowered marine mammal bycatch rates,

  6. Marine Geodesy, 30: 3750, 2007 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    E-print Network

    Marine Geodesy, 30: 37­50, 2007 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0149-0419 print Conservation--A Focus on Reef Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites WILLIAM D. HEYMAN,1 JEAN-LOUIS B. ECOCHARD,2 soundings obtained with a commercially available fish finder/GPS on a small boat. ArcGIS is used

  7. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    , pelagic and demersal fish surveys). We found that Steller sea lions shifted diet composition in response, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada 3 Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Statewide Marine Mammal Program sea lion Eumetopias jubatus diet choice is a function of prey availability, (2) sea lions move to take

  8. MARINE DEBRIS AND SAWFISH Educator Information For Student Activity 6

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    debris, ingestion, entanglement Background Information: Marine animals including sawfish face the threat, balloons, improperly discarded fishing gear and fishing lures. If a sawfish becomes entangled, the debris, place across the container, submerged as a discarded drift net would have been used by fishers out

  9. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, V C; Hassing, M-R; Lewandowski, P A

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from marine sources, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are widely consumed as supplements within the community. However, the use of marine PUFAs in a therapeutic context is also increasing in patients receiving treatment for a range of cancer types. On balance, the literature suggests that marine PUFAs have potential as an effective adjuvant to chemotherapy treatment, may have direct anticancer effects, and may help ameliorate some of the secondary complications associated with cancer. Although a range of doses have been trialled, it would appear that supplementation of fish oil (>3?g per day) or EPA/DHA (>1?g EPA and >0.8?g DHA per day) is associated with positive clinical outcomes. However, further research is still required to determine the mechanisms via which marine PUFAs are mediating their effects. This review summarises our current understanding of marine PUFAs and cancer therapy. PMID:23299528

  10. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 253260, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 253­260, 2001. © 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed their vertical distribution. Walleye pollock and many other pelagic fish larvae have weak swimming capabilities of flow. Other laboratory studies have also suggested that marine fish larvae may avoid certain types

  11. Vitamin D and its related parameters in fresh-water wild fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sunita Rao; N. Raghuramulu

    1995-01-01

    In India, fresh-water fishes constitute an important dietary item for the non-vegetarians. Although some marine fishes are rich sources of vitamin D, information on the vitamin D content of inland fishes which inhabit different depths of water and forage for different types of food is lacking. An attempt was made to assess the vitamin D content and its functions in

  12. Environmental Influences on Juvenile Fish Abundances in a River-Dominated Coastal System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Carassou; B. Dzwonkowski; F. J. Hernandez; S. P. Powers; W. M. Graham; J. Mareska

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of climatic and environmental factors on interannual variations in juvenile abundances of marine fishes in a river-dominated coastal system of the north-central Gulf of Mexico, where an elevated primary productivity sustains fisheries of high economic importance. Fish were collected monthly with an otter trawl at three stations near Mobile Bay from 1982 to 2007. Fish sizes

  13. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID:21947562

  14. Modification of the n-3 HUFA biosynthetic pathway by transgenesis in a marine teleost, nibe croaker.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoji; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Haga, Yutaka; Satoh, Shuichi; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2014-02-20

    Marine fishes are generally unable to produce sufficient quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) for their normal growth and survival, as the key fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in the EPA and DHA biosynthetic pathway are limited. It is therefore necessary to supplement cultured marine fish species diets with fish oils in order to supply EPA and DHA. Given that freshwater fishes are capable of synthesizing both EPA and DHA, they presumably express all of the enzymes required for this biosynthetic pathway. Thus, we hypothesize that transgenic marine species carrying these fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes could be reared without the dietary supplementation of fish oil. As the first step toward this goal, we used marine fish, nibe croaker to produce a transgenic line carrying the elongase gene isolated from masu salmon. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the liver EPA (20:5n-3) content in the transgenic fish was lower (3.3% vs. 7.7%). However, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) content in the transgenic fish was 2.28-fold (4.1% vs. 1.8%) higher than in non-transgenic fish. Further, tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3) was specifically detected in the transgenic fish. We therefore conclude that the development of transgenic fish lines with these fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes could be a powerful tool for manipulating fatty acid metabolic pathways in fish. PMID:24389067

  15. Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences Lab., Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Arsenic has a complex marine biogeochemistry that has important implications for its toxicity to marine organisms and their consumers. The average concentration of total arsenic in the ocean is about 1.7 {micro}g/L, about two orders of magnitude higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency`s human health criterion value of 0.0175 {micro}g/L. The dominant form of arsenic in oxygenated marine and brackish waters in arsenate (As V). The more toxic and potentially carcinogenic arsenite (As III) rarely accounts for more than 20% of total arsenic in seawater. Uncontaminated marine sediments contain from 5 to about 40 {micro}g/g dry weight total arsenic. Arsenate dominates in oxidized sediments and is associated primarily with iron oxyhydroxides. In reducing marine sediments, arsenate is reduced to arsenite and is associated primarily with sulfide minerals. Marine algae accumulate arsenate from seawater, reduce it to arsenite, and then oxidize the arsenite to a large number of organoarsenic compounds. The algae release arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid to seawater. Dissolved arsenite and arsenate are more toxic to marine phytoplankton than to marine invertebrates and fish. This may be due to the fact that marine animals have a limited ability to bioconcentrate inorganic arsenic from seawater but can bioaccumulate organoarsenic compounds from their food. Tissues of marine invertebrates and fish contain high concentrations of arsenic, usually in the range of about 1 to 100 {micro}g/g dry weight, most of it in the form of organoarsenic compounds, particularly arsenobetaine. Organoarsenic compounds are bioaccumulated by human consumers of seafood products, but the arsenic is excreted rapidly, mostly as organoarsenic compounds. Arsenobetaine, the most abundant organoarsenic compound in seafoods, is not toxic or carcinogenic to mammals. Little of the organoarsenic accumulated by humans from seafood is converted to toxic inorganic arsenite.

  16. Marine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, O.

    1981-12-08

    A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  18. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  19. Promoting environmental sensitivity within the fishing industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Greenbaum

    1983-01-01

    The traditional fishing and shellfishing industries of New England depend on the vitality and renewability of the marine environment for their economic health, yet they have historically overfished species to near-depletion, resisted attempts to manage their resources, and discharged their wastes into coastal waters. In 1979, the Massachusetts Audubon Society established Resources for Cape Ann, a local program based in

  20. STREPTOCOCCAL VACCINOLOGY IN WARM-WATER FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of diseases is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity, and to promote optimal growth and feed conversion in sustained culture of warm-water fish in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. The control of diseases has been dependent on the use of therapeutics since the inception o...