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1

Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates may thus contribute not only to the mud-fraction of marine carbonates, but also to the fine sand fraction as intergrown particles, and to the fine to coarse sand fractions as intact and partially intact pellets. These experimental data indicate that hydrodynamic regimes local to sites of excretion will influence the generation of carbonates with different size fraction ranges. Rapid pellet disaggregation is more likely in high energy settings, hypothesised to result in redistribution of liberated mud-grade particles to lower energy platform-top settings and/or off-platform. In contrast, pellets excreted in lower energy settings are more likely to be preserved intact, and are thus proposed as a previously unrecognised source of pelletal and peloidal carbonate sediments.

Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

2014-12-01

2

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

3

Summary of commercial marine fishing by English  

E-print Network

. Bush, S. Shaw, R. Mainprize, and C. Garrod #12;#12;A.J.R. Cotter, G. Course, J. Ashworth, R. Forster, R. Enever, D. Goad, R. Bush, S. Shaw, R. Mainprize, and C. Garrod Summary of commercial marine fishing S., Mainprize R., and Garrod C., 2006. Summary of commercial marine fishing by English and Welsh

4

An overview of marine fish cytogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of cytogenetic studies of marine fish has increased in recent years. Fish groups, such as Perciformes, which comprises many of the extant marine teleosts of economic importance, show little divergence in chromosome number and most species display a diploid number of 48 acrocentric chromosomes. In the Serranidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae (Perciformes) and Mugilidae (Mugiliformes) small chromosome variations are restricted

P. M. Galetti Jr; C. T. Aguilar; W. F. Molina

2000-01-01

5

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

6

Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss and disposal of fishing gear has been recognized internationally as a major environmental issue for several decades. This paper reviews the available data on fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. In some regions debris from deep-water trawl, longline and rock lobster fisheries has harmed marine wildlife and littered beaches. The highest documented incidence of wildlife entanglement by

Madeleine M. Jones

1995-01-01

7

The Future of Marine Fish Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce: overfishing, where fishermen take more fish than they need; destructive fishing practices, such as bottom trawling where fishermen catch other species in their nets by mistake; and ecosystem pollution from boats or from industrial and agricultural runoff.

J. Emmet Duffy (Collegy of William and Mary, Virginia Intitute of Marine Science;)

2009-12-11

8

Marine Mammals and Fishing, Page 35 MODELING AND MAPPING TROPHIC  

E-print Network

Marine Mammals and Fishing, Page 35 MODELING AND MAPPING TROPHIC OVERLAP BETWEEN MARINE MAMMALS The impact that fishing operations may have on marine mammals and other components of marine ecosystems is a major concern today. Fisheries, in addition to causing by-catch mortalities, affect marine mammals

9

Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000?km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2?t?ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45?t?ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

2013-01-01

10

Marine fish spermatozoa: racing ephemeral swimmers.  

PubMed

After a long period of spermatogenesis (several weeks to months), marine fish spermatozoa are delivered at male spawning in seawater (SW) at the same time as ova. In some fish species, as the ova micropyle closes quickly after release, these minute unicells, the spermatozoa, have to accomplish their task of reaching the micropyle within a very brief period (several seconds to minutes), for delivery of the haploid male genetic information to the ova. To achieve this goal, their high-performance motile equipment, the flagellum, must fully activate immediately on contact with the SW and then propel the sperm cell at an unusually high initial velocity. The cost of such 'hyperactivity' is a very rapid consumption of intracellular ATP that outstrips the supply. The spermatozoa become rapidly exhausted because mitochondria cannot compensate for this very fast flagellar energy consumption. Therefore, any spermatozoon ends up with two possibilities: either becoming exhausted and immotile or reaching the egg micropyle within its very short period of forward motility (in the range of tens of seconds) before micropyle closure in relation to both contact of SW and cortical reaction. The aim of the present review is to present step by step the successive events occurring in marine fish spermatozoa from activation until their full arrest of motility. The present knowledge of activation mechanisms is summarized, as well as a description of the motility parameters characterizing the motility period. As a complement, in vitro results on axonemal motility obtained after demembranation of flagella bring further understanding. The description of the sperm energetic content (ATP and other high energy compounds) and its evolution during the swimming period is also discussed. A general model aiming to explain all the successive cellular events occurring immediately after the activation is presented. This model is proposed as a guideline for understanding the events governing the sperm lifespan in the marine fish species that reproduce through external fertilization. PMID:18524881

Cosson, Jacky; Groison, Anne-Laure; Suquet, Marc; Fauvel, Christian; Dreanno, Catherine; Billard, Roland

2008-09-01

11

Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1, * Laurens E. Howle and Mark M. Murray the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic

Fish, Frank

12

Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition.  

PubMed

Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several novel methodologies have contributed to significant progress in fish larval nutrition. Others are emerging and are likely to bring further insight into larval nutritional physiology and requirements. This paper reviews a range of new tools and some examples of their present use, as well as potential future applications in the study of fish larvae nutrition. Tube-feeding and incorporation into Artemia of (14)C-amino acids and lipids allowed studying Artemia intake, digestion and absorption and utilisation of these nutrients. Diet selection by fish larvae has been studied with diets containing different natural stable isotope signatures or diets where different rare metal oxides were added. Mechanistic modelling has been used as a tool to integrate existing knowledge and reveal gaps, and also to better understand results obtained in tracer studies. Population genomics may assist in assessing genotype effects on nutritional requirements, by using progeny testing in fish reared in the same tanks, and also in identifying QTLs for larval stages. Functional genomics and proteomics enable the study of gene and protein expression under various dietary conditions, and thereby identify the metabolic pathways which are affected by a given nutrient. Promising results were obtained using the metabolic programming concept in early life to facilitate utilisation of certain nutrients at later stages. All together, these methodologies have made decisive contributions, and are expected to do even more in the near future, to build a knowledge basis for development of optimised diets and feeding regimes for different species of larval fish. PMID:20035382

Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Richard, Nadège; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Mira, Sara; Dias, Jorge

2010-03-01

13

Barcoding Atlantic Canada's commonly encountered marine fishes.  

PubMed

Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500 bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments. PMID:23253798

McCusker, M R; Denti, D; Van Guelpen, L; Kenchington, E; Bentzen, P

2013-03-01

14

Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre: Biology of Marine Fishes Lecturer: Dr. T. E. Reimchen  

E-print Network

in the intertidal 7) Physiological adaptations of intertidal fishes during low tide 8) Variability in courtshipBamfield Marine Sciences Centre: Biology of Marine Fishes May 2005 Lecturer: Dr. T. E. Reimchen TA, and conservation of fishes in the North Pacific. Lectures will develop dominant themes with emphasis on current

Reimchen, Thomas E.

15

Molecular adaptations in Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic marine environment is one of the most extreme on Earth due to its stably low temperature and high oxygen content. Here we discuss various aspects of the molecular adaptations evolved by Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms living in this environment. This review will in particular focus on: (i) the genetic\\/genomic bases of adaptation in Antarctic notothenioid fish; (ii)

Daniela Giordano; Roberta Russo; Guido di Prisco; Cinzia Verde

16

Buoyancy in Marine Fishes: Direct and Indirect Role of Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The major lipids that have a direct role in buoyancy of marine fish are wax esters, squalene, and alkyldiacylglycerols. Wax esters are stored extracellu- larly in certain fishes, such as the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), and therefore buoyancy appears to be their sole function. Some myctophid fishes have wax-invested swimbladders, where the non-compressible wax esters may aid in diurnal

CHARLES F. PHLEGER

1998-01-01

17

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

PubMed Central

Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy. PMID:21632631

Rochet, M.-J.; Benoît, E.

2012-01-01

18

Aspects of the ecology of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous (3947) individuals of 102 marine fish species from Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, the North Sea, Antarctica, the deepsea and coast of southeastern Australia, Pacific Canada, Brazil, Argentina and the Great Barrier Reef were examined for metazoan ecteparasites. Of the 102 fish species, 86 harboured at least 1 parasite species, and only in Antarctica and the deepsea were large

Klaus Rohde; Craig Hayward; Maureen Heap

1995-01-01

19

Molecular adaptations in Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms.  

PubMed

The Antarctic marine environment is one of the most extreme on Earth due to its stably low temperature and high oxygen content. Here we discuss various aspects of the molecular adaptations evolved by Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms living in this environment. This review will in particular focus on: (i) the genetic/genomic bases of adaptation in Antarctic notothenioid fish; (ii) the role of neuroglobin recently identified in the brain of Antarctic icefish; (iii) the structural and functional features of globins of the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. PMID:22578653

Giordano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; di Prisco, Guido; Verde, Cinzia

2012-06-01

20

Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

21

Survey of Anisakis larvae in marine fish of Taiwan.  

PubMed

A survey on the prevalence and intensity of larval anisakid infection in some species of marine fishes sold in the markets at Tan-shui in northern Taiwan was carried out from May to August 1980. The general infection rate was 37.7% with an average of 14.2 larvae per fish. A total of 13 species of examined fishes were found with Anisakis larvae, these were Argyrosomus argentatus, Caranx djeddaba, Diploprion bifasciatum, Evynnis cardinalis, Lethrinus haematopterus, Megalops cyprinoides, Nemipterus virgatus, Paraplagusia formosana, Plectorhinchus pictus, Rastrelliger chrysozonus, Saurida tumbil, Scolopsis vosmeri, and Trichiurus haumela. The highest intensity of Anisakis larvae was obtained in E. cardinalis with an average of 80.3 larvae per fish; the next was in N. virgatus (76.2 larvae/fish). The parasite could not be found in the other 20 species of fishes examined. PMID:3833830

Chao, D

1985-09-01

22

A Large Experimental Aquarium System for Marine Pelagic Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enclosed 32,000-gallon sea-water aquarium with filtration and supply systems and controlled environmental conditions is described. This facility, designed and constructed at the Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory to study the behavior of marine fishes, has been in continuous operation since January, 1965. The elliptically-shaped, multiwindowed aquarium may be operated as an open, closed, or semiclosed circulation system. An artificial lighting

Bori L. Olla; Warren W. Marchioni; Harvey M. Katz

1967-01-01

23

Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.  

PubMed

We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P < 0.01, odds ratio = 2.19). The proportion of fishing gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California. PMID:19395745

Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

2009-04-01

24

Contribution of Biology and Oceanography to Increased Harvest of Marine Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of marine fisheries, when compared to agriculture, is handicapped by the small amount of influence that can be exerted in any phase of fish production except the harvest. However, fishery science can contribute to increased fish catches in several ways. Although planting of hatchery-reared marine fish has been of little use, cultivation of marine animals, particularly of molluscs, can

C. P. Idyll

1958-01-01

25

Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes.  

PubMed

The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. PMID:21190762

Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-03-01

26

MARINE TROPHIC INTERACTIONS BY DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF FISH SPECIES  

E-print Network

MARINE TROPHIC INTERACTIONS BY DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF FISH SPECIES JAMES D. PARRISH' ABSTRACT A mathematical model was developed for performing dynamic simulations of groups of interacting animal species" of the generalized species modeled contains certain functions which represent trophic interactions with other species

27

HBOI, USDA/ARS BUILDING MARINE FISH HATCHERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of marine fish aquaculture in the US is challenged by a number of complex issues such as political and regulatory constraints, marketing and market competition, health management and biosecurity, and water quality and waste management. However, the most commonly cited constraint to ...

28

Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n?=?297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p?fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537?±?0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492?±?0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465?±?0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p?Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563?±?0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521?±?0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380?±?0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p?=?0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p?fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish. PMID:25256581

Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

2014-09-26

29

Juvenile marine fishes of Harbor Island, Texas  

E-print Network

enviroinmievital var'iatio is much less marked. Some studies have looked at the flora which dominate these meadows. Odum (1974) listed the principal seagrasses of tropical marine meadows in thie United States as turtle grass, Tha1assia t t di: sho 1 g, H 1od 1... (1964) have revealed the relatively high diversity of algal epiphytes found on turtle grass. Walsh and Grow (1972) investigated the nutritive value and composition of seagrasses. A number of works have shown the exceptionally h. igh primary...

Bonin, Robert Eugene

1977-01-01

30

Chitinolytic enzymes in the digestive system of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinase, exo-N-acetyl-ß-D-glycosaminidase (NAGase) and lysozyme activities were assayed in the digestive tract of 6 species of marine fishes: Myxine glutinosa (cyclostome), Chimaera monstrosa (holocephalan), Squalus acanthias, Etmopterus spinax, Raja radiata (elasmobranchs) and Coryphaenoides rupestris (teleost). Strong chitinase activity was found in the gastric mucosa of the elasmobranchs (S. acanthias, E. spinax and R. radiata) and the teleost (Coryphaenoides rupestris). A

R. Fänge; G. Lundblad; J. Lind; K. Slettengren

1979-01-01

31

Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12 Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine  

E-print Network

Fisheries Science Partnership: 2011/12 Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine habitats sidescan sonar marine habitats survey trial Page i Cefas Document Control Title: Fishing industry multibeam sidescan sonar marine habitats survey trial - A practical trial of undertaking seabed habitat mapping

32

Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response  

E-print Network

Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air. Keywords: Air exposure; Bonefish; Exercise; Albula vulpes; Ion loss; Marine; Recovery; Stress 1

Cooke, Steven J.

33

Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and  

E-print Network

, the biodiversity of many coral reef and coastal marine species is also influenced by habitat loss (Friedlander). Losses of marine fish biodiversity can be reflected by various intraspecific metrics. Prominent amongMeasuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

Baum, Julia K.

34

50 CFR 223.301 - Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes. 223.301 Section 223.301 Wildlife... Special rules—marine and anadromous fishes. (a) Middle Columbia River steelhead...NEP area by NMFS, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the...

2013-10-01

35

Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMarine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities.Methods and Principal FindingsRather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating

Natalie C. Ban; Amanda C. J. Vincent; Ross Thompson

2009-01-01

36

Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983 – 1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of fishing on the abundance and species richness of families of coral reef fish at two islands\\u000a (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. Natural fishing experiments occurred in marine reserves at each island,\\u000a where long term estimates of fishing intensity were available. Responses to fishing were interpreted in terms of life

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1998-01-01

37

Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations  

PubMed Central

The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

2012-01-01

38

The blue-green blood plasma of marine fish.  

PubMed

1. The blue-green coloration of the blood plasma in some marine fishes, which is attributed to a protein bound tetrapyrrol (biliverdin), is an anomaly in vertebrates. 2. Recent studies have shown that biliverdin not only occurs in many fish, but is also present in the blood of tobacco hornworm, the wings of moth and butterfly, the shell of bird eggs, the serum and egg of frog, the placenta of dog and in the blood of humans suffering from hepatic diseases. 3. In this review, we begin with a historical account of the description of the presence of blue-green blood plasma in fish, and then consider the biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, and the ecological implications of biliverdin in fish. 4. A comparative description of the occurrence of biliverdin in fish and other animals is presented. 5. The mechanism of accumulation of biliverdin in fish blood and its evolutionary significance are also considered. It is suggested that this process may serve as a useful model for further research on bile pigment metabolism in other animals. PMID:2253479

Fang, L S; Bada, J L

1990-01-01

39

Genotoxic effects of profenofos on the marine fish, Therapon jarbua.  

PubMed

Profenofos (EC(50)) is a persistent and toxic organophosphorus insecticide. Animals get exposed to profenofos via food and water. The present study was designed to explore the genotoxic effect of profenofos in the marine fish. The ubiquitously occurring marine fish, Therapon jarbua, was exposed to profenofos and its effect on DNA was measured using comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay. DNA damage were scored using mean percentage of tail length and compared with the comet classes' viz., 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the first three doses, the (21.5, 43.0 and 86.0 µg L(-1)) comets were observed, of which the mean tail length differed significantly (p?marine environments using Comet assay as an identification tool. We infer that organophosphorus insecticides may be dangerous to the marine lives. PMID:21859359

Janaki Devi, V; Nagarani, N; Yokesh Babu, M; Vijayalakshimi, N; Kumaraguru, A K

2012-02-01

40

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

41

Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six

Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

2008-01-01

42

Effects of seismic air guns on marine fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of marine fish and invertebrates on an inshore reef were made using TV and acoustic tags one week before, during, and four days after a seismic triple G. airgun (three synchronised airguns, each gun 2.5 l and 2000 psi) was deployed and repeatedly fired. The guns were fired once/min for eight periods on four days at different positions. The structure and intensity of the sound of each triple G. gun explosion was recorded and calibrated. Peak sound pressure levels of 210 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) at 16 m range and 195 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) at 109 m range were measured at positions where the fish were being observed. The final position of the triple G. gun, at 5.3 m range, had a peak pressure level of 218 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa). Neither the fish, nor the invertebrates, showed any signs of moving away from the reef. Firing the guns did not interrupt a diurnal rhythm of fish gathering at dusk and passing the TV camera position while the guns were firing. The long-term day-to-night movements of two tagged pollack were slightly changed by the arrival and banging of the guns particularly when positioned within 10 m of their normal living positions. Those reef fish, watched by the TV camera, always showed involuntary reactions in the form of a Mauthner cell reflex, C-start, at each explosion of the guns at all ranges tested (maximum range was 109 m, 195 dB rel to 1 ?Pa). When the explosion source was not visible to the fish, the C-start reaction was cut short and the fish continued with what they were doing before the stimulus. When the G. gun rack was sunk to the seabed (depth 14 m) visible to the fish and the TV camera, those fish that were observed approaching the G. gun rack when the guns were fired were seen to turn and flee from the very visible explosion. When the gun rack was suspended midwater (5 m depth) and just outside visible range at 16 metres, the fish receiving a 6 ms peak to peak, 206 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) pressure swing exhibited a C-start and then continued to swim towards the gun position, their intended swimming track apparently unaltered. The sound of the G. guns had little effect on the day-to-day behaviour of the resident fish and invertebrates.

Wardle, C. S.; Carter, T. J.; Urquhart, G. G.; Johnstone, A. D. F.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Hampson, G.; Mackie, D.

2001-05-01

43

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit to local  

E-print Network

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit, it is important to evaluate how different stressors associated with this type of fishing affect fish survival. What follows is a brief Q & A review on the effects of air exposure. How long can a fish live out

Watson, Craig A.

44

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.  

PubMed

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea. PMID:25035585

Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

2014-09-01

45

Hindgut Fermentation in Three Species of Marine Herbivorous Fish  

PubMed Central

Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production have not been measured. Such information is an important prerequisite to understanding the contribution that gut microorganisms make in satisfying the energy needs of the fish. We have estimated the rates of acetate production in the gut of three species of temperate marine herbivorous fish from northeastern New Zealand: Kyphosus sydneyanus (family Kyphosidae), Odax pullus (family Odacidae), and Aplodactylus arctidens (family Aplodactylidae). Ex vivo preparations of freshly caught fish were maintained with their respiratory and circulatory systems intact, radiolabeled acetate was injected into ligated hindgut sections, and gut fluid was sampled at 20-min intervals for 2 h. Ranges for acetate turnover in the hindguts of the studied species were determined from the slope of plots as the log of the specific radioactivity of acetate versus time and pool size, expressed on a nanomole per milliliter per minute basis. Values were 450 to 570 (K. sydneyanus), 373 to 551 (O. pullus), and 130 to 312 (A. arctidens). These rates are comparable to those found in the guts of herbivorous reptiles and mammals. To determine the contribution of metabolic pathways to the fate of acetate, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured in the fore-, mid-, and hindgut sections of the three fish species. Both rates increased from the distal to proximal end of the hindgut, where sulfate reduction accounted for only a small proportion (<5%) of acetate methyl group transformed to CO2, and exceeded methanogenesis from acetate by >50-fold. When gut size was taken into account, acetate uptake from the hindgut of the fish species, determined on a millimole per day per kilogram of body weight basis, was 70 (K. sydneyanus), 18 (O. pullus), and 10 (A. arctidens). PMID:11872490

Mountfort, Douglas O.; Campbell, Jane; Clements, Kendall D.

2002-01-01

46

The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens, J. D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N. K., and Walker, P. A. 2000. The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 476-494. The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of

J. D. Stevens; R. Bonfil; N. K. Dulvy; P. A. Walker

2000-01-01

47

FISH/ENVIR 330: Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Spring 2013 5 credits  

E-print Network

) a range of connections between ocean physics and how marine organisms make a living, 2) how global climateFISH/ENVIR 330: Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Spring 2013 · 5 credits https, tropical, and upwelling ecosystems. We will also discuss the interaction of ocean acidification and fishing

Hickey, Barbara

48

Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2  

E-print Network

Review Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes John D. Reynolds1,*, Nicholas K. Dulvy2 to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond , Nicholas B. Goodwin3 and Jeffrey A. Hutchings4 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

Reynolds, John D.

49

J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 173-187 Competition Between Fisheries and Marine Mammals  

E-print Network

J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 173-187 Competition Between Fisheries and Marine Mammals for Prey and Primary Production in the Pacific Ocean Andrew W. Trites Marine Mammal Research Unit) Manila, Philippines Abstract The degree of competition between fisheries and marine mammals

Pauly, Daniel

50

Incidental Catch of Marine Mammals by Foreign Fishing Vessels, 1978-81  

E-print Network

Incidental Catch of Marine Mammals by Foreign Fishing Vessels, 1978-81 THOMAS R. LOUGHLIN, LEWIS CONSIGLIERI, ROBERT L. DELONG, and ANN T ACTOR Introduction Passage of the Marine Mammal Pro- tection Act (MMPA) of 1972 established a moratorium on the taking of marine mammals. Exceptions to the moratorium

51

Efficacy of adapted estuarine fish-based multimetric indices as tools for evaluating ecological status of the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of ecological status of marine fish communities required by the marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) emphasises the need for fish-based ecological indices in marine waters. In this study we adapt five estuarine multimetric indices to the marine environment and apply them in three types of substrates, analysing the metrics responsible for the obtained patterns of ecological status. The

Sofia Henriques; Miguel Pessanha Pais; Maria Jos'e Costa; Henrique Nogueira Cabral

2008-01-01

52

Species Identification of Marine Fishes in China with DNA Barcoding  

PubMed Central

DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742% among congeners and only 0.319% for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. PMID:21687792

Zhang, Junbin

2011-01-01

53

Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs. The ability of most fishing groups to govern MPA resources changed. Increased resource rights were positively correlated with MPA zoning and compliance with MPA regulations. Small sample sizes precluded statistical tests of the impacts of MPAs on employment, community organization, and income. Our results demonstrate that MPAs shape the social well-being and political power of fishing communities; impacts (positive and negative) vary within and among social groups; and social impacts are correlated with some--but not all--commonly hypothesized explanatory factors. Accordingly, MPAs may represent a viable strategy for enhancing food security and empowering local communities, but current practices negatively affect at least a minority of fishers. To inform policy making, further research must better document and explain variation in the positive and negative social impacts of MPAs. PMID:20507354

Mascia, Michael B; Claus, C Anne; Naidoo, Robin

2010-10-01

54

Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity nationwide when measured by number of participants. The National Marine Fisheries Service estimates that 24.7 million  

E-print Network

1 ABSTRACT Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity nationwide when marine recreational catch, effort, and participation data since 1979 in an effort to assess the influence of recreational fishing on fish stocks. With the passing of the Magnuson-Stevenson Fishery Conservation

55

Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

56

Marine macroalgae as foods for fishes: an evaluation of potential food quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  A revitalized view of feeding by herbivorous marine fishes is sought through two questions. First, What characteristics of\\u000a major taxa of algae identify them as predictably high or low quality foods? Second, are marine algae valuable foods for fishes\\u000a which do not mechanically disrupt cell walls and do not harbor specialized enzymes or microbes capable of lysing cell walls?\\u000a Energy,

W. Linn Montgomery; Shelby D. Gerking

1980-01-01

57

Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

2014-03-01

58

J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 173-187 Competition Between Fisheries and Marine Mammals  

E-print Network

caught by marine mammals consisted of deep sea squids and very small deep sea fishes not harvestable and their relatively recent dependence on primary production, which may have led to what we call `food web competition production required to sustain the food web upon which the fisheries and the marine ' Present address

59

Session I: Criteria for Defining Recruitment Overfishing for Fish and Marine Mammals  

E-print Network

Session I: Criteria for Defining Recruitment Overfishing for Fish and Marine Mammals Session I, the majority (68) define overfishing in terms of fishing mortality rate and 64 of these are expressed of this, overfishing definitions for a majority of stocks (67) are based on analogy to other stocks

60

BIOACCUMULATION OF DDT AND PCB IN TISSUES OF MARINE FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fishes of commercial importance were monitored in New England coastal waters in 1974 to determine whether synthetic organic residues in the fish were large enough to affect the utilization of such fish as food by man or to interfere with their ability to reproduce. About 700 fish...

61

Microbial safety of tropical and sub-tropical fruit. in Volume 1 – General Physiology, Quality and Handling of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits, Postharvest Biology & Technology of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter describes past outbreaks, potential routes of contamination for specific, potential interventions, and operational procedures associated with tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Various pre-harvest sources can result in contamination of fruits; and survival and growth of pathogens on who...

62

Proximate Composition of Raw and Cooked Thai Freshwater and Marine Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximate composition and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) were determined in eight freshwater and eight marine fish species which are commonly consumed in Thailand. Appropriate household cooking methods, i.e., boiling, steaming, roasting and frying were used for fish preparation. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein, 17–22 g\\/100 g. Wide variation in protein content, 16–32 g\\/100 g, between species and methods

Prapasri Puwastien; Kunchit Judprasong; Eakkarach Kettwan; Kriengkrai Vasanachitt; Yupaporn Nakngamanong; Lalita Bhattacharjee

1999-01-01

63

Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

2014-01-01

64

Myxosporean parasites of marine fishes: their distribution in the world's oceans.  

PubMed

Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of different families of Myxosporea infecting marine fishes in the world's oceans - the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian. We also analyse their distribution in different orders of marine fishes. New families, genera and species of marine Myxosporea are continually being described and many more await description. Some regions, in particular the North Atlantic, have been more thoroughly investigated than others, so the analyses we present may not reflect the true distributions and we acknowledge that these may change considerably as other regions are investigated more fully. The distribution of myxosporean families in different taxonomic groups of marine fishes can indicate phylogenetic relationships between parasite and host and suggest the origins of different myxosporean taxa. We present some examples, while recognizing that new molecular information on phylogenetic relationships within the Myxozoa will lead to major changes in classification. PMID:25215526

MacKenzie, K; Kalavati, C

2014-11-01

65

Supplemental Figures and Tables for Groundfish EFH Review Phase 1 Report "Federal and State Marine Protected Areas Type of Fishing Restriction"  

E-print Network

"Federal and State Marine Protected Areas ­ Type of Fishing Restriction" Author and state MPAs depicted in map figures, categorized by level of fishing restriction Fishing Restriction BEFORE AFTER Commercial and Recreational Fishing Prohibited

Goldfinger, Chris

66

Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

2012-01-01

67

Sympatric speciation in a genus of marine reef fishes KAREN D. CROW,* HIROYUKI MUNEHARA and GIACOMO BERNARDI  

E-print Network

#12;Sympatric speciation in a genus of marine reef fishes KAREN D. CROW,* HIROYUKI MUNEHARA of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA Abstract Sympatric speciation has been contentious since its inception. Here, we present a compelling case of sympatric speciation in a taxon of marine reef fishes using

Bernardi, Giacomo

68

Morphology, fine structure, biochemistry, and function of the spermatic ducts in marine fish.  

PubMed

The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marine fish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium. PMID:14517103

Lahnsteiner, Franz

2003-10-01

69

Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

2013-08-01

70

Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays

A. Y. Frommel; V. Stiebens; C. Clemmesen; J. Havenhand

2010-01-01

71

Gone gene fishing: how to catch novel marine antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Medical or health-promoting products of marine origin are often regarded with skepticism--some, such as shark fins and cod liver oil, are frequently perceived as low-tech "alternative treatments" largely because they have not been exploited to their full potential. The marine environment is an enormous source of biodiversity--80% of all life is found under the oceans' surfaces--yet very little of this rich resource has been utilized. Furthermore, most marine organisms rely heavily on antimicrobial components of their innate immune defenses to combat pathogens. The past three years has seen a revolution in the methods used to identify novel antimicrobials from marine sources; among the most promising are marine cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs). PMID:12902173

Patrzykat, Aleksander; Douglas, Susan E

2003-08-01

72

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

of the same species (juveniles and adults) . However, feeding type distinctions are often not definite; fish adapt to their surroundings and exploit unusual sources when preferred foods are unavailable (Reich 1975) . The most successful combination...POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

2012-06-07

73

Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

2001-01-01

74

Uptake, metabolism and discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, metabolism and discharge of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 14C-naphthalene and 3H-3,4-benzopyrene, were studied in 3 species of marine fish (mudsucker or sand goby, Gillichthys mirabilis; sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus; sand dab, Citharichthys stigmaeus). The path of hydrocarbons through the fish included entrance through the gills, metabolism by the liver, transfer of hydrocarbons and their metabolites to the bile, and,

R. F. Lee; R. Sauerheber; G. H. Dobbs

1972-01-01

75

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

76

A study on fatty acid composition of fish oil from two marine fish, Eusphyra blochii and Carcharhinus bleekeri.  

PubMed

Two species of marine fish found in coastal waters of Karachi (Pakistan) were studied, Eusphyra blochii (Hammer-headed Shark) and Carcharhinus bleekeri (Shark) for their fatty acid composition. The isolation, identification and characterization of these fatty acids were carried out by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and a combination of TLC-GLC technique. A large variation was observed between hammer-headed shark liver oil and shark liver oil. Twenty five individual fatty acids from the oil of marine fish were analyzed among those the palmitic acid was a major saturated fatty acid while stearic acid was the other major constituent. Among unsaturated fatty acids monoenoic e.g. oleic and palmitoleic acids were the major constituents and traces of dienoic and trienoic fatty acids were also found. In addition medicinally important polyunsaturated fatty, acid eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were also identified. PMID:16414840

Saify, Z S; Akhtar, S; Hassan, S; Arif, M; Ahmed, F; Siddiqui, S

2000-07-01

77

Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities  

PubMed Central

No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

2012-01-01

78

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6, 139-164 (1996) Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem  

E-print Network

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6, 139-164 (1996) Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem in marine ecosystem management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries. Objectives in marine ecosystem management are varied. From a biological perspective, an underlying principle

79

Possible Transmission of Streptococcus iniae from Wild Fish to Cultured Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus iniae was isolated from diseased wild fish collected near a mariculture facility where gilthead sea bream and European sea bass exhibited a similar infection. Species-specific PCR and ribotyping confirmed that wild and cultured fish were infected by a single S. iniae clone. Wild fish are therefore potential amplifiers of pathogenic S. iniae strains. PMID:9758844

Zlotkin, Amir; Hershko, Hannah; Eldar, Avi

1998-01-01

80

Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

81

Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been developed for estimating the holding capacity of sites for fish farming. Expressed in terms of maximum fish production per month, the holding capacity is estimated with regard to three basic environmental requirements:(i)the benthic fauna at a farm site must not be allowed to disappear due to accumulation of organic material;(ii)the water quality in the net pens

Anders Stigebrandt; Jan Aure; Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen

2004-01-01

82

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea  

E-print Network

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions be either described as acoustic displacement, particle velocity, or particle acceleration, each of which can

Ladich, Friedrich

83

Flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) are a successful group of marine temperate shallow-water fishes with approximately 520  

E-print Network

Flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) are a successful group of marine temperate shallow-water fishes adaptation to a benthic existence; all mature flatfish have both eyes on one side of their head. This adaptation allows flatfish to lie on the bottom on their eyeless (or blind) side and search the surrounding

Gibb, Alice C.

84

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

85

Substitution of live food by formulated diets in marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, it was considered impossible to feed newly hatched marine fish species with a compound diet. Substituting a compound diet for live prey was performed several weeks after hatching, depending on the species. Compound diets were well ingested at the early stage but larvae died with a gut full of food, suggesting that larvae were unable to digest the

Chantal Cahu; José Zambonino Infante

2001-01-01

86

CONSUMPTION RATES OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS MARINE FISH CAUGHT IN THE METROPOLITAN LOS ANGELES AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of a 1980 survey in the Los Angeles metropolitan area to assess the consumption rates of potentially hazardous marine fish and shellfish by local, non-professional fishermen; to identify population subgroups having a significantly large consumptio...

87

THE RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT TO BODY SURFACE AREA IN MARINE FISHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of attempting to establish a satisfactory basis for comparison of gill areas of certain marine fishes, considerable information about the body surface area has accumulated. Much has been written on the value of knowing the area of the body surface in metabolism studies and the difficulties in obtaining it. The formula most commonly used for determining surface

I. E. GRAY

88

Unmonitored trade in marine ornamental fishes: the case of Indonesia’s Banggai cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of coral reef fishes are collected each year for sale on the international aquarium market. Several marine ornamental species, including the Banggai cardinalfish, are biologically unsuitable for large-scale exploitation, yet their trade continues largely unmonitored. With little known about the Banggai cardinalfish or its trade, we interviewed trade participants from north and central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to document the organization,

K. E. Lunn; M.-A. Moreau

2004-01-01

89

Rise and fall of fishing and marine resource use in the Wadden Sea, southern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wadden Sea is the world's largest intertidal ecosystem and one of the most productive coastal areas worldwide. People have fished and hunted marine resources in the Wadden Sea since its origin ?7500 years ago, but have since depleted the majority of formerly important species and their supporting habitats. Most of these changes have been lost from memory. Here, I

Heike K. Lotze

2007-01-01

90

Surface disinfection of eggs from marine fish: evaluation of four chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

For surface disinfection of marine fish eggs Buffodine (1.06% free iodine), glutaraldehyde, chloramine-T and sodium hypochlorite (5% free chlorine) were tested using plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) as the main species for evaluation. Glutaraldehyde was the most promising candidate of the four chemicals tested. Good bactericidal effects without any documented negative effects on eggs and larvae were obtained at concentrations of

I. Salvesen; O. Vadstein

1995-01-01

91

'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE FISH USEFUL IN CHRONIC MARINE BIOASSAYS OF HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for chronic marine bioassays exposing the cyprinodontid fish Rivulus marmoratus, to 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. Purpose of the study was to illustrate the value of R. marmoratus as a chronic bioassay animal. Results demonstrated the relative insensitivity of R...

92

SIMILASCAROPHIS N. GEN. N. SPP. (NEMATODA: CYSTIDICOLIDAE) PARASITIZING MARINE FISHES OFF THE CHILEAN COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus(Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott),

Gabriela Muñoz; María Teresa González; Mario George-Nascimento

2004-01-01

93

DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

94

An evaluation of the use of fishing club records in the management of marine recreational fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are limitations to the usefulness of data from fishing club records in management of marine recreational fisheries, the present study shows that, with careful analysis, trends relevant to resource management can be discerned. Club records analysed in the present study show that there are very large differences in catches and catch rates over time, including seasonally throughout the

Donald F. Gartside; Bradley Harrison; Bret L. Ryan

1999-01-01

95

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

96

Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

2013-01-01

97

Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.  

PubMed

Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further study is needed to determine the role of small-scale marine reserves in the conservation of tropical marine biodiversity. PMID:21513198

Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

2011-03-01

98

Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.

2012-01-01

99

The origin of the salmonid fishes: marine, freshwater... or neither?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary origins of the salmonidfishes, whether in freshwater or the sea, havebeen debated for centuries. Early viewsfavoured a group of marine ancestry invadingfreshwaters; more recently, there was a shifttowards a freshwater ancestry, on grounds thata return to freshwater to spawn indicates theancestral biome. Salmonids are widely believedto share an ancient common ancestry with thenorthern hemisphere Osmeridae and southernhemisphere Retropinnidae

R. M. McDowall

2001-01-01

100

Strontium and barium uptake in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved

GRETCHEN E. BATH; S IMON R. THORROLD; CYNTHIA M. JONES; STEVEN E. CAMPANA; JAMES W. MCLAREN; JOSEPH W. H. LAM

2000-01-01

101

1994 Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service  

E-print Network

Wildlife and Plants: Notice of Interagency Cooperative Policy for Peer Review in Endangered Species Act by the Services under authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, and associated of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ARLSQ 452, 18th and C Streets, NW., Washington, D

102

Nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae and broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ of different components of broodstock diets such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids and phosphoglycerides. Some authors have also studied the nutritional quality of raw components used in broodstock diets for these species. However, few of them deal with Mediterranean fish species. A considerable amount of research has been devoted lately to study the nutritional

M. IZQUIERDO; CANARIO DE CIENCIAS MARINAS

103

Alien marine fishes deplete algal biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less 'barrens', we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to 'barrens' implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

2011-01-01

104

Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

2011-01-01

105

FISHING GEAR-RELATED INJURY IN CALIFORNIA MARINE WILDLIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study

Brynie Kaplan Dau; Kirsten V. K. Gilardi; Frances M. Gulland; Ali Higgins

2009-01-01

106

Threat and decline in fishes: an indicator of marine biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent policy commitments aim to reduce biodiversity loss and integrate environmental concerns into fisheries management. However, there are few operational indicators for reporting biodiversity trends and judging progress in relation to management objectives. Here we develop a threat indicator based on the population status of a suite of 23 North Sea fishes from 1982 to 2001 estimated using World Conservation

Nicholas K. Dulvy; Simon Jennings; Stuart I. Rogers; David L. Maxwell

2006-01-01

107

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

108

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

109

Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming I. The concept of the MOM system (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the concept of a management system called MOM (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring) which may be used to adjust the local environmental impact of marine fish farms to the holding capacity of the sites. The concept is based on integrating the elements of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of impact and environmental quality standards (EQS) into one system. The amount

Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen; Jan Aure; Anders Stigebrandt; Per Johannessen; Terje Jahnsen

1997-01-01

110

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATORY FISH, FORAGE FISHES, AND JUVENILE SALMONID MARINE SURVIVAL OFF THE COLUMBIA RIVER: A SIMPLE TROPHIC MODEL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trophic model that simulates interactions between a predatory fish (Pacific hake, Merluccius productus), for- age fish, and juvenile salmon off the Columbia River was constructed to identify if trophic interactions could account for marine mortality of Columbia River juve- nile salmon. The model estimates the number of juve- nile salmon that are eaten annually by Pacific hake off the

ROBERT L. EMMETT; DAVID B. SAMPSON

111

Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.  

PubMed

Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

2014-10-28

112

A Locomotor Innovation Enables Water-Land Transition in a Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions. PMID:20585564

Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

2010-01-01

113

Oregon Sea Grant Marine Education Program at Hatfield Marine Science Center Fish Dissection  

E-print Network

the internal and external anatomy, and learn how and why researchers collect fisheries-related data. Background in filter-feeding fish. Fish have a two-chambered heart (compared to our four-chambered heart) with one atrium and one ventricle that is located between the gills. Blood is pumped from the heart to the gills

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

114

DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and also highlight key areas of taxonomic uncertainty worthy of reappraisal. PMID:22174860

Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

2011-01-01

115

Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.  

PubMed

In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

2014-12-01

116

DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several fields, from fisheries and conservation programs to control of fish products authenticity. PMID:25222272

Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

2014-01-01

117

Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

2014-01-01

118

Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus  

SciTech Connect

The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Graham, M. [Vancouver Public Aquarium, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

119

Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.  

PubMed

Marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. There is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. But problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. Since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. Bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clown fishes Amphiprion sebae and A. ocellaris were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ethanol and methanol extracts were highly inhibitory to the bacterial isolates when compared to other solvents. Ethanol extracts exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (75-250 microg ml(-1)) as compared to other extracts. The present finding revealed that the neem leaf extract significantly reduces the bacterial pathogens and their infection in marine ornamental fishes. PMID:21186711

Dhayanithi, N B; Kumar, T T Ajith; Kathiresan, K

2010-07-01

120

Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

2000-01-01

121

Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

2012-01-01

122

Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish.  

PubMed

As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

2013-10-01

123

Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish  

SciTech Connect

Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

1986-09-01

124

Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

125

A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions of non-native species in marine ecosystems can be ecologically damaging and economically costly. Identifying 'hot-spots' of non-native species and their sources of introduction is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of invasion quarantine programs. We use a large spatially explicit marine fish database to show that there are a surprising number of non-native fishes on the reefs of southeast Florida,

Brice X. Semmens; Eric R. Buhle; Anne K. Salomon; Christy V. Pattengill-Semmens

2004-01-01

126

Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines\\u000a the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves\\u000a and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment\\u000a (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on

R. J. Maliao; A. T. White; A. P. Maypa; R. G. Turingan

2009-01-01

127

Regional climatic warming drives long-term community changes of British marine fish.  

PubMed Central

Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marine fish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had dramatic effects on community composition. Each assemblage contained a subset of dominant species whose abundances were strongly linked to annual mean sea-surface temperature. Species' latitudinal ranges were not good predictors of species-level responses, however, and the same species did not show congruent trends between sites. This suggests that within a region, populations of the same species may respond differently to climatic change, possibly owing to additional local environmental determinants, interspecific ecological interactions and dispersal capacity. This will make species-level responses difficult to predict within geographically differentiated communities. PMID:15156925

Genner, Martin J.; Sims, David W.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Southall, Emily J.; Southward, Alan J.; Henderson, Peter A.; Hawkins, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

128

Twelve novel microsatellite loci from an endangered marine fish species golden pompano Trachinotus blochii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) is a marine fish species in tropical regions. No information about genetic variation and population structure of wild populations\\u000a is available. A first set of 12 polymorphic microsatellites isolated from this species were characterized. The number of alleles\\u000a ranged from 5 to 14 with an average of 8.0 alleles per locus. All 12 markers conformed

Ping Gong; Jiale Li; Gen Hua Yue

2009-01-01

129

Lipid contents of marine fish: Carcharhinus melanopterus (Black Shark) and Lutjanus johnii (Hira).  

PubMed

Total lipid composition of liver oil of two marine fish Carcharhinus melanopterus (Black Shark) and Lutjanus johnii (Hira) was determined. The fatty acid contents of total liver lipids were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that fatty acid methyl eaten mainly consist of myristic, pentadecylic, palmitic, stearic acids as saturated, and palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and clupanodonic acids as unsaturated components. Appreciable quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUPA) and omega-3 fatty acids were detected. PMID:16414688

Ahmad, F; Ali, S S; Usmanghani, K; Ali, M

1991-07-01

130

Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography  

PubMed Central

Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

2005-01-01

131

Refugia of marine fish in the Northeast Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We show how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species that are now in Northwestern Europe were almost completely displaced southward from the modern distribution. Significantly, there is strong evidence that there was an invasion of fish of current economic importance into the Western Mediterranean through the Straits of Gibraltar, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations. There has been much recent interest in the marine glacial refugia to understand how the ranges of the economically important fish species will be displaced with the future climate warming. Recent ENM studies have suggested that species ranges may not have been displaced far southward during the coldest conditions of the LGM. However, archaeozoological evidence and LGM ocean temperature reconstructions indicate that there were large range changes, and certain marine species were able invade the Western Mediterranean. These findings are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions and delimit the glacial refugia.

Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

2010-07-01

132

Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.  

PubMed

Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

2014-02-01

133

Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

134

Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

2014-06-16

135

Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities  

PubMed Central

Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

2014-01-01

136

Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May–June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

2014-01-01

137

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

138

Effects of GillNet Fishing on Marine Birds in a Biological Hotspot in the Northwest Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland

GAIL K. DAVOREN

2007-01-01

139

Toward the Census of Marine Life: Proof of Concept through the Integration of Traditional, Optical and Acoustic Zooplankton and Fish  

E-print Network

of traditional, optical, and acoustical information to demonstrate the benefits of quantifying marine populationsToward the Census of Marine Life: Proof of Concept through the Integration of Traditional, Optical and Acoustic Zooplankton and Fish Data in the Chesapeake Bay Primary Investigators: Stuart A. Ludsin - Ohio

140

Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.  

PubMed

A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time.     The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District.     Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future.  PMID:25081275

Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

2014-01-01

141

Three Decades of Swedish Experience Demonstrates the Need for Integrated Long-Term Monitoring of Fish in Marine Coastal Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first attempts to monitor coastal fish in Sweden were made in the 1960s and 1970s. Ecological, physiological, biochemi- cal and environmental chemistry data were collected in separate projects. When the National Marine Monitoring Pro- gramme was revised in 1992, a new strategy was introduced for assessments of long-term trends in coastal fish communities. Annual integrated monitoring of contaminants, biomarkers

Olof Sandström; Åke Larsson; Jan Andersson

2005-01-01

142

The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.  

PubMed Central

The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

2004-01-01

143

The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2014-01-01

144

Possible Transmission of Streptococcus iniae from Wild Fish to Cultured Marine Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus iniae (8) infections of fish were reported in salmonids (Onchorynchus mykiss, Onchorynchus kisutch) and tilapines (Oreochromis spp.) cultured in Israel (2) and in the Far East (6). The recent isolation of S. iniae from tilapines and hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis 3 Morone chrysops) farmed in the United States (3, 7) indicates that infections due to S. iniae are

AMIR ZLOTKIN; HANNAH HERSHKO; AVI ELDAR

1998-01-01

145

Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

146

A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2013-01-01

147

Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.  

PubMed

Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ?6/?3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality. PMID:24799210

Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

2014-10-01

148

Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species now in northwestern Europe were displaced significantly southwards from the modern distribution, challenging an existing paradigm of marine glacial refugia. The model presents strong evidence that there was an invasion of important fish through the Straits of Gibraltar in glacial times, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations around the western Mediterranean Sea. The ENM results are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. Economically, the approach may be used to understand how the ranges of exploited fish species may be displaced with the future climate warming. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to delimit the glacial refugia and to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on deep-sea core records.

Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muñiz, A.; Roselló-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vøllestad, L. A.

2011-03-01

149

Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

2011-01-01

150

The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle  

PubMed Central

Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

2014-01-01

151

Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

152

Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?  

PubMed Central

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

2012-01-01

153

Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.  

PubMed

Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds (e.g. some groupers, emperors, snappers and jacks) or thousands of kilometres (e.g. some sharks and tuna). Larval dispersal distances tend to be <5-15 km, and self-recruitment is common. Synthesising this information allows us, for the first time, to provide species, specific advice on the size, spacing and location of marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management for a range of taxa. We recommend that: (i) marine reserves should be more than twice the size of the home range of focal species (in all directions), thus marine reserves of various sizes will be required depending on which species require protection, how far they move, and if other effective protection is in place outside reserves; (ii) reserve spacing should be <15 km, with smaller reserves spaced more closely; and (iii) marine reserves should include habitats that are critical to the life history of focal species (e.g. home ranges, nursery grounds, migration corridors and spawning aggregations), and be located to accommodate movement patterns among these. We also provide practical advice for practitioners on how to use this information to design, evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of marine reserve networks within broader ecological, socioeconomic and management contexts. PMID:25423947

Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

2014-11-25

154

Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

155

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.  

PubMed

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296-1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

Pham, Christopher K; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

156

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

157

How does fishing alter marine populations and ecosystems sensitivity to climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence has accumulated that climate variability influences the state and functioning of marine ecosystems. At the same time increasing pressure from exploitation and other human activities has been shown to impact exploited and non-exploited species and potentially modify ecosystem structure. There has been a tendency among marine scientists to pose the question as a dichotomy, i.e., whether (1) "natural" climate variability or (2) fishery exploitation bears the primary responsibility for population declines in fish populations and the associated ecosystem changes. However, effects of both climate and exploitation are probably substantially involved in most cases. More importantly, climate and exploitation interact in their effects, such that climate may cause failure in a fishery management scheme but that fishery exploitation may also disrupt the ability of a resource population to withstand, or adjust to, climate changes. Here, we review how exploitation, by altering the structure of populations and ecosystems, can modify their ability to respond to climate. The demographic effects of fishing (removal of large-old individuals) can have substantial consequences on the capacity of populations to buffer climate variability through various pathways (direct demographic effects, effects on migration, parental effects). In a similar way, selection of population sub-units within meta-populations may also lead to a reduction in the capacity of populations to withstand climate variability and change. At the ecosystem level, reduced complexity by elimination of species, such as might occur by fishing, may be destabilizing and could lead to reduced resilience to perturbations. Differential exploitation of marine resources could also promote increased turnover rates in marine ecosystems, which would exacerbate the effects of environmental changes. Overall (and despite the specificities of local situations) reduction in marine diversity at the individual, population and ecosystem levels will likely lead to a reduction in the resilience and an increase in the response of populations and ecosystems to future climate variability and change. Future management schemes will have to consider the structure and functioning of populations and ecosystems in a wider sense in order to maximise the ability of marine fauna to adapt to future climates.

Planque, Benjamin; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Cury, Philippe; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, R. Ian; Kifani, Souad

2010-02-01

158

Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

2014-08-01

159

A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (A–E), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work. PMID:22558244

Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

2012-01-01

160

Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits. PMID:19031001

Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

2009-11-01

161

Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.  

PubMed

Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

2013-12-01

162

Porrocaecum muraenesoxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) from the intestine of marine eel fish Muraenesox talabonoides (Bleeker).  

PubMed

A new species of the nematode genus Porrocaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 obtained from the marine eel fish Muraenesox talabonoides (Bleeker) from Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh) is described. The specimens do not agree with the description of known species of the genus Porrocaecum, hence a new species Porrocaecum muraenesoxi has been established to describe these nematodes. The new species is distinguished by body size, location of nerve ring, length of intestinal caecum, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, spicules length, and tail conical in both sexes. Rectal glands present. PMID:1306989

Rajyalakshmi, I

1992-01-01

163

Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg(-1) for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg(-1) for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. PMID:24334195

Mársico, E T; Ferreira, M S; São Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

2014-02-01

164

Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.  

PubMed

As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

2014-01-01

165

Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study  

PubMed Central

As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

2014-01-01

166

Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.  

PubMed

Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

2012-01-01

167

Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species  

PubMed Central

Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

2014-01-01

168

Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical-biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30-60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28-89%. PMID:23007086

Blanchard, Julia L; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Barange, Manuel

2012-11-01

169

Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (?13C and ?15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (?15N and ?13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average ?13C for all individuals was ?25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted ?13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average ?15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

170

The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.  

PubMed

The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. PMID:17465152

Bruckner, A W

2005-05-01

171

Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of historical fishing records to understand relationships between climatic change and fish abundance is limited by the relatively short duration of these records, and complications due to the strong influence of human activity in addition to climatic change. Sedimentary records containing scales, bones or geochemical proxies of variability in fish populations provide unique insights on long-term ecosystem dynamics and relationships with climatic change. Available records from Holocene sediments are summarized and synthesized. The records are from several widespread locations near or along the continental margins of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including Alaska, USA (Pacific salmon), Saanich and Effingham Inlets, British Columbia, Canada (pelagic fish), Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA (Northern anchovies and Pacific sardines), Gulf of California, Mexico (Pacific sardines, Northern anchovies and Pacific hake), Peru upwelling system (sardines, anchovies and hake), and Benguela Current System, South Africa (sardines, anchovies and hake). These records demonstrate that fish population sizes are not constant, and varied significantly over a range of time scales prior to the advent of large-scale commercial fishing. In addition to the decadal-scale variability commonly observed in historical records, the long-term records reveal substantial variability over centennial and millennial time scales. Shifts in abundance are often, but not always, correlated with regional and/or global climatic changes. The long-term perspective reveals different patterns of variability in fish populations, as well as fish-climate relationships, than suggested by analysis of historical records. Many records suggest prominent changes in fish abundance at ca. 1000-1200 AD, during the Little Ice Age, and during the transition at the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century that may be correlative, and that were likely driven by major hemispheric or global reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jürgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

2010-02-01

172

The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through otolith microchemical and electronic tagging approaches. Retentive and dispersive behaviours confer resiliency against early survival conditions that vary spatially. Examples of contingent structure are increasingly numerous for diadromous fishes. Here, a nursery habitat associated with a contingent behaviour may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. For flatfish and other marine fishes, contingent structure is probable but not well documented. Proximate factors leading to contingent structure are poorly known, but for diadromous fishes, time of spawning and early life history energetic thresholds is hypothesized to lead to alternative life cycles. Here again time of spawning may lead to the storage effect by hedging against spatial variance in early vital rates. Managing for the storage effect will be promoted by conservation of adult age structure and early habitats upon which both strong and weak year-classes rely.

Secor, David H.

2007-02-01

173

Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

2014-06-01

174

Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. PMID:24200045

Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-03-01

175

Natural transfer of helminths of marine origin to freshwater fishes with observations on the development of Diphyllobothrium alascense.  

PubMed

Infective stages of helminths of 5 species that occur as adults in marine mammals were found in burbot, Lota lota (L.) (Gadidae), from the lower Kuskokwim River (southwestern Alaska): Diphyllobothrium alascense Rausch et Williamson, 1958; Pyramicocephalus phocarum (Fabricius, 1780); Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1801); Corynosoma semerme (Forsell, 1904); and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878). Some larval stages were obtained also from smelt, Osmerus mordax dentex Steindachner, an anadromous fish important as prey of burbot. Burbot, which are freshwater fish, could become paratenic hosts of those helminths by means of at least 3 interactions: by consuming marine fishes in brackish waters at river mouths, by feeding on marine fishes that enter lower reaches of rivers, or by preying on anadromous fishes as they migrate up rivers. Consumption of burbot by people may result in infection by helminths of marine origin; of those recorded, only P. decipiens may be significantly pathogenic. Attempts to rear P. phocarum in dogs were unsuccessful. Plerocercoids of D. alascense, of very small size and found only in the gastric lumen of burbot, readily infected dogs. For study of their development, strobilae were obtained at intervals of 48 hr to 32 days postinfection. In heavy infections, some strobilae developed slowly, while others underwent rapid development. PMID:10780552

Rausch, R L; Adams, A M

2000-04-01

176

Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO2 and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50–100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO2). CO2 acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO2 acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO2 acidification. Elevated CO2 and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marine fishes. PMID:19556256

Munday, Philip L.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Endo, Geoff G. K.

2009-01-01

177

Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent. PMID:22363219

Wang, Mengyue; Nie, Yuxiao; Peng, Ying; He, Fen; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu; Li, Xiaobo

2011-01-01

178

Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction  

PubMed Central

Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates—fishes—remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

Friedman, Matt

2009-01-01

179

Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish.  

PubMed

Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO(2) and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50-100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO(2)). CO(2) acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO(2) acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO(2) acidification. Elevated CO(2) and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marine fishes. PMID:19556256

Munday, Philip L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Dixson, Danielle L; Endo, Geoff G K

2009-09-22

180

Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes  

PubMed Central

Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

2013-01-01

181

Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20

ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

1999-01-01

182

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway  

SciTech Connect

The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

1981-08-18

183

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.  

PubMed

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

2014-01-01

184

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

2014-01-01

185

Comparing the nursery role of inner continental shelf and estuarine habitats for temperate marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine-estuarine transition represents an important biogeographic boundary, yet juvenile marine finfish have been observed in both temperate inner continental shelf (ICS) and estuarine habitats during the summer nursery period. In a direct comparison of ICS and estuary nurseries, spatial and temporal patterns in species composition, biodiversity, size structure, and relative abundance of age-0 fishes were tested using contemporaneous data from multiyear (2004-2006) trawl surveys of the Maryland ICS near Assateague Island, MD, and lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (estuary). Survey data from both habitats showed similar seasonal progression of assemblage structure, biodiversity phenologies, and dominant species identities. Late summer densities for four of five numerically dominant species varied by habitat. Densities of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and Atlantic butterfish Peprilus triacanthus were higher in the ICS; whereas summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus density was higher in the estuary. Density of spot Leiostomus xanthurus did not differ between habitats. Apparent daily growth rates of these five species, as estimated by modal length progression, were not significantly different between the two habitats. Although individual species displayed varying affinities for ICS versus estuarine habitats, this study provides strong evidence that the ICS of the Middle Atlantic Bight is capable of functioning interchangeably with polyhaline estuarine regions as nursery habitat for a diverse group of marine finfish.

Woodland, Ryan J.; Secor, David H.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Wilberg, Michael J.

2012-03-01

186

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

2014-01-01

187

Are multispecies models an improvement on single-species models for measuring fishing impacts on marine ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the application of multispecies models as tools for evaluating impacts of fishing on marine communities. Four types of model are identified: descriptive multispecies, dynamic multispecies, aggregate system, and dynamic system models. The strengths and weaknesses of multispecies models and their ability to evaluate the causal mechanisms underlying shifts in production are examined. This comparison provides a basis for

Anne B. Hollowed; Nicholas Bax; Richard Beamish; Jeremy Collie; Michael Fogarty; Patricia Livingston; John Pope; Jake C. Rice

2000-01-01

188

Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

189

Mariculture in Israel – past achievements and future directions in raising rotifers as food for marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fish production is now being carried out afteralmost two decades of research. The production ofseabream (Sparus aurata), which reached over 750tons in 1995, is expected to reach an annualproduction ranging between 4000 - 12 700 metric tonsby year 2010. The anticipated introduction of newspecies and its expansion to the Mediterranean shoreline will help in leading the increased maricultureproduction. Two

Esther Lubzens; Gideon Minkoff; Yoav Barr; Odi Zmora

1997-01-01

190

Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

Day, Bill D., Comp.

191

Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia  

PubMed Central

Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 ?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

2015-01-01

192

Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

2012-11-01

193

Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide.  

PubMed

Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north-south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial-temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K; Wake, Bronwyn D; Snow, Joseph T; Honey, David J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Lohan, Maeve C; Achterberg, Eric P; Moore, C Mark

2014-01-28

194

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate PAH pollution in the marine coastal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, analysis methods for the PAH metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two PAH metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength

Xin H. Wang; Hua S. Hong; Jing L. Mu; Jian Q. Lin; Shong H. Wang

2008-01-01

195

CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

196

Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. PMID:24211498

Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

2014-01-01

197

Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design.  

PubMed

Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, ?(st) = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis ?(st) = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

Drew, Joshua A; Barber, Paul H

2012-01-01

198

Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design  

PubMed Central

Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, ?st?=?0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis ?st?=?0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

2012-01-01

199

Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.  

PubMed Central

A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

1987-01-01

200

Coplanar PCBs in fish and mussels from marine and estuarine waters of New York State.  

PubMed

Thirty samples of striped bass from marine and estuarine waters of New York State, six samples of mussels from Long Island Sound, and one composite sample of freshwater mussels from Troy were analyzed by a recently developed method which combines sulfuric acid cleanup, carbon chromatography, and high-resolution gas chromatography for the determination of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are biologically active congeners of PCBs and approximate isostereomers of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin of (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Non-ortho coplanar PCBs ranged from 0.2 to 37.1 ppb in fish. The highest concentrations of 37.1 ng/g of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (77) and 7.5 ng/g of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (126) were detected in a fish caught near Troy/Albany, New York. Mono-ortho-substituted PCBs ranged from 0.4 to 790 ppb in fish, with the major components identified as 2,3',4,4',5-penta-(118) and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls (105). When concentrations were converted to 2,3,7,8-TCDD picogram equivalents, 99% of the equivalents were derived from three congeners (77, 105, and 126), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (126) accounting for approximately 80% of the activity. At Troy pg/g TCDD equivalents derived from PCB were approximately 3000, whereas the actual 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration was only 20 pg/g; hence, accurate coplanar PCB measurement is important. PMID:1375144

Hong, C S; Bush, B; Xiao, J

1992-02-01

201

Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm.  

PubMed

The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

Kelly, Ryan P; Port, Jesse A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Crowder, Larry B

2014-01-01

202

Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.  

PubMed

In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump ?-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHrP and STC, and reveal an unexpected contribution of calcaemic factors to acid-base balance. PMID:24501133

Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

2014-05-01

203

Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park  

PubMed Central

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

2014-01-01

204

Depth and medium-scale spatial processes influence fish assemblage structure of unconsolidated habitats in a subtropical marine park.  

PubMed

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L; Malcolm, Hamish A; Bucher, Daniel J; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D A

2014-01-01

205

Long-term effectiveness of a multi-use marine protected area on reef fish assemblages and fisheries landings.  

PubMed

The Loreto Bay National Park (LBNP) is a large, multi-use marine protected area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where several types of small-scale commercial and recreational fishing are allowed, but where less than 1% of the park is totally protected from fishing. The LBNP was created in 1996; its management plan was completed in 2000, but it was not effectively implemented and enforced until 2003. Between 1998 and 2010, we monitored reef fish populations annually at several reefs inside and outside the LBNP to measure the effects of the park on fish assemblages. We also evaluated reported fisheries landings within the LBNP for the same time series. Our results show that reef fish biomass increased significantly after protection at a small no-take site at LBNP relative to the rest of the park. However, the multi-use part of LBNP where fishing is allowed (99% of its surface) has had no measurable effect on reef fish biomass relative to open access sites outside the park boundaries. Reported fisheries landings have decreased within the park while increasing in nearby unprotected areas. Although the current partial protection management regime has not allowed for reef fish populations to recover despite 15 years as a "protected area," we conclude that LBNP's regulations and management have maintained the conditions of the ecosystem that existed when the park was established. These results suggest that community livelihoods have been sustained, but a re-evaluation of the multi-use management strategy, particularly the creation of larger no-take zones and better enforcement, is needed to improve the reef fish populations in the park in order to ensure sustainable fisheries far into the future. These recommendations can be applied to all multi-use MPAs in Mexico where ecosystem recovery is not occurring despite maintenance of fish stocks. PMID:23416447

Rife, Alexis N; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Hastings, Philip A; Erisman, Brad; Ballantyne, Ford; Wielgus, Jeffrey; Sala, Enric; Gerber, Leah

2013-03-15

206

Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in northwest Gulf of Mexico marine fish and invertebrates: indicators of offshore petroleum contamination  

E-print Network

marine fish and invertebrates were collected in the vicinity of offshore petroleum platforms in the northwest Gulf of Mexico and subdivided with respect to distance from the platforms (i.e. "near", 3000 m). Hepatic tissues were analyzed...

Erickson, Cynthia Marie

1994-01-01

207

The culture of selected marine fish in ponds receiving thermal effluent from a power station and their use as biological monitors of water quality  

E-print Network

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE CULTURE OF SELECTED MARINE FISH IN PONDS RECEIVING THERMAL EFFLUENT FROM A POWER STATION AND THEIR USE... AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS OF WATER QUALITY A Thesis by JOSEPH JOHN PANE Approved as to style and content by: i' (Chairman of Committee) A (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT The Culture of Selected Marine Fish in Ponds...

Pane, Joseph John

2012-06-07

208

Nutritional and Environmental 43 Environmentally Related Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish  

E-print Network

Health Research Laboratory of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, at the Tidewater Inn, Easton, Md., 26 of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service convened the 2nd Annual Eastern Fish Health Workshop at Easton, Md

209

Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n?=?4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

210

Gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) including four new species from marine fishes off the eastern coast of India.  

PubMed

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five gonad-infecting species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes off the eastern coast of India (Bay of Bengal): Philometra sphyraenae sp. n. (males and females) from the pickhandle barracuda Sphyraena jello Cuvier (Sphyraenidae), Philometra gerrei sp. n. (males and females) from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae), Philometra otolithi sp. n. (single female) from the tigertooth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch et Schneider) (Sciaenidae), Philometra sp. (females) from the Belanger's croaker Johnius belangerii (Cuvier) (Sciaenidae), and Philometroides eleutheronemae sp. n. (females) from the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae). All new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing gonads of marine fishes by morphological (mainly the gubernaculum structure in males and the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus in females) and biometrical features. Philometra rajani Mukherjee, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:23724730

Moravec, Frantisek; Manoharan, Jayaraman

2013-05-01

211

A preliminary study on the diversity of fish species and marine fish faunas of the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are 3048 species of fish occurring in the China Seas (CS), of which at least 2321 species are found in the South China Sea (SCS), belonging to 35 orders, 236 families and 822 genera. The fish species diversity is analyzed in this paper based on biogeography, biostatistics, fishing methods, etc. It is found that the regional environment, especially biological factors, plays an important role in the distribution of faunas, and there are two fish faunas in the SCS, one in the north and another in the center and south. This regional division is of value for sustainable fishery production and efficient management of fishery resources.

Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Zhang, Meizhao; Li, Fengqi; Chen, Dagang

2008-05-01

212

Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2014-01-01

213

Evapotranspiration from subsurface horizontal flow wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The balance between evapotranspiration (ET) loss and rainfall ingress in treatment wetlands (TWs) can affect their suitability for certain applications. The aim of this paper was to investigate the water balance and seasonal dynamics in ET of subsurface horizontal flow (HF) TWs in a sub-tropical climate. Monthly water balances were compiled for four pilot-scale HF TWs receiving horticultural runoff over a two year period (Sep. 1999-Aug. 2001) on the sub-tropical east-coast of Australia. The mean annual wetland ET rate increased from 7.0 mm/day in the first year to 10.6 mm/day in the second, in response to the development of the reed (Phragmites australis) population. Consequently, the annual crop coefficients (ratio of wetland ET to pan evaporation) increased from 1.9 in the first year to 2.6 in the second. The mean monthly ET rates were generally greater and more variable than the Class-A pan evaporation rates, indicating that transpiration is an important contributor to ET in HF TWs. Evapotranspiration rates were generally highest in the summer and autumn months, and corresponded with the times of peak standing biomass of P. australis. It is likely that ET from the relatively small 1 m wide by 4 m long HF TWs was enhanced by advection through so-called "clothesline" and "oasis" effects, which contributed to the high crop coefficients. For the second year, when the reed population was well established, the annual net loss to the atmosphere (taking into account rainfall inputs) accounted for 6.1-9.6 % of the influent hydraulic load, which is considered negligible. However, the net loss is likely to be higher in arid regions with lower rainfall. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of the wetlands in the second year of operation was 1.3 g of above-ground biomass produced per kilogram of water consumed, which is low compared to agricultural crops. It is proposed that system level WUE provides a useful metric for selecting wetland plant species and TW design alternatives to use in arid regions where excessive water loss from constructed wetlands can be problematic. Further research is needed to accrue long-term HF TW water balance data especially in arid climatic zones. PMID:22127043

Headley, T R; Davison, L; Huett, D O; Müller, R

2012-02-01

214

Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.  

PubMed

An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

2013-08-01

215

A Fish-feeding Laboratory Bioassay to Assess the Antipredatory Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Tissues of Marine Organisms.  

PubMed

Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology. PMID:25650625

Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

2015-01-01

216

Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy)  

E-print Network

and sound communication, especially in the reproduc- tive context. The amount of marine noise pollution a broad concern on the extent of negative impacts on marine life. Human-made noise in the sea canEffects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living

Ladich, Friedrich

217

Development of Captive Breeding Techniques for Marine Ornamental Fish: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly popular aquarium hobby is fueling the rapid growth of the aquatic ornamental industry, particularly the trade of marine ornamental species. However, currently there is a heavy reliance on wild caught marine ornamentals to satisfy consumer demand. As public awareness of the plight of marine ecosystems grows, the often destructive and unmanaged exploitation of coral reefs for the marine

Jonathan A. Moorhead; Chaoshu Zeng

2010-01-01

218

Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.  

PubMed

Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933

Lacy, E R; Reale, E

1989-07-01

219

Structural and functional connectivity of marine fishes within a semi-enclosed Newfoundland fjord.  

PubMed

The interplay between structural connectivity (i.e. habitat continuity) and functional connectivity (i.e. dispersal probability) in marine fishes was examined in a coastal fjord (Holyrood Pond, Newfoundland, Canada) that is completely isolated from the North Atlantic Ocean for most of the year. Genetic differentiation was described in three species (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, white hake Urophycis tenuis and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua) with contrasting life histories using seven to 10 microsatellite loci and a protein-coding locus, PanI (G. morhua). Analysis of microsatellite differentiation indicated clear genetic differences between the fjord and coastal regions; however, the magnitude of difference was no more elevated than adjacent bays and was not enhanced by the fjord's isolation. Osmerus mordax was characterized by the highest structure overall with moderate differentiation between the fjord and St Mary's Bay (F(ST)c.0.047). In contrast, U. tenuis and G. morhua displayed weak differentiation (F(ST) < 0.01). Nonetheless, these populations did demonstrate high rates (< 75%) of Bayesian self-assignment. Furthermore, elevated differentiation was observed at the PanI locus in G. morhua between the fjord and other coastal locations. Interestingly, locus-specific genetic differentiation and expected heterozygosity were negatively associated in O. mordax, in contrast to the positive associations observed in U. tenuis and G. morhua. Gene flow in these species is apparently unencumbered by limited structural connectivity, yet the observed differentiation suggests that population structuring exists over small scales despite high dispersal potential. PMID:20738621

Bradbury, I R; Snelgrove, P V R; Bentzen, P; de Young, B; Gregory, R S; Morris, C J

2009-10-01

220

Glugea vincentiae n. sp. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae) infecting the Australian marine fish Vincentia conspersa (Teleostei: Apogonidae).  

PubMed

A parasite of the marine fish Vincentia conspersa was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This parasite develops in the subcutaneous tissue of the body and fins, forming spherical xenomas about 1-2 mm in diameter surrounded by a layer of amorphous material. The observed characteristics of the new parasite are in line with those of the other Glugea species; merogony takes place in the outer zone of the cytoplasm of the host cell, sporogony takes place in sporophorous vesicles, and mature spores are located in the central part of the xenoma. Meronts were cylindrical uninucleate or occasionally triradiate multinucleate, with plasmodia in direct contact with the host cytoplasm. Sporogonic plasmodia divided by multiple cleavage to produce sporoblast mother cells, which after binary fission became sporoblasts. Two types of spores were recognized, both uninucleate, i.e., ovoid or slightly ovoid microspores with a mean size of 5.1 x 2.2 microm and much less frequent as elongated oval macrospores with a mean size of 8.9 x 3.1 microm. The polar tube has between 12 and 14 coils arranged in 1, 2, or 3 layers. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that this microsporidian infecting V. conspersa is a new species of Glugea, which we have named Glugea vincentiae. PMID:15856891

Vagelli, A; Paramá, A; Sanmartín, M L; Leiro, J

2005-02-01

221

Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.  

PubMed

Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. Entender las Fuentes y Efectos de Equipo de Pesca Abandonado, Perdido y Desechado sobre las Tortugas Marinas del Atlántico Norte. PMID:25102915

Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

2015-02-01

222

Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-10-01

223

Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5?g and 3.0?g-TiO2-NPg(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

2015-01-01

224

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

225

Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

2014-11-01

226

Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.

Eliassen, M.

1988-12-01

227

Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China*  

PubMed Central

Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features—color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61 t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. This is the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. PMID:16615168

Hao, Yan-ru; Peng, Shao-lin; Mo, Jiang-ming; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Zhuo-quan; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Jin-rong

2006-01-01

228

Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61 t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. This is the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. PMID:16615168

Hao, Yan-ru; Peng, Shao-lin; Mo, Jiang-ming; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Zhuo-quan; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Jin-rong

2006-05-01

229

SYNTHESIS Functional responses and scaling in predatorprey interactions of marine fishes: contemporary issues and emerging concepts  

E-print Network

of overharvesting top predators on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. It follows that ecological forecasting, ecosystem management, and marine spatial planning require a better understanding of food web­prey interactions in the context of the sustainable marine fisheries and ecosystem management. Keywords Ecosystem

Anderson, Todd

230

Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.  

PubMed

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

2014-02-01

231

Gregg Waugh, Deputy Executive Director POLICIES FOR THE PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF ESSENTIAL FISH HABITATS FROM MARINE AQUACULTURE  

E-print Network

Policy Context This document establishes the policies of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) regarding protection of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) and Essential Fish Habitat-Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (EFH-HAPCs) from potential impacts associated with marine aquaculture. The policies are designed to be consistent with the overall habitat protection policies of the SAFMC as formulated in the Habitat Plan (SAFMC 1998a) and adopted in the Comprehensive EFH Amendment (SAFMC 1998b) and the various Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) of the Council. The findings presented below assess potential impacts, negative and positive to EFH and EFH-HAPCs posed by activities related to marine aquaculture in offshore and coastal waters, riverine systems and adjacent wetland habitats, and the processes which could place those resources at risk. The policies and recommendations established in this document are designed to avoid, minimize, and offset potential impacts from these activities, in accordance with the general habitat policies of the SAFMC as mandated by law. To address any future marine aquaculture projects in the South Atlantic region, or as legislation is developed to provide additional

Toll Free --safmc; Duane Harris Vice-chairman

2007-01-01

232

Population Genetic Studies Revealed Local Adaptation in a High Gene-Flow Marine Fish, the Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)  

PubMed Central

The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis. PMID:24349521

Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

2013-01-01

233

Distribution of heavy metals in marine bivalves, fish and coastal sediments in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

An assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals was made in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 2000-2001. Sediment metal loadings were generally not remarkable, although hot spots were noted in Bahrain (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and on the east coast of the UAE (As, Co, Cr, Ni). Concentrations of As and Hg were typically low in sediments and the total Hg levels in top predator fish commonly consumed in the region were < 0.5 microg g(-1) and posed no threat to public health. Very high Cd concentrations (up to 195 microg g(-1)) in the liver of some fish from southern Oman may result from food-chain bioaccumulation of elevated Cd levels brought into the productive surface waters by upwelling in the region. Very high As concentrations (up to 156 microg g(-1)) were measured in certain bivalve species from the region. Although not certain, the As is probably derived from natural origins rather than anthropogenic contamination. PMID:15325209

de Mora, Stephen; Fowler, Scott W; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine

2004-09-01

234

Genetic Determinants of Virulence in the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum  

PubMed Central

One of the most studied fish pathogens is Vibrio anguillarum. Development of the genetics and biochemistry of the mechanisms of virulence in this fish pathogen together with clinical and ecologic studies has permitted the intensive development of microbiology in fish diseases. It is the intention of this review to compile the exhaustive knowledge accumulated on this bacterium and its interaction with the host fish by reporting a complete analysis of the V. anguillarum virulence factors and the genetics of their complexity. PMID:21625345

Naka, Hiroaki; Crosa, Jorge H.

2011-01-01

235

Health aspects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert workshop reviewed the health effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and came to the following conclusions. 1. Consumption of fish may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). People at risk for CHD are therefore advised to eat fish once a week. The n-3 PUFA in fish are probably the active agents. People who do not

EAM de Deckere; O Korver; PM Verschuren; MB Katan

1998-01-01

236

Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing  

PubMed Central

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

237

Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.  

PubMed

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

238

Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America.  

PubMed

The extent of mercury contamination in Surinamese food fishes due to small-scale gold mining was investigated by determination of the total mercury concentration in 318 freshwater fishes, 109 estuarine fishes, and 110 fishes from the Atlantic Ocean. High background levels were found in the piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus (0.35 microg Hg x g(-1) muscle tissue, wet mass basis) and the peacock cichlid Cichla ocellaris (0.39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. Average mercury levels in freshwater fishes were higher in piscivorous species than in nonpiscivorous species, both in potentially contaminated water bodies (0.71 and 0.19 microg x g(-1), respectively) and in the control site (0.25 and 0.04 microg x g(-1), respectively). Mercury concentrations in piscivorous freshwater fishes were significantly higher in rivers potentially affected by gold mining than in the control site. In 57% of 269 piscivorous freshwater fishes from potentially contaminated sites, mercury levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.5 microg Hg x g(-1). The highest mercury concentrations (3.13 and 4.26 microg x g(-1)) were found in two piranhas S. rhombeus from the hydroelectric reservoir Lake Brokopondo. The high mercury levels in fishes from Lake Brokopondo were to some extent related to gold mining because fishes collected at eastern sites (i.e., close to the gold fields) showed significantly higher mercury concentrations than fishes from western localities. In the estuaries, mercury levels in ariid catfish (0.22 microg x g(-1)) and croakers (0.04-0.33 microg x g(-1)) were distinctly lower than those in piscivorous fishes from contaminated freshwater sites. In the isolated Bigi Pan Lagoon, the piscivores snook Centropomus undecimalis (0.04 microg x g(-1)) and tarpon Megalops atlanticus (0.03 microg x g(-1)) showed low mercury levels. Mercury levels were significantly higher in marine fishes than in estuarine fishes, even with the Bigi Pan fishes excluded. High mercury concentrations were found in the shark Mustelus higmani (0.71 microg x g(-1)), the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (1.17 microg x g(-1)), and the barracuda Sphyraena guachancho (0.39 microg x g(-1)), but also in nonpiscivorous species such as Calamus bajonado (0.54 microg x g(-1)), Haemulon plumieri (0.47 microg x g(-1)), and Isopisthus parvipinnis (0.48 microg x g(-1)). Mercury levels were positively correlated with the length of the fish in populations of the freshwater piscivores S. rhombeus, Hoplias malabaricus, and Plagioscion squamosissimus, in estuarine species (Arius couma, Cynoscion virescens, and Macrodon ancylodon), and in S. guachancho from the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:11437465

Mol, J H; Ramlal, J S; Lietar, C; Verloo, M

2001-06-01

239

Niche shift can impair the ability to predict invasion risk in the marine realm: an illustration using Mediterranean fish invaders.  

PubMed

Climatic niche conservatism, the tendency of species-climate associations to remain unchanged across space and time, is pivotal for forecasting the spread of invasive species and biodiversity changes. Indeed, it represents one of the key assumptions underlying species distribution models (SDMs), the main tool currently available for predicting range shifts of species. However, to date, no comprehensive assessment of niche conservatism is available for the marine realm. We use the invasion by Indo-Pacific tropical fishes into the Mediterranean Sea, the world's most invaded marine basin, to examine the conservatism of the climatic niche. We show that tropical invaders may spread far beyond their native niches and that SDMs do not predict their new distributions better than null models. Our results suggest that SDMs may underestimate the potential spread of invasive species and call for prudence in employing these models in order to forecast species invasion and their response to environmental change. PMID:25626355

Parravicini, Valeriano; Azzurro, Ernesto; Kulbicki, Michel; Belmaker, Jonathan

2015-03-01

240

Spatial and temporal predictability of the parasite community structure of a benthic marine fish along its distributional range.  

PubMed

The search for consistent patterns of organisation in parasite communities remains a central theme in parasite community ecology. However, to date, much evidence comes from studies without replication in both space and time; when replicate communities are examined, repeatable patterns are rarely observed. Here we determine, using nested subset analyses, whether the infracommunities of ectoparasites and endoparasites of a benthic marine fish (Sebastes capensis) show non-random structure. Then we examine the spatial repeatability of parasite community structure across the host's distribution in the southern Pacific, and the temporal repeatability of ectoparasite community structure from one locality. In total, 537 fish were captured from different latitudes (between 11 degrees S and 52 degrees S) along the Pacific coast of South America; a further 122 specimens were captured in two other years from one of the sampling localities, Valdivia (40 degrees S). In spite of variation in fish sizes among samples, fish size generally did not correlate with either ecto- or endoparasite species richness. The ecto- and endoparasite species richness of the component communities were also not correlated with fish sample size across the nine localities. Significant nested patterns were found in the ectoparasite communities of S. capensis at all eight localities, except at latitude 52 degrees S. Significant nested patterns were also found in the endoparasite infracommunities of S. capensis at seven of the nine localities, the exceptions being those from latitudes 11 degrees S and 20 degrees S. On a temporal scale, significant nestedness was observed in the ectoparasite infracommunities of S. capensis during each of the 3 years of sampling at Valdivia. In general, the same parasite species are responsible for the repeatability of nested patterns, though their importance varies among localities. The spatial and temporal predictability of the parasite community structure in S. capensis may be associated with the fish's benthic habitat and territorial behavior, suggesting that host biology may be a key determinant of the structure of parasite communities. PMID:16185695

González, M T; Poulin, R

2005-11-01

241

Derelict Fishing Line Provides a Useful Proxy for Estimating Levels of Non-Compliance with No-Take Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

Williamson, David H.; Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Evans, Richard D.; Hill, Jos K.; Russ, Garry R.

2014-01-01

242

Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.  

PubMed

No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

2014-01-01

243

Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

2011-01-01

244

Environmental Forcing of Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical and Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L?1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L?1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L?1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L?1 d?1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L?1 d?1 (1?, n?=?65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdóttir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.

2011-01-01

245

Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

2012-12-01

246

Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

2013-12-01

247

Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories  

SciTech Connect

Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

2006-02-06

248

Comparative utilization of shallow water habitats at Galveston, Texas by immature marine fish  

E-print Network

immature fish populations inhabiting a shallow tidal pass in southeastern Louisiana. Differences in response to variations in tide stage and photoperiod were discussed. Sykes and Finucane (1966) re- ported lower abundances of juvenile fish in marsh areas... habitat, Weinstein et al. (1980a) found that distribution of most immature fish inhabiting shallow water estuarine habitats is largely governed by salinity gradients and secondary sub- strate characteristics. Monitoring of short tezm variation...

Guillen, George Joseph

1983-01-01

249

Molecular and histological evaluation of tributyltin toxicity on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).  

PubMed

There is still concern about the effects of organotin compounds (OTs) on marine organisms, and especially on their reproductive systems. We investigated the toxicity of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) on spermatogenesis in a marine fish, mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. TBTO exposure caused serious histological damage to the testis, including reduction in counts of spermatids and spermatozoa and malformation of somatic cells around the seminal duct. Analysis of the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into spermatogenic cells revealed inhibition of the proliferation of germ cells. To find a biomarker for evaluation of the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis, we cloned genes downregulated by TBTO exposure in the mummichog testis, and identified mummichog creatine kinase (mCK). The cDNA sequence of mCK contained an open reading frame encoding 387 amino acid residues (M(r)=43,344). The derived amino acid sequence of mCK was very similar to that of the testicular-type CK of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis revealed that mCK was produced specifically in the testis. We therefore identified mCK in the mummichog as a testicular-type CK. Real-time PCR revealed that exposure of the fish to TBTO significantly reduced mCK expression in the testis. To some extent, this reduction was coincident with that of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into spermatogenic cells. The mCK gene can therefore be used as a biomarker for evaluating the effects of TBTO on fish spermatogenesis. In addition, levels of expression of the mCK gene in control fish were well correlated with increments in the gonad somatic index (GSI) below 4%. Individuals that were thought to have testicular damage caused by TBTO could be discriminated from those considered normal. The results suggest that TBTO is involved in the suppression of fish spermatogenesis and that analysis of both GSI values and mCK gene expression is useful for evaluating the levels of xenobiotic pollution in coastal areas. PMID:17451821

Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Kakuno, Akira; Fujii, Kazunori

2007-06-01

250

Spatial and temporal scales of adaptive divergence in marine fishes and the implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of geographic and temporal scales of adaptive genetic variation is crucial to species conservation, yet understanding of these phenomena, particularly in marine systems, is scant. Until recently, the belief has been that because most marine species have highly dispersive or mobile life stages, local adaptation could occur only on broad geographic scales. This view is supported by comparatively low

D. O. CONOVER; L. M. C LARKE; S. B. M UNCH; G. N. WAGNER

2006-01-01

251

Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland

Eliassen

1988-01-01

252

Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water  

PubMed Central

We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched ?15N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher ?15N than older fish. These differences in ?15N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

Johnson, Susan P.; Schindler, Daniel E.

2013-01-01

253

Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.  

PubMed

We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched ?(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher ?(15)N than older fish. These differences in ?(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

2013-02-23

254

Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.  

PubMed

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135 ?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain

2014-03-01

255

CAN TISSUE ANOMALIES THAT OCCUR IN MARINE FISH IMPLICATE SPECIFIC POLLUTANT CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantage of using tissue abnormalities in wild fish as a measure of fish health is that the abnormality, unlike sensitive biochemical anomalies, cannot be said to have occurred during capture or transport. This paper is concerned with factors (chemical, physical, or biologic...

256

8 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine Fisheries  

E-print Network

(Oncorhynchus nerka). Fish. Res. Bd. Ca of Fisheries Progress Report No. 120. 75 pp. Anas, R. E., and J. R. Gauley. 1956. Blueback salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) age and length at seaward migration past Bonneville Dam. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Spec

257

Studies of the population dynamics of marine fishes depend on the ability to  

E-print Network

between otoliths and each of the other structures. Elemental fin- gerprints of juvenile (age, electron probes Trace metals in four structures of fish and their use for estimates of stock structure) and adult fish (which may reach a maximum age of 37 years) were also compared for each structure to deter

258

Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the tropics to the Arctic.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field. PMID:24612602

Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

2015-01-01

259

An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

Epps, Brenden P

2010-01-01

260

C-BANDING OF CHROMOSOMES FROM THREE ESTABLISHED MARINE FISH CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic regions of individuals pa...

261

76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...cross-reference this gear requirement in the take reduction plan regulations...cross-reference this gear requirement in the take reduction plan regulations...fish with longline gear from a vessel registered...Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan. (a)...

2011-07-18

262

The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrobenthic (coral, algae, and sea urchins) and fish communities in 15 back-reef sites on the patch and rock-island reefs of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania (?250 km of coastline) were studied in order to (1) test an overfishing model developed in Kenya’s fringing reef (McClanahan, 1995a, A coral reef ecosystem-fisheries model: impacts of fishing intensity and catch selection on

T. R. McClanahan; N. A. Muthiga; A. T. Kamukuru; H. Machano; R. W. Kiambo

1999-01-01

263

Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.  

PubMed

Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. PMID:25180652

Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

2015-01-01

264

Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)  

PubMed Central

The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37–66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2009–2017. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:23636803

Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

265

Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

266

Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the\\u000a MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened

Nurit Kress; Barak Herut; Edna Shefer; Hava Hornung

1999-01-01

267

The impact of postglacial marine invasions on the genetic diversity of an obligate freshwater fish, the longnose dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ), on the Quebec peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postglacial seas are expected to have had significant effects on the genetic structure of populations of obli- gate freshwater fishes. To assess this influence, mitochondrial DNA variability was evaluated in 32 populations of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) of the Quebec peninsula located within and outside of the maximum extent of marine invasions of the Champlain and Laflamme seas. Three clades

Philippe Girard; Bernard Angers

2006-01-01

268

The effects of pH and the iron redox state on iron uptake in the intestine of a marine teleost fish, gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)  

E-print Network

The effects of pH and the iron redox state on iron uptake in the intestine of a marine teleost fish bioavailability. Iron accumulation was assessed in the Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) gut by mounting intestineH was clamped to pH 5.5 or 7.0 to investigate the effect of proton concentrations on iron uptake. In addition

Grosell, Martin

269

Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine

Djibril Faye; Luis Tito de Morais; Jean Raffray; Oumar Sadio; Omar Thiom Thiaw; François Le Loc’h

2011-01-01

270

Developmental and Microbiological Analysis of the Inception of Bioluminescent Symbiosis in the Marine Fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae)?  

PubMed Central

Many marine fish harbor luminous bacteria as bioluminescent symbionts. Despite the diversity, abundance, and ecological importance of these fish and their apparent dependence on luminous bacteria for survival and reproduction, little is known about developmental and microbiological events surrounding the inception of their symbioses. To gain insight on these issues, we examined wild-caught larvae of the leiognathid fish Nuchequula nuchalis, a species that harbors Photobacterium leiognathi as its symbiont, for the presence, developmental state, and microbiological status of the fish's internal, supraesophageal light organ. Nascent light organs were evident in the smallest specimens obtained, flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in notochord length (NL), a developmental stage at which the stomach had not yet differentiated and the nascent gasbladder had not established an interface with the light organ. Light organs of certain of the specimens in this size range apparently lacked bacteria, whereas light organs of other specimens of 6.5 mm in NL and of all larger specimens harbored large populations of bacteria, representatives of which were identified as P. leiognathi. Bacteria identified as Vibrio harveyi were also present in the light organ of one larval specimen. Light organ populations were composed typically of two or three genetically distinct strain types of P. leiognathi, similar to the situation in adult fish, and the same strain type was only rarely found in light organs of different larval, juvenile, or adult specimens. Light organs of larvae carried a smaller proportion of strains merodiploid for the lux-rib operon, 79 of 249 strains, than those of adults (75 of 91 strains). These results indicate that light organs of N. nuchalis flexion and postflexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.7 mm in NL are at an early stage of development and that inception of the symbiosis apparently occurs in flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in NL. Ontogeny of the light organ therefore apparently precedes acquisition of the symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, bacterial populations in larval light organs near inception of the symbiosis are genetically diverse, like those of adult fish. PMID:18978090

Dunlap, Paul V.; Davis, Kimberly M.; Tomiyama, Shinichi; Fujino, Misato; Fukui, Atsushi

2008-01-01

271

An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

2010-09-01

272

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

273

Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1?mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2013-01-01

274

Activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by hepatic S-9 from a marine fish  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports initial efforts to characterize the in vitro metabolism of several weakly carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic (in mammals) PAH's by hepatic S-9 preparations from the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) to Salmonella mutagens. The objective was to identify PAH's, if any, which were substantially more mutagenic with fish than with mammalian S-9. However, the results of these studies supported their previous experience and that of others that the mutagenicities of metabolism-dependent genotoxic chemicals are similar with fish and mammalian activation systems.

Milling. D.M.; Maddock, M.B.

1985-09-01

275

Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps  

PubMed Central

Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

276

Artificial reefs, the attraction-production issue, and density dependence in marine ornamental fishes  

E-print Network

yet be produced in aquaculture (Martin Moe of Green Turtle Publications, personal communication industry, at least for the foreseeable future. Therefore, alternative harvesting and management approaches in the man- agement and augmentation of the marine ornamental industry. One vision (spear- headed by Craig A

Osenberg, Craig W.

277

Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

278

Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine life is being affected by changes in ocean conditions resulting from changes in climate and chemistry triggered by combustion of fossil fuels. Shifting spatial distributions of fish species is a major observed and predicted impact of these oceanographic changes, and such shifts may modify fish community structure considerably in particular locations and regions. We projected future range shifts of pelagic marine fishes of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas by 2050 relative to the present. We combined published data, expert knowledge, and pelagic fish survey data to predict current species distribution ranges of 28 fish species of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas that occur in the epipelagic zone and are well-represented in pelagic fish surveys. These represent a wide spectrum of sub-tropical to sub-polar species, with a wide range of life history characteristics. Using projected ocean condition changes from three different Earth System Models, we simulated changes in the spatial distribution of each species. We show that Northeast Pacific shelf seas may undergo considerable changes in the structure of its pelagic marine communities by mid-21st century. Ensembles of model projections suggest that the distribution centroids of the studied species are expected to shift poleward at an average rate of 30.1 ± 2.34 (S.E.) km decade-1 under the SRES A2 scenario from 2000 to 2050. The projected species range shifts result in a high rate of range expansion of this group of species into the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. Rate of range contraction of these species is highest at the Aleutian Islands, and in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We also predict increasing dominance of warmer water species in all regions. The projected changes in species assemblages may have large ecological and socio-economic implications through mismatches of co-evolved species, unexpected trophic effects, and shifts of fishing grounds. These results provide hypotheses of climate change impacts that can be tested using data collected by monitoring programmes in the region.

Cheung, William W. L.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Okey, Thomas A.; Pauly, Daniel

2015-01-01

279

Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

1996-10-01

280

Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths  

PubMed Central

No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400–11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000–8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

Yancey, Paul H.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Jamieson, Alan

2014-01-01

281

NOTES ON THE FLESH PARASITES OF MARINE FOOD FISHES By Edwin Linton, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

_________________________________________________________________________ 1200 The case of the butterfish u u __nnn_n_ u u_n.--n--- 1202 General considerations as to flesh that the parasitism which I had already noted in the case of the butterfish (Poronotus triacanthus) , instead of being studied this fish. The results of my investigations on the butterfish parasite naturally sug- gested

282

Short-chain fatty acid metabolism in temperate marine herbivorous fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were identified and estimated in the gut of three herbivorous fish containing gut endosymbionts, the herring cale Odax cyanomelas (Richardson, 1850) (Family Odacidae), the butterfish O. pullus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) (Family Odacidae) and the sea carp Crinodus lophodon (Günther, 1859) (Family Aplodactylidae). The highest concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were in the posterior region of

K. D. Clements; V. P. Gleeson; M. Slaytor

1994-01-01

283

75 FR 12698 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan Regulations AGENCY...Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (HPTRP). Specifically...commercial gillnet fishing gear, NMFS determined that...pingers onto gillnet gear, and for gillnet vessel...subject to the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). An...

2010-03-17

284

Relationship between biomarkers of contaminant exposure and toxicopathic lesions in marine fish  

SciTech Connect

Fish residing in contaminated habitats incur a variety of biological effects as a result of their exposure to chemical contaminants. These effects include impaired reproduction, reduced growth, and toxicopathic disease. Strong correlations have been demonstrated between the occurrence of some of these conditions and the levels of certain classes of contaminants in fish tissues and the sediments at sampling sites, on the West, East, and Gulf Coasts of the USA. Moreover, relative risks for development of toxicopathic liver disease in bottom fish have been estimated for several chemical and biological risk factors at a large number of sites. The authors are currently determining the relationships between biomarkers of contaminant exposure and the presence of several liver diseases in these fish species. Biomarkers thus far incorporated into these calculations include levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACS) in bile, hepatic activities and levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYPLA), and levels of hepatic DNA adducts. All of these have shown statistically significant positive relationships with preneoplastic and/or neoplastic lesions in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus). More recently, the authors have focused on differences in cellular expression of CYPLA as they may relate to the eventual outcome of contaminant exposure, utilizing benthic fish species which show markedly different susceptibilities to contaminant-induced neoplasia. Through use of immunohistochemical localization of CYPLA, combined with quantitative measurement by image analysis and color thresholding, the authors have demonstrated markedly different patterns of cellular expression, consistent with cellular patterns of pathological injury, These results have helped substantially to determine the relevance of biomarker responses with respect to biological damage.

Collier, T.K.; Anulacion, B.F.; Myers, M.S. [NMFS/NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

285

The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 ?m bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

2013-11-01

286

Seasonal fluctuation of the prevalence of cymothoids representing the genus Nerocila (Crustacea, Isopoda), parasitizing commercially exploited marine fishes from the Malabar Coast, India.  

PubMed

The presently reported study investigated seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence in four species of Nerocila infesting commercially exploited marine fishes representing the families Engraulidae, Clupeidae and Ambassidae, from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India). Seven of 56 fish species belonging to 23 families were infested by either one or two species of Nerocila. All the collected Nerocila species showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence of infestation, reaching maximum from October through April and minimum (or total absence of the parasites) from May through September. Such fluctuations were analyzed based on environmental parameters. Body surface, postero-ventral side of the head and the lateral line of the host fish form the major infestation site for the recovered Nerocila species. Skin lesion and hemorrhages were observed on the fish parasitized with these cymothoids. PMID:23377916

Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Arshad, Keethadath; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

2013-03-01

287

DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

³²P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of

B. Kurelec; M. Checko; S. Krca; A. Garg; R. C. Gupta

1988-01-01

288

Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish.  

PubMed

The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO(2)-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity. PMID:19188596

Munday, Philip L; Dixson, Danielle L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Pratchett, Morgan S; Devitsina, Galina V; Døving, Kjell B

2009-02-10

289

Novel application of a fish gill cell line assay to assess ichthyotoxicity of harmful marine microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish-killing microalgae can cause substantial mortalities of cultured finfish, but their killing mechanisms are not completely understood. Since use of cell lines offers significant advantages compared to working with whole organisms, a simple in vitro assay for microalgal ichthyotoxicity is described using the rainbow trout cell line RTgill-W1. We describe the application of a microplate based assay for testing the

Juan José Dorantes-Aranda; T. David Waite; Aurélie Godrant; Andrew L. Rose; César D. Tovar; Gregory M. Woods; Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff

2011-01-01

290

Preservation of inherent contractility in isolated gut segments from herbivorous and carnivorous marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of inherent contractility were investigated in isolated gut segments from three species of New Zealand temperate-water\\u000a labroid fish: the herbivorous butterfish Odax pullus (Family Odacidae), and the carnivorous banded wrasse Notolabrus fucicola and spotty Notolabrus celidotus (Family Labridae). To maintain the functional viability of gut tissue over extended periods, physiological solutions were\\u000a formulated for each genus based on biochemical

K. D. Clements; D. Rees

1998-01-01

291

Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 ?atm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

2011-06-01

292

Continuous water vapor isotopic composition observations in the sub-tropical North Atlantic (Bermuda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We installed an autonomous continuous water vapor isotope monitoring station in Bermuda (Tudor Hill) (32.26 N 64.86 W) in November 2011 with the aim of understanding the processes of the marine atmospheric boundary layer giving rise to the isotope fingerprint in the water vapor. Similarly we installed a station running in parallel on the south coast of Iceland (63.83 N 21.47W) with the aim of studying moisture advection processes between the two stations. The isotope monitoring station in Bermuda consists of a Picarro Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer together with an autonomous calibration system, which allows for unmanned operation periods of several months. The system automatically performs calibration every 6 hours, which results in high accuracy and precision allowing for analysis of the d-excess in the water vapor. We present comparison between our observed high-resolution isotopic composition record and nudged simulations using three isotope-enabled atmosphere general circulation models (AGCM), ECHAM5-wiso, LMDZiso and isoGCM. This allows for a direct validation of the isotopic simulation in the AGCM. We find that there is good agreement between the observed and modeled variations in absolute humidity and d18O. This gives us confidence in the models providing a correct representation of the large-scale atmospheric circulation pattern. However, the nudged simulations are not able to reproduce the same observed magnitude of the d-excess variation. We interpret this as a misrepresentation of marine atmosphere boundary layer physical processes. The continuous monitoring of the water vapor isotopic composition makes it possible to have high resolution observations of the isotope fingerprint for different air masses: we observe d-excess variations from 0 o/oo to 30 o/oo occurring in a few hours as cold fronts pass over the site. Merlivat and Jouzel [1979] described how the d-excess in the marine atmosphere boundary water vapor should depend on the relative humidity. Despite this assumption being crucial in isotopic modeling this has not been extensively tested until now and never at such a high frequency. Our high-frequency isotope measurements support this assumption albeit with minor caveats.

Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Sveinbjörnsdottir, Arny E.; Werner, Martin; Risi, Camille; Yoshimura, Kei; Peters, Andrew; Rosset, Julianne

2013-04-01

293

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine fishes from China: levels, distribution and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Muscle tissues of large yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) and sliver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from nine coastal cities of East China including Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. Thirty-six PCB congeners were quantified in the fishes, of which 11 congeners were dioxin-like PCBs. The total PCB concentrations of the present study were at the low end of the global range, which may be related to the smaller usage and shorter consumption history of PCBs in China. PCBs 18, 29, 52, 66, 101, 104, 138, 153, 180 and 194 were the major constituents found in the fish samples. Regression analysis showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)=0.800; p<0.001) between total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCB concentrations, and that total PCB concentrations explain 80% of the variability in total dioxin-like PCB concentrations. Among the species investigated, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were found in croakers than in pomfrets, which may be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. No significant difference in total PCB concentrations among the cities was observed; principal component analysis (PCA) of PCB profiles indicated that PCB pollution came from similar sources in the sampling areas and that there may be other PCB sources in Dalian and Wenzhou. The calculated carcinogenic risks (CRs) from the two species based on a low consumption group and high consumption group were all greater than 10(-6), suggesting that daily exposure to dioxin-like PCBs via fish consumption results in a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one in one million. In contrast, the hazard quotients (HQs) of noncancer risks were all less than unity. PMID:22863061

Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

2012-11-01

294

Fish assemblages across the marine to low salinity transition zone of a temperate estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This 3-year study provides a large-scale perspective of fish assemblage structure across an ocean-estuarine ecotone, given range of salinity encountered (0.1-32) based on sampling at 12 stations along 40 km from the Mullica River (river), Great Bay (bay), and the adjacent inner continental shelf (ocean) in southern New Jersey. Otter trawl (4.9 m, 6 mm mesh) collections were dominated by young-of-the-year of most of the 49 species encountered. Species richness and abundance appeared greatest in the ocean, decreased (with an increase in inter-station variability) in the bay, and appeared to increase again towards the uppermost river stations. The same areas contained three non-discrete, but identifiable, fish assemblages based on Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Members of the Triglidae and Stromateidae characterized the ocean and bay, whereas representatives of the Percichthyidae and Ictaluridae characterized the river. Several species, including Anchoa mitchilli and Cynoscion regalis, exhibited a ubiquitous distribution across the sampling area. Further analyses with Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified salinity and geographic distance, among the variables examined, as the most important determinants in shaping the assemblages. Other contributors included habitat heterogeneity and water depth. In summary, these observations indicate that large-scale patterns in the structure of this estuarine fish assemblage are primarily a result of individual species' responses to dominate environmental gradients, as well as ontogenetic migrations, whereas smaller-scale patterns appear to be the result of habitat associations that are most likely driven by foraging, competition, and/or predator avoidance.

Martino, Edward J.; Able, Kenneth W.

2003-04-01

295

Marine Fisheries Marine recreational angling. Florida  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W Marine recreational angling. Florida News Bureau photo by Jack Fortune 1980 Jay D. Andrews 1 Social Considerations Associated With Marine Recreational Fishing Under FCMA/NMFS Developments Index, 1980 Papers in Marine Fisheries Review, 1980 Chad P. Dawson and Bruce T. Wilkins 12 Charles

296

Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish.  

PubMed

Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km(3) lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5 ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking their migration route and causing gene flow between summer run and winter run reproductive ecotypes. Further, the dam arrested the prodigious flux of sediment down the Eel River; this cessation is recorded in marine sedimentary deposits as a 10-fold reduction in deposition rates of Eel-derived sediment and constitutes a rare example of a terrestrial event transmitted through the dispersal system and recorded offshore. PMID:22084068

Mackey, Benjamin H; Roering, Joshua J; Lamb, Michael P

2011-11-22

297

Affiliations between bacteria and marine fish leeches (Piscicolidae), with emphasis on a deep-sea species from Monterey Canyon, CA.  

PubMed

Leeches within the Piscicolidae are of great numerical and taxonomic importance, yet little is known about bacteria that associate with this diverse group of blood-feeding marine parasites of fish and elasmobranchs. We focused primarily on the bacteria from a deep-sea leech species of unknown identity, collected at ??600?m depth in Monterey Canyon, CA, along with two shallow-living leech genera, Austrobdella and Branchellion, from Los Angeles Harbor, CA. Molecular analysis of all five leech species revealed a dominance of gammaproteobacteria, which were distinct from each other and from previously reported freshwater leech symbionts. Bacteria related to members of the genus Psychromonas (99% similarity in 16S rRNA) were dominant in the deep-sea leech species (80-94% of recovered ribotypes) collected over 19 months from two different locations. Psychromonas was not detected in cocoons or 2-16 week-old juveniles, suggesting that acquisition is via the environment at a later stage. Transmission electron microscopy did, however, reveal abundant bacteria-like cells near areas of thinning of the juvenile epithelial surface, as well as Psychromonas sparsely distributed internally. Electron and fluorescence in situ microscopy of adults also showed Psychromonas-like bacteria concentrated within the crop. Despite the apparent non-transient nature of the association between Psychromonas and the deep-sea leech, their functional role, if any, is not known. The prevalence, however, of an abundant bacterial genus in one piscicolid leech species, as well as the presence of a dominant bacterial species in singular observations of four additional marine species, suggests that members of the Piscicolidae, possibly basal within the class Hirudinea, form specific alliances with microbes. PMID:22681178

Goffredi, S K; Morella, N M; Pulcrano, M E

2012-09-01

298

Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

2013-01-01

299

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained  

PubMed Central

A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication. PMID:22069694

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

2011-01-01

300

Resistance to chemical stressors in embryo-larval fish from a marine Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Several recent studies have demonstrated that estuarine fish chronically exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) are resistant to effects of those contaminants, as measured both by induction of detoxification enzymes and toxicity. A study was undertaken to examine the phenomenon of resistance to chemical toxicity in F. heteroclitus inhabiting the New Bedford (NBH) Superfund Site which exhibit some of the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the world. This portion of that study was designed to examine: (a) whether embryo-larvae of NBH are resistant to PHAHs; (b) whether this resistance is restricted to site-related contaminants; and (c) whether this resistance is correlated with reduced responsiveness to cytochrome P450 induction. To investigate the correlation between cytochrome P450 induction and toxic effects in embryo-larval fish, a novel, nondestructive in ovo fluorescence assay for ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity was developed. Embryo-larval tests were conducted using whole sediment and aqueous exposures to samples such as PCB and PAH mixtures and single compounds, organic sediment extracts, and methylmercury as a reference toxicant.

Nacci, D.; Coiro, L.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Cooper, K. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

301

On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin,\\u000a Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete\\u000a receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis

Omar M. Amin; Nguyen Van Ha

302

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

303

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).  

PubMed

The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006. PMID:23859426

Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

2013-09-01

304

Transport of marine fish larvae to Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan) in relation to the availability of zooplankton prey under the winter ice cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the importance of ice-covered Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for young fish spawned offshore, we monitored the recruitment of marine fish larvae from the Sea of Okhotsk to the lagoon as well as the availability of larval fish prey under the ice cover from 24 February to 23 March 1992. Sand lance ( Ammodytes sp.) and walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) larvae recruited to the lagoon on flood tide whereas snake prickleback ( Lumpenus sagitta) larvae were exported to the Sea of Okhotsk on ebb. Before the ice breakup, ice microalgae made up the bulk of the microalgal biomass in the lagoon. The production and release of ice algae did not trigger the maturation of the late copepodite stages of copepods, and the proportion of adult females in the copepod assemblage remained low. The production of copepod nauplii (the main prey of fish larvae) under the ice was probably insufficient to insure suitable feeding and growth of fish larvae entering the lagoon in winter. Sand lance larvae, the most abundant species to colonize the lagoon in February-March, had to survive for nearly two months at low food abundance. Based on our results, the importance of Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for fish larvae appears negligible.

Fortier, Martin; Fortier, Louis

1997-02-01

305

Professor Martin Grosell and colleagues have made a fascinating discovery about the contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle and the potential impact they may have on future ocean acidification  

E-print Network

of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle and the potential impact they may have on future ocean you have made between this infraclass of fish and the oceanic inorganic carbon cycle? What are your for global carbon cycling in a time of rapid climate change? Understanding the bicarbonate buffer system

Miami, University of

306

A comparison of fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a Caribbean island, based on species, families, size distribution and functional groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in fish community structure between different estuaries, lagoons and bays can be very large, and generalisations are complicated by the use of a wide variety of sampling methods. In the present study, fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a single Caribbean island were therefore sampled using a uniform method. The objective

I. A. Nagelkerken; G. van der Velde

2004-01-01

307

Decrease of Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations in marine fish species over a decade as response to reduction of anthropogenic inputs: the example of Tagus estuary.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Zn, Cd and Pb were measured in muscle of pelagic, demersal and benthic fishes, captured in the coastal area adjoining the Tagus estuary (Portugal), in 1998 and 2010. Additionally, Pb and Cd were determined in estuarine waters, showing a pronounced decrease between 1999 and 2010. Accordingly, specimens captured in 2010 presented significantly lower metal concentrations than individuals caught in 1998. Reductions were more evident for Pb (reduction of 59-99%) than for Cd (14-93%) and Zn (17-54%). Values in pelagic and demersal species exhibited higher reductions than in benthic species. Decrease of metal concentrations in fish appears thus to reflect the improvement of estuarine water quality as anthropogenic sources have been reduced or eliminated. Furthermore, it emphasises the usefulness of the descriptor "Contaminants in Fish" to assess the efficiency of measures to achieve a good environmental status, in the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. PMID:21986541

Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Caetano, Miguel; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos

2011-12-01

308

Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability–diversity implications  

PubMed Central

A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

Rossberg, Axel G.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K.

2011-01-01

309

A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures.  

PubMed

Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity. Tropical forests harbour among the highest levels of terrestrial species diversity and are likely to experience rapid land-use change in the coming decades. Synthetic analyses of observed responses of species are useful for quantifying how land use affects biodiversity and for predicting outcomes under land-use scenarios. Previous applications of this approach have typically focused on individual taxonomic groups, analysing the average response of the whole community to changes in land use. Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups--invertebrates, 'herptiles' (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds--respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests. We show significant independent impacts of land use, human vegetation offtake, forest cover and human population density on both occurrence and abundance of species, highlighting the value of analysing multiple explanatory variables simultaneously. Responses differ among the four groups considered, and--within birds and mammals--between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species. PMID:25143038

Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N; Phillips, Helen R P; Hill, Samantha L L; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Blandon, Abigayil; Butchart, Stuart H M; Booth, Hollie L; Day, Julie; De Palma, Adriana; Harrison, Michelle L K; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Pynegar, Edwin; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Mace, Georgina M; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

2014-10-01

310

Fish species and community distributions as proxies for seafloor habitat distributions: The Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (Northwest Atlantic, Gulf of Maine)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

Auster, P.J.; Joy, K.; Valentine, P.C.

2001-01-01

311

Fish species and community distributions as proxies for sea-floor habitat distributions: the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary example (northwest Atlantic, Gulf Of Maine)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Defining the habitats of fishes and associated fauna on outer continental shelves is problematic given the paucity of data on the actual types and distributions of seafloor habitats. However many regions have good data on the distributions of fishes from resource surveys or catch statistics because of the economic importance of the fisheries. Fish distribution data (species or communities) have been used as a proxy for the distribution of habitats to develop precautionary conservation strategies for habitat protection (e.g., marine protected areas, fishing gear restrictions). In this study we assessed the relationships between the distributions of fish communities and species derived from trawl survey data with the spatial distribution of sediment types determined by sampling and acoustic reflectance derived from multibeam sonar surveys in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Fish communities were correlated with reflectance values but all communities did not occur in unique sediment types. This suggests that use of community distributions as proxies for habitats should include the caveat that a greater number of communities within an area could indicate a greater range of habitat types. Single species distributions showed relationships between abundance and reflectance values. Trawl catches with low abundances had wide variations in reflectance values while those with high abundances had narrower ranges indicating habitat affinities. Significant non-random frequency-dependent relationships were observed for 17 of 20 species although only 12 of 20 species had significant relationships based on rank correlation. These results suggest that species distributions based on trawl survey data can be used as proxies for the distribution of seafloor habitats. Species with known habitat associations can be used to infer habitat requirements of co-occurring species and can be used to identify a range of habitat types.

Auster, Peter J.; Joy, Kevin; Valentine, Page C.

2001-01-01

312

Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy\\u000a mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment.\\u000a The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood\\u000a cell count. The second objective compared the

Elie K. Barbour; Houssam H. Itani; Fawwak T. Sleiman; Maya F. Saade; Steve Harakeh; Afif M. Abdel Nour; Houssam A. Shaib

313

New particle formation and growth at a remote, sub-tropical coastal location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted in March/April 2007 at Agnes Water, a remote coastal site just south of the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Particle and ion size distributions were continuously measured during the campaign. Coastal nucleation events were observed in clean, marine air masses coming from the south-east on 65% of the days. The events usually began at ~10:00 local time and lasted for 1-4 h. They were characterised by the appearance of a nucleation mode with a peak diameter of ~10 nm. The freshly nucleated particles grew within 1-4 h up to sizes of 20-50 nm. The events occurred when solar intensity was high (~1000 W m-2) and RH was low (~60%). Interestingly, the events were not related to tide height. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of freshly nucleated particles (17-22.5 nm), simultaneously measured with a volatility-hygroscopicity-tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA), were used to infer chemical composition. The majority of the volume of these particles was attributed to internally mixed sulphate and organic components. After ruling out coagulation as a source of significant particle growth, we conclude that the condensation of sulphate and/or organic vapours was most likely responsible for driving particle growth during the nucleation events. We cannot make any direct conclusions regarding the chemical species that participated in the initial particle nucleation. However, we suggest that nucleation may have resulted from the photo-oxidation products of unknown sulphur or organic vapours emitted from the waters of Hervey Bay, or from the formation of DMS-derived sulphate clusters over the open ocean that were activated to observable particles by condensable vapours emitted from the nutrient rich waters around Fraser Island or Hervey Bay. Furthermore, a unique and particularly strong nucleation event was observed during northerly wind. The event began early one morning (08:00) and lasted almost the entire day resulting in the production of a large number of ~80 nm particles (average modal concentration during the event was 3200 cm-3). The Great Barrier Reef was the most likely source of precursor vapours responsible for this event.

Modini, R. L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Johnson, G. R.; He, C.; Surawski, N.; Morawska, L.; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.

2009-05-01

314

Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W.N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J.R.; Dopazo, C.P.

2004-01-01

315

Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages  

E-print Network

marine ecosystems. Keywords Coastal marine ecosystems, diversity, ecological functions, fish assemblages (Hughes 1994). Unexpected consequences of biodiversity loss for marine ecosystem functioning highlightLETTER Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages Fiorenza Micheli1, * and Benjamin S

Halpern, Benjamin S.

316

Residues of PBDEs in northeastern Pacific marine fish: evidence for spatial and temporal trends.  

PubMed

In the flesh (skinless fillet) of chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. keta, O. kisutch, O. gorbuscha, and O. nerka, respectively), sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from several sites in the northeast Pacific sampled between 2002 and 2008, tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (BDE 47, 49, 99, and 100) dominated the congener distribution. Chinook and sablefish contained the highest concentrations, followed by sockeye, coho, and pink salmon, and pollock. In sockeye from the Bering Sea - Aleutians and from the Gulf of Alaska, total tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations fell significantly between 2002 and 2005; in sablefish from Gulf of Alaska, there was a steady but statistically nonsignificant decline in BDE concentrations between 2002 and 2008. Relative proportions of the main BDE congeners did not change appreciably over time, within species or location. All species except sockeye salmon showed a clear southeastward increase in BDE concentrations, implying an increasing gradient in general ecosystem contamination. In chinook, coho, and sablefish, especially, the southeastward trend in increasing total concentrations was associated with increasing proportions of BDEs 47 and 100. Chinook returning to western North American natal streams appeared to accumulate most of their PBDE burden towards the end of their migration. Fish from more northern sampling sites often had higher proportions of more highly brominated congeners than those from more southern sites, perhaps reflecting contamination from Asian sources where higher-brominated commercial PBDE formulations are used. In sablefish and pollock, the relative proportions of BDEs 99 and 47 varied inversely in almost a 1:1 ratio, implying debromination of BDE 99 to 47. PMID:21360729

Ikonomou, Michael G; Teas, Howard J; Gerlach, Robert; Higgs, Dave; Addison, Richard F

2011-06-01

317

The influence of environmental characteristics on fish larvae spatial patterns related to a marine protected area: The Medes islands (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed the linkages between environmental variables and the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of larval abundance of coastal fish assemblages within and outside the Medes Islands marine protected area (MPA; NW Mediterranean) to explore possible fisheries effects such as larvae export of the latter. We analyzed small-scale fish larvae distribution of 28 representative taxa from the rocky fish assemblage and combined the former in different groups with the help of cluster analysis. Further we assessed the influence of selected abiotic variables on group and species distributions using Generalized Additive Models (GAM's). We found a high level of variability in the response of larvae groups and species to environmental variables over the two studied periods (spring and summer); depth and habitat of the adults being the most important factors. In addition, distance to the MPA was found as an important variable in defining the location of larvae of strictly coastal species. Our results provided evidence of larval export of three commercial species affected by the MPA ( Epinephelus marginatus, Pagellus erythrinus and Scorpaena porcus). Thus our study contributes to the few empirical assessments of larvae export from MPAs and adds to the understanding of the functioning of MPAs as fisheries management tools. Nevertheless, in the future integrated assessments of fisheries effects of MPAs are required that measure the effect of larvae and biomass export on increased fishing yield while taking into account fishing effort dynamics.

López-Sanz, Àngel; Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Sabatés, Ana

2011-05-01

318

Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI) in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was < 6/12 in either eye. Near vision was assessed using N notation chart binocularly. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA < 6/18 in the better eye. Presbyopia is defined as binocular near vision worse than N8 in subjects with binocular distance VA of 6/18 or better. Results The data collection was completed in <12 weeks using two teams each consisting of one paramedical ophthalmic personnel and two community eye health workers. The prevalence of visual impairment was 30% (95% CI, 27.6-32.2). This included 111 (7.1%; 95% CI, 5.8-8.4) individuals with blindness. Cataract was the leading cause of visual impairment followed by uncorrected refractive errors. The prevalence of blindness according to WHO definition (presenting VA < 3/60 in the better eye) was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9-3.5). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI) reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas. PMID:21929802

2011-01-01

319

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

PubMed

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2011-04-01

320

Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).  

PubMed

Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of ?(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour related to reproductive strategy. PMID:23189927

Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

2013-01-01

321

Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish.  

PubMed

Coastal development has generated multiple stressors in marine and estuarine ecosystems, including habitat degradation and pollutant exposure, but the effects of these stressors on the ecology of fishes remain poorly understood. We studied the separate and combined effects of an acute 4 h sublethal exposure of the pyrethroid pesticide esfenvalerate and structural habitat complexity on behavior and predation risk of larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Larvae were exposed to four nominal esfenvalerate concentrations (control, 0.12, 0.59, 1.18 ?g/L), before placement into 12 L mesocosms with a three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) predator. Five treatments of artificial eelgrass included a (1) uniform and (2) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a low density (500 shoots per m(2)), a (3) uniform and (4) patchy distribution of eelgrass at a high density (1,000 shoots per m(2)), and (5) the absence of eelgrass. The capture success of predators and aggregative behavior of prey were observed in each mesocosm for 10 min of each trial, and mortality of prey was recorded after 60 min. Exposure to esfenvalerate increased the proportion of larvae with swimming abnormalities. Surprisingly, prey mortality did not increase linearly with pesticide exposure but increased with habitat structure (density of eelgrass), which may have been a consequence of compensating predator behavior. The degree of prey aggregation decreased with both habitat structure and pesticide exposure, suggesting that anti-predator behaviors by prey may have been hampered by the interactive effects of both of these factors. PMID:25421633

Renick, Violet Compton; Anderson, Todd W; Morgan, Steven G; Cherr, Gary N

2015-03-01

322

Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 ?g/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

2014-09-01

323

9 References Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 1993. Letter to Merritt Tuttle, National Marine Fisheries Service,  

E-print Network

(Oncorhynchus nerka) age and length at seaward migration past Bonneville Dam. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. ------. Maternal influences on the age at maturity of Skeena River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Fish. Res

324

ESTIMATION OF TOXICITY TO MARINE SPECIES WITH STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY MODELS DEVELOPED TO ESTIMATE TOXICITY TO FRESHWATER FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...

325

Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among watershed nutrient loading, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine the capacity of estuaries to accommodate introduced nutrients. Baseline quantification of loading, flushing time, export, and internal processes is essential to understand responses of sub-tropical estuaries to variable climate and nutrient loading. The goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002-2008 spanning various climatic conditions. The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Biogeochemical Model was used to generate water, salt, and (DIN and DIP) budgets. The predicted increase in internal DIN production for the CRE vs. the SLE was associated with increased external DIN loading. Water column DIN concentrations decreased and stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to > 10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy or balanced metabolism across all seasonal budgets. Although the SLE was also sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy and net ecosystem metabolism increased with DIP loading to this estuary. This included a huge DIP consumption and bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification offered a loss pathway for inorganic nitrogen in the CRE, this potential was not evident for the smaller and more anthropogenically altered St. Lucie Estuary. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that management actions should examine the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in attempts to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the SLE. Establishment of quantitative loading limits for anthropogenically impacted estuaries requires an understanding of the inter-seasonal and inter-annual relationships for both N and P, circulation and flushing, variability in plankton community composition, and the dynamics of DON.

Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

2013-02-01

326

Three Potential Sources of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system. PMID:21556175

Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

2011-01-01

327

Biochemical studies on marine fish oil part-I: effects of fish oil and lipid lowering drugs on HDL/LDL cholesterol levels.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids present in fish oil are potent cholesterol lowering agents. This fact has drawn our attention to investigate their effects alone and in combination with competitive inhibitors, (hydrooxymethylglutaryl coenzume-A reductase). The naturally occurring omega-3 fatty acids i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil have been proved as anticholesterolemic agents. In order to observe their actions as lipid lowering agents, the present study has been carried out which deals with the synergistic effect of fish oil with that of Lovastatin and Gemfibrozil. PMID:16414570

Saify, Z S; Ahmed, Fahim; Akhtar, Shamim; Siddiqui, Sonia; Arif, M; Hussain, Shaheen A; Mushtaq, Nousheen

2003-07-01

328

Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

2010-10-01

329

Marine Fisheries On the cover. Views of marine  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover. Views of marine recreational fisheries. NMFS, NOAA photos. Articles 49(2), 1987 Special Issue: Marine Recreational Fisheries and Fishing Introduction 1 Marine Recreational Fisheries in the Southeastern United States Ronald L. Schmied and Edward E. Burgess 2 Marine

330

Temperature-related variation in growth rate, size, maturation and life span in a marine herbivorous fish over a latitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

In ectotherms, growth rate, body size and maturation rate covary with temperature, with the direction and magnitude of variation predicted by the Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). Nutritional quality or availability of food, however, may vary over latitudinal gradients, resulting in ambiguous effects on body size and maturation rate. The Temperature-Constraint Hypothesis (TCH) predicts that marine herbivorous ectotherms are nutritionally compromised at latitudes exceeding 30°. This provides an opportunity to resolve the contrasting demographic responses of ectotherms to variation in temperature and nutritional status over latitudinal gradients. This study uses analysis of demographic rates to evaluate the predictions of the TSR in a marine herbivorous ectotherm sampled over a significant latitudinal gradient. The direction and magnitude of demographic variation was established in the marine herbivorous fish, Odax pullus (the butterfish), and compared with that of a phylogenetically related but trophically distinct species, the carnivorous Notolabrus fucicola (the banded wrasse). Both species were sampled at three locations across the length of New Zealand covering latitudes between 35°S and 49°S. Growth rate, mean size-at-age, age- and size-at-maturity, life span and abundance were estimated for each species at each location. Demographic traits of both taxa varied with latitude. Both species showed slower initial growth rates, and matured later at a larger body size at higher latitudes than populations sampled at lower latitudes. In addition, abundances increased significantly at higher latitudes in both species. These results were consistent with the TSR but not with the TCH, confirming that nutritional ecology (herbivore vs. carnivory) did not determine demographic patterns over a biologically significant latitudinal gradient. Results from this study suggest that the absence of herbivorous reef fishes from the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere may not reflect a general physiological mechanism as suggested by the TCH and highlights the need to clarify the evolutionary histories of the marine biota of each hemisphere. PMID:24252150

L Trip, Elizabeth D; Clements, Kendall D; Raubenheimer, David; Choat, J Howard

2013-11-19

331

Tracing silicon cycling in the Okavango Delta, a sub-tropical flood-pulse wetland using silicon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering of silicate minerals releases elements into solution whereas the neoformation of secondary minerals works in the opposite direction, potentially confounding estimates of silicate weathering rates. Silicon isotopes (?30Si) may be a useful tool to investigate these processes. Here, we present 82 ?30Si measurements from surface waters, pore waters, biogenic silica (BSi), clays, sand and vegetation from the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a freshwater sub-tropical, flood-pulse wetland. Hydrologically, the Okavango is dominated by evapotranspiration water losses to the atmosphere. It receives an annual pulse of water that inundates seasonal floodplains, while river baseflow is sufficient to maintain a permanent floodplain. ?30Si in dissolved silica (DSi) in surface waters along a 300 km transect at near-peak flood show a limited range (0.36-1.19‰), implying the Delta is well buffered by a balance of processes adding and removing DSi from the surface water. A key control on DSi concentrations is the uptake, production of BSi and recycling of Si by aquatic vegetation, although the net isotopic effect is necessarily small since all BSi re-dissolves on short timescales. In the sediments, BSi ?30Si (n = 30) ranges from -1.49‰ to +0.31‰ and during dissolution, residual BSi tends towards higher ?30Si. The data permit a field-based estimate of the fractionation associated with BSi dissolution, ?30BSi-DSi = -0.26‰, though it is unclear if this is an artefact of the process of dissolution. Clay ?30Si ranges from -0.97‰ to +0.10‰, (n = 15, mean = -0.31‰) and include the highest values yet published, which we speculate may be due to an equilibrium isotope effect during diagenetic transformation of BSi. Two key trends in surface water DSi ?30Si merit further examination: declining ?30Si in an area roughly corresponding to the permanent floodplains despite net DSi removal, and increasing ?30Si in the area corresponding to the seasonal floodplains. We infer that evaporative enrichment of surface waters creates two contrasting regimes. Chemical weathering of low ?30Si phases releases low ?30Si DSi in the relatively dilute waters of the permanent floodplains, whereas silicon removal via clay formation or vegetation uptake is the dominant process in the more enriched, seasonal floodplains.

Frings, Patrick J.; De La Rocha, Christina; Struyf, Eric; van Pelt, Dimitri; Schoelynck, Jonas; Hudson, Mike Murray; Gondwe, Mangaliso J.; Wolski, Piotr; Mosimane, Keotsheple; Gray, William; Schaller, Jörg; Conley, Daniel J.

2014-10-01

332

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.  

PubMed

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-05-01

333

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth  

PubMed Central

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-01-01

334

Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.  

PubMed

Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis proved to be a valuable tool in these toxicity assessments, and is recommended for use in tropical marine toxicity assessments for northern Australia. PMID:23932510

Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

2013-11-01

335

Fishing Gear and Methods of the Lower Mesopotamian Plain with Reference to Fishing Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine and freshwater fishing gear and methods are described from the lower Mesopotamian plain. In this region, there are four main fishing methods in the marshlands and three in the local marine habitat. The most popular fishing technique in those areas is the use of nets. Both active and passive fishing gear are categorised in the studied area. Locally-designed fishing

Laith A. Jawad

2006-01-01

336

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

R. A. Khan

1990-01-01

337

Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem supports multimillion-dollar commercial and recreational fisheries. The ecological effects caused by fishing gear that is lost when cut or broken after snagging on the bottom is a growing concern to managers and scientists. Few data exist, however, to assess the impacts of lost fishing gear to benthic organisms and habitat structure. In this study,

Mark Chiappone

2005-01-01

338

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

339

LC/MS analysis of tetrodotoxin and its deoxy analogs in the marine puffer fish Fugu niphobles from the southern coast of Korea, and in the brackishwater puffer fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Tetraodon biocellatus from Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its deoxy analogs, 5-deoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were quantified in the tissues of three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish, Fugu niphobles, from the southern coast of Korea, and in the whole body of the brackishwater puffer fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis (12 specimens) and Tetrodon biocellatus (three specimens) from Southeast Asia using LC/MS in single ion mode (SIM). Identification of these four deoxy analogs in the ovarian tissue of F. niphobles were further confirmed by LC/MS/MS. TTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were detected in all three puffer fish species as the major TTX analogs, similar to Japanese Fugu pardalis. While 6,11-dideoxyTTX was also found to be a major analog in almost all tissues of Korean F. niphobles, this analog was minor in the two Tetraodon species and Japanese F. pardalis. Among the tissues of F. niphobles, the concentrations of TTXs were highest in the ovaries (female) and skin (female and male). PMID:20479966

Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Soo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

2010-01-01

340

Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-01-01

341

Imprints from genetic drift and mutation imply relative divergence times across marine transition zones in a pan-European small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)  

PubMed Central

Geographic distributions of most temperate marine fishes are affected by postglacial recolonisation events, which have left complex genetic imprints on populations of marine species. This study investigated population structure and demographic history of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by combining inference from both mtDNA and microsatellite genetic markers throughout the species' distribution. We compared effects from genetic drift and mutation for both genetic markers in shaping genetic differentiation across four transition zones. Microsatellite markers revealed significant isolation by distance and a complex population structure across the species? distribution (overall ?ST=0.038, P<0.01). Across transition zones markers indicated larger effects of genetic drift over mutations in the northern distribution of sprat contrasting a stronger relative impact of mutation in the species' southern distribution in the Mediterranean region. These results were interpreted to reflect more recent divergence times between northern populations in accordance with previous findings. This study demonstrates the usefulness of comparing inference from different markers and estimators of divergence for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in species with weak genetic structure, as is the case in many marine species. PMID:22549515

Limborg, M T; Hanel, R; Debes, P V; Ring, A K; André, C; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Bekkevold, D

2012-01-01

342

Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.

Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

2011-05-01

343

USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

344

HISTORY OF THE GRICE MARINE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

in marine biology of the College of Charleston. Grice Marine Laboratory Walking Tour Grice Marine LaboratoryHISTORY OF THE GRICE MARINE LABORATORY The George D. Grice Marine Laboratory, named in honor, faculty offices, an aquarium room, and a research collection of marine invertebrates and fishes. It has

Young, Paul Thomas

345

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Scenes  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Scenes from the Boston Fish Pier. Articles January 1983, 45 and Virginia Fish Ladders, Alaskan Abalones and Salmon, The Pacific Halibut Catch, Florida's Marine Angling and Marine Recreational Fishing, Cephalopod Resources and Their Harvest, and The Environment Near Shore 29

346

Determining the land use legacy effect on nutrient loads to streams from sub-tropical forest watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to address the issue of nutrient over enrichment in the nation's waters, the USEPA established the National Nutrient Criteria Program in 1994. One of its principal aims is to establish a numeric estimate of the nutrient status of minimally impacted waters for a particular eco region. In places such as Puerto Rico few scarce areas remain that can be considered primary forest lands, which is the ideal for establishing such criteria (Martinez et al., 2010). Past analyses indicate that succession lands result in total phosphorus (TP) concentration levels which are up to ten times higher than those from waters that have permanently remained under forest cover and it is predicted that this could be due to an inherited elevated soil fertility status from past agricultural activities. In order to aid in the establishment of 'reference' criteria the nutrient status and dynamics of soils, water, litterfall and stream sediments of a secondary (successional) forested watershed is being compared with the dynamics of an 'historically' forested watershed in Puerto Rico. These are otherwise similar in geology, soil type and other supplementary factors. Additionally an empirical framework is being developed for both watersheds using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to account for the land use legacy effect on the present nutrient status of the waters. Two watersheds were instrumented using automatic water samplers, submerged probe flow meters and rain gages. Rating curves were developed using HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS in order to determine total nitrogen and phosphorous loads from sampled and monitored events at both watersheds. Results indicate an average nutrient export per area coefficient of 1.39 and 0.206 kg/ha-yr for TN and TP respectively at the succession watershed compared to the historical watershed with 0.263 and 0.032 kg/ha-yr for TN and TP respectively. In both cases the nutrient export at the succession watershed is over five times greater than the historical watershed. Additionally soil, litterfall and stream sediment data gathered by the study group confirm an inherited elevated soil fertility status in terms of phosphorous at the succession watershed. This suggests that the agricultural land use legacy of a watershed is significantly correlated to actual non-point source (NPS) nutrient loadings at sub-tropical forested watersheds under analysis and that the effects on the nutrient status of streams can remain for decades. Upon calibration and validation of SWAT at both watersheds the necessary time lapse required in order for these waters to reach pre disturbance levels as well as the magnitude of this legacy effect can be estimated. In order to account for the temporal-spatial variation of land use the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) will be calculated from historical aerial images. This study will aid in developing a methodology for determining the land use legacy effect of NPS on receiving waters and to establish reference conditions which protect and improve the ecological integrity of rivers.

Roman, G. A.; Perez, L.; Martinez, G.; Castro, G.

2013-12-01

347

Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

348

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

349

METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus ; the inlan...

350

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology  

E-print Network

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

351

Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).  

PubMed

Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments. PMID:24570061

Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

2014-03-01

352

Molecular Analysis of Anisakis Type I Larvae in Marine Fish from Three Different Sea Areas in Korea  

PubMed Central

Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi

2014-01-01

353

Molecular analysis of Anisakis type I larvae in marine fish from three different sea areas in Korea.  

PubMed

Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2014-08-01

354

Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Lions ecosystem was described using the Ecopath mass-balance model to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of the multispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of cetaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input data were based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishing data, stock assessment outputs, stomach content analyses and published information. Results showed that the functional groups were organised into five trophic levels with the highest one represented by dolphins, anglerfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna, European hake and European conger. European pilchard and European anchovy dominated in terms of fish biomass and catch. Other fish with high biomass such as Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting were highly important in the food web. Seabirds, dolphins and cuttlefish-squids represented keystone species. Important coupled pelagic-demersal-benthic interactions were described. The 7 different fisheries analysed were operating at mean trophic levels situated between 2.6 for small artisanal boats, and 4.1 for purse seines (> 24 m) targeting large pelagic fish, indicating an intensively exploited ecosystem. Large trawlers (24-40 m) had the highest impact on most of the groups considered; while purse seines (12-24 m) targeting small pelagic fish had the lowest impact. Preliminary results highlighted the importance of data sources for further ecosystem and fisheries analyses and management scenarios.

B?naru, D.; Mellon-Duval, C.; Roos, D.; Bigot, J.-L.; Souplet, A.; Jadaud, A.; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.

2013-02-01

355

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding  

E-print Network

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

Fisher, Bob

356

Marine envenomations.  

PubMed

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

2014-02-01

357

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network  

E-print Network

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network Autonomous Robotic Fish as Mobile Sensor Platforms: Challenges and Potential Solutions Xiaobo Tan. Marine Technology, and is not to be distributed in any format. The Marine Technology Society is a not-for-profit, international, professional

Tan, Xiaobo

358

MARINE MAMMALS OF THE AL ASK A REGION marine mammals  

E-print Network

267 MARINE MAMMALS OF THE AL ASK A REGION UNIT 21 marine mammals of the alaska region Unit 21 Marine Mammal Laboratory Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION The Alaska Region has 42 stocks of 25 species of marine mammals. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages three of these species (sea otter, polar bear

359

Piscivory does not cause pansteatitis (yellow fat disease)in Oreochromis mossambicus from an African sub-tropical reservoir  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Pansteatitis (yellow fat disease) is ubiquitous in the free-ranging population of Oreochromis mossambicus from Loskop Reservoir (LR), South Africa. The disease is nutritionally mediated and associated with a diet high in polyunsaturated or rancid fats, frequently of fish origi...

360

Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

2013-12-01

361

Are low but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation in marine fishes 'biologically meaningful'? A case study of coastal Atlantic cod.  

PubMed

A key question in many genetic studies on marine organisms is how to interpret a low but statistically significant level of genetic differentiation. Do such observations reflect a real phenomenon, or are they caused by confounding factors such as unrepresentative sampling or selective forces acting on the marker loci? Further, are low levels of differentiation biologically trivial, or can they represent a meaningful and perhaps important finding? We explored these issues in an empirical study on coastal Atlantic cod, combining temporally replicated genetic samples over a 10-year period with an extensive capture-mark-recapture study of individual mobility and population size. The genetic analyses revealed a pattern of differentiation between the inner part of the fjord and the open skerries area at the fjord entrance. Overall, genetic differentiation was weak (average F(ST) ?=?0.0037), but nevertheless highly statistical significant and did not depend on particular loci that could be subject to selection. This spatial component dominated over temporal change, and temporal replicates clustered together throughout the 10-year period. Consistent with genetic results, the majority of the recaptured fish were found close to the point of release, with <1% of recaptured individuals dispersing between the inner fjord and outer skerries. We conclude that low levels of genetic differentiation in this marine fish can indeed be biologically meaningful, corresponding to separate, temporally persistent, local populations. We estimated the genetically effective sizes (N(e) ) of the two coastal cod populations to 198 and 542 and found a N(e) /N (spawner) ratio of 0.14. PMID:21199035

Knutsen, H; Olsen, E M; Jorde, P E; Espeland, S H; André, C; Stenseth, N C

2011-02-01

362

Implementation of a minimal set of biological tests to assess the ecotoxic effects of effluents from land-based marine fish farms.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. PMID:22137361

Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A

2012-04-01

363

Radiological dose rates to marine fish from the fukushima daiichi accident: the first three years across the north pacific.  

PubMed

A more complete record is emerging of radionuclide measurements in fish tissue, sediment, and seawater samples from near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and across the Pacific Ocean. Our analysis of publicly available data indicates the dose rates to the most impacted fish species near the FDNPP (median 1.1 mGy d(-1), 2012-2014 data) have remained above benchmark levels for potential dose effects at least three years longer than was indicated by previous, data-limited evaluations. Dose rates from (134,137)Cs were highest in demersal species with sediment-associated food chains and feeding behaviors. In addition to (134,137)Cs, the radionuclide (90)Sr was estimated to contribute up to approximately one-half of the total 2013 dose rate to fish near the FDNPP. Mesopelagic fish 100-200 km east of the FDNPP, coastal fish in the Aleutian Islands (3300 km), and trans-Pacific migratory species all had increased dose rates as a consequence of the FDNPP accident, but their total dose rates remained dominated by background radionuclides. A hypothetical human consumer of 50 kg of fish, gathered 3 km from the FDNPP in 2013, would have received a total committed effective dose of approximately 0.95 mSv a(-1) from combined FDNPP and ambient radionuclides, of which 0.13 mSv a(-1) (14%) was solely from the FDNPP radionuclides and below the 1 mSv a(-1) benchmark for public exposure. PMID:25532541

Johansen, Mathew P; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Higley, Kathryn; Beresford, Nicholas A

2015-02-01

364

Identification and quantification of polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives and other halogenated natural products in commercial fish and other marine samples.  

PubMed

During routine analysis of commercial fish on halogenated pollutants, an unknown tribromo component (TriBHD) was initially detected as an abundant peak in sample extracts from the Mediterranean Sea. The molecular formula was established to be C16H19Br3O by gas chromatography with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/EI-HRMS). GC/EI-MS data were virtually identical with a polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivative (PBHD) previously isolated from an Australian sponge species known to occur in the Mediterranean Sea as well. A tetrabromo isomer (TetraBHD) was also found in the fish samples. The concentrations of TriBHD and other halogenated compounds in commercial fish (sea bass, gilt head bream, anchovy, sardine, and salmon) were estimated with GC/electron capture detection (ECD). Using the ECD response of trans-nonachlor, the concentration of TriBHD reached up to 90 ng/g lipid weight and accounted for up to >90% of the concentration of p,p'-DDE, which was the most abundant peak in the most samples investigated. On the basis of the GC/ECD response, TetraBHD amounted for approximately 1/7 of TriBHD in all fish samples investigated. The sample with the highest content was a green-lipped mussel from New Zealand (236 ng/g lipid weight). The halogenated natural products TBA, Q1, and MHC-1 were also present in most of the samples. We assume that the bulk of the residues in fish from aquaculture may originate from algae and sponges living in proximity of the fish farms. Detection of TriBHD and TetraBHD in blubber of a monk seal (Monachus monachus) suggests that both HNPs may reach the top predators of food webs and thus also humans. PMID:16569057

Hiebl, Josef; Melcher, Joachim; Gundersen, Hans; Schlabach, Martin; Vetter, Walter

2006-04-01

365

Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)  

PubMed Central

One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment. PMID:23840721

Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

2013-01-01

366

Towards an enhanced use of soil databases for assessing water availability in (sub)tropical regions using fractal-based methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the completion of numerous elaborate soil surveys in many (sub)tropical regions of the African continent during the past decades, vast databases with soil properties of the prevailing soil orders in these regions have been assembled in order to support agricultural stakeholders throughout crucial decision-making processes. Unfortunately, even though soil hydraulic properties are of primary interest for designing sustainable farming practices, guiding crop choice and irrigation scheduling, a substantial share of the soil surveys is restricted to the collection of soil chemical properties. This bias principally originates from the fact that soil chemical characteristics like pH, organic carbon/matter (OC/OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS) can be determined readily. On the other hand, determination of the hydraulic properties of a soil on the field or in the lab, is much more time consuming, particularly the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) which is generally considered as one of the most important physical property since it constitutes the footprint of a soil. Owing to the incompleteness of most soil databases in (sub)tropical regions, either much valuable information is discarded because the assessment of meaningful indices in land evaluation such as the soil available water capacity (AWC), the hydraulic conductivity are merely based upon those soil samples for which hydraulic properties were measured, or one has to resort to pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The latter are equations for deducing hydraulic properties of a soil from physico-chemical data that are commonly available in soil survey reports (sand, silt, clay, OC/OM, CEC, etc.). Yet, such PTFs are only locally applicable because their derivation rests on statistical or machine learning techniques and has no physical basis. Recently, however, physically-based, and hence globally applicable, fractal methods have been put forward for assessing a soil's SWRC based upon its particle-size distribution, which is a significantly more available property in dedicated soil databases than its hydraulic properties. Notwithstanding the fact that these methods offer a means to fully exploit soil databases of (sub)tropical regions, their applicability methods has only been demonstrated for soils from temperate regions. Here, we first demonstrate the applicability of such fractal-based methods for some soil orders (Acrisols and Ferrasols) that are typically tied up with (sub)tropic climate zones. Then, the fractal-based method that gave rise to the best performance indices for the considered soil families is used to retrieve the spatio-temporal distribution of the AWC across Lower Congo, which is one of the agricultural hotspots of Democratic Republic of Congo whose soil physical properties have therefore been surveyed elaborately. Since this map is based upon the entire soil database of Lower Congo, which is the advent of using the aforementioned fractal-based methods for translating the measured soil physical properties like texture into the otherwise unknown soil hydraulic properties, it reflects the spatial variability of the AWC in more detail, such that it is of greater value for the involved stakeholders during the process of crop, harvest and tillage selection.

Botula Manyala, Y.; Baetens, J.; Baert, G.; Van Ranst, E.; Cornelis, W.

2012-12-01

367

Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.  

PubMed

A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

2011-09-01

368

Examining the Fish Microbiome: Vertebrate-Derived Bacteria as an Environmental Niche for the Discovery of Unique Marine Natural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected

Laura M. Sanchez; Weng Ruh Wong; Romina M. Riener; Christopher J. Schulze; Roger G. Linington

2012-01-01

369

The influence of diet and gastrointestinal fermentation on key enzymes of substrate utilization in marine teleost fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three closely related marine teleosts with similar size, swimming mode, and habitat preference were compared to test the hypothesis that energy metabolism is linked to diet choice in the wild. Key substrate-utilization enzyme activities were assayed from white locomotory muscle and liver in a carnivore (Scorpis violaceus), an omnivore (Girella tricuspidata), and a herbivore (Kyphosus sydneyanus) collected from their natural

Megan E. Willmott; Kendall D. Clements; Rufus M. G. Wells

2005-01-01

370

Diatom community response to climate variability over the past 37,000 years in the sub-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere.  

PubMed

Climate change is impacting global surface water resources, increasing the need for a deeper understanding of the interaction between climate and biological diversity. This is particularly the case in the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics, where little information exists on the aquatic biota response to climate variations. Palaeolimnological techniques, in particular the use of diatoms, are well established and can significantly contribute to the understanding of climatic variability and the impacts that change in climate have on aquatic ecosystems. A sediment core from Lake McKenzie, Fraser Island (Australia), was used to investigate interactions between climate influences and aquatic ecosystems. This study utilises a combination of proxies including biological (diatom), geochemical and chronological techniques to investigate long-term aquatic changes within the perched-dune lake. A combination of (210)Pb and AMS (14)C dates showed that the retrieved sediment represented a history of ca. 37,000 cal.yBP. The sedimentation rate in Lake McKenzie is very low, ranging on average from 0.11 mm to 0.26 mm per year. A sediment hiatus was observed between ca. 18,300 and 14,000 cal.yBP suggesting a period of dry conditions at the site. The diatom record shows little variability over the period of record, with benthic, freshwater acidic tolerant species dominating. Relative abundance of planktonic species and geochemical results indicates a period of increased water depth and lake productivity in the early Holocene and a gradual decrease in effective precipitation throughout the Holocene. Results from this study not only support earlier work conducted on Fraser Island using pollen reconstructions but also demonstrate that diatom community diversity has been relatively consistent throughout the Holocene and late Pleistocene with only minor cyclical fluctuation evident. This record is consistent with the few other aquatic palaeoecological records from the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics. PMID:24076501

Hembrow, Sarah C; Taffs, Kathryn H; Atahan, Pia; Parr, Jeff; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

2014-01-15

371

Notes on marine fishes from the Netherlands Antilles, with the description of a new species, Eutyx tumidifrons (Brotulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small number of fishes from the Netherlands Antilles has been collected and recently presented to the Leiden Museum by Dr. J. S. Zaneveld, Head of the Biology Department, College of William and Mary, Norfolk, Va., formerly Director of the Caraibisch Marien Biologisch Instituut, Curaçao; and Dr. L. B. Holthuis, Curator of Carcinology at the Leiden Museum. While most specimens

M. Boeseman

1960-01-01

372

REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

373

Patterns in marine fish communities as shown by artisanal fisheries data on the shelf off the Nexpa River, Michoacán, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of catches made on the tropical Pacific Shelf off the Nexpa River, Michoacân, Mexico, from 1987 to 1992 is presented. Some 22,219 organisms were studied and a matrix of 189 species from 18 samples was constructed, in order to obtain possible patterns in the communities through fishing activities. The results of a ?2 contingency table and Kendall rank order

Juan Madrid Vera; Pilar Sánchez

1997-01-01

374

Utilization of waste from a marine recirculating fish culture system as a feed source for the polychaete worm, Nereis virens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of feeding the polychaete worm Nereis virens with solid wastes collected from a marine recirculating system. In experiment 1, worms with an initial mean weight of 0.37g were fed for 80days with a commercial worm diet (CD), halibut fecal waste (FW), uneaten halibut feed pellets (PW) or a 1:1 mixture of fecal

Nicholas Brown; Stephen Eddy; Stefanie Plaud

375

Microbial diversity in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola (formerly Verongia cavernicola) analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed electronmicroscopical methods (SEM, TEM) to document the microbial community associated with the marine\\u000a sponge Aplysina cavernicola (formerly Verongia cavernicola, class Demospongiae). Five dominant bacterial types were identified, three of which resemble the morphotypes originally described\\u000a by Vacelet (1975). One bacterial type possesses morphological properties that are characteristic of the genus Planctomyces. In addition, morphologically uniform bacteria which

A. B. Friedrich; H. Merkert; T. Fendert; J. Hacker; P. Proksch; U. Hentschel

1999-01-01

376

Distribution and abundance of marine fish larvae in relation to effluent plumes from sewage outfalls and depth of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish larvae were sampled in and below three separate sewage plumes associated with the cliff-face (shoreline) outfalls at North Head, Bondi and Malabar, and at three control (non-plume) sites located>8 km away from the sewage outfalls, at Long Reef, Port Hacking and Marley Beach, in nearshore waters off Sydney, south-eastern Australia. Samples were collected at the surface and at 20

C. A. Gray; N. M. Otway; F. A. Laurenson; A. G. Miskiewicz; R. L. Pethebridge

1992-01-01

377

76 FR 40336 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishing--Commercial--Marine/Tropical (member), Fishing-- Commercial--Marine/Tropical (alternate...alternate), South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (member), and South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (alternate...protection and management of marine resources; and...

2011-07-08

378

ACTIVITIES OF AMMONIA ASSIMILATION ENZYMES AS INDICATORS OF THE RELATIVE SUPPLY OF NITROGEN SUBSTRATES FOR MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SUB-TROPICAL COASTAL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The supply of nitrogen substrates available for bacterial production in seawater was determined using the activities of ammonia assimilation enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Expression of GS and GDH by bacteria in pure culture is generally ind...

379

Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

2014-12-01

380

Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

2007-01-01

381

Mr. And Mrs. Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An award-winning marine education program that comes to elementary schools all over the world to perform hilarious, yet highly educational assembly programs about life in the sea. Site features information on marine life, links to additional information, merchandise information, and background on Mr. and Mrs. Fish.

382

Introduction to Fish Bioacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of fish bioacoustics was essentially inaugurated in the 1960s with two meetings and their subsequent published proceedings, which were organized and edited by Professor William N. Tavolga. These two volumes, Marine BioAcoustics (Tavolga 1964) and Marine Bio-Acoustics II (Tavolga 1967), define the scope and content of the field of marine bioacoustics to this day. Hearing and sound production,

Richard R. Fay; Arthur N. Popper; Jacqueline F. Webb

383

Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma, off Lizard Island. U. seriolae Lester 1982 is reported here from Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi, from sites off Queensland and from Jurien Bay, Western Australia. Comparative genetic analyses also revealed that an unidentified species of Unicapsula from Epinephelus septemfasciatus off Japan whose rDNA sequence data are available on GenBank is consistent with U. seriolae. This suggests that U. seriolae may also exhibit low host specificity and may be distributed widely throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. In comparison to other myxozoan genera, it is clear that the species richness of Unicapsula spp. falls well below that displayed by either Ceratomyxa spp. or Kudoa spp. The discovery of a further new species of Unicapsula in Australia now brings the total worldwide number of formally described Unicapsula species to a modest 11. Nonetheless, this taxon remains of significant interest to commercial and recreational fisheries through the potential production of macroscopic pseudocysts in fish muscle and post-mortem muscle liquefaction, both of which can render fish fillets unpalatable and unmarketable. PMID:23812600

Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

2013-08-01

384

First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species.  

PubMed

The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudo-retractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

Amin, O M; Ha, N V; Ha, D N

2011-02-01

385

First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

2011-01-01

386

20 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-print Network

strategies to achieve ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries include: 1) maintaining abundant fish agencies and com- munities to address nonfishery impacts on marine ecosystems (Francis et al., 200720 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction In 2010, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order

387

A comparison of fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a Caribbean island, based on species, families, size distribution and functional groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in fish community structure between different estuaries, lagoons and bays can be very large, and generalisations are complicated by the use of a wide variety of sampling methods. In the present study, fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a single Caribbean island were therefore sampled using a uniform method. The objective of the study was to determine whether the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats of various embayments are characterised by typical fish assemblages which differ in terms of taxa (species, families), size classes (life stages) and functional groups (ecological species groups, feeding time and diet). This was linked to the hypothesis that differences in fish assemblages between habitats in different embayments are larger at taxonomic levels than at the level of functional groups. A second objective was to determine the most useful discriminating features between the two habitat types. The above hypothesis was rejected, since differences in fish assemblages from different seagrass and sandy seabed sites did not increase from functional to taxonomic level, but from size class to diet/species to family/feeding time to ecological species group. However, the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats could each be characterised by typical fish assemblages which differed in taxonomical and functional group composition, irrespective of differences in environmental and biotic variables between the embayments in which these habitats were situated. The two habitat types could be best characterised on the basis of fish family, ecological species group, feeding time and size distribution. Seagrass beds mainly harboured nocturnally active nursery species (Haemulidae, Lutjanidae, etc.), whose relative abundance was related to vegetation (mainly seagrass) cover. Sandy seabeds mainly harboured diurnally active bay species (Gerreidae, etc.) whose relative abundance was related to cover of bare sand. Similarities in taxonomical and functional traits of fish species predicted whether they occurred more abundantly in seagrass beds or in sandy seabeds.

Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

2004-08-01

388

Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai'i began a remarkable, if unintentional, 'experiment' with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (F(ST) = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (F(ST) = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (F(ST) = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

Gaither, Michelle R; Toonen, Robert J; Bowen, Brian W

2012-10-01

389

Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

2012-01-01

390

Mercury Exposure from Domestic and Imported Estuarine and Marine Fish in the U.S. Seafood Market  

PubMed Central

Background Methylmercury exposure causes a variety of adverse effects on human health. Per capita estimates of mercury exposure are critical for risk assessments and for developing effective risk management strategies. Objective This study investigated the impact of natural stochasticity in mercury concentrations among fish and shellfish harvested from the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and foreign shores on estimated mercury exposures. Methods Mercury concentrations and seafood consumption are grouped by supply region (Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and foreign shores). Distributions of intakes from this study are compared with values obtained using national FDA (Food and Drug Administration) mercury survey data to assess the significance of geographic variability in mercury concentrations on exposure estimates. Results Per capita mercury intake rates calculated using FDA mercury data differ significantly from those based on mercury concentration data for each supply area and intakes calculated for the 90th percentile of mercury concentrations. Conclusions Differences in reported mercury concentrations can significantly affect per capita mercury intake estimates, pointing to the importance of spatially refined mercury concentration data. This analysis shows that national exposure estimates are most influenced by reported concentrations in imported tuna, swordfish, and shrimp; Pacific pollock; and Atlantic crabs. Collecting additional mercury concentration data for these seafood categories would improve the accuracy of national exposure estimates. PMID:17384771

Sunderland, Elsie M.

2007-01-01

391

EROD activity in gill filaments of anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants.  

PubMed

The applicability of a gill filament-based ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay, originally developed in rainbow trout, was examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens) and spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor). All species but spotted wolffish showed strong EROD induction in tip pieces of gill filaments following 48 h of exposure to waterborne beta-naphthoflavone. Atlantic salmon parr, smolts held in freshwater and smolts transferred to seawater showed EROD induction of similar magnitude. Arctic charr, differing 11-fold in body weight, showed similar EROD activities as expressed per gill filament tip. Laboratory exposure of saithe to water and sediments collected at polluted sites, resulted in strong EROD induction. In conclusion, the gill filament assay seems useful for monitoring exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in various species. Furthermore, smoltification status, water salinity and body size proved to have minor influence on gill filament EROD activity. However, the results in spotted wolffish show that some species may be less suitable for monitoring using the gill assay. Assessment of gill filament EROD activity in fish exposed to polluted water and sediments in the laboratory proved to be an easy and cost-effective way to survey pollution with dioxin-like chemicals. PMID:14659457

Jönsson, Maria; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunström, Björn; Brandt, Ingvar; Ingebrigtsen, Kristian; Jørgensen, Even H

2003-11-01

392

Ultrastructure of the surface structures of Allodiscocotyla diacanthi (Polyopisthocotylea: Monogenea) from the gills of the marine teleost fish, Scomberoides tol.  

PubMed

Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies have been made of the surface architecture of the fish-gill parasite, Allodiscocotyla diacanthi. Observations of the haptor region have revealed the presence of cushion-like supports at the base of each clamp, together with a pair of anchor-hooks. Other topographical features observed included a mid-ventrally positioned genital atrium and a ventrolateral vaginal pore. Tegumental serrations, composed of electron-dense bars, partially cover the hindbody, and their presence may serve in the adhesive attitude of the worm, in response to the flow of displacement water currents. The tegumental syncytium contains numerous dense granules and lucent vesicles, the contents of which are released into the cytosol of the syncytium. The clamp sclerites are invested with tegument which, in some specimens, contained inclusions resembling bacteria. Groups of neurons containing characteristic dense-cored vesicles were observed frequently in the clamp region. Each jaw of the clamp is distinguished by the presence of approximately 175 non-ciliated putative sensory endings, and a pair of cone-like sensillae occurs on the ventral surface of the lappet. Additionally, the entire body surface of the worm is covered with some 3000-4000 unicilated structures that are presumed to be sensory in nature. PMID:7797372

Ramasamy, P; Brennan, G P; Halton, D W

1995-01-01

393

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

and Conservation Genetics of Fishes............8 Fisheries Population Dynamics......................................................10 Marine Fisheries Genetics.............................................11 MMI Cetacean Conservation & Genetic Laboratory.....11 MMI Pinniped Ecology Applied Research Laboratory.12 Shellfish&FishAquaculture&Conservation

394

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

....................................... 6 Ecological and Conservation Genetics of Fishes............6 Fisheries Population Dynamics Conservation and Genetic Laboratory....9 MMI Pinniped Ecology Applied Research Laboratory.11 Shellfish&FishAquaculture&Conservation......................8 Marine Fisheries Genetics...............................................9 MMI Cetacean

395

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

and Conservation Genetics of Fishes............7 Fisheries Population Dynamics......................................................10 Marine Fisheries Genetics.............................................10 MMI Cetacean Conservation & Genetic Laboratory.....11 MMI Pinniped Ecology Applied Research Laboratory.12 Shellfish&FishAquaculture&Conservation

396

Marine Fisheries Willis L. Hobart, Editor  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries History Willis L. Hobart, Editor The 50th Anniversary Issue of the Marine Association (1989), and, of course, the Marine Fish eries Review (1988), which provided the raison d'etre for this special issue being devoted to "Marine Fisheries History." In compiling and editing this issue, one point

397

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Yellowfin  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Yellowfin tuna larvae. A review of fish egg and larvae, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Managing Editor: W. Hobart Marine Marine Fisheries Ser- vice, NOAA, Room 450, 1107 N.E. 45th St., Seattle, WA 98105. Single copies

398

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Handling  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Handling fish beneath the sea. NMFS photo. Articles 54(3), 1992 Disease Risks Associated with Importation of Nonindigenous Marine Animals The National Marine and Atmosphere William W. Fox, Jr. Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service

399

Marine Fisheries On the cover, top to  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover, top to bollom: Yelloweye rock fish, Sebastes ruberrimus., Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. L. Hobart The Marine Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., BinC15700, Seattle, WA 98115. Single copies

400

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Trawlnettapers.  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover: Trawlnettapers. See the articles on pages 26 and 42. Articles Ichthyoplankton and Fish Recruitment Studies in Large Marine Ecosystems Shaping and Assembling Webbing for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub

401

Marine Fisheries On the cover: A drift  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: A drift gill net at John Silva's shad fishing station for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. L. Hobart The Marine Fisheries Review (ISSN 0090-1830) is published quarterly by the Scientific Publica tions Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 7600

402

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

...................................10 Department of Fisheries & Wildlife ...................................10 Marine Fisheries Genetics Environmental Conservation Division (EC):................26 Fish Ecology Division (FE): .........................................................................30 Conservation Biology Division (CB):...........................34 Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

403

Marine chemical ecology in benthic environments.  

PubMed

This review covers the recent marine chemical ecology literature for benthic bacteria and cyanobacteria, macroalgae, sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, other benthic invertebrates, and fish. PMID:25070776

Puglisi, Melany P; Sneed, Jennifer M; Sharp, Koty H; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J

2014-11-01

404

Species-and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management  

E-print Network

refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management units for hake could be helpful in refining currently proposed indicators of marine ecosystems, and also help Directive (MSFD) that aims at implementing an ecosystem-based management of European marine ecosystems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of denitrification. This study highlights denitrification as a major pathway of N loss for sub-tropical pasture systems with a substantial amount of applied fertiliser lost as N2 at high WFPS. The 15N gas flux method proved an effective tool in assessing N losses from fertilised soils. However, its suitability to determine N2 fluxes from soils with lower denitrification rates needs to be confirmed in future studies. The high variation between soil cores emphasises the need for field measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution in order to capture the dynamics of N2 emissions. Mulvaney, R. L. and L. T. Kurtz. 1984. "Evolution of Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide from Nitrogen-15 Fertilized Soil Cores Subjected to Wetting and Drying Cycles1." Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48 (3): 596-602. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/48/3/596. doi: 10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800030026x. Stevens, R. J. and R. J. Laughlin. 2001. "Lowering the detection limit for dinitrogen using the enrichment of nitrous oxide." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33 (9): 1287-1289. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071701000360. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00036-0.

Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

2014-05-01

406

Comparison of modern and historical fish catches (AD 750-1400) to inform goals for marine protected areas and sustainable fisheries.  

PubMed

We tested the unsustainable fishing hypothesis that species in assemblages of fish differ in relative abundance as a function of their size, growth rates, vagility, trophic level, and diet by comparing species composition in historical bone middens, modern fisheries, and areas closed to fishing. Historical data came from one of the earliest and most enduring Swahili coastal settlements (approximately AD 750-1400). Modern data came from fisheries near the archeological site and intensively harvested fishing grounds in southern Kenya. The areas we sampled that were closed to fishing (closures) were small (<28 km(2) ) and permanent. The midden data indicated changes in the fish assemblage that are consistent with a weak expansion of fishing intensity and the unsustainable fishing hypothesis. Fishes represented in the early midden assemblages from AD 750 to 950 had longer life spans, older age at maturity, and longer generation times than fish assemblages after AD 950, when the abundance of species with longer maximum body lengths increased. Changes in fish life histories during the historical period were, however, one-third smaller than differences between the historical and modern assemblages. Fishes in the modern assemblage had smaller mean body sizes, higher growth and mortality rates, a higher proportion of microinvertivores, omnivores, and herbivores, and higher rates of food consumption, whereas the historical assemblage had a greater proportion of piscivores and macroinvertivores. Differences in fish life histories between modern closures and modern fishing grounds were also small, but the life histories of fishes in modern closures were more similar to those in the midden before AD 950 because they had longer life spans, older age at maturity, and a higher proportion of piscivores and macroinvertivores than the modern fisheries. Modern closures and historical fish assemblages were considerably different, although both contained species with longer life spans. PMID:21676028

McClanahan, Timothy R; Omukoto, Johnstone O

2011-10-01

407

Canopy structure of tropical and sub-tropical rain forests in relation to conifer dominance analysed with a portable LIDAR system  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Globally, conifer dominance is restricted to nutient-poor habitats in colder, drier or waterlogged environments, probably due to competition with angiosperms. Analysis of canopy structure is important for understanding the mechanism of plant coexistence in relation to competition for light. Most conifers are shade intolerant, and often have narrow, deep, conical crowns. In this study it is predicted that conifer-admixed forests have less distinct upper canopies and more undulating canopy surfaces than angiosperm-dominated forests. Methods By using a ground-based, portable light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, canopy structure was quantified for old-growth evergreen rainforests with varying dominance of conifers along altitudinal gradients (200–3100 m a.s.l.) on tropical and sub-tropical mountains (Mount Kinabalu, Malaysian Borneo and Yakushima Island, Japan) that have different conifer floras. Key Results Conifers dominated at higher elevations on both mountains (Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae on Kinabalu and Cupressaceae and Pinaceae on Yakushima), but conifer dominance also varied with soil/substrate conditions on Kinabalu. Conifer dominance was associated with the existence of large-diameter conifers. Forests with higher conifer dominance showed a canopy height profile (CHP) more skewed towards the understorey on both Kinabalu and Yakushima. In contrast, angiosperm-dominated forests had a CHP skewed towards upper canopy, except for lowland dipterocarp forests and a sub-alpine scrub dominated by small-leaved Leptospermum recurvum (Myrtaceae) on Kinabalu. Forests with a less dense upper canopy had more undulating outer canopy surfaces. Mixed conifer–angiosperm forests on Yakushima and dipterocarp forests on Kinabalu showed similar canopy structures. Conclusions The results generally supported the prediction, suggesting that lower growth of angiosperm trees (except L. recurvum on Kinabalu) in cold and nutrient-poor environments results in a sparser upper canopy, which allows shade-intolerant conifers to co-occur with angiosperm trees either as emergents or as codominants in the open canopy. PMID:24197751

Aiba, Shin-ichiro; Akutsu, Kosuke; Onoda, Yusuke

2013-01-01

408

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy  

SciTech Connect

Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

2013-05-20

409

Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.  

PubMed

The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were fou