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Sample records for sub-tropical marine fish

  1. Size fraction analysis of fish-derived carbonates in shallow sub-tropical marine environments and a potentially unrecognised origin for peloidal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Michael A.; Perry, Chris T.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2014-12-01

    Marine bony fish are now known as primary producers of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, within the shallow sub-tropical platform settings of the Bahamas, this production process has been shown to occur at rates relevant to carbonate sediment production budgets. Fish excrete these carbonates as loosely aggregated pellets which, post-excretion, exhibit a range of distinctive crystal morphologies and have mineralogies ranging from low (0-4 mol% MgCO3) to high (4-40 mol% MgCO3) Mg-calcites, aragonite and amorphous carbonate phases. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment of the size fractions of the carbonates produced by a range of tropical fish species, and document the extent of post-excretion carbonate pellet break down under a range of physical agitation conditions. Specifically, we document the morphologies and size fractions of: i) intact pellets at the point of excretion; ii) intact pellets after agitation in seawater; and iii) the particles released from pellets post-disaggregation. Results indicate that fish-derived pellets initially fall within the very fine to very coarse sand fractions. Exposure to conditions of moderate seawater agitation for 30 days results in significant pellet diminution; 66% of initial pellet mass being released as individual particles, whilst 34% is retained as partially intact pellets that are smaller (fine sand-grade) and more rounded than initial pellets. In contrast, pellets exposed to very gently agitated conditions for up to 200 days show little change. Where pellet disaggregation does occur, particles are commonly released as individual clay- and silt-grade crystals. However, some morphotypes (e.g., polycrystalline spheres) can be intergrown and are released as strongly cohesive particle clusters falling within the coarse silt to fine sand fractions. Only very vigorous agitation may disaggregate such particles, resulting in the release of their component clay-grade crystals. We conclude that fish-derived carbonates may thus contribute not only to the mud-fraction of marine carbonates, but also to the fine sand fraction as intergrown particles, and to the fine to coarse sand fractions as intact and partially intact pellets. These experimental data indicate that hydrodynamic regimes local to sites of excretion will influence the generation of carbonates with different size fraction ranges. Rapid pellet disaggregation is more likely in high energy settings, hypothesised to result in redistribution of liberated mud-grade particles to lower energy platform-top settings and/or off-platform. In contrast, pellets excreted in lower energy settings are more likely to be preserved intact, and are thus proposed as a previously unrecognised source of pelletal and peloidal carbonate sediments.

  2. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  3. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Gimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (? 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  4. Characterization of the Marine Boundary Layer and the Trade-Wind Inversion over the Sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.; Guerra, J. C.; Cuevas, E.; Barrancos, J.

    2015-09-01

    The stability of the lower troposphere along the east side of the sub-tropical North Atlantic is analyzed and characterized using upper air meteorological long-term records at the Canary Islands (Tenerife), Madeira (Madeira) and Azores (Terceira) archipelagos. The most remarkable characteristic is the strong stratification observed in the lower troposphere, with a strengthening of stability centred at levels near 900 and 800 hPa in a significant percentage of soundings (ranging from 17 % in Azores to 33 % in Gimar, Canary Islands). We show that this double structure is associated with the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the trade-wind inversion (TWI) respectively. The top of the MBL coincides with the base of the first temperature inversion (? 900 hPa) where a sharp change in water vapour mixing ratio is observed. A second temperature inversion is found near 800 hPa, which is characterized by a large directional wind shear just above the inversion layer, tied to the TWI. We find that seasonal and latitudinal variations of the height and strength of both temperature inversions are driven by large-scale subsiding air from the upper troposphere associated with the descent branch of the Hadley cell. Increased general subsidence in summertime enhances stability in the lower troposphere, more markedly in the southern stations, where the inversion-layer heights are found at lower levels enhancing the main features of these two temperature inversions. A simple conceptual model that explains the lower tropospheric inversion enhancement by subsidence is proposed.

  5. The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

    2012-12-01

    The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

  6. DNA barcoding Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Lakra, W S; Verma, M S; Goswami, M; Lal, K K; Mohindra, V; Punia, P; Gopalakrishnan, A; Singh, K V; Ward, R D; Hebert, P

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been adopted as a global bio-identification system for animals in recent years. A major national programme on DNA barcoding of fish and marine life was initiated in India by the authors during 2006 and 115 species of marine fish covering Carangids, Clupeids, Scombrids, Groupers, Sciaenids, Silverbellies, Mullids, Polynemids and Silurids representing 79 Genera and 37 Families from the Indian Ocean have been barcoded for the first time using cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) of the mtDNA. The species were represented by multiple specimens and a total of 397 sequences were generated. After amplification and sequencing of 707 base pair fragment of COI, primers were trimmed which invariably generated a 655 base pair barcode sequence. The average Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera, families, orders were 0.30%, 6.60%, 9.91%, 16.00%, respectively. In addition to barcode-based species identification system, phylogenetic relationships among the species have also been attempted. The neighbour-joining tree revealed distinct clusters in concurrence with the taxonomic status of the species. PMID:21429101

  7. Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Thorrold, S R; Latkoczy, C; Swart, P K; Jones, C M

    2001-01-12

    Identifying natal origins of marine fishes is challenging because of difficulties in conducting mark-recapture studies in marine systems. We used natural geochemical signatures in otoliths (ear bones) to determine natal sources in weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), an estuarine-spawning marine fish, in eastern North America. Spawning site fidelity ranged from 60 to 81%, comparable to estimates of natal homing in birds and anadromous fishes. These data were in contrast to genetic analyses of population structure in weakfish. Our findings highlight the need for consideration of spatial processes in fisheries models and have implications for the design of marine reserves in coastal regions. PMID:11209078

  8. Natal Homing in a Marine Fish Metapopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Latkoczy, Christopher; Swart, Peter K.; Jones, Cynthia M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifying natal origins of marine fishes is challenging because of difficulties in conducting mark-recapture studies in marine systems. We used natural geochemical signatures in otoliths (ear bones) to determine natal sources in weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), an estuarine-spawning marine fish, in eastern North America. Spawning site fidelity ranged from 60 to 81%, comparable to estimates of natal homing in birds and anadromous fishes. These data were in contrast to genetic analyses of population structure in weakfish. Our findings highlight the need for consideration of spatial processes in fisheries models and have implications for the design of marine reserves in coastal regions.

  9. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  10. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  11. Rapid cladogenesis in marine fishes revisited.

    PubMed

    Rber, Lukas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    Lineages that underwent rapid cladogenesis are attractive systems for the study of mechanisms underlying taxonomic, ecological, morphological, and behavioral diversification. Recently developed statistical methods provide insights into historical patterns of diversity and allow distinguishing bursts of cladogenesis from stochastic background rates in the presence of confounding factors such as extinction and incomplete taxon sampling. Here, we compare the dynamics of speciation in several marine fish lineages some of which were previously proposed to have undergone significant changes of cladogenesis through time. We tested for evidence of episodes of rapid cladogenesis using the constant rate and Monte Carlo constant rate tests that are robust to incomplete taxon sampling. These tests employ the statistic gamma to measure the relative position of internal node in a chronogram. For the first time, we conducted a comparative analysis to address the behavior of the statistic under different chronogram-constructing methods (Langley-Fitch, nonparametric rate smoothing, and penalized likelihood). Although estimates of gamma sometimes differ widely among methods, acceptance or rejection of the constant rate model within a particular clade appears to be robust to the choice of method. Bursts of cladogenesis were detected in 14 of 34 studied datasets. Some of these were previously proposed to represent marine fish "radiations," whereas others are identified anew. Our results indicate that the wider application of tree shape methods that are able to detect significantly elevated rates of speciation is useful to more precisely define clades that underwent episodes of rapid cladogenesis in marine fish clades. Contrasting the patterns of phylogenetic diversification in marine fish lineages may facilitate the identification of common evolutionary trajectories versus idiosyncrasies, and ultimately help towards a better understanding of the factors and processes underlying speciation in the marine realm. PMID:16136809

  12. Barcoding Atlantic Canada's commonly encountered marine fishes.

    PubMed

    McCusker, M R; Denti, D; Van Guelpen, L; Kenchington, E; Bentzen, P

    2013-03-01

    Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments. PMID:23253798

  13. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gmez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gmez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) a no-take marine reserve of 150 000?km2 and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gmez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gmez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gmez was relatively high (1.2?t?ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45?t?ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gmez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gmez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gmez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  14. Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

    2013-06-01

    This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139

  15. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5 latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  16. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5 latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  17. Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Rochet, M.-J.; Benot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy. PMID:21632631

  18. Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. W.; Millero, F. J.; Taylor, J. R.; Walsh, P. J.; Christensen, V.; Jennings, S.; Grosell, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic production of calcium carbonate is conventionally attributed to marine plankton (coccolithophores and foraminifera). Here we report that marine fish produce precipitated carbonates within their intestines and excrete these at high rates. When combined with estimates of global fish biomass, this suggests that marine fish contribute 3 to 15% of total oceanic carbonate production. Fish carbonates have a higher magnesium content and solubility than traditional sources, yielding faster dissolution with depth. This may explain up to a quarter of the increase in titratable alkalinity within 1000 meters of the ocean surface, a controversial phenomenon that has puzzled oceanographers for decades. We also predict that fish carbonate production may rise in response to future environmental changes in carbon dioxide, and thus become an increasingly important component of the inorganic carbon cycle.

  19. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  20. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  1. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming--a review.

    PubMed

    Skall, H F; Olesen, N J; Mellergaard, S

    2005-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) has, in recent decades, been isolated from an increasing number of free-living marine fish species. So far, it has been isolated from at least 48 fish species from the northern hemisphere, including North America, Asia and Europe, and fifteen different species including herring, sprat, cod, Norway pout and flatfish from northern European waters. The high number of VHSV isolations from the Baltic Sea, Kattegat, Skagerrak, the North Sea and waters around Scotland indicate that the virus is endemic in these waters. The VHSV isolates originating from wild marine fish show no to low pathogenicity to rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, although several are pathogenic for turbot. Marine VHSV isolates are so far serologically indistinguishable from freshwater isolates. Genotyping based on VHSV G- and N-genes reveals four groups indicating the geographical origin of the isolates, with one group representing traditional European freshwater isolates and isolates of north European marine origin, a second group of marine isolates from the Baltic Sea, a third group of isolates from the North Sea, and a group representing North American isolates. Examples of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture. PMID:16266325

  2. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  3. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides as potential antihypertensive agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is the most widespread risk factor for many serious cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular physiological regulation by converting angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Hence, the inhibition of ACE is a key target for antihypertensive activity. Recently, potent antihypertensive peptides have been purified widely by enzymatic hydrolysis of muscle protein, skin collagen, and gelatin of many different kinds of marine fishes. Marine fish-derived bioactive peptides can be developed as antihypertensive components in functional foods or nutraceuticals. This contribution presents an overview of the ACE inhibitory peptides derived from marine fishes and discusses their future prospects to be used as potential drug candidates for preventing and treating high blood pressure. PMID:22361192

  4. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five

  5. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish

    PubMed Central

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  6. Bacterial bioluminescence as a lure for marine zooplankton and fish.

    PubMed

    Zarubin, Margarita; Belkin, Shimshon; Ionescu, Michael; Genin, Amatzia

    2012-01-17

    The benefits of bioluminescence for nonsymbiotic marine bacteria have not been elucidated fully. One of the most commonly cited explanations, proposed more than 30 y ago, is that bioluminescence augments the propagation and dispersal of bacteria by attracting fish to consume the luminous material. This hypothesis, based mostly on the prevalence of luminous bacteria in fish guts, has not been tested experimentally. Here we show that zooplankton that contacts and feeds on the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi starts to glow, and demonstrate by video recordings that glowing individuals are highly vulnerable to predation by nocturnal fish. Glowing bacteria thereby are transferred to the nutritious guts of fish and zooplankton, where they survive digestion and gain effective means for growth and dispersal. Using bioluminescence as bait appears to be highly beneficial for marine bacteria, especially in food-deprived environments of the deep sea. PMID:22203999

  7. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lzaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marn, Arnaldo

    2011-03-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. PMID:21190762

  8. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    PubMed

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P < 0.01, odds ratio = 2.19). The proportion of fishing gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California. PMID:19395745

  9. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 216 RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries..., in order to provide additional opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish...

  10. Greater diversification of freshwater than marine parasites of fish.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The species richness of freshwater environments is disproportionately high compared with that of the oceans, given their respective sizes. If diversification rates are higher in freshwaters because they are isolated and heterogeneous, this should apply to parasites as well. Using 14 large datasets comprising 677 species of freshwater and marine fish, the hypothesis that freshwater parasites experience higher rates of diversification than marine ones is tested by contrasting the relative numbers of species per parasite genus between the regional endohelminth faunas of fish in both environments. The relationship between the number of parasite genera and the number of parasite species per host was well described by a power function, in both environments; although the exponent of this function was slightly lower for freshwater parasite faunas than marine ones, the difference was not significant. However, the ratio between the number of parasite species and the number of parasite genera per host species was significantly higher in freshwater fish than in marine ones. These findings suggest fundamental differences between the way parasite faunas diversify in freshwater versus marine habitats, with the independent evolution of conspecific parasite populations in isolated host populations being a more common phenomenon in freshwater environments. PMID:26802461

  11. Infectivity of aquabirnavirus strains to various marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, T; Nagano, T; Suzuki, S

    2001-09-12

    To determine the infectivity of marine birnavirus (MABV) in various marine fish species, experimental infection was performed in combination groups of 5 fish species with 7 strains of MABV and 1 strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Mortality was observed in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and amberjack S. dumerili infected with MABV strains Y-6, Y-10K and H-1, but not in other infected species. MABV was reisolated from most combination groups, but the virus isolation rate and virus infectivity titer were often significantly different among groups with the same fish species or with the same virus strain. All MABV strains replicated well in makogarei Limanda yokohamae, but only slightly in tiger puffer Takifugu rubiipes. IPNV also replicated in all fish species without causing death. The isolation rate and infectivity titer of IPNV were similar to or higher than those of non-virulent strains of MABV. In conclusion, the infectivity of MABV for different fish species is considered to change, which is an important factor in the development of the infection cycle of this virus among marine organisms. PMID:11678225

  12. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n?=?297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p?fish (the range was from 0.173 to 2.537 mg/kg in dried weight) compared to pelagic fish (which ranged from 0.055 to 2.137 mg/kg in dried weight). The mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537??0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492??0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465??0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p?Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563??0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521??0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380??0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p?=?0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p?fish (body length >20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish. PMID:25256581

  13. Marine fishes new to continental United States waters, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Necaise, Ann Marie; Casazza, T.L.; Dennis, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    Along the southeastern coast of the United States, hardground systems support a high diversity of sub-tropical and tropical fishes. Many of these hardgrounds occur in deep (ca. ??? 50 m) waters and their fauna is still poorly described; however, with concentrated sampling in these deeper areas, new records of fishes continue to emerge. In the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina, we used the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, remotely operated vehicles, trawling gear, and angling gear to sample deep reef systems (38-248 m). We document five records of fishes new to continental United States waters, including Liopropoma aberrans, Parasphyraenops incisus, Lipogramma regia, Apogon gouldi, and Prognathodes guyanensis. We also report range extensions for eleven species: Gymnothorax hubbsi, Gymnothorax vicinus, Lepophidium staurophor, Cypselurus comatus, Liopropoma mowbrayi, Serranus annularis, Rypticus saponaceus, Caranx lugubris, Prognathodes aculeatus, Centropyge argi, and Canthigaster jamestyleri.

  14. Contrasting "Fish" Diversity Dynamics between Marine and Freshwater Environments.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel

    2015-08-31

    Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe long-term dynamics of diversification: the equilibrium model considers the Earth as a closed system with a fixed maximum biological carrying capacity, whereas the expansion model hypothesizes a continuously increasing diversification of life. Based on the analysis of the fossil record of all organisms, Benton suggested contrasting models of diversity dynamics between marine and continental realms. Diversity in marine environments is characterized by phases of rapid diversification followed by plateaux, i.e., an equilibrium model directly derived from insular biogeography theories, whereas diversity in continental environments is characterized by exponential growth. Previous studies that aimed at testing these models with empirical data were based on datasets extracted directly from the reading of the vagaries of the raw fossil record, without correcting for common fossil record biases (preservation and sampling). Although correction of datasets for the incompleteness of the fossil record is now commonly performed for addressing long-term biodiversity variations, only a few attempts have been made to produce diversity curves corrected by phylogenetic data from extant and extinct taxa. Here we show that phylogenetically corrected diversity curves for "fish" (actinopterygians and elasmobranchs) during the last 200 million years fit an equilibrium model in the marine realm and an expansion model in the freshwater realm. These findings demonstrate that the rate of diversification has decreased for marine fish over the Cenozoic but is in sharp expansion for freshwater fish. PMID:26279235

  15. Distribution of Epiphytic Diatoms in a Sub-Tropical Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovich, T. A.; Gaiser, E. E.; Wachnicka, A.; Zieman, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    Within estuaries, seagrasses may represent an order of magnitude greater surface area relative to sediments for the colonization and growth of diatoms. Fossil diatom distributions have proven useful in inferring paleoenvironmental conditions. The strength of these inferences is dependent upon defining the environmental relationships of contempory diatom compositions. The present investigation characterized the modern epiphytic diatom flora on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at seven sites in the sub-tropical Florida Bay estuary and at one Atlantic Ocean site east of the upper Florida Keys. These sites were sampled six times between March 2000 and April 2001. Diatom species composition was related to water quality parameters using multivariate statistics. 338 diatom species were identified. The seven most abundant species from pooled samples were Cocconeis placentula, Brachysira aponina, Nitzschia liebetruthii, Hyalosynedra laevigata, Amphora cf. tenerrima, Mastogloia crucicula, and M. pusilla. These seven species collectively accounted for 51.7 percent of all valves counted and occurred in at least 85 percent of all samples. Analysis of similiarity and NMDS ordination of species relative abundances revealed four distinct diatom communities across the study region. The spatial variability of these communities was correlated with salinity and water-column nutrient availability. Summertime communities were significantly different from winter-spring communities, but these communities showed a gradual temporal progression with much overlap. The temporal variability was correlated with temperature. Indicator species analysis identified many species significantly influencing the four spatial groups. The Atlantic marine site was characterized by many different Mastogloia species and some epipsammic (sand-grain associated) diatoms (i.e., Cymatosira lorenziana, Dimerogramma dubium, and Neofragilaria nicobarica). Mastogloia pusilla, Rhopalodia pacifica, and Cocconeis woodii were strong indicators of the Gulf of Mexico marine site. Reimerothrix floridensis was particularly abundant in the western interior of Florida Bay (i.e., sites 2, 3, and 4) during summer months. The eastern interior of Florida Bay was characterized by high relative abundances of Brachysira aponina and Nitzschia liebetruthii. The optima and tolerance of these indicator species relative to individual water quality parameters were also determined.

  16. Ventricular myocardial architecture in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Quintana, D; Hurle, J M

    1987-03-01

    The fiber architecture of the ventricular myocardium has been studied in elasmobranch (Isurus oxyrhinchus, Galeorhinus galeus, Prionace glauca) and teleost (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus alalunga) fish species with hearts displaying mixed types of ventricular musculature (compact and trabecular). In all cases, the compact myocardium is organized in layers of fiber bundles with an orderly arrangement within the ventricular walls. The number of these layers appears to be dependent on the relative thickness of the compact myocardium. Differences in the pattern of myocardial fiber arrangement were observed among the different fish species. In elasmobranchs the compact myocardium at the level of the atrioventricular orifice is continuous with the trabeculated myocardium. Furthermore, in elasmobranchs the trabeculated myocardium displays a precise arrangement in arcuate trabeculae running from the auriculoventricular to the conoventricular orifices. In teleosts, the compact myocardium is independent of the trabeculated myocardium and a large number of fibers insert into the bulboventricular fibrous ring. The trabeculated myocardium in these species displays an anarchic arrangement except at the level of the bulboventricular orifice, where the fibers tend to be aligned longitudinally, also being inserted into the fibrous ring. Minor differences, consisting mainly of the presence of extra bundles of fibers, were also observed among different individuals of the same species. The possible relationship between myocardial fiber architecture and ventricular shape is discussed. PMID:3578842

  17. Marine fish egg hydration is aquaporin-mediated.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Mercedes; Ralda, Demetrio; Power, Deborah M; Deen, Peter M T; Cerd, Joan

    2005-01-28

    The positive buoyancy of marine fish eggs in sea water, allowed by hydration of the oocyte, is critical for their survival and dispersion in the ocean. We isolated an aquaporin, SaAQP1o, that belongs to a unique subfamily of aquaporin-1-like channels specifically evolved in teleosts and mainly expressed in the ovary. We further show that hormone-induced fish oocyte hydration is a highly controlled process based on the interplay between protein hydrolysis and the translocation of SaAQP1o to the plasma membrane, indicating a specialized physiological role for this aquaporin. PMID:15681377

  18. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds.

    PubMed

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 ?g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 ?g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 ?g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 ?g/g THg and 0.13 ?g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 ?g/g THg and 0.01 ?g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope ?(15)N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that ?(15)N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems. PMID:22195524

  19. Occurrence of cymothoid isopod from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Priya, E Rethna; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Leng, Alex Goh Kwang

    2015-06-01

    To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science. PMID:26064001

  20. Evidence of Melanoma in Wild Marine Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Kirkham, Nigel; Bendall, Mark; Currey, Leanne; Bythell, John; Heupel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The increase in reports of novel diseases in a wide range of ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, has been linked to many factors including exposure to novel pathogens and changes in the global climate. Prevalence of skin cancer in particular has been found to be increasing in humans, but has not been reported in wild fish before. Here we report extensive melanosis and melanoma (skin cancer) in wild populations of an iconic, commercially-important marine fish, the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. The syndrome reported here has strong similarities to previous studies associated with UV induced melanomas in the well-established laboratory fish model Xiphophorus. Relatively high prevalence rates of this syndrome (15%) were recorded at two offshore sites in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). In the absence of microbial pathogens and given the strong similarities to the UV-induced melanomas, we conclude that the likely cause was environmental exposure to UV radiation. Further studies are needed to establish the large scale distribution of the syndrome and confirm that the lesions reported here are the same as the melanoma in Xiphophorus, by assessing mutation of the EGFR gene, Xmrk. Furthermore, research on the potential links of this syndrome to increases in UV radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion needs to be completed. PMID:22870273

  1. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (617% for shape and 199% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 206 and 1750% for shape and between 000 and 1183% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically, asymmetry should be accounted for in future studies based on otolith shape. PMID:26255775

  2. Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).

    PubMed

    Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

    2013-12-01

    A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892

  3. Effects of seismic air guns on marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardle, C. S.; Carter, T. J.; Urquhart, G. G.; Johnstone, A. D. F.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Hampson, G.; Mackie, D.

    2001-05-01

    Observations of marine fish and invertebrates on an inshore reef were made using TV and acoustic tags one week before, during, and four days after a seismic triple G. airgun (three synchronised airguns, each gun 2.5 l and 2000 psi) was deployed and repeatedly fired. The guns were fired once/min for eight periods on four days at different positions. The structure and intensity of the sound of each triple G. gun explosion was recorded and calibrated. Peak sound pressure levels of 210 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) at 16 m range and 195 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) at 109 m range were measured at positions where the fish were being observed. The final position of the triple G. gun, at 5.3 m range, had a peak pressure level of 218 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa). Neither the fish, nor the invertebrates, showed any signs of moving away from the reef. Firing the guns did not interrupt a diurnal rhythm of fish gathering at dusk and passing the TV camera position while the guns were firing. The long-term day-to-night movements of two tagged pollack were slightly changed by the arrival and banging of the guns particularly when positioned within 10 m of their normal living positions. Those reef fish, watched by the TV camera, always showed involuntary reactions in the form of a Mauthner cell reflex, C-start, at each explosion of the guns at all ranges tested (maximum range was 109 m, 195 dB rel to 1 ?Pa). When the explosion source was not visible to the fish, the C-start reaction was cut short and the fish continued with what they were doing before the stimulus. When the G. gun rack was sunk to the seabed (depth 14 m) visible to the fish and the TV camera, those fish that were observed approaching the G. gun rack when the guns were fired were seen to turn and flee from the very visible explosion. When the gun rack was suspended midwater (5 m depth) and just outside visible range at 16 metres, the fish receiving a 6 ms peak to peak, 206 dB (rel to 1 ?Pa) pressure swing exhibited a C-start and then continued to swim towards the gun position, their intended swimming track apparently unaltered. The sound of the G. guns had little effect on the day-to-day behaviour of the resident fish and invertebrates.

  4. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. PMID:26321055

  5. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  6. Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

  7. Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-09-01

    Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea. PMID:25035585

  8. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Munday, Philip L; Wittenrich, Matthew L; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y

    2011-12-23

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO(2)-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO(2). Juveniles from ambient CO(2)-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO(2)-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

  9. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Munday, Philip L.; Wittenrich, Matthew L.; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L.; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO2-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO2-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO2. Juveniles from ambient CO2-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO2-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

  10. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in marine fishes along the Chinese coastline.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two species of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaenacrocea) and silver pomfret (Pampusargenteus) (n = 46), from nine Chinese coastal cities (Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen). HBCDs were detectable in all samples analyzed, indicating ubiquitous contamination of these compounds in the Chinese coastal environment. The average total HBCD concentration was 3.7 ng g? lipid weight (range: 0.57-10.1 ng g? lipid weight), which is relatively lower than other regions of the world, especially Europe, where HBCDs are intensively used. Among the three individual HBCD isomers (?-, ?- and ?-HBCD) in all fish samples, the ?-isomer showed a remarkable predominance (from 87.5% to 100% of total contribution), indicating its higher bioaccumulative potential. Geographically, the highest HBCD level present in fish was found in Dalian in northern China, and the lowest occurred in Wenzhou. Estimated daily intakes of HBCDs via fish consumption for the Chinese population were 0.004-1.00 ng kg body weight? d?. These exposure levels were much lower than the effect levels. PMID:21111444

  11. Measuring respiration rates in marine fish larvae: challenges and advances.

    PubMed

    Peck, M A; Moyano, M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic costs can be extremely high in marine fish larvae and gaining reliable estimates of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on those costs is important to understand environmental constraints on early growth and survival. This review provides an historical perspective of measurements of larval marine fish respiration (O2 consumption) including the methods (Winkler, manometric, polarographic, paramagnetic and optodes) and systems (closed system to intermittent-flow) used. This study compares and systematically reviews the results (metabolic rates, ontogenetic changes and taxonomic differences) obtained from 59 studies examining 53 species from 30 families. Standard (anaesthetized or darkness), routine and active respiration rates were reported in 14, 94 and 8% of the studies and much more work has been performed on larvae of temperate (88%) compared with tropical (9%) and polar (3%) species. More than 35% of the studies have been published since 2000 owing to both advances in oxygen sensors and the growing emphasis on understanding physiological effects of environmental change. Common protocols are needed to facilitate cross-taxa comparisons such as the effect of temperature (Q10 : 1·47-3·47), body mass (slope of allometric changes in O2 consumption rate from 0·5 to 1·3) and activity level on metabolic costs as measured via respiration rate. A set of recommendations is provided that will make it easier for researchers to design measurement systems, to judge the reliability of measurements and to make inter-comparisons among studies and species. PMID:26768975

  12. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru; Maehara, Tomofumi

    2014-06-01

    Classification and identification of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids found in marine fish is difficult because of their novel parasitism and morphology. Recent sequence analysis has helped, but only seven sequences are available. Therefore, the usefulness of molecular methods for differentiation of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids, as well as genetic differences between the muscle and the other site-parasitizing didymozoids are quite unclear. In the present study, six unidentified didymozoid isolates from the trunk muscles of four marine fish species (Diagramma pictum, Plectorhinchus cinctus, Pagrus major and Cypselurus heterurus) were examined genetically using sequence analysis (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-2 and coxI). All isolates were placed phylogenetically as a lineage independent of other site-parasitizing didymozoids at 18S rDNA, ITS-2 and coxI. They were grouped into three distinct lineages. The present and the previous unidentified or identified didymozoids from trunk muscles were found to differ clearly for every host species by sequence analysis, suggesting that muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are host-specific. This report is the first describing the molecular characteristics of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids by sequence analysis targeting the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci, which is proposed as a superior method for didymozoid differentiation. PMID:24827110

  13. Spillover of fish naïveté from marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Russ, Garry R

    2013-02-01

    Spillover of adult fish biomass is an expected benefit from no-take marine reserves to adjacent fisheries. Here, we show fisher-naïve behaviour in reef fishes also spills over from marine reserves, potentially increasing access to fishery benefits by making fishes more susceptible to spearguns. The distance at which two targeted families of fishes began to flee a potential fisher [flight initiation distance (FID)] was lower inside reserves than in fished areas, and this reduction extended outside reserve boundaries. Reduced FID persisted further outside reserves than increases in fish biomass. This finding could help increase stakeholder support for marine reserves and improve current models of spillover by informing estimates for spatial changes in catchability. Behavioural changes of fish could help explain differences between underwater visual census and catch data in quantifying the spatial extent of spillover from marine reserves, and should be considered in the management of adjacent fisheries. PMID:23126388

  14. Distribution of marine birnavirus in cultured marine fish species from Kagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, T; Nagano, T; Kanehira, K; Suzuki, S

    2004-02-01

    To determine the distribution of marine birnavirus (MABV) in cultured populations of different marine fish species, 1291 pooled tissue samples from 2672 fish belonging to 22 species and one hybrid were collected from Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, during 1999-2001. Using cell-culture MABV was isolated from three species: yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel (positive number/sample number, 10/419), amberjack, S. dumerili (Risso) (4/72), and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) (41/481). Using PCR on MABV-negative samples, the MABV genome was detected in the same three species [yellowtail (9/409), amberjack (4/68) and Japanese flounder (93/440)] and two additional species, spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (5/11), and goldstriped amberjack, S. lalandi Valenciennes (1/5). These MABV-positive species can be taxonomically divided into two groups: the genus Seriola and flatfish. In Japanese flounder, MABV was detected during all seasons, and the infection rate was correlated with water temperature. Aquaculture sites with MABV-positive fish were evenly distributed over the surveyed area, suggesting that MABV is widely distributed at aquaculture sites in Kagawa Prefecture. The nucleotide sequence at the variable region, the VP2/NS junction, revealed that the 39th base mutation occurs host-specifically for flatfish. Flatfish are suspected to be the main reservoir of MABV and might be responsible for establishing the infection cycle in aquaculture environments. PMID:15009250

  15. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... receipt of the petition, with a January 29, 2009, deadline for comments (73 FR 75988). NMFS subsequently reopened the comment period from February 4 to March 23, 2009 (74 FR 6010, February 4, 2009). Although the...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  16. Utilization of soybean products in non-salmonid marine fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current feeds for marine finfish are heavily dependend on fish meal and fish oil to meet their critical protein and lipid requirements. Due to the increased demand, uncertain availability, and rising costs of fish meal and oil, however, several ingredients of plant origin have been evaluated as pote...

  17. Species-specific patterns of hyperostosis in marine teleost fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Kaufman, L.S.; Glowacki, J.

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of swollen or hyperostotic bones in skeletal preparations, preserved museum material or whole fresh specimens of marine teleost fishes was identified in 92 species belonging to 22 families. Patterns of hyperostotic skeletal growth were typically consistent and often species-specific in all individuals larger than a certain size. The taxonomic distribution of hyperostosis in diverse phylogenetic groups suggests that it has arisen independently many times. Selected bones from two species of the family Carangidae, horse-eye jack Caranx latus Agassiz and crevalle jackCaranx hippos (Linnaeus), were examined in detail by light and electron microscopy. Nonhyperostotic bone contained osteoid-producing osteoblasts, resorbing osteoclasts, occasional osteocytes, and a rich vascular network, all characteristics of cellular bone. Thus, these fishes have a spatial juxtaposition of cellular and acellular bone tissues in adjacent and often serially homologous bone sites. The functional significance of hyperostosis is unknown, but it is a predictable manifestation of bone growth and development for the many taxa in which it occurs.

  18. Water quality management for low temperature marine fishes in space.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, S; Matsubara, S; Kato, M; Uchida, S; Uemura, M; Sakimura, T; Ogawa, N; Nakamura, H K

    1999-12-01

    Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU), one of the Spacelab facility flown in Neurolab mission (STS-90) in April, 1998, was to support neurophysiological research using a marine fish, Opsanus tau (oyster toadfish). The functions of the VFEU were primarily a quality management of environmental water during the mission at 14 degrees C and for acquiring physiological signals from implanted micro-electrodes in the otolith nerves as well as the spatial acceleration of the fish. A key element of the life support system was a balanced biological filter containing two types of nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas for ammonia oxidization and Nitrobacter for nitrite oxidization. Although the 16 days mission was successful, two toadfishes died in late phase of the mission. Ammonium concentration in those two life support systems elevated to remarkably high level at the end of the mission whereas the other two indicated very low. This report summarizes the results of the water quality management of the VFEU during the Neurolab mission based on analysis of water samples taken during the flight and those taken prior and just after the flight. PMID:11542798

  19. Anisakids in marine fish from the coast of Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchjangreed, Chadaporn; Hamzah, Zulhainan; Suntornthiticharoen, Pattra; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1,600 specimens, consisting of 16 different species of marine fish, were dissected and examined for anisakid larvae and adults in visceral organs, abdominal cavity, and muscles. One species of adult-stage nematode was found in two of 16 species of marine fish studied, Johnius carouna and Dendrophysa russelli. No anisakid larvae (third-stage) was found in any of the 16 species of marine fish studied. Morphological study of the adult-stage nematode showed similar morphology to Anisakis simplex. We found that the nematode adult recovered from the marine fish differed from other anisakids in morphology, life cycle and locality of infection in the fish. The anisakid adults recovered were ovoviviparous or larviparous, but not oviparous as is seen in most other anisakids. The intensity and prevalence of nematode infection in Johnius carouna were 2.4 and 31.7%, respectively, and in Dendrophysa russelli 3.9 and 87.5%, respectively. PMID:17547049

  20. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  1. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

  2. Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were corrected for total surface area of terrestrial and aquatic zones, annual catchment sequestration rates were more than 2 orders of magnitude higher compared with catchment and storage emissions. These data suggest subtropical forested catchments to be a major sink of greenhouse gas. Catchment sequestration was dominated by tree trunk growth rates and the major uncertainty associated in quantifying rates was initial tree size with larger size sequestering significantly higher amounts. Catchment and storage emissions were dominated by aquatic methane fluxes when expressed per unit area, however, when corrected for total surface area soil respiration exceeded aquatic methane fluxes by at least one order of magnitude. The major uncertainty associated with aquatic methane fluxes was in identification and intensity of ebullition zones where 2 to 7% of the aquatic surface area emitted over 97% of the total flux. The ebullition zones were consistently found in shallow depositional areas adjacent catchment inflows where substrates were dominated by forest litter. This audit greatly improves our understanding of both the drivers behind greenhouse gas cycling in sub-tropical freshwater storages and catchments as well as identifies the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying greenhouse cycling rates in these systems.

  3. Effects of Norethindrone and Metabolite Ethynylestradiol on Reproductive Parameters in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norethindrone (NOR) is a progestin used in human contraceptives and has been detected in low concentrations (ng/L) in aquatic environments. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether NOR could affect reproductiv...

  4. BIOACCUMULATION OF DDT AND PCB IN TISSUES OF MARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes of commercial importance were monitored in New England coastal waters in 1974 to determine whether synthetic organic residues in the fish were large enough to affect the utilization of such fish as food by man or to interfere with their ability to reproduce. About 700 fish...

  5. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. PMID:16828209

  6. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? YesCommercial fishing is...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? YesCommercial fishing is...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? YesCommercial fishing is...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? YesCommercial fishing is...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  11. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  12. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  13. Fishing the line near marine reserves in single and multispecies fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Julie B; Tetreault, Irene; Gaines, Steven D; Nisbet, Roger M

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the world "fishing the line" is a frequent harvesting tactic in communities where no-take marine reserves are designated. This practice of concentrating fishing effort at the boundary of a marine reserve is predicated upon the principle of spillover, the net export of stock from the marine reserve to the surrounding unprotected waters. We explore the consequences and optimality of fishing the line using a spatially explicit theoretical model. We show that fishing the line: (1) is part of the optimal effort distribution near no-take marine reserves with mobile species regardless of the cooperation level among harvesters; (2) has a significant impact on the spatial patterns of catch per unit effort (CPUE) and fish density both within and outside of the reserve; and (3) can enhance total population size and catch simultaneously under a limited set of conditions for overexploited populations. Additionally, we explore the consequences of basing the spatial distribution of fishing effort for a multispecies fishery upon the optimality of the most mobile species that exhibits the greatest spillover. Our results show that the intensity of effort allocated to fishing the line should instead be based upon more intermediate rates of mobility within the targeted community. We conclude with a comparison between model predictions and empirical findings from a density gradient study of two important game fish in the vicinity of a no-take marine-life refuge on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA). These results reveal the need for empirical studies to account for harvester behavior and suggest that the implications of spatial discontinuities such as fishing the line should be incorporated into marine-reserve design. PMID:17555217

  14. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  15. Large Recovery of Fish Biomass in a No-Take Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R.; Mascareas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha?1 on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha?1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha?1, or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

  16. Extinction Risk and Overfishing: Reconciling Conservation and Fisheries Perspectives on the Status of Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Trevor D.; Baum, Julia K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

  17. Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Lars Lnsmann; Mller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from -litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

  18. Hyperoxia elevates adrenic acid peroxidation in marine fish and is associated with reproductive pheromone mediators.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2015-04-01

    The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

  19. Hyperoxia Elevates Adrenic Acid Peroxidation in Marine Fish and Is Associated with Reproductive Pheromone Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The development of oxidative stress in the marine ecosystem is a concurring concern in fish reproductive behavior. Marine fish being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of prostaglandin pheromone mediators but also vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. It is yet to be determined if hypoxia or hyperoxia environment, a cumulative effect in the marine ecosystem affect pheromone mediators in fish, and to understand if this is associated with the generation of oxidized lipid products of PUFA. Novel oxidized lipid metabolites, isoprostanoids (15-F2t-isoprostane, 7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane, 8-F3t-isoprostane, 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane, 10-F4t-neuroprostane), isofuranoids (isofurans, 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran and neurofurans), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and resolvins, PUFA (arachidonic, adrenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) and prostaglandin pheromone mediators in fish muscle were determined in marine male and female fish muscles before and after interaction in a hypoxia or hyperoxia environment. Reproductive behaviors were also assessed. Our study showed oxidized lipid metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were not influenced by hypoxia and hyperoxia exposure in the fishes and no gender differences were found. However, adrenic acid and its oxidized products, 17(RS)-17-F2t-dihomo-isoprostane and 10-epi-17(RS)-SC-?15-11-dihomo-isofuran showed strong correspondence with male fish pheromone mediators and reproductive behavior when under oxidative stress especially, hyperoxia. The occurrence of hypoxia and hyperoxia in the marine ecosystem may not be detrimental to marine fish and instead presents as being beneficial in reproductive behavior. PMID:25874920

  20. Larval Anisakid Infections in Marine Fish from Three Sea Areas of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Ok-Hee; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marine fish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea. PMID:23230326

  1. Microbial safety of tropical and sub-tropical fruit. in Volume 1 – General Physiology, Quality and Handling of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits, Postharvest Biology & Technology of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes past outbreaks, potential routes of contamination for specific, potential interventions, and operational procedures associated with tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Various pre-harvest sources can result in contamination of fruits; and survival and growth of pathogens on who...

  2. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p < 0.001). The incriminated fish was later identified as a scombroid fish of Euthynnus with a histamine content of 271.9 mg/100 g flesh in 1 leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive treatment with antihistamines usually concludes with a good prognosis. Toxin analysis of the fish flesh remains the most important step in approaching a confirmed diagnosis. PMID:9251176

  3. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  4. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

  5. Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens after dietborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lizhao; Zhou, Yanyan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is well known to be biodiminished along marine food chains. The marine herbivorous fish at a lower trophic level are expected to accumulate more As. However, little is known about how marine herbivorous fish biotransform the potential high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, the present study quantified the biotransformation of two inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) in a marine herbivorous fish Siganus fuscescens following dietborne exposure. The fish were fed on As contaminated artificial diets at nominal concentrations of 400 and 1500?g As(III) or As(V) g(-1) (dry weight) for 21d and 42d. After exposure, As concentrations in intestine, liver, and muscle tissues of rabbitfish increased significantly and were proportional to the inorganic As exposure concentrations. The present study demonstrated that both inorganic As(III) and As(V) in the dietborne phases were able to be biotransformed to the less toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) (63.3-91.3% in liver; 79.0%-95.2% in muscle). The processes of As biotransformation in rabbitfish could include oxidation of As(III) to As(V), reduction of As(V) to As(III), methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to AsB. These results also demonstrated that AsB synthesis processes were diverse facing different inorganic As species in different tissues. In summary, the present study elucidated that marine herbivorous fish had high ability to biotransform inorganic As to the organic forms (mainly AsB), resulting in high As bioaccumulation. Therefore, marine herbivorous fish could detoxify inorganic As in the natural environment. PMID:26766368

  6. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  7. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  8. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  9. Research on marine and freshwater fish identification model based on hyper-spectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Guo, Pei-yuan; Xiang, Ling-zi; Bao, Man; Chen, Xing-hai

    2013-08-01

    With the gradually mature of hyper spectral image technology, the application of the meat nondestructive detection and recognition has become one of the current research focuses. This paper for the study of marine and freshwater fish by the pre-processing and feature extraction of the collected spectral curve data, combined with BP network structure and LVQ network structure, a predictive model of hyper spectral image data of marine and freshwater fish has been initially established and finally realized the qualitative analysis and identification of marine and freshwater fish quality. The results of this study show that hyper spectral imaging technology combined with the BP and LVQ Artificial Neural Network Model can be used for the identification of marine and freshwater fish detection. Hyper-spectral data acquisition can be carried out without any pretreatment of the samples, thus hyper-spectral imaging technique is the lossless, high- accuracy and rapid detection method for quality of fish. In this study, only 30 samples are used for the exploratory qualitative identification of research, although the ideal study results are achieved, we will further increase the sample capacity to take the analysis of quantitative identification and verify the feasibility of this theory.

  10. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. PMID:26163486

  11. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galvn, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  12. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  13. Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  14. Propagation in cell culture of the dinoflagellate amyloodinium, an ectoparasite of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Noga, E J

    1987-06-01

    Amyloodinium ocellatum, a common dinoflagellate ectoparasite of marine fishes, was successfully propagated on a fish gill cell line. In vitro infections were similar in cytopathology and development to those reported on natural hosts, and large numbers of parasites could be produced. Exposure of parasites in cell culture to an antiprotozoal drug produced a dose-dependent inhibition of infectivity that was much more sensitive than a motility assay previously used to assess the toxic effects of a drug on protozoan ectoparasites. This propagation system may be a useful model for studying the biology and control of protozoan skin parasites of fishes and for quantitatively studying hostparasite interaction at cellular interfaces. PMID:17770332

  15. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury and selenium in african sub-tropical fluvial reservoirs food webs (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  16. Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer of Mercury and Selenium in African Sub-Tropical Fluvial Reservoirs Food Webs (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were investigated in sub-tropical freshwater food webs from Burkina Faso, West Africa, a region where very few ecosystem studies on contaminants have been performed. During the 2010 rainy season, samples of water, sediment, fish, zooplankton, and mollusks were collected from three water reservoirs and analysed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and total Se (TSe). Ratios of δ13C and δ15N were measured to determine food web structures and patterns of contaminant accumulation and transfer to fish. Food chain lengths (FCLs) were calculated using mean δ15N of all primary consumer taxa collected as the site-specific baseline. We report relatively low concentrations of THg and TSe in most fish. We also found in all studied reservoirs short food chain lengths, ranging from 3.3 to 3.7, with most fish relying on a mixture of pelagic and littoral sources for their diet. Mercury was biomagnified in fish food webs with an enrichment factor ranging from 2.9 to 6.5 for THg and from 2.9 to 6.6 for MeHg. However, there was no evidence of selenium biomagnification in these food webs. An inverse relationship was observed between adjusted δ15N and log-transformed Se:Hg ratios, indicating that Se has a lesser protective effect in top predators, which are also the most contaminated animals with respect to MeHg. Trophic position, carbon source, and fish total length were the factors best explaining Hg concentration in fish. In a broader comparison of our study sites with literature data for other African lakes, the THg biomagnification rate was positively correlated with FCL. We conclude that these reservoir systems from tropical Western Africa have low Hg biomagnification associated with short food chains. This finding may partly explain low concentrations of Hg commonly reported in fish from this area. PMID:25875292

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in commercially important marine fishes from Mumbai Harbor, India.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, A; Satheesh Kumar, P; Ram, Anirudh; Chinnadurai, S

    2014-04-15

    Seventeen commercially important marine fish species were caught in Mumbai Harbor using a trawl net and evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and ICP-OES. It was found that certain species of fish contained lower levels of all metals tested. J. elongatus and C. dussumieri had the highest levels of all 8 metals tested. The heavy metal concentrations were significantly varied within and between the studied fishes (p<0.05). However, a significant correlation among heavy metals was observed. This investigation indicated that various levels of heavy metals exist in the fish species sampled, but those concentrations are within the maximum residual levels recommended by the European Union and FAO/WHO. Therefore, fish caught in Mumbai Harbor can be considered safe for human consumption. PMID:24631401

  18. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26238481

  19. Digenean parasites of Chinese marine fishes: a list of species, hosts and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-fa; Peng, Wen-feng; Gao, Peng; Fu, Ming-jun; Wu, Han-zhou; Lu, Ming-ke; Gao, Ji-qing; Xiao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, 630 species of Digenea (Trematoda) have been reported from Chinese marine fishes. These belong to 209 genera and 35 families. The names of these species, along with their hosts, geographical distribution and records, are listed in this paper. PMID:20012517

  20. 78 FR 26751 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... FR 60814; October 26, 2007; for the CA/OR/WA stock of fin, humpback, and sperm whales). Criteria for... to commercial fishing (e.g. 72 FR 60814; October 26, 2007). The data for considering these... FR 73912; November 29, 2011), the 2011 marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs) (Carretta et...

  1. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  2. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of Fisheries (75 FR 68468, November 8, 2010) identifies several other species or stocks of marine... from commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on CNP humpback whales (75 FR 29984, May 28, 2010... January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2853), and selected team members according to guidance provided in MMPA...

  3. Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

  4. CONSUMPTION RATES OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS MARINE FISH CAUGHT IN THE METROPOLITAN LOS ANGELES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a 1980 survey in the Los Angeles metropolitan area to assess the consumption rates of potentially hazardous marine fish and shellfish by local, non-professional fishermen; to identify population subgroups having a significantly large consumptio...

  5. Diel trophic structuring of seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Wylie, Elizabeth; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

    2007-03-01

    The faunal communities of seagrass beds throughout SE Asia are highly threatened by continued overexploitation, yet their ecology is poorly understood. Developing a greater understanding of the faunal linkages between seagrass beds and associated coastal habitats can facilitate more informed ecosystem level management. The present study used beach seine netting to sample seagrass bed fish assemblages in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, to investigate diel migrations of fish into and out of seagrass beds. These fish assemblages were found to be diverse relative to other studies within the region, with many species being economically important to local subsistence fisheries. The abundance, species richness and trophic structure of these fish assemblages changed with time of day indicating that fish populations are in a dynamic state. Mean fish abundance increased by ?45% from day to night (Day: 8.61 0.13 fish 100 m -2; Night: 15.6 1.4 fish 100 m -2) while mean species richness increased from 6.6 1.9 per seine haul to 11.4 0.2. Increasing abundance and diversity of fish at night suggests migration onto these habitats from nearby habitats such as reefs, mangroves or deep water; and/or increased activity of those fish resident within seagrass habitats. Division of species into trophic categories enabled the trophic structure of changing fish assemblages to be examined. Assemblages were dominated during both the day and night by invertebrate and fish feeders; however, a major diel change in trophic structure occurred in the abundance of omnivores. During the day omnivores were abundant, but they were replaced at night by exclusive invertebrate feeders. We therefore propose that diel changes in seagrass fish assemblages are predominantly structured by food availability, although other factors such as increased night-time shelter provision were also found to be important albeit to a much lesser extent.

  6. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  7. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  8. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernndez, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

  9. Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (656 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 12 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.1690.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

  10. Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further study is needed to determine the role of small-scale marine reserves in the conservation of tropical marine biodiversity. PMID:21513198

  11. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species common carp Cyprinus carpio with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  12. Anthropogenic forcing of estuarine hypoxic events in sub-tropical catchments: landscape drivers and biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vanessa N L; Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Slavich, Peter G

    2011-11-15

    Episodic hypoxic events can occur following summer floods in sub-tropical estuaries of eastern Australia. These events can cause deoxygenation of waterways and extensive fish mortality. Here, we present a conceptual model that links key landscape drivers and biogeochemical processes which contribute to post-flood hypoxic events. The model provides a framework for examining the nature of anthropogenic forcing. Modification of estuarine floodplain surface hydrology through the construction of extensive drainage networks emerges as a major contributing factor to increasing the frequency, magnitude and duration of hypoxic events. Forcing occurs in two main ways. Firstly, artificial drainage of backswamp wetlands initiates drier conditions which cause a shift in vegetation assemblages from wetland-dominant species to dryland-dominant species. These species, which currently dominate the floodplain, are largely intolerant of inundation and provide abundant labile substrate for decomposition following flood events. Decomposition of this labile carbon pool consumes oxygen in the overlying floodwaters, and results in anoxic conditions and waters with excess deoxygenation potential (DOP). Carbon metabolism can be strongly coupled with microbially-mediated reduction of accumulated Fe and Mn oxides, phases which are common on these coastal floodplain landscapes. Secondly, artificial drainage enhances discharge rates during the flood recession phase. Drains transport deoxygenated high DOP floodwaters rapidly from backswamp wetlands to the main river channel to further consume oxygen. This process effectively displaces the natural carbon metabolism processes from floodplain wetlands to the main channel. Management options to reduce the impacts of post-flood hypoxia include i) remodifying drainage on the floodplain to promote wetter conditions, thereby shifting vegetation assemblages towards inundation-tolerant species, and ii) strategic retention of floodwaters in the backswamp wetlands to reduce the volume and rate during the critical post-flood recession phase. PMID:21937090

  13. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, D.; Parravicini, V.; Bellwood, D. R.; Leprieur, F.; Huang, D.; Cowman, P. F.; Albouy, C.; Hughes, T. P.; Thuiller, W.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  14. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jrgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-02-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  15. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  16. Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

    2014-01-01

    In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, ‘green technology’, legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

  17. Metal concentrations of common freshwater and marine fish from the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Wong, M H

    2008-05-01

    Sediments and fish, including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fish ponds in the Pearl River Delta (Tanzhou, Sanjiao, Guangzhou, Shipai, Changan, and Mai Po) for the analysis of metalloids and heavy metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)]. The pollution of As in pond sediments was great; however, As in the edible parts of pond fish were within the international permissible safety levels for human consumption. Axial muscles from 10 species each of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were also analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Freshwater fish contained 0.24 to 2.13 mg/kg As, 0.10 to 0.17 mg/kg Cd, 0.09 to 0.36 mg/kg Cr, 0.06 to 0.35 mg/kg Cu, 0.07 to 0.34 mg/kg Hg, 0.04 to 0.36 mg/kg Ni, 0.11 to 0.52 mg/kg Pb, and 2.67 to 19.1 mg/kg Zn (wet weight). Marine fish had higher Hg and lower Pb concentrations than freshwater fish. A few fish species had average concentrations greater than the international standards for Cd and Pb established by the European Union and the China National Standard Management Department. Total Hg concentrations in 10 of 20 market fish species were generally greater than those of the World Health Organization's recommended limit of 0.2 mg/kg for at-risk groups, such as children and pregnant women. Daily intake through fish consumption of these metals were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. There appears to be potential threat to local people from Hg contamination because of the high marine fish consumption rate (142 g/d/person). PMID:18080794

  18. Long-term functional changes in an estuarine fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Baptista, J; Martinho, F; Nyitrai, D; Pardal, M A; Dolbeth, M

    2015-08-15

    The functional diversity of the fish assemblages of the Mondego estuary was studied for a discontinuous 30-year period (1988-2012). During this time, hydrological changes occurred due to man-induced alterations and weather extremes. These changes led to alterations in the structure and function of the fish community. Species richness and functional richness decreased over time and the fish community started to explore new micro-habitats and food resources. Before severe hydrological changes, the community was dominated by pelagic, detritivorous and species with wider salinity ranges. After, the community became dominated by demersal, benthic, piscivorous and marine species. During a drought, omnivorous became increasingly important, reflecting greater possibilities of using available feeding resources. We have also found an increase in sub-tropical species throughout the years, which might be related to gradual temperature increases at a global scale. This study also confirmed estuaries as extremely important for restocking several commercial species. PMID:26093816

  19. Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

  20. Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

  1. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  2. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and also highlight key areas of taxonomic uncertainty worthy of reappraisal. PMID:22174860

  3. Severe hypoxia impairs lateralization in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Nati, Julie J H; Blasco, Felipe Rocco; Johansen, Jacob L; Steffensen, John F; Domenici, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    In intertidal environments, the recurring hypoxic condition at low tide is one of the main factors affecting fish behaviour, causing broad effects on ecological interactions. We assessed the effects of hypoxia on lateralization (e.g. the tendency to turn left or right), a behaviour related to brain functional asymmetry, which is thought to play a key role in several life history aspects of fish. Using staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), a benthic fish that typically inhabits the intertidal zone, we found that hypoxia affects behavioural lateralization at the population level. On average, staghorn sculpins showed a distinct preference for right turns under normoxic conditions (>90% oxygen saturation), but an equal probability of turning right or left after exposure to hypoxia for 2 h (20% oxygen saturation). The specific turning preference observed in the staghorn sculpin control population is likely to have an adaptive value, for example in predator-prey interactions by enhancing attack success or survival from predatory attacks. Therefore the alteration of lateralization expressed by staghorn sculpins under hypoxic conditions may have far-reaching implications for species ecology and trophic interactions. Moreover, our work raises the need to study this effect in other species, in which a hypoxia-driven disruption of lateralization could affect a wider range of behaviours, such as social interactions and schooling. PMID:25359933

  4. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

  5. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  6. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodsio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; R, P

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  7. A Locomotor Innovation Enables Water-Land Transition in a Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

    2010-01-01

    Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions. PMID:20585564

  8. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  9. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  10. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Pardal, M; Duarte, A; Pereira, E; Palmeira, C M

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this work was to understand the extent of mercury toxic effects in liver metabolism under an episode of acute contamination. Hence, the effects of in vitro mercuric chloride in liver mitochondria were assessed in two commercial marine fish: Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Liver mitochondria were exposed to 0.2mgL(-1) of mercury, the average concentration found in fish inhabiting contaminated areas. Mercuric chloride depressed mitochondrial respiration state 3 and the maximal oxygen consumption in the presence of FCCP indicating inhibitory effects on the oxidative phosphorylation and on the electron transport chain, respectively. The inhibition of F1Fo-ATPase and succinate-dehydrogenase activities also corroborated the ability of mercury to inhibit ADP phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. This study brings new understanding on the mercury levels able to impair fish mitochondrial function, reinforcing the need for further assessing bioenergetics as a proxy for fish health status. PMID:26026249

  11. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. PMID:24083999

  12. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  13. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 ?Pa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 ?Pa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased. PMID:22385754

  14. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

  15. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. PMID:26763221

  16. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  17. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed. PMID:24688853

  18. DNA Barcoding for Species Assignment: The Case of Mediterranean Marine Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Monica; Dimech, Mark; Arculeo, Marco; Biondo, Girolama; Martins, Rogelia; Carneiro, Miguel; Carvalho, Gary Robert; Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Costa, Filipe O.

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI) constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1) a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2) the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS) and 72% (GenBank) of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%–18.74%), most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusion/Significance We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several fields, from fisheries and conservation programs to control of fish products authenticity. PMID:25222272

  19. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  20. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-10-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 μatm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 μatm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  1. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  2. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  3. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-01-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  4. Nanosilver-marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergizers against sepsis fish bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Khouloud Mohamed; Gohar, Yousri Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. The use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens. Materials and Methods: Different bulk chitosan solutions were prepared from the mycelia of four marine fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavipes, Tricoderma hamatum and Fennellia flavipes) and used as capping agents for silver nanoparticles. In vitro, the antibacterial activity of these preparations was determined against nine fish-sepsis causing bacteria, alone and in combination with nine antibiotics of choice used in aquaculture. Prepared fungal chitosans (CsF) were characterized by yield of chistosan obtained, degree of deacetylation and viscosity. Results and Conclusion: The maximum yield of chitosan (28%) was obtained from Aspergillus terreus. A. terreus chitosan (CsF), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CsF-AgNPs) showed maximum activity at the minimum inhibitory concentrations average (MICAVG) 27.2, 18.2 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. Combination of CsF -AgNPs with amikacin (Ak) and rifampicin (RD) reduced the MIC values by 96 and 94%, respectively, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) = 0.42 and 0.50 as synergistic effect. It is promising to use CsF-AgNPs as enhancing agent in combination with antibiotics for fish sepsis therapy. PMID:26885333

  5. Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Graham, M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

  6. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  7. The importance of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems for demersal fish in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Christopher K.; Vandeperre, Frederic; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Isidro, Eduardo; Morato, Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Cold-water corals and sponges aggregations are important features of the deep sea, recently classified as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). VMEs increase habitat complexity, believed to act as feeding, reproductive, nursery and refuge areas for a high number of invertebrates and fish species. In the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), VMEs are prevalent but their ecological role has not received much attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of VMEs in influencing the distribution of demersal fish in the Azores. With data collected during experimental longline surveys , we modeled the catch of six demersal fish species of commercial value (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Mora moro, Conger conger, Phycis phycis, Pontinus kuhlii) in relation to the presence of VMEs and other environmental factors using General Additive Models (GAMs). Our study demonstrated that total fish catch was higher inside VMEs but the relationship between fish and VMEs varied among fish species. Species specific models showed that catch was strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly depth, whilst the presence of VMEs was only important for two rockfish species; juvenile and adult P. kuhlii and juvenile H. dactylopterus. Although the association between deep-sea demersal fish and VMEs may be an exception to the rule, we suggest that VMEs act as an important habitat for two commercially important species in the Azores.

  8. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

  10. Simulation of high frequency nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated sub-tropical soils using DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique high temporal frequency dataset from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intens...

  11. Lead bioaccumulation and toxicity in tissues of economically fish species from river and marine water.

    PubMed

    Askary Sary, Abolfazl; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2012-07-01

    Bioaccumulation of lead was determined in muscle and liver of Barbus xanthopterus, Liza abu, Barbus grypus, Acanthopagrus latus, Platycephalus indicus, Otolithes ruber exposed to lead contaminated river and marine in Khouzestan. Significant variations in metal values were evaluated using student's t test at p < 0.05. In river fish, liver was polluted in comparison with muscle and high level was in B. xanthopterus (2.80 mg kg(-1) wet weight) except for B. grypus in Karkhe River (1.73 mg kg(-1)wet weight). In marine fish, muscle was contaminated than liver and high level was in O. ruber (47.18 mg kg(-1)wet weight) except for O. ruber in Mahshahr seaport (17.85 mg kg(-1) wet weight). PMID:22531841

  12. Long-wave sensitivity in the masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus), a shallow-water marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, Sergei L

    2008-09-01

    Microspectrophotometry (MSP) revealed that surprisingly for a "fully marine" species, in summer, photoreceptors of the nearshore scorpaeniform fish known as the masked greenling, Hexagrammos octogrammus, contained exclusively, or presumably, porphyropsin with a small admixture of rhodopsin. As a result of this, the lambda(max) of the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors were significantly shifted to longer wavelengths as compared to the lambda(max) typical of marine shallow-water fishes, showing about 530 nm for rods and single cones, and 570/625 nm for double-cone members. These unique spectral shifts would permit a cone-driven wavelength discrimination in spite of high-density orange corneal filters which block light at lower wavelengths. PMID:18675840

  13. Inflammation and innate immune response against viral infections in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Novoa, B; Mackenzie, S; Figueras, A

    2010-01-01

    Viral infections in fish are common in both natural and cultured fish populations and the spread of infectious disease is a serious threat to both natural ecosystems and commercial exploitations. A significant body of studies have addressed the host response to viral infection including the efficacy of DNA vaccines however we still have a fragmented vision of both pathologies associated with viral infection and the immune response to those across fish species. Many studies have concentrated upon freshwater fish including the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) whereas the majority of marine fish studies address the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Here we provide a comprehensive review concentrating upon the salient pathological features of the most common viral infections including examples of the Betanodaviruses, Birnaviruses, Rhabdoviruses and the Isavirus in cultured fish with emphasis where possible upon non-salmonid cold water adapted marine species. In parallel we review the current state of the art mainly in reference to gene expression studies describing the host innate immune response concentrating upon the inflammatory response and its relationship toward anti-viral immunity in fish. Due to the complexity of the observed responses and the limitations of candidate gene expression studies to describe global biological processes, recent efforts in the use of microarray analysis for the study of the anti-viral response have been highlighted including members of the Pleuronectiform and the Perciform families. Finally we review the potential of the zebrafish to become a significant biological model in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piscine immune response to viral infection. PMID:21184664

  14. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in the closing remarks delivered by Joseph Gaydos, SeaDoc Society and Chair of the Puget Sound Science Panel. Dr. Gaydos’ presentation referenced the 2011 paper by Murray Rudd in the journal Conservation Biology, “How research-prioritization exercises affect conservation policy.” The paper points out that policy makers and funding agencies are more likely to gain a full understanding of issues when they are presented with research findings from an aligned research program. That is, compared to unaligned research strategies, where work is not based on identified research priorities.

  15. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  16. Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

  17. Do Mediterranean fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussotti, S.; Guidetti, P.

    2009-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs were investigated in the Salento Peninsula (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea) by using visual census methods. Sampling was done at three sites, each of which included 4 habitat types: the external and the internal portions of caves, and shallow and deep rocky cliffs. 10 and 13 species were found exclusively inside cave habitats (e.g. Corcyrogobius lichtensteini, Thorogobius ephippiatus and Grammonus ater) or in rocky cliffs (e.g. Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa, Sparisoma cretense, Spondyliosoma cantharus), respectively. The four habitat types shared 10 species, and the external portions of the caves shared the most species (both with the internal cave portions and the external rocky cliffs). As a general rule, dissimilarity in the fish assemblage structure between habitats was far greater than dissimilarity between sites. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with caves) and Chromis chromis (typifying rocky cliffs, mainly the deep ones) mostly contributed to dissimilarities between caves and rocky cliffs. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with internal caves) and Coris julis (mainly associated to external cave portions) contributed strongly to dissimilarities between internal and external cave portions, while C. chromis, Symphodus mediterraneus and C. julis (associated with the deeper cliffs) and Thalassoma pavo (mostly present in shallow cliffs) differentiated deep and shallow cliffs. Diplodus vulgaris, Oblada melanura and Mullus surmuletus showed a marked increase in density during the cold season in the caves. These results show that fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs rich in marine caves (in terms of relative densities, species composition, species richness, exclusive species and presence of juveniles of some valuable species) may be affected by the peculiar ecological conditions within caves, which could provide additional resources for fishes (e.g. food availability, refuge against predators, sand patches within a rocky matrix) compared to rocky reefs without caves. These results suggest that stretches of rocky coasts rich in marine caves should be considered within management/conservation programs (e.g. when establishing Marine Protected Areas).

  18. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girn-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source-sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May-June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

  19. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May–June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. PMID:25165626

  20. Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

    Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

  1. Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Gasser, Robin; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish. PMID:23085044

  2. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  3. Spatial behavior of two coral reef fishes within a Caribbean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jessica; Mourier, Johann; Lenfant, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the key ecological processes of marine organisms is fundamental to improving design and effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine biodiversity. The movement behavior of coral reef fish is a complex mechanism that is highly linked to species life-history traits, predation risk and food resources. We used passive acoustic telemetry to study monthly, daily and hourly movement patterns and space use in two species, Schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus) and Stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride). We investigated the spatial overlap between the two species and compared intra-specific spatial overlap between day and night. Presence-absence models showed different diel presence and habitat use patterns between the two species. We constructed a spatial network of the movement patterns, which showed that for both species when fish were detected by the array of receivers most movements were made around the coral reef habitat while occasionally moving to silt habitats. Our results show that most individuals made predictable daily crepuscular migrations between different locations and habitat types, although individual behavioral changes were observed for some individuals across time. Our study also highlights the necessity to consider multiple species during MPA implementation and to take into account the specific biological and ecological traits of each species. The low number of fish detected within the receiver array, as well as the intraspecific variability observed in this study, highlight the need to compare results across species and individuals to be used for MPA management. PMID:26100078

  4. Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish passing through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-06-16

    The study reported here evaluated the occurrence, frequency, and intensity of blade strike of fish on an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine by using two modeling approaches: a conventional kinematic formulation and a proposed Lagrangian particle- based scheme. The kinematic model included simplifying assumptions of fish trajectories such as distribution and velocity. The proposed method overcame the need for such simplifications by integrating the following components into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulation, (ii) generation of ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The test conditions to evaluate the blade-strike probability and fish survival rate were: (i) the turbulent environment, (ii) the fish size, and (iii) the approaching flow velocity. The proposed method offered the ability to produce potential fish trajectories and their interaction with the rotating turbine. Depending upon the scenario, the percentile of particles that registered a collision event ranged from 6% to 19% of the released sample size. Next, by using a set of experimental correlations of the exposure-response of living fish colliding with moving blades, the simulated collision data were used as input variables to estimate the survival rate of fish passing through the operating turbine. The resulting survival rates were greater than 96% in all scenarios, which is comparable to or better than known survival rates for conventional hydropower turbines. The figures of strike probability and mortality rate were amplified by the kinematic model. The proposed method offered the advantage of expanding the evaluation of other mechanisms of stress and injury on fish derived from hydrokinetic turbines and related devices.

  5. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  6. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  7. Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  8. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Inorganic and Methylmercury in a Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-08-18

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to simulate the uptake, distribution, and elimination of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) in a marine fish, Terapon jarbua. In this model, fish were schematized as a six-compartment model by assuming that blood was the medium linking the exchange between the different compartments. The transfer rates between blood and other compartments were determined during a period of 10-day dietary Hg(II) or MeHg exposure, followed by a 30-day depuration. For both Hg species, the exchange rates between liver and blood were high, indicating that liver served as a "transferring station" in the distribution. Their accumulation in the kidney was relatively constant and low. The carcass (mainly muscle) represented a large sink for both Hg(II) and MeHg with the highest input rate constants and relatively lower output rate constants. Significant differences were observed in the rate constants between the two Hg species, suggesting great variations in their exchange and transportation routes. Modeling simulation for the first time demonstrated that the gill was the most important route in Hg(II) elimination in marine fish, with a rate constant of 0.90 d(-1). A long time frame is needed to study the exact rate of MeHg elimination in marine fish. This study showed that the PBPK modeling provided critical information for the uptake, distribution and elimination of Hg(II) and MeHg in the fish body, especially in elucidating the role of each compartment. PMID:26214348

  9. Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Anglica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

    2014-10-01

    Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ?6/?3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality. PMID:24799210

  10. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein. PMID:26546570

  11. Methylmercury and trace elements in the marine fish from coasts of East China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption is an important source of human exposure to heavy metals. To determine the health risks for metals by consumption of marine fish in China, three species of fish, namely large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were collected and analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (T-Hg), selenium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. The large yellow croakers had the highest concentrations of mercury, lead, nickel and zinc, and the levels of MeHg were positively correlated to T-Hg. The ratios of MeHg to T-Hg in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in silver pomfret, indicating differences in accumulation and magnification of MeHg in these two types of fish. The concentration of T-Hg was found to decrease as the Se level in fish tissues increased. Cadmium levels in 16% of the samples were higher than the criterion recommended by the European Commission Regulation. The concentrations of other metals were well below international standards. A human health risk assessment showed that the estimated daily intake of these metals did not exceed the reference dose established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The hazard quotients (HQs) were all less than 1, indicating a situation of no risk for consumption of these fish. PMID:23802158

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions. PMID:26939239

  13. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for recruitment to the population. An example of adaptation to such conditions is Cape hake spawning above the critical layer in the Northern Benguela upwelling ecosystem. The eggs rise slowly in the onshore subsurface current below the Ekman layer, hence being advected inshore where the hatched larvae concentrate with optimal feeding conditions. PMID:26465149

  14. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for recruitment to the population. An example of adaptation to such conditions is Cape hake spawning above the critical layer in the Northern Benguela upwelling ecosystem. The eggs rise slowly in the onshore subsurface current below the Ekman layer, hence being advected inshore where the hatched larvae concentrate with optimal feeding conditions. PMID:26465149

  15. Comparison of Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Inorganic and Organic Arsenic to Two Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dietary uptake could be the primary route of arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in marine fish, but the bioavailability of inorganic and organic As remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the trophic transfer and bioavailability of As in herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens and carnivorous seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. Rabbitfish were fed with one artificial diet or three macroalgae, whereas seabass were fed with one artificial diet, one polychaete, or two bivalves for 28 days. The six spiked fresh prey diets contained different proportions of inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] and organic As compounds [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], and the spiked artificial diet mainly contained As(III) or As(V). We demonstrated that the trophic transfer factors (TTF) of As in both fish were negatively correlated with the concentrations of inorganic As in the diets, while there was no relationship between TTF and the AsB concentrations in the diets. Positive correlation was observed between the accumulated As concentrations and the AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that organic As compounds (AsB) were more trophically available than inorganic As. Furthermore, the biotransformation ability of seabass was higher than that in rabbitfish, which resulted in higher As accumulation in seabass than in rabbitfish. Our study demonstrated that different prey with different inorganic/organic As proportions resulted in diverse bioaccumulation of total As in different marine fish. PMID:26835720

  16. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of 36 fish and squid species sampled in standardized bottom-trawl surveys of the northwest Atlantic Ocean (1967-present) revealed a continuum of distributional responses associated with seasonal and annual variations in water temperature. Mean and maximum latitude of occurrence of the species were regressed against average surface- and bottom-water temperatures and indices of relative abundance from spring and autumn trawl surveys. Significant (P [le] 0.05) regression models were fitted for 17 of 36 species from spring and fall survey data. Variations in water temperature were significant in explaining changes in mean latitude of occurrence for 12 of 36 species in both seasons. Maximum latitude distribution responses to interannual differences in water temperatures occurred for pelagic species, including Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus and Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Weighted mean catches of these species shifted poleward by 0.5-0.8 degree of latitude for each 1[degrees]C increase in average water temperature. Statistically significant poleward range extensions, associated with warmer water temperatures, occurred for five species in spring surveys and four in fall surveys. Different responses among species to changing thermal regimes of the northwest Atlantic Shelf have important potential consequences for trophic dynamics and fisheries yields of the ecosystem. Species found to be sensitive in distribution to temperature change include primary prey species of some predators that show limited seasonal or annual changes in distribution. Changes in distributional overlaps between some predators and prey therefore are a likely result of shelf warming associated with climate change. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-01-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

  18. Bioconcentration and Elimination of the Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Polycarbamate in Marine Teleost Fish and Polychaete.

    PubMed

    Hano, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the bioconcentration and elimination of polycarbamate, a popular antifoulant classified as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in a marine teleost fish, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), and a polychaete (Perinereis nuntia). Following polycarbamate exposure and depuration, the calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elimination rate constant (k2) were 3.1 and 0.17 day(-1) in fish and 1.5-7.8 and 0.13-0.18 day(-1) in the polychaete, indicating that the fungicide has low bioconcentration potential in both organisms. Given the BCF of 3.1, the permissible environmental concentration level of polycarbamate in water was calculated to be 6.1 µg L(-1) to satisfy the threshold pesticide residue levels in fish permitted by law, which is far below the permissible levels in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Therefore, we consider that the current polycarbamate contamination level in terms of bioconcentration is not likely to be an alarming issue in coastal environments. PMID:25904091

  19. The role of biophysical parameters in the antilipopolysaccharide activities of antimicrobial peptides from marine fish.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2014-03-01

    Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

  20. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Thorrold, Simon R

    2009-04-01

    Networks of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for the conservation of marine biodiversity. But for MPA networks to be successful in protecting marine populations, individual MPAs must be self-sustaining or adequately connected to other MPAs via dispersal. For marine species with a dispersive larval stage, populations within MPAs require either the return of settlement-stage larvae to their natal reserve or connectivity among reserves at the spatial scales at which MPA networks are implemented. To date, larvae have not been tracked when dispersing from one MPA to another, and the relative magnitude of local retention and connectivity among MPAs remains unknown. Here we use DNA parentage analysis to provide the first direct estimates of connectivity of a marine fish, the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), in a proposed network of marine reserves in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. Approximately 40% of A. percula larvae settling into anemones in an island MPA at 2 different times were derived from parents resident in the reserve. We also located juveniles spawned by Kimbe Island residents that had dispersed as far as 35 km to other proposed MPAs, the longest distance that marine larvae have been directly tracked. These dispersers accounted for up to 10% of the recruitment in the adjacent MPAs. Our findings suggest that MPA networks can function to sustain resident populations both by local replenishment and through larval dispersal from other reserves. More generally, DNA parentage analysis provides a direct method for measuring larval dispersal for other marine organisms. PMID:19307588

  1. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish samples, collected from Suruga-bay (located on Pacific coast in the middle of Honshu, Japan) showed 1E-10 to 7E-10, which was consistent with that of surface seawater.

  2. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  3. Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

  4. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  5. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11) g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12) g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9) g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10) g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10) g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  6. Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground.

    PubMed

    Wang, Delin; Garcia, Heriberto; Huang, Wei; Tran, Duong D; Jain, Ankita D; Yi, Dong Hoon; Gong, Zheng; Jech, J Michael; Godø, Olav Rune; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2016-03-17

    Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species. PMID:26934221

  7. A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

  8. Induction of CYP1A in marine fish species from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; McDonald, S.; Narasimhan, T.R.; Connor, K.; Safe, S.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities in over twenty species of fish, invertebrates, and fauna were used as biomarkers of exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Gulf of Mexico. The highest AHH and EROD activities in fish were detected in pinfish, tile, flounder, and hardhead catfish. In contrast, minimal to non-detectable induction was observed in invertebrates. Analysis of induction results showed that with the exception of a few species, there was a linear correlation between the induction of EROD vs AHH activity suggesting that ethoxyresorufin and benzo[a]pyrene serve as comparable substrates for CYP1A. In contrast, AHH activity was not induced in either hardhead catfish or lizard fish; whereas, the levels of EROD activity varied from 4.0 to 155 pmol/min/mg. These results indicate that there is some species-dependent variability in the catalytic activity of CYP1A protein in marine fish species, and that more reliable indicators of exposure to PAHs such as CYP1A mRNA levels should also be utilized in environmental monitoring studies. The results of Northern analysis of CYP1A mRNA levels in fish will be presented.

  9. Refugia of marine fish in the northeast Atlantic during the last glacial maximum: concordant assessment from archaeozoology and palaeotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.; Morales-Muiz, A.; Rosell-Izquierdo, E.; Heinrich, D.; Vllestad, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish during the LGM. The results indicate that the ranges of marine fish species now in northwestern Europe were displaced significantly southwards from the modern distribution, challenging an existing paradigm of marine glacial refugia. The model presents strong evidence that there was an invasion of important fish through the Straits of Gibraltar in glacial times, where they were exploited by Palaeolithic human populations around the western Mediterranean Sea. The ENM results are important for ongoing studies of molecular ecology that aim to assess marine glacial refugia from the genetic structure of living populations, and they pose questions about the genetic identity of vanished marine populations during the LGM. Economically, the approach may be used to understand how the ranges of exploited fish species may be displaced with the future climate warming. The research presents a challenge for future archaeozoological work to delimit the glacial refugia and to verify palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on deep-sea core records.

  10. Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration. PMID:24401080

  11. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design.

    PubMed

    Green, Alison L; Maypa, Aileen P; Almany, Glenn R; Rhodes, Kevin L; Weeks, Rebecca; Abesamis, Rene A; Gleason, Mary G; Mumby, Peter J; White, Alan T

    2015-11-01

    Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has important implications for the persistence of metapopulations and their recovery from disturbance. For marine reserves to protect biodiversity and enhance populations of species in fished areas, they must be able to sustain focal species (particularly fishery species) within their boundaries, and be spaced such that they can function as mutually replenishing networks whilst providing recruitment subsidies to fished areas. Thus the configuration (size, spacing and location) of individual reserves within a network should be informed by larval dispersal and movement patterns of the species for which protection is required. In the past, empirical data regarding larval dispersal and movement patterns of adults and juveniles of many tropical marine species have been unavailable or inaccessible to practitioners responsible for marine reserve design. Recent empirical studies using new technologies have also provided fresh insights into movement patterns of many species and redefined our understanding of connectivity among populations through larval dispersal. Our review of movement patterns of 34 families (210 species) of coral reef fishes demonstrates that movement patterns (home ranges, ontogenetic shifts and spawning migrations) vary among and within species, and are influenced by a range of factors (e.g. size, sex, behaviour, density, habitat characteristics, season, tide and time of day). Some species move <0.1-0.5 km (e.g. damselfishes, butterflyfishes and angelfishes), <0.5-3 km (e.g. most parrotfishes, goatfishes and surgeonfishes) or 3-10 km (e.g. large parrotfishes and wrasses), while others move tens to hundreds (e.g. some groupers, emperors, snappers and jacks) or thousands of kilometres (e.g. some sharks and tuna). Larval dispersal distances tend to be <5-15 km, and self-recruitment is common. Synthesising this information allows us, for the first time, to provide species, specific advice on the size, spacing and location of marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management for a range of taxa. We recommend that: (i) marine reserves should be more than twice the size of the home range of focal species (in all directions), thus marine reserves of various sizes will be required depending on which species require protection, how far they move, and if other effective protection is in place outside reserves; (ii) reserve spacing should be <15 km, with smaller reserves spaced more closely; and (iii) marine reserves should include habitats that are critical to the life history of focal species (e.g. home ranges, nursery grounds, migration corridors and spawning aggregations), and be located to accommodate movement patterns among these. We also provide practical advice for practitioners on how to use this information to design, evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of marine reserve networks within broader ecological, socioeconomic and management contexts. PMID:25423947

  12. Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

    2004-04-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt. PMID:15038000

  13. Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

    2014-03-15

    Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss. PMID:24507451

  14. How does fishing alter marine populations and ecosystems sensitivity to climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planque, Benjamin; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Cury, Philippe; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, R. Ian; Kifani, Souad

    2010-02-01

    Evidence has accumulated that climate variability influences the state and functioning of marine ecosystems. At the same time increasing pressure from exploitation and other human activities has been shown to impact exploited and non-exploited species and potentially modify ecosystem structure. There has been a tendency among marine scientists to pose the question as a dichotomy, i.e., whether (1) "natural" climate variability or (2) fishery exploitation bears the primary responsibility for population declines in fish populations and the associated ecosystem changes. However, effects of both climate and exploitation are probably substantially involved in most cases. More importantly, climate and exploitation interact in their effects, such that climate may cause failure in a fishery management scheme but that fishery exploitation may also disrupt the ability of a resource population to withstand, or adjust to, climate changes. Here, we review how exploitation, by altering the structure of populations and ecosystems, can modify their ability to respond to climate. The demographic effects of fishing (removal of large-old individuals) can have substantial consequences on the capacity of populations to buffer climate variability through various pathways (direct demographic effects, effects on migration, parental effects). In a similar way, selection of population sub-units within meta-populations may also lead to a reduction in the capacity of populations to withstand climate variability and change. At the ecosystem level, reduced complexity by elimination of species, such as might occur by fishing, may be destabilizing and could lead to reduced resilience to perturbations. Differential exploitation of marine resources could also promote increased turnover rates in marine ecosystems, which would exacerbate the effects of environmental changes. Overall (and despite the specificities of local situations) reduction in marine diversity at the individual, population and ecosystem levels will likely lead to a reduction in the resilience and an increase in the response of populations and ecosystems to future climate variability and change. Future management schemes will have to consider the structure and functioning of populations and ecosystems in a wider sense in order to maximise the ability of marine fauna to adapt to future climates.

  15. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  16. Population structure and phylogeography in Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a mass-aggregating marine fish.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alexis M; Semmens, Brice X; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S; Heppell, Scott A; Bush, Phillippe G; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A B; Calosso, Marta C; Sealey, Kathleen S; Schrer, Michelle T; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  17. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 2961,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

  18. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pham, Christopher K; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296-1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

  19. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  20. Fish host-cestode parasite stable isotope enrichment patterns in marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes from Northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Power, Michael; Klein, Geoff

    2004-12-01

    Cestode parasites from freshwater (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus), estuarine (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis) and marine (Greenland cod, Gadus ogac) fish from northern Quebec, Canada, were used to investigate the hypotheses that cestode parasites are (13)C and (15)N enriched relative to host food sources, but (15)N depleted with respect to host muscle tissue as a result of differential enrichment during the assimilation of common nutrient sources. Cestode parasites and fish were generally similarly enriched in (13)C with respect to common food sources and, in the case of Greenland cod, cestode parasites were (13)C enriched relative to host tissue. Cestode parasites were also generally (15)N enriched with respect to mean host dietary signatures, but depleted with respect to host muscle tissue. In the case of Greenland cod cestode parasites, no significant (15)N enrichment relative to host dietary signature was observed. Cestode parasites appear generally to experience smaller (15)N enrichment than hosts as a result of trophic transfer of common dietary sources. Differential (15)N enrichment patterns in parasites and fish may be attributed to differences in parasite and host metabolism, particularly the anaerobic and aerobic natures of their respective metabolisms. Results imply that isotope enrichment paradigms developed for the study of aquatic foodwebs cannot be routinely applied to quantitatively assess the role of parasites in aquatic foodwebs and that reference to host muscle tissue measures will not allow accurate characterization of parasite foodweb position. Appropriate reference to assimilated food sources is required to accurately estimate parasite isotopic enrichment patterns and to determine parasite trophic position relative to the host. PMID:15621744

  1. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2015-04-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is that the global atmospheric planetary waves can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the most recent 59-year period (1950-2008) have been identified based on Student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. The global forcing mechanism is described with a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate that examining the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries is a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from longwave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter-wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in global marine fisheries.

  2. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

  3. A Ranking System for Reference Libraries of DNA Barcodes: Application to Marine Fish Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Filipe O.; Landi, Monica; Martins, Rogelia; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria E.; Carneiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria J.; Steinke, Dirk; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of reference libraries of DNA barcodes (RLDB) offers the opportunity to the screen the level of consistency in DNA barcode data among libraries, in order to detect possible disagreements generated from taxonomic uncertainty or operational shortcomings. We propose a ranking system to attribute a confidence level to species identifications associated with DNA barcode records from a RLDB. Here we apply the proposed ranking system to a newly generated RLDB for marine fish of Portugal. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens (n?=?659) representing 102 marine fish species were collected along the continental shelf of Portugal, morphologically identified and archived in a museum collection. Samples were sequenced at the barcode region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI-5P). Resultant DNA barcodes had average intra-specific and inter-specific Kimura-2-parameter distances (0.32% and 8.84%, respectively) within the range usually observed for marine fishes. All specimens were ranked in five different levels (AE), according to the reliability of the match between their species identification and the respective diagnostic DNA barcodes. Grades A to E were attributed upon submission of individual specimen sequences to BOLD-IDS and inspection of the clustering pattern in the NJ tree generated. Overall, our study resulted in 73.5% of unambiguous species IDs (grade A), 7.8% taxonomically congruent barcode clusters within our dataset, but awaiting external confirmation (grade B), and 18.7% of species identifications with lower levels of reliability (grades C/E). Conclusion/Significance We highlight the importance of implementing a system to rank barcode records in RLDB, in order to flag taxa in need of taxonomic revision, or reduce ambiguities of discordant data. With increasing DNA barcode records publicly available, this cross-validation system would provide a metric of relative accuracy of barcodes, while enabling the continuous revision and annotation required in taxonomic work. PMID:22558244

  4. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Mrsico, E T; Ferreira, M S; So Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C.microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2mBqkg(-1) for G.brasiliensis and it was 6mBqkg(-1) for C.microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. PMID:24334195

  5. Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Muoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the worlds largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

  6. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

  7. Comparative analysis of the humoral immunity of skin mucus from several marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Abelln, Emilia; Meseguer, Jos; Esteban, Mara A

    2014-09-01

    Fish skin mucus contains several immune substances that provide the first line of defence against a broad spectrum of pathogens although they are poorly studied to date. Terminal carbohydrate composition and levels of total IgM antibodies, several immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases, proteases and antiproteases) as well as the bactericidal activity (against fish pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio angillarum, Photobacterium damselae and non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shewanella putrefaciens) were identified and measured in the skin mucus of five marine teleosts: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa), common dentex (Dentex dentex) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). First, lectin binding results suggests that skin mucus contain, in order of abundance, N-acetylneuraminic acid, glucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and fucose residues. Second, results showed that while some immune activities were very similar in the studied fish (e.g. IgM and lysozyme activity) other such as protease, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase, esterase and peroxidase activities varied depending on the fish species. High levels of peroxidase and protease activity were found in U. cirrosa respect to the values obtained in the other species while E. marginatus and S. aurata showed the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and esterase activities, respectively. Moreover, skin mucus of S. aurata revealed higher bactericidal activity against pathogenic bacteria, contrarily, to what happened with non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis). Thus, study of the variations in the carbohydrate profile and immune-related components of the fish skin mucus could help to understand the fish resistance as well as the presence and distribution of pathogens and magnitude of infections, aspects that are of major importance for the aquaculture industry. PMID:24972341

  8. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  9. Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species.

    PubMed

    Als, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

  10. Human excretory products of selenium are natural constituents of marine fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Nina; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2015-10-01

    A selenosugar (selenosugar 1, methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside) was identified in aqueous extracts of muscle tissue of three marine fish species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and tuna (Thunnus albacares), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry. Selenoneine (2-selenyl-Nα, Nα, Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine), a known selenium compound in fish, was the major form of selenium in the aqueous extracts, and the methylated derivative of selenoneine, namely Se-methylselenoneine, was also identified as a minor natural constituent in the fish. Selenosugar 1, a major urinary excretion product of selenium often found in organs and body fluids related to selenium excretion, has so far not been reported in muscle tissue. Se-methylselenoneine has been proposed as the main urinary metabolite from selenoneine. This first report of selenosugar 1 and Se-methylselenoneine as natural constituents of fish muscle tissue opens up a new perspective on the role of these compounds in selenium metabolism and is relevant to selenium supplementation studies. PMID:26253229

  11. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, M; Yesudhason, P; Al-Mughairi, S; Al-Rahbi, W A K; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Mazrooei, N A; Al-Habsi, S H

    2011-09-01

    Commercially important fresh (581) and frozen (292) marine fish samples of 10 species were collected from seafood factories and evaluated using AAS and ICP-OES. Metal levels significantly (p<0.05) varied within and between species. However, there were no significant correlations among metals. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and yellowfin tuna had the highest level of cadmium and mercury however, red seabream had maximum numbers above the standards. The metal accumulation significantly varied between bottom feeders of intermediately size locally caught fish. The mean cadmium level ranged from 0.0049 to 0.036 mg kg(-1) and 1.37% of the total samples exceeded the EU and FAO standards. Mean lead content varied between 0.029 and 0.196 mg kg(-1), few samples crossed the EU (2.63%) and FAO (1.6%) limits. Mean mercury level ranged from 0.015 to 0.101 mg kg(-1) and none of the samples exceeded the EU limit. Of the total samples analyzed red seabream (2.06%), yellowfin tuna (1.14%), emperor (0.34%), santer bream (0.22%), king fish (0.11%) and skipjack tuna (0.11%) samples crossed the EU limits. In general, fish from these regions are within the safety levels recommended by various organizations and do not pose a health risk in terms of human diet. PMID:21700309

  12. Neobenedenia girellae (Hargis, 1955) Yamaguti, 1963 (Monogenea: Capsalidae) from cultured marine fishes of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Bondad-Reantaso, M G; Fukudome, M; Wakabayashi, H

    1995-04-01

    The monogenean Neobenedenia girellae (Hargis, 1955) Yamaguti, 1963 is redescribed and reported for the first time in Japan. The parasite was recovered from the body surface, fins, and occasionally from the eyes of 14 species, comprising 5 families of cultured marine fishes from several localities in southwestern Japan. Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927) sensu Kaneko et al. (1988) from tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in Hawaii is synonymized with this species. Examination of original specimens (syntypes) of N. melleni sensu MacCallum (1927) revealed differences with N. girellae in having a wide and rounded body, a prominently large anterior hamuli, and absence of glands of Goto. This Neobenedenia from Japanese fishes sometimes showed an unusual morphology of the individual parts of the median sclerites. The potential threat of N. girellae to the health of cultured Japanese fishes is indicated by its low host specificity, wide distribution, and ability to cause mortality due to heavy infection. Unregulated importation of amberjack fry (Seriola dumerili) to Japan appears to be the source of N. girellae infection in Japanese fishes since 1991. PMID:7707197

  13. Terrestrial and marine trophic pathways support young-of-year growth in a nearshore Arctic fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cohn, Brian R.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    River discharge supplies nearshore communities with a terrestrial carbon source that is often reflected in invertebrate and fish consumers. Recent studies in the Beaufort Sea have documented widespread terrestrial carbon use among invertebrates, but only limited use among nearshore fish consumers. Here, we examine the carbon source and diet of rapidly growing young-of-year Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) using stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) from muscle and diet analysis (stomach contents) during a critical and previously unsampled life stage. Stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) may differentiate between terrestrial and marine sources and integrate over longer time frames (weeks). Diet analysis provides species-specific information, but only from recent foraging (days). Average δ13C for all individuals was −25.7 ‰, with the smallest individuals possessing significantly depleted δ13C values indicative of a stronger reliance of terrestrial carbon sources as compared to larger individuals. Average δ15N for all individuals was 10.4 ‰, with little variation among individuals. As fish length increased, the proportion of offshore Calanus prey and neritic Mysis prey increased. Rapid young-of-year growth in Arctic cisco appears to use terrestrial carbon sources obtained by consuming a mixture of neritic and offshore zooplankton. Shifts in the magnitude or phenology of river discharge and the delivery of terrestrial carbon may alter the ecology of nearshore fish consumers.

  14. Culture of harpacticoid copepods: potential as live feed for rearing marine fish.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Copepods are useful as food for marine fish cultivation, in terms of both nutrition and ease of culture. Harpacticoid copepods are favoured over calanoids, since harpacticoids, as a result of their benthic habitat, can be reared at much higher densities. However, their benthic nature also makes mass culture difficult, since large surface areas must be provided. Within Harpacticoida, Tisbe spp. seem most useful, having high overall fecundity, and positive phototaxis of the nauplii. Harpacticoids can synthesise de novo several nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA), making them desirable as food for rearing marine fish. However, a diet rich in EFAs (e.g. animal derived feed) improves the productivity of copepod cultures, suggesting that the synthesis of EFA is rate-limiting for their reproduction. The nature of the substratum is also important in maintaining a good population, since harpacticoid biomass is more dependent on surface area than volume of a culture. Heterogeneous substrates can support large cultures because of their high surface area, but efficient cleaning methods are necessary. Frequent harvesting of populations will maintain good water quality and an overall low density of sexually mature copepods, raising naupliar productivity overall. Over-harvesting will naturally deplete the population. Harpacticoids are generally tolerant of environmental fluctuations but they do have temperature and salinity optima, and these will be species- and strain-dependent. Harpacticoid copepods are better food for fish larvae than Artemia, because of their ability to synthesise EFAs. The nauplii of harpacticoids are energetically poor but appear to have an appetite-stimulatory effect. Uneaten nauplii grow within the fish rearing tanks and graze on the walls, building up their own nutritional value and maintaining tank hygiene. PMID:12846044

  15. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. PMID:17465152

  16. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through otolith microchemical and electronic tagging approaches. Retentive and dispersive behaviours confer resiliency against early survival conditions that vary spatially. Examples of contingent structure are increasingly numerous for diadromous fishes. Here, a nursery habitat associated with a contingent behaviour may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. For flatfish and other marine fishes, contingent structure is probable but not well documented. Proximate factors leading to contingent structure are poorly known, but for diadromous fishes, time of spawning and early life history energetic thresholds is hypothesized to lead to alternative life cycles. Here again time of spawning may lead to the storage effect by hedging against spatial variance in early vital rates. Managing for the storage effect will be promoted by conservation of adult age structure and early habitats upon which both strong and weak year-classes rely.

  17. Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish. PMID:16870232

  18. Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.

    PubMed

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

  19. Metallothionein, oxidative stress and trace metals in gills and liver of demersal and pelagic fish species from Kuwaits' marine area.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Jandal, N; Al-Subiai, S; Karam, Q; Husain, S; Butt, S A; Ali, A; Al-Hasan, E; Al-Dufaileej, S; Al-Husaini, M

    2015-11-30

    Two fish species yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) were collected from two locations in Kuwait's territorial waters in non-reproductive periods and used as bio-indicator organism for the assessment of metals in the marine environment. Species variation in fish was observed; seabream contained high metal content and metallothionein in liver and gill tissues compared to tonguesole, especially from Kuwait Bay area. Oxidative injury was registered in the gills of both species, but in tonguesole liver was also involved. Consequently, antioxidant enzyme catalase was elevated in tonguesole enabling bottom dwelling fish to combat oxidative assault. The study provided information about the current status of metals in marine sediment and levels of metals accumulated in representative species along with oxidative damage in exposed tissues and the range of biomarker protein metallothionein and enzymes of antioxidant defence mechanism enhancing our understanding about the biological response to the existing marine environment in Kuwait. PMID:26231068

  20. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ort, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies. PMID:25808114

  1. Paleoecological studies on variability in marine fish populations: A long-term perspective on the impacts of climatic change on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Alheit, Jrgen; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Field, David B.; Gutirrez, Dimitri; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    The use of historical fishing records to understand relationships between climatic change and fish abundance is limited by the relatively short duration of these records, and complications due to the strong influence of human activity in addition to climatic change. Sedimentary records containing scales, bones or geochemical proxies of variability in fish populations provide unique insights on long-term ecosystem dynamics and relationships with climatic change. Available records from Holocene sediments are summarized and synthesized. The records are from several widespread locations near or along the continental margins of the South Atlantic and Pacific oceans, including Alaska, USA (Pacific salmon), Saanich and Effingham Inlets, British Columbia, Canada (pelagic fish), Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA (Northern anchovies and Pacific sardines), Gulf of California, Mexico (Pacific sardines, Northern anchovies and Pacific hake), Peru upwelling system (sardines, anchovies and hake), and Benguela Current System, South Africa (sardines, anchovies and hake). These records demonstrate that fish population sizes are not constant, and varied significantly over a range of time scales prior to the advent of large-scale commercial fishing. In addition to the decadal-scale variability commonly observed in historical records, the long-term records reveal substantial variability over centennial and millennial time scales. Shifts in abundance are often, but not always, correlated with regional and/or global climatic changes. The long-term perspective reveals different patterns of variability in fish populations, as well as fish-climate relationships, than suggested by analysis of historical records. Many records suggest prominent changes in fish abundance at ca. 1000-1200 AD, during the Little Ice Age, and during the transition at the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century that may be correlative, and that were likely driven by major hemispheric or global reorganizations in the earth's climate system. Additional sedimentary records of marine fish abundance and corresponding paleoenvironmental conditions are likely to further enhance our understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Dixson, Danielle L; Endo, Geoff G K

    2009-09-22

    Little is known about how fishes and other non-calcifying marine organisms will respond to the increased levels of dissolved CO(2) and reduced sea water pH that are predicted to occur over the coming century. We reared eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, in sea water simulating a range of ocean acidification scenarios for the next 50-100 years (current day, 550, 750 and 1030 ppm atmospheric CO(2)). CO(2) acidification had no detectable effect on embryonic duration, egg survival and size at hatching. In contrast, CO(2) acidification tended to increase the growth rate of larvae. By the time of settlement (11 days post-hatching), larvae from some parental pairs were 15 to 18 per cent longer and 47 to 52 per cent heavier in acidified water compared with controls. Larvae from other parents were unaffected by CO(2) acidification. Elevated CO(2) and reduced pH had no effect on the maximum swimming speed of settlement-stage larvae. There was, however, a weak positive relationship between length and swimming speed. Large size is usually considered to be advantageous for larvae and newly settled juveniles. Consequently, these results suggest that levels of ocean acidification likely to be experienced in the near future might not, in isolation, significantly disadvantage the growth and performance of larvae from benthic-spawning marine fishes. PMID:19556256

  3. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Pron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jgerskild, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters. PMID:22779112

  4. Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebratesfishesremain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

  5. Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    Although persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (PBTs) are well-studied individually, their distribution and variability on a global scale are largely unknown, particularly in marine fish. Using 2,662 measurements collected from peer-reviewed literature spanning 1969–2012, we examined variability of five classes of PBTs, considering effects of geography, habitat, and trophic level on observed concentrations. While we see large-scale spatial patterning in some PBTs (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls), habitat type and trophic level did not contribute to significant patterning, with the exception of mercury. We further examined patterns of change in PBT concentration as a function of sampling year. All PBTs showed significant declines in concentration levels through time, ranging from 15–30% reduction per decade across PBT groups. Despite consistent evidence of reductions, variation in pollutant concentration remains high, indicating ongoing consumer risk of exposure to fish with pollutant levels exceeding EPA screening values. The temporal trends indicate that mitigation programs are effective, but that global levels decline slowly. In order for monitoring efforts to provide more targeted assessments of risk to PBT exposure, these data highlight an urgent need for improved replication and standardization of pollutant monitoring protocols for marine finfish. PMID:26839747

  6. A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

    2011-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

  7. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish

    PubMed Central

    Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. Results The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Conclusion Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment. PMID:21504921

  8. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  9. Occurrence of Philometra lateolabracis (Nematoda: Philometridae) in the gonads of marine perciform fishes in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Glamuzina, Branko; Marino, Giovanna; Merella, Paolo; Di Cave, David

    2003-02-27

    Gravid females of the nematode Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935), a parasite of gonads of marine perciform fishes, were found in wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe) from waters near the Balear Islands (Spain, Mediterranean Sea) and Sicily (Italy, Thyrrenean Sea), and in the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso) in Croatia (south-eastern Adriatic Sea). In wild E. marginatus in Spain, the overall prevalence was 21% and the intensity of infection 1 nematode per fish. The nematodes are briefly described and illustrated. The species Sanguinofilaria jordanoi Lpez-Neyra, 1951, described from the ovary of Epinephelus gigas Brnich from Morocco, is synonymized with P. lateolabracis. This is the first documented record of P. lateolabracis from fishes of the Mediterranean region and its finding in S. dumerili represents a new host record. The possible importance of this pathogenic parasite for cultures of marine perciform fishes in the region is stressed. PMID:12691199

  10. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

  11. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  12. Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination in marine fish from South American Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T

    2007-06-01

    The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space. PMID:17578590

  13. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  14. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928

  15. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and κ-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  16. Comparing the nursery role of inner continental shelf and estuarine habitats for temperate marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodland, Ryan J.; Secor, David H.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Wilberg, Michael J.

    2012-03-01

    The marine-estuarine transition represents an important biogeographic boundary, yet juvenile marine finfish have been observed in both temperate inner continental shelf (ICS) and estuarine habitats during the summer nursery period. In a direct comparison of ICS and estuary nurseries, spatial and temporal patterns in species composition, biodiversity, size structure, and relative abundance of age-0 fishes were tested using contemporaneous data from multiyear (2004-2006) trawl surveys of the Maryland ICS near Assateague Island, MD, and lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (estuary). Survey data from both habitats showed similar seasonal progression of assemblage structure, biodiversity phenologies, and dominant species identities. Late summer densities for four of five numerically dominant species varied by habitat. Densities of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and Atlantic butterfish Peprilus triacanthus were higher in the ICS; whereas summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus density was higher in the estuary. Density of spot Leiostomus xanthurus did not differ between habitats. Apparent daily growth rates of these five species, as estimated by modal length progression, were not significantly different between the two habitats. Although individual species displayed varying affinities for ICS versus estuarine habitats, this study provides strong evidence that the ICS of the Middle Atlantic Bight is capable of functioning interchangeably with polyhaline estuarine regions as nursery habitat for a diverse group of marine finfish.

  17. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

    1981-08-18

    The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

  18. Myosin isoforms in red and white muscles of some marine teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Ofstad, R; Olsen, R L

    1990-12-01

    The myosin content from red and white muscles of three marine fish species, saithe (Pollachius virens. L.), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, L.), both members of the family Gadidae, and capeline (Mallotus villosus, M.) of the family Osmeridae, was analyzed electrophoretically. Analysis of the native myosin by electrophoresis under non-dissociating conditions revealed two isoforms in red muscles, and three or four in white muscles. The white muscles of the two closely related species had a similar pattern of isoforms. Myosin from the slow red muscles had two types of light chain, LC1S and LC2S, and myosin from the fast white muscles three, LC1F, LC2F, and LC3F. The pattern of light chains in both types of muscles was species-dependent. All the light chains from fish myosins were more acidic than those of the rat diaphragm used as standard. One main type of heavy chain was detected in each kind of muscle. In white muscles of saithe there was an extra band, present in minor amounts. The heavy chains from white muscle myosin had lower electrophoretic mobilities than those from red muscle, and the mobilities of all of them were intermediate between those of the heavy chains type IIa and I of rat diaphragm myosin. In our opinion, there are probably more isomyosins in fish muscles than those detected in the present work and their presence is obscured by comigration with the main types. PMID:2150675

  19. [Evaluation of recovery methods of Shigella species from fresh marine fish and shellfishes].

    PubMed

    Shimotori, S; Kojima, F; Harushima, H; Amako, K

    1990-10-01

    Recovery experiments of Shigella strains from fresh marine fish and shellfishes, including fresh sea urchin, which have been artificially contaminated with the strains, were performed using the improved Shigella broth-enrichment method and the culture method reported by Mehlman et al. All of the 43 Shigella stock cultures strains tested were recovered easily by the enrichment method from sea urchin individuals inoculated with a small number of viable cells of each strain. That is, a total of 24 strains (56%) were recovered from sea urchin individuals inoculated with less than 10 viable cells per one individual, and the other 19 strains were also recovered when 10 to 1,000 cells of each strain were inoculated. Recovery of Shigella strains from fish and shellfishes by the enrichment method was hardly affected by the number of contaminated bacteria (SPC, standard plate counts) in these materials. In order to confirm reliability of the enrichment method, similar experiments were performed using S. flexneri strain B as the inoculum and more fish and shellfishes as the samples (24 specimens of fresh sea urchins, 11 specimens of fresh oysters and 5 other specimens including prawns). Except for one oyster specimen which showed an especially high SPC value, the inoculum was able to be recovered from most of the materials inoculated with less than 10 viable cells, and all of the tested samples became Shigella positive when they were inoculated with up to 1,000 viable cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2258650

  20. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca J.; Bellwood, David R.; Jennions, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2–3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  1. Differential Toxicokinetics Determines the Sensitivity of Two Marine Embryonic Fish Exposed to Iranian Heavy Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Hana; Incardona, John P; Linbo, Tiffany L; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-11-17

    Interspecific difference in the developmental toxicity of crude oil to embryonic fish allows the prediction of injury extent to a number of resident fish species in oil spill sites. This study clarifies the comparative developmental effects of Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) on the differences of biouptake and toxic sensitivity between embryonic spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculates) and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). From 24 h after exposure to IHCO, several morphological defects were observed in both species of embryonic fish, including pericardial edema, dorsal curvature of the trunk, developmental delay, and reduced finfolds. The severity of defects was greater in flounder compared to that in sea bass. While flounder embryos accumulated higher embryo PAH concentrations than sea bass, the former showed significantly lower levels of CYP1A expression. Although bioconcentration ratios were similar between the two species for some PAHs, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes showed selectively higher bioconcentration ratios in flounder, suggesting that this species has a reduced metabolic capacity for these compounds. While consistent with a conserved cardiotoxic mechanism for petrogenic PAHs across diverse marine and freshwater species, these findings indicate that species-specific differences in toxicokinetics can be an important factor underlying species' sensitivity to crude oil. PMID:26458192

  2. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca J; Bellwood, David R; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2-3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family. PMID:26473049

  3. Hemoflagellates of Oregon marine fishes with the description of new species of Trypanosoma and Trypanoplasma.

    PubMed

    Burreson, Eugene M

    2007-12-01

    Of 2,122 marine fishes representing 36 species collected in the northeastern Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Newport, Oregon from 1971 to 1973, 541 individuals (25.5%) representing 8 species (22.2%) were infected with hemoflagellates. Four morphologically distinct trypanosomes and 3 distinct trypanoplasms were found in fishes collected offshore, but no hemoflagellates were observed in fishes from Yaquina Bay estuary. Trypanosoma pacifica was found in English sole Parophrys vetulus, Pacific sanddab Citharichthys sordidus, and slender sole Lyopsetta exilis, and survived in 5 other species after intraperitoneal injection. Trypanosoma gargantua was found in big skate Raja binoculata, and the leech Orientobdella confluens was able to transmit the trypanosome in experimental conditions. Trypanosoma khani n. sp. occurred in P. vetulus, petrale sole Eopsetta jordani, and Dover sole Microstomus pacificus. Trypanosoma murmanense was found in L. exilis collected from 200 m, but not in L. exilis collected from 80 m. Trypanoplasma beckeri parasitized the cabezon Scorpaenichthys marmoratus. Trypanoplasma bobolsoni n. sp. was found in E. jordani, L. exilis, and P. vetulus, and survived in 2 other species after intraperitoneal injection. A distinct, but unnamed trypanoplasm, was found in P. vetulus. PMID:18314692

  4. Developmental patterns of copper bioaccumulation in a marine fish model Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Green, Iain; Tan, Qiaoguo; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Allometry is known to be an important factor influencing metal bioaccumulation in animals. However, it is not clear whether effects are due to body size per se or changes in physiological traits during the animals' development. We therefore investigated the biokinetics of copper (Cu) and predicted Cu bioaccumulation during the development of a fish model, the marine medaka. The results revealed that the waterborne Cu uptake rate constant decreased and dietary Cu assimilation efficiency increased during development from larvae to adults. Thus, the allometric dependency of the biokinetic parameters in juveniles and adults can not be simply extrapolated to the whole life cycle. The body Cu concentration in the fish was predicted by the biokinetic model, which showed a rapid increase in the larval stage, followed by a slight increase from juveniles to adults, and then a relatively stable plateau in the post-adult stage. Dietary Cu uptake became more important as fish developed from larvae to juveniles, but became less important from juveniles to adults. These findings suggested that the developmental patterns of metal bioaccumulation are driven by an integrated biological/physiological shift through animals' ontogeny rather than a simple allometric dependent change. The developmental changes of metal uptake should be considered in ecological bioassessment and biomonitoring programs. PMID:26675367

  5. Evaluation of marine subareas of Europe using life history parameters and trophic levels of selected fish populations.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R P Prabath K; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Newton, Alice

    2015-12-01

    European marine waters include four regional seas that provide valuable ecosystem services to humans, including fish and other seafood. However, these marine environments are threatened by pressures from multiple anthropogenic activities and climate change. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was adopted in 2008 to achieve good environmental status (GEnS) in European Seas by year 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GEnS is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators. In the present analysis two descriptors namely "commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs" were used to evaluate the status of subareas of FAO 27 area. Data on life history parameters, trophic levels and fisheries related data of cod, haddock, saithe, herring, plaice, whiting, hake and sprat were obtained from the FishBase online database and advisory reports of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Subareas inhabited by r and K strategists were identified using interrelationships of life history parameters of commercially important fish stocks. Mean trophic level (MTL) of fish community each subarea was calculated and subareas with species of high and low trophic level were identified. The Fish in Balance (FiB) index was computed for each subarea and recent trends of FiB indices were analysed. The overall environmental status of each subarea was evaluated considering life history trends, MTL and FiB Index. The analysis showed that subareas I, II, V, VIII and IX were assessed as "good" whereas subareas III, IV, VI and VII were assessed as "poor". The subareas assessed as "good" were subject to lower environmental pressures, (less fishing pressure, less eutrophication and more water circulation), while the areas with "poor" environment experienced excessive fishing pressure, eutrophication and disturbed seabed. The evaluation was based on two qualitative descriptors ("commercially exploited fish and shellfish populations" and "food webs") is therefore more robust. PMID:26297042

  6. Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciércoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-José; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Sáez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

  7. Host ontogeny and the temporal decay of similarity in parasite communities of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T; Luque, Jos L; Poulin, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Geographical distances between host populations are key determinants of how many parasite species they share. In principle, decay in similarity should also occur with increasing distance along any other dimension that characterizes some form of separation between communities. Here, we apply the biogeographical concept of distance decay in similarity to ontogenetic changes in the metazoan parasite communities of three species of marine fish from the Atlantic coast of South America. Using differences in body length between all possible pairs of size classes as measures of ontogenetic distances, we find that, using an index of similarity (Bray-Curtis) that takes into account the abundance of each parasite species, the similarity in parasite communities showed a very clear decay pattern; using an index (Jaccard) based on presence/absence of species only, we obtained slightly weaker but nevertheless similar patterns. As we predicted, the slope of the decay relationship was significantly steeper in the fish Cynoscion guatucupa, which goes through clear ontogenetic changes in diet and therefore in exposure to parasites, than in the other species, Engraulis anchoita and Micropogonias furnieri, which maintain a roughly similar diet throughout their lives. In addition, we found that for any given ontogenetic distance, i.e. for a given length difference between two size classes, the similarity in parasite communities was almost always higher if they were adult size classes, and almost always lower if they were juvenile size classes. This, combined with comparisons among individual fish within size classes, shows that parasite communities in juvenile fish are variable and subject to stochastic effects. We propose the distance decay approach as a rigorous and quantitative method to measure rates of community change as a function of host age, and for comparisons across host species to elucidate the role of host ecology in the development of parasite assemblages. PMID:20188105

  8. Molecular identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes collected in Turkish waters.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Yardimci, Banu; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Acici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-03-17

    Anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis (or anisakidosis). These parasites in the Turkish waters still remain unexplored. This study aims the molecular identification of Anisakis species in Turkey's coast from Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea and specifically to screen for zoonotic species in commonly commercialized a total of 1145 fish belonging to 31 different species using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene. A total of 776 Anisakis type I larvae were isolated in 56/1145 (4.8%) fish of 7 species from Turkish waters. The combining all of our results, e.g., morphology, PCR-RFLP, ITS region, and the cox2 gene, conclusively supported the identification of 3 Anisakis spp. taken from marine fish hosts, namely Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis typica and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.str.)/A. pegreffii hybrid genotype. No Anisakis larvae were isolated from the Black Sea whereas A. pegreffii, A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotype was found in the Aegean Sea and A. pegreffii was only isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This study represents the first identification of A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotypes from Turkish waters. Moreover, in the present study first record of the presence of A. pegreffii is also reported from Turkish coasts of Aegean and Mediterranean Sea. No zoonotic Anisakis species were found in commonly commercialized 1025 fish belonging to 16 different species from the Black Sea, thus Turkish populations who consume captured fish from the Black Sea may have a less risk of human anisakiasis or allergies. However, the prevalence of larvae were 47.1% and 46% and recognized zoonotic A. pegreffii were identified from the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coast, suggesting a high threat of anisakiasis or allergies for Turkish populations who consume fish originating in these regions. PMID:24485564

  9. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  10. Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

  11. Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Bill D., Comp.

    These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to

  12. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  13. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; Frana, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the variability in site features amongst estuaries highlighted the tolerance of these species to different available environmental conditions and provided fundamental information for future spatially explicit modelling of their distribution. This should ultimately enable the prediction of species response to habitat alterations.

  14. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaqun; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Crdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-01-01

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast. PMID:25947787

  15. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2°C, for 14days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2°C at the Marín retail fish market for 14days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient, respectively, bacterial counts were significantly lower than those of the untreated control batches, both for young hake and megrim. In addition, the presence of Listeria spp. in megrim was inhibited in both analyses. The effect of protective culture or food ingredient on the sensory characteristics of fish was evaluated by an official fish appraiser from the Marín retail fish market, who concluded that all the biopreserved batches were worth a higher price in the fish market than the respective control batches, demonstrating that the multibacteriocinogenic strain of marine origin Lb. curvatus BCS35 may be considered as a suitable candidate for its application as fresh fish biopreservative. PMID:26890359

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Frantiek; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the Johns snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.373. 90mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126141?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  17. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantiek; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 ?m) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  18. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  19. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed. PMID:26898586

  20. Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

  1. [Transversal partitioning and interspecific associations in communities of ectoparasitic metazoans in marine sciaenid fishes from Peru].

    PubMed

    Luque, J L

    1996-08-01

    During 1987 and 1988 marine sciaenid fishes from the central Peruvian coast were examined: 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 311 Stellifer minor. Thirty metazoan ectoparasites were identified, 18 helminths and 12 crustaceans. Paralonchurus peruanus was the species with higher number of ectoparasite species (11). The communities of ectoparasites were dominated by diplectanid monogeneans. The following showed preference by some site of infestation in their transversal partitioning: Rhamnocercoides menticirrhi, Rhamnocercus spp., Diplectanum sp., Pseudohaliotrema paralonchuri, Pedocotyle annakohni, P. bravoi, Caligus callaoensis and Lernanthropus huamani. With the exception of P. peruanus, these fishes showed an overall positive association in their ectoparasite communities. Menticirrhus ophicephalus and S. deliciosa had the most pairs of associated and covariated species. Paralonchurus peruanus and S. minor showed no interspecific associations. Negative interspecific association and covariation were not determined. The pair R. menticirrhi-L. huamani (in M. ophicephalus) had the highest association degree. These results suggest an absence of competitive interspecific processes. PMID:9246363

  2. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the "Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre" MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  3. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the “Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre” MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  4. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen. PMID:24879010

  5. Quantifying evolutionary potential of marine fish larvae: heritability, selection, and evolutionary constraints.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    For many marine fish, intense larval mortality may provide considerable opportunity for selection, yet much less is known about the evolutionary potential of larval traits. We combined field demographic studies and manipulative experiments to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for both larval size and swimming performance for a natural population of a common coral-reef fish, the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). We also examined selection on larval size by synthesizing information from published estimates of selective mortality. We introduce a method that uses the Lande-Arnold framework for examining selection on quantitative traits to empirically reconstruct adaptive landscapes. This method allows the relationship between phenotypic value and fitness components to be described across a broad range of trait values. Our results suggested that despite strong viability selection for large larvae and moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.29), evolutionary responses of larvae would likely be balanced by reproductive selection favoring mothers that produce more, smaller offspring. Although long-term evolutionary responses of larval traits may be constrained by size-number trade-offs, our results suggest that phenotypic variation in larval size may be an ecologically important source of variability in population dynamics through effects on larval survival and recruitment to benthic populations. PMID:20455930

  6. Do pharmaceuticals bioaccumulate in marine molluscs and fish from a coastal lagoon?

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Huerta, B; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2016-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of 20 pharmaceuticals in cockle (Cerastodema glaucum), noble pen shell (Pinna nobilis), sea snail (Murex trunculus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and black goby (Gobius niger) was evaluated, considering their distribution throughout the Mar Menor lagoon and their variations in spring and autumn 2010. The analytical procedure was adapted for the different matrices as being sensitive and reproducible. Eighteen out of the 20 compounds analysed were found at low ngg(-1) in these species throughout the lagoon. Hydrochlorothiazide and carbamazepine were detected in all species considered. The bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals was heterogeneous in the lagoon, with a higher number of pharmaceuticals being detected in fish (18) than in wild molluscs (8), particularly in golden grey mullet muscle (16). В-blockers and psychiatric drugs were preferentially bioccumulated in fish and hydrochlorothiazide was also confirmed in caged clams. The higher detection frequency and concentrations found in golden grey mullet suggested that mugilids could be used as an indicator of contamination by pharmaceuticals in coastal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows data about hydrochlorothiazide, levamisole and codeine in wild marine biota. PMID:26775009

  7. Serum resistance and hemagglutination ability of marine vibrios pathogenic for fish.

    PubMed Central

    Trust, T J; Courtice, I D; Khouri, A G; Crosa, J H; Schiewe, M H

    1981-01-01

    Representative strains of marine vibrios pathogenic for fish were shown to be resistant to the bactericidal activity of normal (nonimmmune) rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) serum, and loss of this resistance coincided with a marked reduction in virulence. Thermal lability and a requirement for Mg2+, but not for Ca2+, suggested that a mechanism for serum killing was the alternative complement pathway. In the case of Vibrio anguillarum, serum resistance was not coded for by the virulence plasmid pJM1. Additional testing showed that these pathogenic vibrios were able to agglutinate a variety of eucaryotic cells and that selected strains agglutinated trout erythrocytes; however, a correlation between strain virulence and the ability to agglutinate fish erythrocytes was not apparent. Moreover, whereas mannose was found to inhibit the agglutinating activity of several strains, two of the high-virulence strains displayed a transient, mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity. No relationship between the carriage of pJM1 by the V. anguillarum strains and hemagglutinating activity was demonstrable. PMID:7333667

  8. Using Environmental DNA to Census Marine Fishes in a Large Mesocosm

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan P.; Port, Jesse A.; Yamahara, Kevan M.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

  9. Assessment of risk to humans of bisphenol A in marine and freshwater fish from Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi; Huang, Yeqing; Wong, Ming H; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production-volume chemical used in the manufacture of a wide variety of consumer products. However it is also a ubiquitous contaminant that can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. China is the "world factory" and the Pearl River Delta is the major manufacturing center and is consequently polluted. Concentrations of BPA in meats of marketable fish had not been previously reported for this region. In the study upon which we report here concentrations of BPA were determined in 20 common species of freshwater and marine fish, collected from markets in Hong Kong, SAR, China. A comprehensive analytical method based on SPE extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed, validated and applied. The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 and 1.25 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. BPA was detected in 19 species of fish at concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ng g(-1) ww. Average daily BPA intake per person ranged from 1.1×10(2) ng d(-1) for marine fish and 2.2×10(2) ng d(-1) for freshwater fish. Concentrations of BPA in fish from Hong Kong markets unlikely would be causing adverse population-level effects in humans. PMID:21700311

  10. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  11. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. PMID:25102953

  12. Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ρ = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

  13. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  14. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  15. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species

    PubMed Central

    Miya, M.; Sato, Y.; Fukunaga, T.; Sado, T.; Poulsen, J. Y.; Sato, K.; Minamoto, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Araki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Iwasaki, W.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163–185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  16. MiFish, a set of universal PCR primers for metabarcoding environmental DNA from fishes: detection of more than 230 subtropical marine species.

    PubMed

    Miya, M; Sato, Y; Fukunaga, T; Sado, T; Poulsen, J Y; Sato, K; Minamoto, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, H; Araki, H; Kondoh, M; Iwasaki, W

    2015-07-01

    We developed a set of universal PCR primers (MiFish-U/E) for metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA) from fishes. Primers were designed using aligned whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 880 species, supplemented by partial mitogenome sequences from 160 elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). The primers target a hypervariable region of the 12S rRNA gene (163-185 bp), which contains sufficient information to identify fishes to taxonomic family, genus and species except for some closely related congeners. To test versatility of the primers across a diverse range of fishes, we sampled eDNA from four tanks in the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium with known species compositions, prepared dual-indexed libraries and performed paired-end sequencing of the region using high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Out of the 180 marine fish species contained in the four tanks with reference sequences in a custom database, we detected 168 species (93.3%) distributed across 59 families and 123 genera. These fishes are not only taxonomically diverse, ranging from sharks and rays to higher teleosts, but are also greatly varied in their ecology, including both pelagic and benthic species living in shallow coastal to deep waters. We also sampled natural seawaters around coral reefs near the aquarium and detected 93 fish species using this approach. Of the 93 species, 64 were not detected in the four aquarium tanks, rendering the total number of species detected to 232 (from 70 families and 152 genera). The metabarcoding approach presented here is non-invasive, more efficient, more cost-effective and more sensitive than the traditional survey methods. It has the potential to serve as an alternative (or complementary) tool for biodiversity monitoring that revolutionizes natural resource management and ecological studies of fish communities on larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26587265

  17. Alternative nursery habitat for estuarine associated marine fish during prolonged closure of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

    2009-10-01

    The Mfolozi estuary, located on the east coast of South Africa, was historically directly linked to the adjacent St Lucia estuarine system, the largest estuarine system in Africa and a World Heritage Site. The Mfolozi used to be the main feeder system to maintain lake levels in St Lucia, but increased siltation from sugar cane farming in the Mfolozi floodplain led to artificial separation of the two systems in 1950. Reduced freshwater inflow due to drought conditions caused the St Lucia mouth to remain closed from June 2002 to present, coinciding with low lake levels and hypersaline conditions, except for a brief period during 2007 after the St Lucia mouth breached. These conditions led to disruption of larval recruitment into the system and major changes in biotic communities. Due to the importance of the St Lucia - Mfolozi System link, a study was initiated in 2007 on the fish community of the Mfolozi system, which was sampled using seine and gill nets. The 48 species recorded were dominated by juveniles of marine spawners, particularly Leiognathus equula and Valamugil cunnesius and the estuarine spawners Ambassis dussumieri and Ambassis natalensis. Estuarine dependent marine spawning species formed 68% of both the species numbers and CPUE, an indication of the regional importance of the Mfolozi estuary as an alternate refuge for juvenile marine fish during periods when the St Lucia system remained closed. Post-larval recruits of marine spawning species were particularly abundant, but low zoobenthic densities caused a rapid decline in numbers of benthic feeders shortly after their recruitment into the system. The importance of the Mfolozi estuary in maintaining marine brood stocks of estuarine dependent marine fish is discussed with particular reference to estuarine degradation and the ecological integrity of the St Lucia system.

  18. Diversity of diazotrophs in the tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roche, J.; Raab, P.; Langlois, R.

    2003-04-01

    Trichodesmium sp. has long been recognized as a globally important diazotroph species that contributes to the oceanic nitrogen cycle through input of fixed nitrogen to the upper layers of the ocean. However, it now appears that other species of diazotrophs may also be present and active in open ocean environments (Zehr et al. Nature 2001 vol. 412: 635 -- 638). Here we present additional evidence supporting this claim. The diversity of dizaotrophs was studied during three cruises in the sub-tropical/tropical North Atlantic. NifH gene fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from environmental DNA samples collected in and below the euphotic zone. The new sequence information is discussed in the context of the studz area and other published nifH phylogenetic studies.

  19. Examining the Fish Microbiome: Vertebrate-Derived Bacteria as an Environmental Niche for the Discovery of Unique Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Laura M.; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M.; Schulze, Christopher J.; Linington, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus. PMID:22574119

  20. Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

  1. Observations of sub-tropical Cirrus clouds under Reunion Island with Lidar measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadet, B.; Goldfab, L.; Giraud, V.; Keckhut, P.

    2003-04-01

    Tropical cirrus, generated by either deep convection or by large-scale lifting, have a significant effect on climate through their influence on the radiation balance and thermal equilibrium of the Earth atmosphere. Hence, cirrus clouds occurrence and their optical properties are quite important for climate models, particularly in the tropics where they are poorly discriminate. The Observatoire de Physique de l'Atmosphere de la Reunion (OPAR) is located in the Indian Ocean just above the tropic of Capricorn; it makes quasi-continuous measurements in the southern hemisphere where there is a dearth of cirrus measurements. The OPAR station makes lidar measurement since 1994 and thus constitutes a temporally extensive lidar data base in the southern tropics. We have processed this lidar dataset between 1996 and 2001 to access a sub-tropical cirrus clouds climatology based on 6 years analysis. Results show that two main seasons prevail for cirrus clouds occurrence: an austral winter, from May to October, and an austral summer, from November to April. As expected, cirrus are present exclusively during the austral summer, 13% of measurements, than during the austral winter, when they were observed only once. Subvisible cirrus clouds, defined by an optical thickness below 0.03, compose a significant fraction, 65%, of the total cirrus observations. The annual cirrus occurrence frequency is well correlated with the annual water vapor distribution in the atmosphere. The sub-tropical cirrus clouds climatology derived from lidar data set under Reunion Island (21^oS, 55^oN) for the 1996-2001 period will be presented at the meeting. We should also be able to present preliminary results on their optical properties such as extinction and backscattered coefficients, and thus lidar ratio, which are deduced from the combined Raman and Rayleigh lidar observations.

  2. Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K; Wake, Bronwyn D; Snow, Joseph T; Honey, David J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Lohan, Maeve C; Achterberg, Eric P; Moore, C Mark

    2014-01-28

    Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north-south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial-temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

  3. Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K.; Wake, Bronwyn D.; Snow, Joseph T.; Honey, David J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Moore, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp northsouth biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatialtemporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

  4. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/Chinook/CKPUG.cfm); the fish used in this experiment were hatchery raised and their populations are not in danger of depletion. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Experimental results indicate that non-lethal, low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

  5. Shoaling behaviour enhances risk of predation from multiple predator guilds in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile shoaling zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as shoaling behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced shoaling behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272

  6. Regulation of apical H?-ATPase activity and intestinal HCO?? secretion in marine fish osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Guffey, S; Esbaugh, A; Grosell, M

    2011-12-01

    The absorption of Cl(-) and water from ingested seawater in the marine fish intestine is accomplished partly through Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Recently, a H(+) pump (vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase) was found to secrete acid into the intestinal lumen, and it may serve to titrate luminal HCO(3)(-) and facilitate further Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange, especially in the posterior intestine, where adverse concentration gradients could limit Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. The H(+) pump is expressed in all intestinal segments and in gill tissue of gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) maintained in natural seawater. After acute transfer of toadfish to 60 ppt salinity, H(+) pump expression increased 20-fold in the posterior intestine. In agreement with these observations was a fourfold-increased H(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior intestine of animals acclimated to 60 ppt salinity. Interestingly, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was elevated in the anterior intestine and gill, but not in the posterior intestine. Apical acid secretion by isolated intestinal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers fitted with pH-stat titration systems increased after acclimation to hypersalinity in the anterior and posterior intestine, titrating >20% of secreted bicarbonate. In addition, net base secretion increased in hypersalinity-acclimated fish and was ?70% dependent on serosal HCO(3)(-). Protein localization by immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical region of intestinal enterocytes. These results show that the H(+) pump, especially in the posterior intestine, plays an important role in hypersaline osmoregulation and that it likely has significant effects on HCO(3)(-) accumulation in the intestinal lumen and, therefore, the continued absorption of Cl(-) and water. PMID:21865541

  7. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, Jos Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Meli, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called recruitment subsidy, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

  8. Occurrence and molecular identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from marine fish in southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Anshary, Hilal; Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  9. Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  10. CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

  11. Gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) including four new species from marine fishes off the eastern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2013-05-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five gonad-infecting species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes off the eastern coast of India (Bay of Bengal): Philometra sphyraenae sp. n. (males and females) from the pickhandle barracuda Sphyraena jello Cuvier (Sphyraenidae), Philometra gerrei sp. n. (males and females) from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae), Philometra otolithi sp. n. (single female) from the tigertooth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch et Schneider) (Sciaenidae), Philometra sp. (females) from the Belanger's croaker Johnius belangerii (Cuvier) (Sciaenidae), and Philometroides eleutheronemae sp. n. (females) from the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae). All new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing gonads of marine fishes by morphological (mainly the gubernaculum structure in males and the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus in females) and biometrical features. Philometra rajani Mukherjee, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:23724730

  12. Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium symbiotic with deep-sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Thompson, Fabiano L; De Vos, Paul; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Six representatives of a luminous bacterium commonly found in association with deep, cold-dwelling marine fishes were isolated from the light organs and skin of different fish species. These bacteria were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive or oxidase-negative. Morphologically, cells of these strains were coccoid or coccoid-rods, occurring singly or in pairs, and motile by means of polar flagellation. After growth on seawater-based agar medium at 22 degrees C for 18 h, colonies were small, round and white, with an intense cerulean blue luminescence. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity placed these bacteria in the genus Photobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven housekeeping gene sequences (16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD), seven gene sequences of the lux operon (luxC, luxD, luxA, luxB, luxF, luxE and luxG) and four gene sequences of the rib operon (ribE, ribB, ribH and ribA), resolved the six strains as members of the genus Photobacterium and as a clade distinct from other species of Photobacterium. These strains were most closely related to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the designated type strain, Photobacterium kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T), and P. phosphoreum LMG 4233(T), P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T) and Photobacterium indicum LMG 22857(T) were 51, 43 and 19 %, respectively. In AFLP analysis, the six strains clustered together, forming a group distinct from other analysed species. The fatty acid C(17 : 0) cyclo was present in these bacteria, but not in P. phosphoreum, P. iliopiscarium or P. indicum. A combination of biochemical tests (arginine dihydrolase and lysine decarboxylase) differentiates these strains from P. phosphoreum and P. indicum. The DNA G+C content of P. kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T) is 40.2 %, and the genome size is approximately 4.2 Mbp, in the form of two circular chromosomes. These strains represent a novel species, for which the name Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain, pjapo.1.1(T) (=ATCC BAA-1194(T)=LMG 23890(T)), is a luminous symbiont isolated from the light organ of the deep-water fish Physiculus japonicus. PMID:17766874

  13. MARINE FISH LARVAE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL: EFFECTS OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT FACTORS: SPOTTED SEATROUT ('CYNOSCION NUEBLOSUS') AND LINED SOLE ('ACHIRUS LINEATUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard culture methods were developed for larvae of two common marine fishes, the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the lined sole Achirus lineatus. Culture methods were described and the relationships of survival, growth and yield to temperatures, food concentrations an...

  14. Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Yez, E; Martn-Daz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2013-08-01

    An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

  15. The potential for spatial distribution indices to signal thresholds in marine fish biomass.

    PubMed

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie; Shackell, Nancy L; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  16. Analyses of lipids and fatty acids in ripe roes of some Northwest European marine fish.

    PubMed

    Tocher, D R; Sargent, J R

    1984-07-01

    Lipid class analyses and fatty acid analyses of neutral and polar lipids were carried out on ripe roes of herring, cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, sand eel and capelin. Total lipid was 10-26% of roe dry weight. The species with the highest total lipid, sand eel and capelin, also had the highest percentage of neutral lipid in total lipid, 77% and 49% respectively. In the other species, phospholipids accounted for 62-77% of roe total lipid. Both the neutral lipids, and especially the phospholipids, of all species were very unsaturated because of high concentrations of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), frequently amounting to 50% of the total egg lipid. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) had similar fatty acid compositions in all species, with an average ratio (n-3)/(n-6) of ca. 20∶1. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) consistently had high concentrations of 18∶0 and 20∶4 (n-6) with an average ratio of (n-3)/(n-6) of 1.8∶1. Requirements for high levels of (n-3) PUFA in the embryonic and early larval development stages of marine fish are suggested as is a special role for the 20∶4(n-6) in PI. PMID:21344278

  17. Fluctuations in food supply drive recruitment variation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Daniel K; Schmitt, Russell J; Holbrook, Sally J; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-11-22

    Reproductive rates and survival of young in animal populations figure centrally in generating management and conservation strategies. Model systems suggest that food supply can drive these often highly variable properties, yet for many wild species, quantifying such effects and assessing their implications have been challenging. We used spatially explicit time series of a well-studied marine reef fish (black surfperch Embiotoca jacksoni) and its known prey resources to evaluate the extent to which fluctuations in food supply influenced production of young by adults and survival of young to subadulthood. Our analyses reveal: (i) variable food available to both adults and to their offspring directly produced an order of magnitude variation in the number of young-of-year (YOY) produced per adult and (ii) food available to YOY produced a similar magnitude of variation in their subsequent survival. We also show that such large natural variation in vital rates can significantly alter decision thresholds (biological reference points) important for precautionary management. These findings reveal how knowledge of food resources can improve understanding of population dynamics and reduce risk of overharvest by more accurately identifying periods of low recruitment. PMID:23015631

  18. The Potential for Spatial Distribution Indices to Signal Thresholds in Marine Fish Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    The frequently observed positive relationship between fish population abundance and spatial distribution suggests that changes in distribution can be indicative of trends in abundance. If contractions in spatial distribution precede declines in spawning stock biomass (SSB), spatial distribution reference points could complement the SSB reference points that are commonly used in marine conservation biology and fisheries management. When relevant spatial distribution information is integrated into fisheries management and recovery plans, risks and uncertainties associated with a plan based solely on the SSB criterion would be reduced. To assess the added value of spatial distribution data, we examine the relationship between SSB and four metrics of spatial distribution intended to reflect changes in population range, concentration, and density for 10 demersal populations (9 species) inhabiting the Scotian Shelf, Northwest Atlantic. Our primary purpose is to assess their potential to serve as indices of SSB, using fisheries independent survey data. We find that metrics of density offer the best correlate of spawner biomass. A decline in the frequency of encountering high density areas is associated with, and in a few cases preceded by, rapid declines in SSB in 6 of 10 populations. Density-based indices have considerable potential to serve both as an indicator of SSB and as spatially based reference points in fisheries management. PMID:25789624

  19. Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

    2014-08-01

    Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed. PMID:24903212

  20. Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E R; Reale, E

    1989-07-01

    Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933

  1. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included. PMID:21898201

  2. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P; Thorrold, Simon R; Planes, Serge

    2012-10-01

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine species with pelagic larvae, direct estimation of connectivity remains logistically challenging and has mostly been limited to single snapshots in time. Here, we document seasonal and interannual patterns of larval dispersal in a metapopulation of the coral reef fish Amphiprion polymnus. A 3-year record of larval trajectories within and among nine discrete local populations from an area of approximately 35 km was established by determining the natal origin of settled juveniles through DNA parentage analysis. We found that spatial patterns of both self-recruitment and connectivity were remarkably consistent over time, with a low level of self-recruitment at the scale of individual sites. Connectivity among sites was common and multidirectional in all years and was not significantly influenced by seasonal variability of predominant surface current directions. However, approximately 75% of the sampled juveniles could not be assigned to parents within the study area, indicating high levels of immigrations from sources outside the study area. The data support predictions that the magnitude and temporal stability of larval connectivity decreases significantly with increasing distance between subpopulations, but increases with the size of subpopulations. Given the considerable effort needed to directly measure larval exchange, the consistent patterns suggest snapshot parentage analyses can provide useful dispersal estimates to inform spatial management decisions. PMID:22891716

  3. Structural and functional connectivity of marine fishes within a semi-enclosed Newfoundland fjord.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, I R; Snelgrove, P V R; Bentzen, P; de Young, B; Gregory, R S; Morris, C J

    2009-10-01

    The interplay between structural connectivity (i.e. habitat continuity) and functional connectivity (i.e. dispersal probability) in marine fishes was examined in a coastal fjord (Holyrood Pond, Newfoundland, Canada) that is completely isolated from the North Atlantic Ocean for most of the year. Genetic differentiation was described in three species (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, white hake Urophycis tenuis and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua) with contrasting life histories using seven to 10 microsatellite loci and a protein-coding locus, PanI (G. morhua). Analysis of microsatellite differentiation indicated clear genetic differences between the fjord and coastal regions; however, the magnitude of difference was no more elevated than adjacent bays and was not enhanced by the fjord's isolation. Osmerus mordax was characterized by the highest structure overall with moderate differentiation between the fjord and St Mary's Bay (F(ST)c.0.047). In contrast, U. tenuis and G. morhua displayed weak differentiation (F(ST) < 0.01). Nonetheless, these populations did demonstrate high rates (< 75%) of Bayesian self-assignment. Furthermore, elevated differentiation was observed at the PanI locus in G. morhua between the fjord and other coastal locations. Interestingly, locus-specific genetic differentiation and expected heterozygosity were negatively associated in O. mordax, in contrast to the positive associations observed in U. tenuis and G. morhua. Gene flow in these species is apparently unencumbered by limited structural connectivity, yet the observed differentiation suggests that population structuring exists over small scales despite high dispersal potential. PMID:20738621

  4. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Brendan P; Coleman, Melinda A; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

  5. Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

  6. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established. PMID:25822200

  7. Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica; Hixon, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Correlated genetic responses have been hypothesized as important components of fishery-induced evolution, although predictive data from wild populations have been difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate substantial genetic correlations between a trait often subjected to fishery selection (adult body length) and traits that affect survival of larvae (length and swimming performance) in a wild population of a marine fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Through both genetic covariance and size-dependent maternal effects, selection on adult size may cause a considerable, correlated response in larval traits. To quantify how variation in larval traits may affect survival, we introduce a flexible method that uses information from selection measurements to account for frequency dependence and estimate the relationship between phenotype and relative survival across a broad range of phenotypic values. Using this method, we synthesize studies of selective mortality on larval size for eight species of fish and show that variation in larval size may result in considerable variation in larval survival. We predict that observed rates of fishery selection on adult marine fishes may substantially reduce larval size and survival. The evolution of smaller larvae in response to fishery selection may therefore have substantial consequences for the viability of fished populations. PMID:25568010

  8. Gill histopathology of wild marine fish in Tasmania: potential interactions with gill health of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Nowak, B F; Dawson, D; Basson, L; Deveney, M; Powell, M D

    2004-12-01

    This study surveyed conditions in the gills of wild marine fish in Tasmania to determine potential interactions between wild and cultured fish. Wild marine fish of 12 species were captured from three Atlantic salmon farm sites and three reference sites around Tasmania. The survey concentrated on three species, red cod, Pseudophycis bachus, sand flathead, Platycephalus bassensis, and jack mackerel, Trachurus declivus. Seventy-six per cent of salmon pens contained wild fish species. The number of species found in a pen ranged from one to nine and the number of individuals ranged from one to 23. Trichodinids were prevalent and occurred on seven of the 13 species examined. Trichodina occurred on the gills of all but one specimen of red cod. Monogenean gill flukes were observed on all three major species sampled and were abundant on sand flathead. Other parasites and conditions observed in the survey included metacercariae of digenean trematodes, epitheliocystis and cysts of unknown origin. Infestations of trichodinids on red cod and monogenean gill flukes on sand flathead were significantly more intense at farm sites than at reference sites. Atlantic salmon sampled at the same time from the farms were only affected by amoebic gill disease and isopods. PMID:15575879

  9. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

  10. Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Richard M.; Wendt, Dean E.; Barnes, Cheryl L.; Marks, Corina I.; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T.; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L.; Hall, Nathan C.; Yochum, Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California’s temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

  11. Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  12. Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

    PubMed

    Starr, Richard M; Wendt, Dean E; Barnes, Cheryl L; Marks, Corina I; Malone, Dan; Waltz, Grant; Schmidt, Katherine T; Chiu, Jennifer; Launer, Andrea L; Hall, Nathan C; Yochum, Nolle

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs. PMID:25760856

  13. Reduced density of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum inside a Caribbean marine reserve linked to increased predation pressure by fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harborne, A. R.; Renaud, P. G.; Tyler, E. H. M.; Mumby, P. J.

    2009-09-01

    Disease has dramatically reduced populations of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Caribbean reefs, contributing to an increased abundance of macroalgae and reduction of coral cover. Therefore, recovery of D. antillarum populations is critically important, but densities are still low on many reefs. Among the many potential factors limiting these densities, the focus of this study is on predation pressure by fishes. Marine reserves provide opportunities to examine large-scale manipulations of predator-prey interactions and, therefore, D. antillarum densities were compared inside and outside a reserve in The Bahamas (Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park; ECLSP). Urchins and their fish predators were surveyed at nine sites inside and outside the ECLSP. Because of lower fishing effort, the total biomass of urchin predators, weighted by their dietary preferences for urchins, was significantly higher inside the ECLSP. Furthermore, fish community structure was significantly different inside the Park because of the increased biomass of the majority of species. No urchins were seen inside the ECLSP and this was significantly lower than the density of 0.04 urchin m-2 outside the Park. Regression analysis indicated that the relationship between the biomass of urchin predators and the proportion of transects containing urchins was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in fish biomass dramatically reduce urchin abundances. The link between lower density of urchins and higher density of their predators inside the ECLSP is strengthened by discounting five alternative primary mechanisms (variations in macroalgal cover, larval supply, environmental setting, density of other urchin species and abundance of predators not surveyed). Caribbean marine reserves have an important conservation role, but increased fish predation appears to reduce densities of D. antillarum. Urchins currently have limited functional significance on Bahamian reefs, but any future recovery of D. antillarum is likely to be limited in reserves, with potentially important ecological consequences.

  14. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2009-11-27

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3microgg(-1)), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16microgg(-1)) and gills (0.27-2.74microgg(-1)). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals. PMID:19850362

  15. Evapotranspiration from subsurface horizontal flow wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in sub-tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Headley, T R; Davison, L; Huett, D O; Mller, R

    2012-02-01

    The balance between evapotranspiration (ET) loss and rainfall ingress in treatment wetlands (TWs) can affect their suitability for certain applications. The aim of this paper was to investigate the water balance and seasonal dynamics in ET of subsurface horizontal flow (HF) TWs in a sub-tropical climate. Monthly water balances were compiled for four pilot-scale HF TWs receiving horticultural runoff over a two year period (Sep. 1999-Aug. 2001) on the sub-tropical east-coast of Australia. The mean annual wetland ET rate increased from 7.0 mm/day in the first year to 10.6 mm/day in the second, in response to the development of the reed (Phragmites australis) population. Consequently, the annual crop coefficients (ratio of wetland ET to pan evaporation) increased from 1.9 in the first year to 2.6 in the second. The mean monthly ET rates were generally greater and more variable than the Class-A pan evaporation rates, indicating that transpiration is an important contributor to ET in HF TWs. Evapotranspiration rates were generally highest in the summer and autumn months, and corresponded with the times of peak standing biomass of P. australis. It is likely that ET from the relatively small 1 m wide by 4 m long HF TWs was enhanced by advection through so-called "clothesline" and "oasis" effects, which contributed to the high crop coefficients. For the second year, when the reed population was well established, the annual net loss to the atmosphere (taking into account rainfall inputs) accounted for 6.1-9.6 % of the influent hydraulic load, which is considered negligible. However, the net loss is likely to be higher in arid regions with lower rainfall. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of the wetlands in the second year of operation was 1.3 g of above-ground biomass produced per kilogram of water consumed, which is low compared to agricultural crops. It is proposed that system level WUE provides a useful metric for selecting wetland plant species and TW design alternatives to use in arid regions where excessive water loss from constructed wetlands can be problematic. Further research is needed to accrue long-term HF TW water balance data especially in arid climatic zones. PMID:22127043

  16. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential and gap of the sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, T.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    A database of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks was created for the sub-tropical belt using existing global SOC databases (WISE3; various SOTER) and new data from an ongoing project (ERC Africa-GHG) specific for the tropical forests of the African continent. The intent of this database is to evaluate the sequestration potential of a critical area of the world where most of the primary rainforests are located, and actually show undoubtedly high SOC losses associated with deforestation. About 4100 profiles, quite well distributed over the entire sub-tropical belt, were used to calculate the actual SOC stock for the 0-30 cm and 30-100 cm depths of mineral soil. First, this actual SOC stock has been related to the current Land Use Systems; successively, it has been interpolated taking into account Homogeneous Land Units (HLUs) in terms of soil type, climate zone and land use. Then, relying on consistent projections, of both climate and land use changes, for the years 2050 and 2100 under extremes IPCC-SRES emission scenarios such as the B1 and the A2, potential SOC stocks for these time frames has been calculated. Soil carbon sequestration gap is calculated by the difference of the actual SOC stock and the future projections. When subtracting potential from the actual SOC stocks, negative values represent a gap in terms of possible SOC losses and so reduced carbon sequestration. The soil carbon gap indicates locations where there will be low soil-carbon levels associated with medium-to-high actual SOC stocks, and medium soil-carbon levels associated with high actual SOC stocks, depending on soil type, climate and land use conditions. On the long term, 2076-2100, a SOC gap is observed under all scenarios in South America, just below the Amazonia basin, where are located open and fragmented forests. However, in the Amazonia basin deforestation decrease since no sensible SOC losses were observed. An important gap is observed also in the Congo basin and West Africa, but the gap is more fragmented in small spots than that observed in South America. Forests of Asia seems to be less interested from SOC losses and the projections show almost no gaps under both scenarios. The soil organic carbon sequestration potential database is intended to provide an indication at the regional level of the potential for policy makers to provide environmental services and drive specific policy to increase sustainable land management.

  17. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  18. Radionuclides in marine fishes and birds from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Stabin, Michael; Favret, Derek; Jewett, Stephen; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Tim; Weston, James; Jeitner, Christian; Volz, Conrad

    2007-03-01

    Amchitka Island (51degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965-1971. There have been no substantive studies of radionuclides in marine fishes and birds in the area since the mid-1970's. In this study, levels of 60Co, 52Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and the actinides (241Am, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U) were studied in ten marine fish species (including Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus and Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis) and five marine bird species (including Glaucous-winged Gulls Larus glaucescens, Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata, and Common Eider Ducks Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka. The same species were collected at a reference site, Kiska Island (52 degrees N lat; 177 degrees E long), about 130 km west of Amchitka. Each sample was a composite of edible muscle from five or more individual fish or birds of similar size (+/-15%) from the same sampling station. The null hypotheses of no differences among species or between Amchitka and Kiska were tested. Most analytic results were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA), even when 1,000 g sizes and 72 h counting times were used. The only radionuclides detected above the MDA were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, and 238U. There were significant differences in 137Cs as a function of species, but not location, for top predatory fishes. Of the fishes, eight of ten species had 137Cs values above the MDA for some samples; only one bird, Glaucous-winged Gull, had 137Cs values above the MDA. The highest concentrations of 137Cs were in Dolly Varden [Salvelinus malma, 0.780 (Bq kg(-1) wet weight)] and Pacific Cod (0.602 Bq kg(-1)). In aggregate for any actinides, 73 of 234 (31%) composites for fish were above the MDA, compared to only 3 of 98 (3%) for birds. 234U and 238U, radionuclides that are primarily natural in origin, were routinely detected in these biological samples, but there were no significant differences in mean concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. The concentrations of all radionuclides examined at Amchitka are similar to those of other uncontaminated Northern Hemisphere sites, and are lower than those reported for fishes and birds from the Irish Sea in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing facility, an area with known contamination. PMID:17293699

  19. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartrio, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 ?g and 3.0 ?g-TiO2-NP g(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

  20. Pacific Basin climate variability and patterns of Northeast Pacific marine fish production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowed, Anne Babcock; Hare, Steven R.; Wooster, Warren S.

    A review of oceanographic and climate data from the North Pacific and Bering Sea has revealed climate events that occur on two principal time scales: a) 2-7 years (i.e. El Nio Southern Oscillation, ENSO), and b) inter-decadal (i.e. Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO). The timing of ENSO events and of related oceanic changes at higher latitudes were examined. The frequency of ENSO was high in the 1980s. Evidence of ENSO forcing on ocean conditions in the North Pacific (Nio North conditions) showed ENSO events were more frequently observed along the West Coast than in the western Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and Eastern Bering Sea (EBS). Time series of catches for 30 region/species groups of salmon, and recruitment data for 29 groundfish and 5 non-salmonid pelagic species, were examined for evidence of a statistical relationship with any of the time scales associated with Nio North conditions or the PDO. Some flatfish stocks exhibited high autocorrelation in recruitment coupled with a significant step in recruitment in 1977 suggesting a relationship between PDO forcing and recruitment success. Five of the dominant gadid stocks (EBS and GOA Pacific cod, Pacific hake and EBS and GOA walleye pollock) exhibited low autocorrelation in recruitment. Of these, Pacific hake, GOA walleye pollock and GOA Pacific cod exhibited significantly higher incidence of strong year classes in years associated with Nio North conditions. These findings suggest that the PDO and ENSO may play an important role in governing year-class strength of several Northeast Pacific marine fish stocks.

  1. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

  2. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  3. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and ?-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while ?-tubulin, V-type ATPase ? subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, ?-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit ?, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of the differences in gene expression and phenotypes among the different stages of parasitic infection, and might be considered as a source of candidate proteins for disease diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:25997646

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on fish cells and chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Marsha L.; Kocan, Richard M.

    1984-03-01

    The cost of conducting conventional chronic bioassays with every potentially toxic compound found in marine ecosystems is prohibitive; therefore short-term toxicity tests which can be used for rapid screening were developed. The tests employ cultured fish cells to measure lethal, sublethal or genotoxic effects of pure compounds and complex mixtures. The sensitivity of these tests has been proven under laboratory conditions; the following study used two of these tests, the anaphase aberration test and a cytotoxicity assay, under field conditions. Sediment was collected from 97 stations within Puget Sound, Washington. Serial washings of the sediment in methanol and dichloromethane yielded an organic extract which was dried, dissolved in DMSO and incubated as a series of dilutions with rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells. The toxic effects of the extract were measured by examining the rate of cell proliferation and the percentage of damaged anaphase figures. Anaphase figures were considered to be abnormal if they exhibited non-disjunctions, chromosome fragments, or chromosome bridges. A second cell line (bluegill fry, BF-2) was also tested for cell proliferation and was included because, unlike the RTG-2 cell line, it contains little or no mixed function oxygenase activity. Of 97 stations tested, 35 showed no genotoxic activity, 42 showed high genotoxic activity (P?.01) and the remainder were intermediate. Among the toxic sites were several deep water stations adjacent to municipal sewage outfalls and four urban waterways contaminated by industrial and municipal effluents. Extracts from areas that showed genotoxic effects also inhibited cell proliferation and were cytotoxic to RTG-2 cells. Few effects were noted in the MFO deficient BF-2 cells. Short term in vitro tests provide aquatic toxicologists with a versatile and cost effective tool for screening complex environments. Through these tests one can identify compounds or geographic regions that exhibit high cytotoxic or genotoxic potential.

  5. Visual pigments of Baltic Sea fishes of marine and limnic origin.

    PubMed

    Jokela-Mtt, Mirka; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Anna; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Donner, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Absorbance spectra of rods and some cones were measured by microspectrophotometry in 22 fish species from the brackish-water of the Baltic Sea, and when applicable, in the same species from the Atlantic Ocean (3 spp.), the Mediterranean Sea (1 sp.), or Finnish fresh-water lakes (9 spp.). The main purpose was to study whether there were differences suggesting spectral adaptation of rod vision to different photic environments during the short history (<10(4) years) of postglacial isolation of the Baltic Sea and the Finnish lakes. Rod absorbance spectra of the Baltic subspecies/populations of herring (Clupea harengus membras), flounder (Platichthys flesus), and sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were all long-wavelength-shifted (9.8, 1.9, and 5.3 nm, respectively, at the wavelength of maximum absorbance, lambda(max)) compared with their truly marine counterparts, consistent with adaptation for improved quantum catch, and improved signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the Baltic light environment. Judged by the shape of the spectra, the chromophore was pure A1 in all these cases; hence the differences indicate evolutionary tuning of the opsin. In no species of fresh-water origin did we find significant opsin-based spectral shifts specific to the Baltic populations, only spectral differences due to varying A1/A2 chromophore ratio in some. For most species, rod lambda(max) fell within a wavelength range consistent with high signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the spectral conditions prevailing at depths where light becomes scarce in the respective waters. Exceptions were sandeels in the Baltic Sea, which are active only in bright light, and all species in a "brown" lake, where rod lambda(max) lay far below the theoretically optimal range. PMID:17822578

  6. Deinococcus piscis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2009-11-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating, aerobic, coccoid bacterium, strain 3ax(T), was isolated from a marine fish (black pomfret, Parastromateus niger), with radiation as a selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 3ax(T) exhibited highest similarity (97.9 %) with Deinococcus proteolyticus DSM 20540(T). The DeltaT(m) for DNA-DNA hybridization of D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T) and strain 3ax(T) was 15.3 degrees C, indicating that the novel strain was distinct from D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8. Strain 3ax(T) could grow at 20-42 degrees C; the optimum temperature for growth was 35 degrees C. The strain grew well at pH 6-9, with optimum growth at pH 7. The cell wall contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, 16 : 1omega7c, 16 : 1omega9c and 18 : 1omega9c. Three phosphoglycolipids and one aminophospholipid were the major polar lipids. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain 3ax(T) was significantly different from D. proteolyticus DSM 20540(T) and, therefore, it was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus piscis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3ax(T) (=MTCC9123(T) =DSM 19767(T)). PMID:19625434

  7. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Gnther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskl) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  8. To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Susannah M; McCormick, Mark I; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2011-12-23

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats. PMID:21849308

  9. Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vidović, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Žvab Rožič, Petra

    2014-06-15

    Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

  10. To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Susannah M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Mitchell, Matthew D.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats. PMID:21849308

  11. Connectivity patterns of coastal fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary marine protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, Barbara; Grigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hlne; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, Franois; Agostini, Sylvia

    2015-03-01

    The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary Marine Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by coastal fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between coastal areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.

  12. Hydrological and environmental assessment of urban growth in a sub-tropical town in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Himanshu; Al Obaidy, Abdul Hameed M Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Roorkee, a sub-tropical urban town in India, has shown a rapid unplanned growth in the past. This paper presents the findings of a study of characteristics of urban soil, rainwater, and runoff emanating from different sources areas and the stormwater flows in the drains. Urban soil showed significant increase in the concentration of all constituents in comparison to the nearby rural soil. Soil metal pollution index suggested multi-element contamination. The traffic and transportation system emerged as the major source of metals and organics. Concentration of rainwater ions was observed to follow the pattern Ca? > HCO(3)(-) > Cl? > NO(3)(-) > Na? > Mg? > SO(4)(?) > K?. Runoff results indicated a significant enhancement in the concentration of most measured constituents over their rainfall levels. The values of runoff coefficient varied between 0.05 and 0.58, with the high values displayed by the paved areas. Multiple regression equations were developed relating event mean concentration to various storm characteristics. The total load of all measured constituents was observed to vary considerably among the study sites, the direct runoff loads being much higher than the dry weather loads. PMID:25500460

  13. Forest dynamics and its driving forces of sub-tropical forest in South China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Lian, Juyu; Lin, Guojun; Cao, Honglin; Huang, Zhongliang; Guan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tree mortality and recruitment are key factors influencing forest dynamics, but the driving mechanisms of these processes remain unclear. To better understand these driving mechanisms, we studied forest dynamics over a 5-year period in a 20-ha sub-tropical forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, South China. The goal was to identify determinants of tree mortality/recruitment at the local scale using neighborhood analyses on some locally dominant tree species. Results show that the study plot was more dynamic than some temperate and tropical forests in a comparison to large, long-term forest dynamics plots. Over the 5-year period, mortality rates ranged from 1.67 to 12.33% per year while recruitment rates ranged from 0 to 20.26% per year. Tree size had the most consistent effect on mortality across species. Recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class consistently occurred where local con-specific density was high. This suggests that recruitment may be limited by seed dispersal. Hetero-specific individuals also influenced recruitment significantly for some species. Canopy species had low recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class over the 5-year period. In conclusion, tree mortality and recruitment for sixteen species in this plot was likely limited by seed dispersal and density-dependence. PMID:26940005

  14. Forest dynamics and its driving forces of sub-tropical forest in South China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Lian, Juyu; Lin, Guojun; Cao, Honglin; Huang, Zhongliang; Guan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tree mortality and recruitment are key factors influencing forest dynamics, but the driving mechanisms of these processes remain unclear. To better understand these driving mechanisms, we studied forest dynamics over a 5-year period in a 20-ha sub-tropical forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, South China. The goal was to identify determinants of tree mortality/recruitment at the local scale using neighborhood analyses on some locally dominant tree species. Results show that the study plot was more dynamic than some temperate and tropical forests in a comparison to large, long-term forest dynamics plots. Over the 5-year period, mortality rates ranged from 1.67 to 12.33% per year while recruitment rates ranged from 0 to 20.26% per year. Tree size had the most consistent effect on mortality across species. Recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class consistently occurred where local con-specific density was high. This suggests that recruitment may be limited by seed dispersal. Hetero-specific individuals also influenced recruitment significantly for some species. Canopy species had low recruitment into the ≥1-cm size class over the 5-year period. In conclusion, tree mortality and recruitment for sixteen species in this plot was likely limited by seed dispersal and density-dependence. PMID:26940005

  15. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, Franois

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  16. Population Genetic Studies Revealed Local Adaptation in a High Gene-Flow Marine Fish, the Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis. PMID:24349521

  17. Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. (Kinetoplastida) from a farmed marine fish in China, the brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).

    PubMed

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Liu, Guangfeng; Xu, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in farmed Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in Xincun Bay, province of Hainan, South China Sea. The infected fish showed loss of appetite, lethargy, emaciation, severe anemia, and splenomegaly. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed morphological features typical for small-sized marine fish trypanosomes. The trypanosome possesses a short body length (mean 22.3 ?m, range 17.6-25.9 ?m) and narrow body width (mean1.7 ?m, range 1.3-2.0 ?m), a central nucleus, a narrow but distinct undulating membrane, and a relatively long free flagellum (mean 10.1 ?m, range 7.4-13.3 ?m). The kinetoplast is situated at approximately one quarter of body length from posterior extremity. The division process of this trypanosome was observed in the peripheral blood of the host, and occurred by transverse constriction at a point between the kinetoplasts. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the trypanosome from E. fuscoguttatus showed 93.4-97.1% identity with the available sequences from Trypanosoma spp. from other piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of an aquatic clade, and the present trypanosome grouped with other marine fish trypanosomes, in a subclade together with Trypanosoma senegalense. Based on the differences in morphological characteristics, host species, and molecular data, the trypanosome infecting E. fuscoguttatus is considered to be a new species, for which we propose the name Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. PMID:24114332

  18. Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

  19. Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, M.

    1988-12-01

    Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.

  20. Marine and farmed fish on the Polish market: comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD/Fs and other contaminants.

    PubMed

    Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Usydus, Zygmunt; Malesa-Ciećwierz, Małgorzata; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Ruczyńska, Wiesława

    2011-12-01

    Chemical analyses were performed in nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market. These included Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), marine fish imported from China (Alaska pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia). The nutritional composition (amino acid, micro- and macronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins - A(1), D(3), E) and certain contaminants (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs; indicator polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB(6); polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs; dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dl-PCBs; organotin compounds, OCTs; dyes, malachite green and crystal violet; veterinary drug residues, nitrofurans and chloramphenicol; toxic metals, Cd, Pb, Hg) in the muscle tissues of fish were determined. It was confirmed that the fish species analyzed were excellent sources of amino acids, and were rich in phosphorous and selenium. Baltic Sea fish (salmon, herring), fish farmed in Poland (carp and trout), and tilapia were also rich in vitamin D(3). Traces of OCP, PCB(6), OCT, dyes, veterinary drug residues, and heavy metals were detected in concentrations which do not pose a threat to consumers at the current rate of fish consumption in Poland. However, the problem might arise from the content of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fatty Baltic fish. The fish species analyzed, differed in their nutritional values and degrees of contamination. We suggest that for optimum health and safety, it is advisable that consumers include a variety of different fish species in their diets. PMID:22014661

  1. Infections of nervous necrosis virus in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea with unexpected wide host ranges.

    PubMed

    Liu, X D; Huang, J N; Weng, S P; Hu, X Q; Chen, W J; Qin, Z D; Dong, X X; Liu, X L; Zhou, Y; Asim, M; Wang, W M; He, J G; Lin, L

    2015-06-01

    The concerns about the impact of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infections in wild fish have been raised. This paper presents the results of quarterly surveys of NNV in wild and cage-reared marine fish from South China Sea. Samples of 892 wild fish belonging to 69 species and 381 cage-reared fish belonging to 11 species were collected and were detected by seminested PCR and nested PCR. In the case of seminested PCR, the positive signal was detected in 3.0% and 3.1% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 42.3% and 63.0% samples of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. If the fish species were considered, the positive signal was detected in 21.7% and 72.7% species of wild and cage-reared fish by seminested PCR assay, respectively. However, by nested RT-PCR, the positive signal was observed in 65.2% and 100% species of wild and cage-reared fish, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the nested PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic tree showed that all the obtained viral isolates belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Thirty-five species of the marine fish were the new hosts of NNV. PMID:24943478

  2. Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  3. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

  4. Two new sibling species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from marine fishes in the Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yooyen, Thanapon; Moravec, Frantiek; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2011-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examinations, 2 new morphologically similar species of the subgenus Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) (Nematoda: Camallanidae) possessing 2 caudal spikes are described from the intestine of marine perciform fishes from the Gulf of Thailand off the Thai coast, i.e., Procamallanus (S.) rigbyi n. sp. from Otolithes ruber (Bloch and Schneider) (Sciaenidae) and Procamallanus (S.) similis n. sp. from Sillago sihama (Forsskl) (Sillaginidae). The former species is mainly characterized by the presence of 13-14 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, location of deirids at about mid-way between the buccal capsule and the nerve ring, and by the length of the right spicule (315-360 m), whereas the latter is characterized by 10-12 spiral ridges, deirids situated at short distance posterior to the buccal capsule, and the right spicule 435-492 m long. Because of their inadequate descriptions, most species of this subgenus reported from marine fishes of the Indo-Pacific region are considered species inquirendae. Spirocotyle Yasmin and Bilqees, 2007 is considered a junior synonym of Procamallanus Baylis, 1923. Since Procamallanus (S.) otolithi Ashraf, Farooq and Khanum, 1977 , P. (S.) otolithi (Gupta and Garg, 1986 ) and P. (S.) otolithi (Yasmin and Bilqees, 2007 ) are junior homonyms to P. (S.) otolithi Bilqees and Kazmi, 1974, they are renamed Procamallanus (S.) pakistanensis n. nom., Procamallanus (S.) problematicus n. nom., and Procamallanus (S.) incognitus n. nom., respectively (all species inquirendae). Procamallanus rigbyi and P. similis are the first nominal species of this genus reported from marine fishes off the coast of Thailand. PMID:21561332

  5. Follow-up trends of parasite community alteration in a marine fish after the Prestige oil-spill: shifting baselines?

    PubMed

    Pérez-del-Olmo, A; Montero, F E; Raga, J A; Fernández, M; Kostadinova, A

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the follow-up trends in the composition and structure of the parasite communities in the marine sparid Boops boops after the Prestige oil-spill. A total of 400 fish comprising 11 seasonal samples was analyzed from three impacted localities on the Atlantic coast of Spain. A large number of parasite species was recovered only after the spill thus suggesting a substantial alteration of the marine food webs. Post-spill communities exhibited higher richness and abundance due to the significant changes in the abundance of the common species, the latter indicating accelerated parasite transmission rates. Multivariate analyses at two nested scales detected a directional trend in parasite community succession towards the pre-spill situation, however, with no full support for community recovery. The state of parasite communities in 2005-2006 may provide the new baseline data which can serve as a framework for quantifying the impact of potential future spills in the region. PMID:18774209

  6. Niche shift can impair the ability to predict invasion risk in the marine realm: an illustration using Mediterranean fish invaders.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Azzurro, Ernesto; Kulbicki, Michel; Belmaker, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Climatic niche conservatism, the tendency of species-climate associations to remain unchanged across space and time, is pivotal for forecasting the spread of invasive species and biodiversity changes. Indeed, it represents one of the key assumptions underlying species distribution models (SDMs), the main tool currently available for predicting range shifts of species. However, to date, no comprehensive assessment of niche conservatism is available for the marine realm. We use the invasion by Indo-Pacific tropical fishes into the Mediterranean Sea, the world's most invaded marine basin, to examine the conservatism of the climatic niche. We show that tropical invaders may spread far beyond their native niches and that SDMs do not predict their new distributions better than null models. Our results suggest that SDMs may underestimate the potential spread of invasive species and call for prudence in employing these models in order to forecast species invasion and their response to environmental change. PMID:25626355

  7. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  8. Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Mol, J H; Ramlal, J S; Lietar, C; Verloo, M

    2001-06-01

    The extent of mercury contamination in Surinamese food fishes due to small-scale gold mining was investigated by determination of the total mercury concentration in 318 freshwater fishes, 109 estuarine fishes, and 110 fishes from the Atlantic Ocean. High background levels were found in the piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus (0.35 microg Hg x g(-1) muscle tissue, wet mass basis) and the peacock cichlid Cichla ocellaris (0.39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. Average mercury levels in freshwater fishes were higher in piscivorous species than in nonpiscivorous species, both in potentially contaminated water bodies (0.71 and 0.19 microg x g(-1), respectively) and in the control site (0.25 and 0.04 microg x g(-1), respectively). Mercury concentrations in piscivorous freshwater fishes were significantly higher in rivers potentially affected by gold mining than in the control site. In 57% of 269 piscivorous freshwater fishes from potentially contaminated sites, mercury levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.5 microg Hg x g(-1). The highest mercury concentrations (3.13 and 4.26 microg x g(-1)) were found in two piranhas S. rhombeus from the hydroelectric reservoir Lake Brokopondo. The high mercury levels in fishes from Lake Brokopondo were to some extent related to gold mining because fishes collected at eastern sites (i.e., close to the gold fields) showed significantly higher mercury concentrations than fishes from western localities. In the estuaries, mercury levels in ariid catfish (0.22 microg x g(-1)) and croakers (0.04-0.33 microg x g(-1)) were distinctly lower than those in piscivorous fishes from contaminated freshwater sites. In the isolated Bigi Pan Lagoon, the piscivores snook Centropomus undecimalis (0.04 microg x g(-1)) and tarpon Megalops atlanticus (0.03 microg x g(-1)) showed low mercury levels. Mercury levels were significantly higher in marine fishes than in estuarine fishes, even with the Bigi Pan fishes excluded. High mercury concentrations were found in the shark Mustelus higmani (0.71 microg x g(-1)), the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (1.17 microg x g(-1)), and the barracuda Sphyraena guachancho (0.39 microg x g(-1)), but also in nonpiscivorous species such as Calamus bajonado (0.54 microg x g(-1)), Haemulon plumieri (0.47 microg x g(-1)), and Isopisthus parvipinnis (0.48 microg x g(-1)). Mercury levels were positively correlated with the length of the fish in populations of the freshwater piscivores S. rhombeus, Hoplias malabaricus, and Plagioscion squamosissimus, in estuarine species (Arius couma, Cynoscion virescens, and Macrodon ancylodon), and in S. guachancho from the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:11437465

  9. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

  10. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

  11. Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37-66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. PMID:23636803

  12. Derelict Fishing Line Provides a Useful Proxy for Estimating Levels of Non-Compliance with No-Take Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, David H.; Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Evans, Richard D.; Hill, Jos K.; Russ, Garry R.

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  13. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Hill, Jos K; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching). Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned) fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year) NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands), whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection) and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4%) of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed. PMID:25545154

  14. Size fractionated speciation of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in a sub-tropical industrial environment.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Mishra, V K; Prajapati, S K

    2006-03-01

    Size fractionated chemical speciation of acidic aerosols were performed for ammonium sulfate, other sulfates, ammonium nitrate and other nitrates in a sub-tropical industrial area, Bina, India during December 2003 to November 2004. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant temporal variations (p > .001) in the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in all the three size fractions (fine, mid-size and coarse). Winter demonstrated utmost concentrations of ammonium sulfate, which ranged from 3.2 to 26.4 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.20-0.34 microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium sulfate was chiefly in fine mode (43.77% of total particulate sulfate) as compared to coarse particles (28.60% of total particulate sulfate). The major fraction Ammonium sulfate existed in different forms in atmospheric aerosols, for example NH4Fe(SO4)2, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)3H(SO4)2 in fine particles, and (NH4)4(NO3)SO4+ in coarse particles. Other sulfate concentrations were also higher during winter ranging from 1.89 to 14.3 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.12-0.65microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium nitrate constituted the major fraction of total particulate nitrate all through the year and was principally in fine particles (the highest concentration in January i.e. 14.2 microg m(-3)). Other nitrates were mainly distributed in the fine particles (highest concentration in January i.e. 11.2 microg m(-3)) All the sulfate and nitrate species were mainly distributed in fine mode and have significant impact on human health. PMID:16153681

  15. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P?

  16. Middle atmospheric thermal structure over sub-tropical and tropical Indian locations using Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Som; Sridharan, S.; Chandra, H.; Lal, S.; Acharya, Y. B.

    2012-04-01

    Earth's middle atmospheric thermal structure is unique, and having imprints of various physical and chemical processes taking place in the Earth's atmosphere. Nd-YAG laser based Rayleigh lidars are operational at Mt. Abu (24.5N, 72.7E) and at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E) to study the middle atmospheric temperature structure in the altitude region of 30-75 km. Temperature profiles are derived using Rayleigh lidar measured neutral density profiles. Nightly mean temperature profiles, during 1997-2001, are utilized to obtain average temperature profile for each month over Mt. Abu. Lidar observed temperatures are compared with the temperatures observed by Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), on-board Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), the CIRA-86 and MSISE-90. Observed temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement with CIRA-86 and MSISE-90 model below 50 km, and the agreement is better during winter months. Quantitatively there are significant differences noted, up to 10 K, above 50 km. The temperature profiles are also compared with the equatorial model for the Indian region, based on rocket and balloon measurements. Significant day to day variability is found, which is as high as 10 K at 70 km. The mean values of the stratopause height and temperature are found to be 48 km and 271 K, respectively. Seasonal variation shows equinoctial and summer maxima below 55 km, whereas above 70 km winter maximum with equinoctial minima are present. Comparative study of thermal structure with Gadanki, a tropical station, revealed significant differences in the thermal structure over tropical and sub-tropical locations.

  17. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity. PMID:25830113

  18. Investigations of mesospheric temperature inversions over sub-tropical location using lidar and satellites measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Som; Chandra, H.; Beig, G.; Kumar, Prashant; Vaishnav, Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    Characteristics of Mesospheric Temperature Inversions (MTIs) are studied using ~290 nights of Rayleigh Lidar data collected over Mt. Abu (24.5°N, 72.7°E) during the period of 1997 to 2004 for the first time from an Indian sub-tropical location. Three MTI events have been investigated and statistical analysis has also been performed. A strong MTI event, with amplitude of about 30 K, at altitudes between 60 and 70 km was observed on 30 December 2003. It was accompanied by strongly perturbed mesospheric zonal winds as observed by TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) onboard Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED). Two MTI episodes during March and December 2000 have been investigated, which showed that MTI can persist for few days and its amplitude varies gradually. Ozone observed by Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) onboard Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) also showed significantly higher variability during strong MTI events. A statistical analysis of MTI occurrence and their characteristics have been done using Lidar data (1997-2004), HALOE on board UARS (1997-2004) and SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) on board TIMED (2002-2004). The frequency of occurrence of MTIs is maximum during winter and minimum during summer and average magnitude of MTIs is ~20 K with prominent seasonal variability. SABER and Lidar observed occurrence statistics is showing very similar pattern and SABER is able to capture stronger MTIs (~50 K). The average bottom height of MTIs from Lidar is having strong seasonality (lower height during winter) in contrast to satellites observed heights of MTIs.

  19. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan-ru; Peng, Shao-lin; Mo, Jiang-ming; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Zhuo-quan; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Jin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external featurescolor, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61 t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. This is the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China. PMID:16615168

  20. 75 FR 8305 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... relatively short duration relative to the life expectancy of the affected stocks of marine mammals and, in... (LOF) (74 FR 58859, November 16, 2009), and the draft 2009 marine mammal stock assessment reports (SAR... FR 31666, June 16, 1995 (proposed) and 65 FR 45399, August 31, 1995 (interim)). A...

  1. 75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...NMFS proposes to issue a permit for a period of three years to authorize the incidental, but not intentional, taking of individuals from six marine mammal stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has made a preliminary determination that incidental......

  2. Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

    2012-06-01

    In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

  3. CAN TISSUE ANOMALIES THAT OCCUR IN MARINE FISH IMPLICATE SPECIFIC POLLUTANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advantage of using tissue abnormalities in wild fish as a measure of fish health is that the abnormality, unlike sensitive biochemical anomalies, cannot be said to have occurred during capture or transport. This paper is concerned with factors (chemical, physical, or biologic...

  4. A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

  5. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively) of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they have seasonal presence in Australian southern coasts. The genetic distinction of Terranova larval type in the present study from Pseudoterranova spp. along with the presence of more species of elasmobranchs in Australian waters (definitive hosts of Terranova spp. and Pulchrascaris spp.) than seals (definitive hosts of Pseudoterranova spp.) suggest that Terranova larval type in the present study belong to either genus Terranova or Pulchrascaris, which are not known to cause disease in humans. The present study provides essential information that could be helpful to identify Australian Terranova larval types in future studies. Examination and characterisation of further specimens, especially adults of Terranova and Pulchrascaris, is necessary to fully elucidate the identity of these larvae. PMID:27014510

  7. Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan P.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched δ15N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher δ15N than older fish. These differences in δ15N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

  8. Observations of migrant exchange and mixing in a coral reef fish metapopulation link scales of marine population connectivity.

    PubMed

    Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757

  9. Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

    2013-02-23

    We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched δ(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher δ(15)N than older fish. These differences in δ(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

  10. Distribution of brominated flame retardants and dechloranes between sediments and benthic fish - A comparison of a freshwater and marine habitat.

    PubMed

    Shring, Roxana; Busch, Friederike; Fricke, Nicolai; Ktke, Danijela; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-01-15

    A total of 53 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were analysed in sediments, European eels and dabs from both freshwater and marine sampling stations in the German Bight and the river Elbe. Classic HFRs, such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), were the highest concentrated HFRs in eels as well as in most dabs (apart from 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO)). In sediments, on the other hand, alternate BFRs and especially dechloranes dominated the contamination pattern. Dabs were still found to be statistically representative for the contamination patterns and relative magnitude in sediments from their respective habitats. Contamination patterns in eels seemed to be more driven by the contamination situation in the food chain or historical contamination of their habitat. Unsuspectedly the alternate flame retardant TBCO was found in comparably high concentrations (up to 12ngg(-1) ww) in dabs from two sampling stations as well as in sediments from these stations (up to 1.2ngg(-1) dw). It could not be detected in any other analysed fish or sediment samples, indicating a localised contamination source in the area. This study provides information on HFR contamination patterns and behaviour in both marine and freshwater sediments and their potential role as contamination source for benthic fish. PMID:26544886

  11. Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, B.J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

  12. Dual impact of temperature on growth and mortality of marine fish larvae in a shallow estuarine habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, Timo; Laur, Kerli; Simm, Mart; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-12-01

    High individual growth and mortality rates of herring Clupea harengus membras and goby Pomatoschistus spp. larvae were observed in the estuarine habitat of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Both instantaneous mortality (0.76-1.05) as well as growth rate (0.41-0.82 mm day-1) of larval herring were amongst highest observed elsewhere previously. Mortality rates of goby larvae were also high (0.57-1.05), while first ever data on growth rates were provided in this study (0.23-0.35 mm day-1). Our study also evidenced that higher growth rate of marine fish larvae did not result in lower mortalities. We suggest that high growth and mortality rates primarily resulted from a rapidly increasing and high (>18 °C) water temperature that masked potential food-web effects. The explanation for observed patterns lies in the interactive manner temperature contributed: i) facilitating prey production, which supported high growth rate and decreased mortalities; ii) exceeding physiological thermal optimum of larvae, which resulted in decreased growth rate and generally high mortalities. Our investigation suggests that the projected climate warming may have significant effect on early life history stages of the dominating marine fish species inhabiting shallow estuaries.

  13. Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantiek; Ali, Atheer Hussain

    2014-03-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

  14. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ?4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles can support equitable analysis and comparison of diverse ecosystems. The analyses provide insights into the effects of parameter uncertainty on global biomass and production estimates, which have yet to be achieved with complex models, and will therefore help to highlight priorities for future research and data collection. However, the focus on simple model structures and global processes means that non-phytoplankton primary production and several groups, structures and processes of ecological and conservation interest are not represented. Consequently, our simple models become increasingly less useful than more complex alternatives when addressing questions about food web structure and function, biodiversity, resilience and human impacts at smaller scales and for areas closer to coasts. PMID:26226590

  15. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, THEIR DERIVATIVES, AND HEAVY METALS IN MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine organisms living in environments containing toxic chemicals are often exposed simultaneously to many different classes of compounds, which collectively pose a different threat of toxicological effects than is posed separately by the individual compounds. The present resear...

  16. Characterization of the marine fish assemblage associated with the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Robert M.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Spieler, Richard E.

    2004-07-01

    Some shallow (<7 m, water depth) nearshore hardbottom areas of southeast Florida have been reported to function as important juvenile fish habitat. Much of this area has been impacted by one or more local beach renourishments (sand fill to offset erosion). We characterized the nearshore fish communities and compared the fish assemblages adjacent to renourished beach to those adjacent to never-renourished beach along a 30-km stretch of coastline, primarily in Broward County, using three visual census methods. Two hundred transect-counts, 100 point-counts and 98 rover-diver counts were completed during June-August 2001. In transect- and point-counts, abundance of all fish species and their sizes were recorded; the rover-diver counts consisted of a simple species list. In total, 164 species and over 72,000 fish were recorded. The highest number of species (145) was recorded with the rover-diver counts. The transects-counts had 118 species and 109 species were recorded on the point-counts. With either all the sites adjacent to renourished beach pooled and compared to the pooled never-renourished sites or individual comparisons amongst renourished and neighboring never-renourished sites, no consistent differences were noted in fish abundance or species richness (ANOVA) or among fish assemblage structure (MDS plot of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices). However, although the data show no obvious distinct difference between the renourished and never-renourished sites, due to several important confounding factors (e.g., census methodology, longshore movement of sand fill) and the absence of baseline data prior to any renourishment, it would be premature to translate these results into management strategies. The assemblage structure, in terms of percentage of juvenile fish (<5 cm) as well as percent contributions by family, was similar for the point-counts and transect-counts. However, in mean density per m 2 of substrate, greater abundance and greater species richness values were recorded with the transect-counts than with the point-counts. Newly settled and early juveniles were the dominant component (>84%) of the inshore fish community, consisting primarily (>90%) of grunts (Haemulidae). After the grunts, the wrasses (Labridae) at about 5%, and damselfish (Pomacentridae) at roughly 2% were the predominant families. It is clear from this study and others that the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County is an important juvenile fish habitat, especially for grunts. However, the nearshore hardbottom does not appear to be obligate habitat for these fishes as fishes associated with this area are, apparently, not unique to the nearshore hardbottom either in species or ontogenic stage.

  17. High gene flow in reef fishes and its implications for ad-hoc no-take marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Matias, Ambrocio Melvin A; Anticamara, Jonathan A; Quilang, Jonas P

    2013-10-01

    Integration of genetic connectivity information in effective marine reserve (MR) design is important in sustaining marine biodiversity. Here, genetic connectivity based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three reef fish species, namely Epinephelus merra (n=67; 32 from Bolinao, 14 from Alaminos, and 21 from Masinloc), Parupeneus multifasciatus (n=23; 12 from Bolinao and 11 from Masinloc), and Odonus niger (n=35; 21 from Mabini and 14 from Tingloy), sampled across western Luzon, Philippines, was inferred by assessing their genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and historical demography. The results show high haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the three species. Tests for population structure indicate high gene flow and no spatial genetic structuring for the three species. Mismatch analyses suggest unimodal distribution for E. merra and P. multifasciatus, but bimodal distribution for O. niger. Even with differences in mismatch distributions, all the three species exhibit low raggedness index indicating demographic population expansion. The bimodal distribution of O. niger could be attributed to the mixing of two isolated populations. High gene flow between sampling locations implies genetic exchanges and connectivity between many small MRs and fishing grounds in western Luzon, Philippines, at a scale similar to our study. This research is among the first few to elucidate the high genetic connectivity of reef fish communities across the Philippines (here western Luzon), but it also calls for more support (i.e. government and academia) for genetic research that aims to (1) understand the maintenance of megadiversity of the country and (2) search for effective biodiversity conservation options for the coral reefs. PMID:23530464

  18. Spatial distribution of fishes in a Northwest Atlantic ecosystem in relation to risk of predation by a marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Swain, Douglas P; Benot, Hugues P; Hammill, Mike O

    2015-09-01

    1. Numerous studies have shown that, at spatial scales of metres to several kilometres, animals balance the trade-off between foraging success and predation mortality by increasing their use of safer but less profitable habitats as predation risk increases. However, it is less clear whether prey respond similarly at the larger spatiotemporal scales of many ecosystems. 2. We determine whether this behaviour is evident in a large marine ecosystem, the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (sGSL, 75 000 km(2) ) over a 42-year period. This ecosystem is characterized by a recent increase in the abundance of a large marine predator, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius), by more than an order of magnitude. 3. We compared changes in spatial distribution over the 1971-2012 period between important prey of grey seals (Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.; white hake, Urophycis tenuis Mitchill; and thorny skate, Amblyraja radiata Donovan) and non-prey fishes. 4. Distribution was modelled using generalized additive models incorporating spatially variable effects of predation risk, density dependence and water temperature. Distributions of cod, hake and skate were strongly related to risk of predation by seals, with distribution shifting into lower risk areas as predation risk increased. Non-prey species did not show similar changes in habitat use. Spatial variation in fish condition suggests that these low-risk areas are also less profitable for cod and skate in terms of food availability. The effects of density dependence and water temperature were also important in models, but did not account for the changes in habitat use as the risk of predation increased. 5. These results indicate that these fish are able to assess and respond to spatial variation in predation risk at very large spatial scales. They also suggest that non-consumptive 'risk' effects may be an important component of the declines in productivity of seal prey in this ecosystem, and of the indirect effects at lower trophic levels. PMID:25976520

  19. The effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve (Central Mediterranean Sea, Italy): A first assessment 5 years after its establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpaolo, Consoli; Gianluca, Sar; Gianfranco, Mazza; Pietro, Battaglia; Teresa, Romeo; Vincenzo, Incontro; Franco, Andaloro

    2013-05-01

    This 2-year study was aimed to investigate the early effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve and to evaluate its level of enforcement. Sampling was carried out by means of underwater visual census techniques in four sampling sites within the reserve boundaries and eight outside the reserve. Results showed significant inside/outside differences in the multivariate abundance of fish assemblage. These results were confirmed and exemplified by significant univariate differences between locations for total abundance, Species Richness and diversity of the fish assemblage; values of these metrics were higher inside the reserve than outside. Small fish size and species of low and medium fishing value did not display significant inside/outside differences in abundances whereas medium, large size fish and high value species showed abundances significantly higher inside the marine reserve. Protection effects were particularly evident for large specimens of high fishing value, most of which were exclusively found inside the reserve (Diplodus puntazzo, Epinephelus costae, Mycteroperca rubra, Scorpaena scrofa, Spondyliosoma cantharus, Sciaena umbra and Epinephelus marginatus). The present study provides evidence of a reserve effect on fish populations after only five years since its establishment. This is an extraordinary result likely due to the high level of enforcement observed inside the Plemmirio MPA.

  20. Environmental Forcing of Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical and Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdóttir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L−1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L−1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L−1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L−1 d−1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L−1 d−1 (1σ, n = 65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

  1. Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

    2011-01-01

    During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

  2. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

  3. Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. PMID:25180652

  4. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  5. Genome wide association study for drought, aflatoxin resistance, and important agronomic traits of maize hybrids in the sub-tropics.

    PubMed

    Farfan, Ivan D Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N; Murray, Seth C; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  6. Fluoxetine treatment affects nitrogen waste excretion and osmoregulation in a marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Morando, Michael B; Medeiros, Lea R; McDonald, M Danielle

    2009-07-26

    Measurable quantities of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, have been found in surface waters and more recently in the tissues of fish. This highly prescribed pharmaceutical inhibits the reuptake of the monoamine, serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), causing a local amplification of 5-HT concentrations. Serotonin is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes in teleost fish including branchial nitrogen excretion and intestinal osmoregulation. Since the gill and intestine are directly exposed to the environment, environmental exposure to fluoxetine has the potential of affecting both these mechanisms. In the present study, we test the potential sensitivity of these processes to fluoxetine by implanting gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, intraperitoneally with different concentrations of fluoxetine (0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 microgg(-1)). Fluoxetine treatments of 25 and 50 microgg(-1) were sub-lethal and were used in subsequent experiments. Fish treated with both 25 and 50 microgg(-1) fluoxetine had significantly higher circulating levels of 5-HT than control fish, suggesting that any 5-HT sensitive physiological process could potentially be affected by these two fluoxetine doses. However, only fish treated with 25 microgg(-1) fluoxetine showed a significant increase in urea excretion. A similar increase was not measured in fish treated with 50 microgg(-1) fluoxetine, likely because of their high circulating levels of cortisol which inhibits urea excretion in toadfish. Intestinal fluid absorption appeared to be stimulated in fish treated with 25 microgg(-1) fluoxetine but inhibited in 50 microgg(-1) treated fish. Despite these differing responses, both doses of fluoxetine resulted in lowered plasma osmolality values, which was expected based on the stimulation of fluid absorption in the 25 microgg(-1) fluoxetine-treated fish but is surprising with the 50 microgg(-1) treated fish. In the case of the latter, the corresponding stress response invoked by this level of fluoxetine may have resulted in an additional osmoregulatory response which accounts for the lowered plasma osmolality. Our findings suggest that branchial urea excretion and intestinal osmoregulation are responsive to the SSRI, fluoxetine, and further investigation is needed to determine the sensitivity of these processes to chronic waterborne fluoxetine contamination. PMID:19443054

  7. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M.; Charles, J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  8. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Brian N.; Heidel, Jerry R.; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  9. Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37–66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2009–2017. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:23636803

  10. Anti-parasitic effects of Leptomycin B isolated from Streptomyces sp. CJK17 on marine fish ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Gong, Hui; Ke, Qiaozhen; Li, Anxing

    2016-02-15

    The present study was conducted aiming to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic efficacy of an isolated compound against the ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. The compound was previously isolated from fermentation products of Streptomyces sp. CJK17 and designated as SFrD. Toxicity of the compound SFrD against the fish hosts (Larimichthys crocea) was also tested and its chemical structure was elucidated. The obtained results showed that the compound has potent anti-parasitic efficacy with the 10min-, 1h-, 2h-, 3h- and 4h-LC50 (95% Confidence Intervals) of 6.8 (6.5-7.1), 3.9 (2.8-5.0), 3.3 (2.6-4.0), 2.7 (2.3-3.1) and 2.5 (2.2-2.8)mgL(-1) against theronts of C. irritans and the 6h-LC50 (95% CI) of 3.0 (2.8-3.2)mgL(-1) against the tomonts, respectively. Exposure of the compound SFrD remarkably reduced the mortality of fish infected with C. Irritans, from 100% in the control group to 61.7% and 38.3% in groups of 3.1mgL(-1) and 6.3mgL(-1), respectively. In the test of exposing fish to 40mgL(-1) compound SFrD for 24h, no visible effects were observed affecting the normal behavior or any macroscopic changes. By spectrum analysis (EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), the compound SFrD was identified as Leptomycin B. This study firstly demonstrated that Leptomycin B has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against ciliates in cultured marine fish. PMID:26827867

  11. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily S; Tissot, Brian N; Heidel, Jerry R; Miller-Morgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas) following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens). We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects. PMID:25737809

  12. Fish and Marine Omega-3 Polyunsatured Fatty Acid Consumption and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Deland, Eliane; Marette, Andr

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between fish and marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in prospective cohort studies. Methods. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) using random effects or fixed effects generic inverse variance model. Publication bias and study heterogeneity were assessed using Egger's test and I2 statistic. Results. We found no significant association between the intake of fish/seafood (pooled RR: 1.04; P = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.2, 549, 955 participants) or marine LC n-3 PUFA (pooled RR: 1.08, P = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.30, 346, 710 participants) and T2D risk. Significant study heterogeneity was observed in fish/seafood and marine LC n-3 PUFA studies (P < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis revealed no obvious sources for high heterogeneity. We also found a significant protective effect of oily fish intake on T2D risk (pooled RR = 0.89, P = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.96). Dose-response analysis suggested that every 80?g per day intake of oily fish may reduce 20% risk of T2D. Conclusion. We found no significant effect of fish/seafood or marine LC n-3 PUFA intake on risk of T2D but a significant effect of oily fish intake on risk of T2D. PMID:24089611

  13. Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

  14. 78 FR 54553 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... species or stock. On May 8, 2013 (78 FR 26751), NMFS proposed to issue a permit under MMPA section 101(a... preparation of the 2012 MMPA List of Fisheries (LOF or List) (76 FR 73912; November 29, 2011), the 2011 marine... FR 26751, May 8, 2013). Basis for Determining Negligible Impact Prior to issuing a permit to take...

  15. 77 FR 11493 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Eastern U.S. stock of Steller sea lions (75 FR 81972). Along with issuing the permit, NMFS made a final... affected species or stocks of marine mammals. The final NID (December 29, 2010; 75 FR 81972) for the... of Steller sea lions (December 29, 2010; 75 FR 81972). Recovery Plans A Recovery Plan for Steller...

  16. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  17. Osseous skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off northern and central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milessi, Andrs C.; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Vctor A.; Lange, Carina B.

    2005-08-01

    The significance of whale falls for the study of the biogeography, evolution and biodiversity of deep-sea biota has been recently recognized by international programs since large carcasses are known to give rise to biogenic chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, the plain accumulation of smaller bone material in the shallower settings of the continental shelf and upper slope under the hypoxic conditions of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), has received much less attention. Here we describe new findings of skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the OMZ off northern and central Chile which, combined with previous reports for the study area, lead us to suggest the existence of a band in the benthos of accumulation of bones and scales extending at least twenty degrees in latitude (18-38 S). Future studies should focus on the characterization of biotic communities living upon these resources in order to elucidate their peculiarities and importance in the Eastern South Pacific.

  18. Redescription and genetic characterization of Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2013-08-01

    Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990, was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and Pricanthus macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. thalassini collected from the 2 hosts were characterized by sequencing and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. The ITS region of H. thalassini was compared with Hysterothylacium spp. in GenBank, and the results seem to support the validity of the incompletely known species. PMID:23343397

  19. Forest structure and litter production of naturally re-generated white mangrove Avicennia marina in sub-tropical estuarine coast.

    PubMed

    Abu Hena, M K; Sidik, B Japar; Idris, M H; Nesarul, M H; Aysha, A; Islam, M S; Nazmul, H

    2015-09-01

    The present work deals with plant structure, phenology, litter production and decomposition of mangrove Avicennia marina in the newly re-generated mangrove forest in sub-tropical coast. The natural generation in this accreted coastal land of mono-specific A. marina forest stand was prominent, with 45% seedlings and 32% saplings. Peak flowering and fruiting were noticed in May and August, respectively. Reproductive components contribute countable percent into the total litter production during the peak flowering (60%) and fruiting (86%) season. The percentage of leaf litter fall fluctuated throughout the year and contributed 13-99% (73% in average) of the total litter production of 11.53 tones ha(-1)'yr(-1). The total litter production differed with season and influenced by local climate, pore water salinity and phenology of the mangrove. The naturally generated young (7 years) A. marina with 1.8 m height produced more leaf litter as compared to similar tree height elsewhere. Decomposition rate was related to season, with higher litter loss during rainy season which could help cycling nutrients and support estuarine food web by supplying organic matter into the sub-tropical coastal environment. PMID:26521566

  20. Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  1. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem integrity. PMID:17650253

  2. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2944.1?mg/100g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? ? 3/? ? 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  3. Effect of small versus large clusters of fish school on the yield of a purse-seine small pelagic fishery including a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Brochier, Timothe; Tri, Nguyen-Huu; Auger, Pierre; Brehmer, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    We consider a fishery model with two sites: (1) a marine protected area (MPA) where fishing is prohibited and (2) an area where the fish population is harvested. We assume that fish can migrate from MPA to fishing area at a very fast time scale and fish spatial organisation can change from small to large clusters of school at a fast time scale. The growth of the fish population and the catch are assumed to occur at a slow time scale. The complete model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with three time scales. We take advantage of the time scales using aggregation of variables methods to derive a reduced model governing the total fish density and fishing effort at the slow time scale. We analyze this aggregated model and show that under some conditions, there exists an equilibrium corresponding to a sustainable fishery. Our results suggest that in small pelagic fisheries the yield is maximum for a fish population distributed among both small and large clusters of school. PMID:24833401

  4. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels. PMID:20625698

  5. Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

  6. Frequency and intensity of productivity regime shifts in marine fish stocks

    PubMed Central

    Vert-pre, Katyana A.; Amoroso, Ricardo O.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Hilborn, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Fish stocks fluctuate both in abundance and productivity (net population increase), and there are many examples demonstrating that productivity increased or decreased due to changes in abundance caused by fishing and, alternatively, where productivity shifted between low and high regimes, entirely unrelated to abundance. Although shifts in productivity regimes have been described, their frequency and intensity have not previously been assessed. We use a database of trends in harvest and abundance of 230 fish stocks to evaluate the proportion of fish stocks in which productivity is primarily related to abundance vs. those that appear to manifest regimes of high or low productivity. We evaluated the statistical support for four hypotheses: (i) the abundance hypothesis, where production is always related to population abundance; (ii) the regimes hypothesis, where production shifts irregularly between regimes that are unrelated to abundance; (iii) the mixed hypothesis, where even though production is related to population abundance, there are irregular changes in this relationship; and (iv) the random hypothesis, where production is random from year to year. We found that the abundance hypothesis best explains 18.3% of stocks, the regimes hypothesis 38.6%, the mixed hypothesis 30.5%, and the random hypothesis 12.6%. Fisheries management agencies need to recognize that irregular changes in productivity are common and that harvest regulation and management targets may need to be adjusted whenever productivity changes. PMID:23322735

  7. Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, Paul H.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Jamieson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400–11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000–8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

  8. Engineering and functional properties of protein powders from underutilized marine fish and by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel processing methods are needed to convert seafood by-products into marketable products. Protein derived from seafood by-products can have a range of good functional properties and can potentially be used as binders and emulsifiers. Functional properties of fish proteins are related to their phy...

  9. 78 FR 65971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... nationwide. II. Method of Collection The survey will be conducted using two modes: in-person interviews and... Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... information. The objective of the survey is to collect information on both trip expenditures and...

  10. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  11. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-03-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph of fish exposed to elevated pCO2 can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  12. Impact of Intensive Land-Based Fish Culture in Qingdao, China, on the Bacterial Communities in Surrounding Marine Waters and Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500 m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina. PMID:21922024

  13. Heavy metals produce toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the marine teleost fish SAF-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Esteban, Mara ; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The use of cell lines to test the toxicity of aquatic pollutants is a valuable alternative to fish bioassays. In this study, fibroblast SAF-1 cells from the marine gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) were exposed for 24h to the heavy metals Cd, Hg, MeHg (Methylmercury), As or Pb and the resulting cytotoxicity was assessed. Neutral red (NR), MTT-tetrazolio (MTT), crystal violet (CV) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) viability tests showed that SAF-1 cells exposed to the above heavy metals produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of viable cells. Methylmercury showed the highest toxicity (EC50=0.01mM) followed by As, Cd, Hg and Pb. NR was the most sensitive method followed by MTT, CV and LDH. SAF-1 cells incubated with each of the heavy metals also exhibited an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis cell death. Moreover, the corresponding gene expression profiles pointed to the induction of the metallothionein protective system, cellular and oxidative stress and apoptosis after heavy metal exposure for 24h. This report describes and compares tools for evaluating the potential effects of marine contamination using the SAF-1 cell line. PMID:26363324

  14. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  15. Determination of simple bromophenols in marine fishes by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vilma Mota; da Cunha Veloso, Mrcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Aline S; Santos, Gislaine Vieira; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2005-12-15

    Brominated phenols 2- and 4-bromophenol (2-BP and 4-BP); 2,4- and 2,6-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) have been identified as key flavor compounds found in seafoods. Depending on their concentrations, they were responsible for marine or ocean flavor (shrimp/crab/fish/sea salt-like) or for phenolic/iodine/iodoform-like off-flavor. In this work a new analytical methodology was developed to determine, simultaneously, such bromophenols in fish meats, based on reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatographic separation (RP-HPLC). The separation of bromophenols was made onto a Lichrospher 100 RP-18 column using water:acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1), using absorbance detection at 286nm, were the 2-BP, 4-BP, 2,4- and 2,6-DBP show significant absorbtivity values and at 297nm for 2,4,6-TBP. They were separated in 20min with a good chromatographic resolution (Rs) for the isomeric compounds: 2- and 4-BP, Rs=1.23; 2,4- and 2,6-DBP, Rs=1.63. The calibration curves were linear in the bromophenols concentration range of 200.0-1000ngmL(-1). Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method was 127ngmL(-1) for 2-BP; 179ngmL(-1) for 4-BP; 89.0ngmL(-1) for 2,4-DBP; 269ngmL(-1) for 2,6-DBP and 232ngmL(-1) for 2,4,6-TBP. This method has been applied in determination of bromophenols, isolated by combined steam distillation-solvent extraction with 2mL of pentane/diethyl ether (6:4), from Brazilian fishes samples, collected on the Atlantic coast of Bahia (13 degrees 01'S and 38 degrees 31'W), Brazil. The concentration range determined were 0.20ngg(-1) (2-BP) to 299ngg(-1) (2,4,6-TBP). The method proposed here is rapid and suitable for simultaneous quantification of simple bromophenols in fish meat. As long as we know, it is the first analytical methodology, using RP-HPLC/UV, which was developed to determine simple bromophenols in fish meat. PMID:18970325

  16. The utility of two marine community indices to assess the environmental degradation of lotic systems using fish communities.

    PubMed

    Stojković Piperac, Milica; Milošević, Djuradj; Simić, Snežana; Simić, Vladica

    2016-05-01

    Multimetric approaches are commonly used to evaluate the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. However, it has been recommended that the sensitivity of existing methods be improved through the investigation of the potential of new metrics to detect environmental disturbances. In this study we tested the effectiveness of two community indices (Taxonomic distinctness index (TDI) and Abundance biomass comparison (ABC) method), primarily proposed for marine ecosystems, to identify sites with different levels of environmental degradation in lotic systems using fish community data. Fish samples were collected over the period 2003-2011 at 131 sampling stations. To generate water and habitat quality classes, a self-organizing map (SOM) based on environmental data was applied. Gradients over the SOM map were investigated for the values of the TDI and ABC indices. The results of this study reveal that the values of both the TDI and ABC indices are highly correlated with water and habitat quality gradients. However, despite the observed correlation, the utility of TDI as a potential metric in bioassessment programs is rather limited, due to its lack of discriminatory power. In contrast, the ABC method could be proposed as a novel metric, but can only be applied in type-specific multimetric approaches. PMID:26874754

  17. Annotated checklist of marine fishes from the Sanctuary of Bahía Chamela, Mexico with occurrence and biogeographic data

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Villa, Cristian Moisés; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Bastida-Izaguirre, Dafne; Hastings, Philip A.; Balart, Eduardo F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An annotated checklist of marine fishes of the Sanctuary of Islands and Islets of Bahía Chamela in the central Mexican Pacific is presented. Records of fish species were obtained by different methods including visual census, sampling with anesthetics, fisherman-nets, and trawling with a biological dredge. Additional records were obtained from natural history collections and publications. The list comprises 196 species in 64 families and 141 genera. The Carangidae is the most speciose family with 11 species, followed by the Labridae with 10 and the Pomacentridae with nine. Fourteen species are endemic in Mexican Pacific waters, but none is restricted to Bahía Chamela. The most dominant species recorded during underwater surveys were Epinephelus labriformis, Stegastes flavilatus, and Halichoeres dispilus. Most species are of tropical affinities distributed throughout the tropical eastern Pacific (123), eastern Pacific (23), and Mexican Pacific (14). Other species are known from the eastern and Indo-Pacific regions (18), eastern Pacific and western Atlantic oceans (2), and some are circumtropical (9). A new record of the Gulf Brotula Ogilbia ventralis is provided for the Bahía Chamela and its geographical distribution is extended to Mexican central Pacific. PMID:26877683

  18. Application of mercury isotopes for tracing trophic transfer and internal distribution of mercury in marine fish feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Chirby, Michelle A; Chesney, Edward J

    2013-10-01

    Feeding experiments were performed to investigate mercury (Hg) isotope fractionation during trophic transfer and internal distribution of total Hg (THg) in marine fish on exposure to natural seafood. Young-of-the-year amberjack (Seriola dumerili) were fed with either blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus; 2647 ng/g THg) or brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus; 25.1 ng/g THg) for 80 d or 50 d, respectively, and dissected for muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and blood. After 30 d of tuna consumption, Hg isotopes (?(202) Hg and ?(199)Hg) of the amberjack organs shifted to the tuna value (?(202)Hg = 0.55, ?(199)Hg = 1.54,), demonstrating the absence of Hg isotope fractionation. When amberjack were fed a shrimp diet, there was an initial mixing of the amberjack organs toward the shrimp value (?(202)Hg = -0.48, ?(199)Hg = 0.32), followed by a cessation of further shifts in ?(199)Hg and a small shift in ?(202)Hg. The failure of ?(199)Hg to reach the shrimp value can be attributed to a reduction in Hg bioaccumulation from shrimp resulting from feeding inhibition and the ?(202)Hg shift can be attributed to a small internal fractionation during excretion. Given that the feeding rate and Hg concentration of the diet can influence internal Hg isotope distribution, these parameters must be considered in biosentinel fish studies. PMID:23787815

  19. Annotated checklist of marine fishes from the Sanctuary of Baha Chamela, Mexico with occurrence and biogeographic data.

    PubMed

    Galvn-Villa, Cristian Moiss; Ros-Jara, Eduardo; Bastida-Izaguirre, Dafne; Hastings, Philip A; Balart, Eduardo F

    2016-01-01

    An annotated checklist of marine fishes of the Sanctuary of Islands and Islets of Baha Chamela in the central Mexican Pacific is presented. Records of fish species were obtained by different methods including visual census, sampling with anesthetics, fisherman-nets, and trawling with a biological dredge. Additional records were obtained from natural history collections and publications. The list comprises 196 species in 64 families and 141 genera. The Carangidae is the most speciose family with 11 species, followed by the Labridae with 10 and the Pomacentridae with nine. Fourteen species are endemic in Mexican Pacific waters, but none is restricted to Baha Chamela. The most dominant species recorded during underwater surveys were Epinephelus labriformis, Stegastes flavilatus, and Halichoeres dispilus. Most species are of tropical affinities distributed throughout the tropical eastern Pacific (123), eastern Pacific (23), and Mexican Pacific (14). Other species are known from the eastern and Indo-Pacific regions (18), eastern Pacific and western Atlantic oceans (2), and some are circumtropical (9). A new record of the Gulf Brotula Ogilbia ventralis is provided for the Baha Chamela and its geographical distribution is extended to Mexican central Pacific. PMID:26877683

  20. How to detect polymorphisms undergoing selection in marine fishes? A review of methods and case studies, including flatfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinand, Bruno; Lemaire, Christophe; Bonhomme, François

    2004-05-01

    Populations of marine organisms are potentially affected by numerous selective pressures such as temperature and salinity, or anthropogenic pressures such as xenobiotics that may preclude adaptation to particular habitats. Such selective pressures may also affect their demography. Examples include modifications of the population dynamics through shifts in growth rate, and in life history traits affecting fitness such as size or age of first reproduction. However, the documentation of variation in phenotypically plastic traits specific to distinct environments cannot be taken as the ultimate proof that natural selection has occurred. Measurement of the impact of selection and subsequent local adaptation of fish populations based exclusively on morphological or physiological characters is one of the most difficult things to achieve because it depends on the use of phenotypic characters that closely match the genotype. Molecular markers can help to overcome this problem and, under some circumstances, can record the footprints of selection. A combination of polymorphisms that are under selection and those that are not can provide complementary information. In this paper, we review how and why selection can be detected at the molecular level, using genetic markers analysed in a population genetic framework. We then report and discuss case studies in fish.

  1. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Carvalho, Felix; Guilhermino, Lcia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on multi-stressors effects required for environmental and human risk assessments is still limited. This study investigated the combined effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), microplastics (MP) and temperature increase on Pomatoschistus microps, an important prey for several higher level predators, including some species edible to humans. Four null hypotheses were tested: H01: P. microps juveniles do not take up Au-NP through the water; H02: Au-NP (ppb range) are not toxic to juveniles; H03: the presence of MP do not influence the effects of Au-NP on juveniles; H04: temperature increase (20-25C) does not change the effects of the tested chemicals on juveniles. Wild juveniles were acclimated to laboratory conditions. Then, they were exposed to Au-NP (?5nm diameter) and MP (polyethylene spheres, 1-5?m diameter), alone and in mixture, at 20C and 25C, in semi-static conditions. After 96h of exposure to Au-NP, fish had gold in their body (0.129-0.546?g/g w.w.) leading to H01 refusal. Exposure to Au-NP alone caused a predatory performance decrease (?-39%, p<0.05) leading to H02 refusal. MP did not change the Au-NP toxicity leading to H03 acceptance. Temperature rise significantly increased the concentration of gold in fish exposed to Au-NP (?2.3 fold), and interacted with chemical effects (e.g. glutathione S-transferases activity) leading to H04 refusal. Thus, the results of this study highlight the importance of further investigating the effects of multi-stressors on marine fish, particularly the effects of temperature on the uptake, biotransformation, elimination and effects of nanoparticles and microplastics, either alone or in mixture. This knowledge is most important to improve the basis for environmental and human risk assessments of these environmental contaminants of high concern. PMID:26642093

  2. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimnez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; vila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  3. Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Dixson, Danielle L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Pratchett, Morgan S; Devitsina, Galina V; Døving, Kjell B

    2009-02-10

    The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO(2)-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity. PMID:19188596

  4. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Jaime E; Arriagada, Aldo M; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Camus, Patricio A; Avila-Thieme, M Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants. PMID:23817947

  5. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of a marine fish infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus-like (ISKNV-like) virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Q; L, L; Weng, S P; Huang, J N; Chan, S-M; He, J G

    2007-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus-like (ISKNV-like) virus causes a serious systemic disease with high morbidity and mortality of freshwater and marine fishes. Based on the ISKNV putative major capsid protein (MCP), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the mRNA capping enzyme (Capping), and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein (TNFR) genes, primers were designed and used in PCR to determine the host range of ISKNV-like viruses. From the sampling of >1600 marine fishes representing 6 orders, 25 families, and 86 species collected in the South China Sea, 13 cultured fish species (141 fish) and 39 wild fish species (102 fish) were confirmed hosts of ISKNV-like viruses. The average percentage of infection of ISKNV-like viruses was 14.6%. The results from phylogenetic analysis of these genes revealed that ISKNV-like viruses could be placed into two clusters: cluster I was more related to ISKNV; cluster II included OSGIV (orange-spotted grouper iridovirus) and RBIV (rock bream iridovirus), and was quite different from ISKNV. The results of this study can contribute to the prediction and prevention of ISKNV disease outbreaks. PMID:17131065

  6. A standardized method of propagating the marine fish parasite, Amyloodinium ocellatum.

    PubMed

    Bower, C E; Turner, D T; Biever, R C

    1987-02-01

    The peridinian dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was propagated by serial passage in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis). Each 25-50-mm fish was exposed to 4,000-6,000 dinospores in 400 ml of artificial seawater for 30 min. Two days after exposure, trophonts were harvested by immersing the fishes in fresh water. After encystment, tomonts were axenized by multiple washes with sterile distilled water and sterile artificial seawater containing penicillin and streptomycin, and then incubated in the antibiotic solution. High yields of both tomonts and dinospores of the same sizes and ages were obtained, and host mortalities were eliminated. Microbial growth in incubating cultures was inhibited until after dinospores had emerged from tomonts, and dinospores remained infective for at least 4 days at 26 C. PMID:3572670

  7. Isotopic fractionation during the uptake and elimination of inorganic mercury by a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the mass dependent (MDF) and independent fractionation (MIF) of stable mercury isotopes in fish during the uptake and elimination of inorganic species. Mercury accumulation during the exposure led to re-equilibration of organ isotopic compositions with the external sources, and elimination terminated the equilibrating with isotope ratios moving back to the original values. Generally, the isotopic behaviors corresponded to the changes of Hg accumulation in the muscle and liver, causing by the internal transportation, organ redistribution, and mixing of different sources. A small degree of MDF caused by biotransformation of Hg in the liver was documented during the elimination, whereas MIF was not observed. The absence of MIF during geochemical and metabolic processes suggested that mercury isotopes can be used as source tracers. Additionally, fish liver is a more responsive organ than muscle to track Hg source when it is mainly composed of inorganic species. PMID:26184584

  8. Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: non-essential versus essential.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

    2012-12-01

    Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe. PMID:23017951

  9. Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  11. Influence of marine reserves on reef fish recruitment in the upper Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponaugle, S.; Walter, K. D.; Grorud-Colvert, K.; Paddack, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper Florida Keys was monitored monthly for 7 years (2003-2009) to establish a baseline and test whether recruitment varied between reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruits <30 days old were surveyed in two primary habitat types (reef and rubble) in each of two replicate reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruitment of all fish species peaked in the summer and early fall; winter recruitment was consistently low. Some interannual recruitment patterns were roughly similar among species, with recruitment generally lower in 2004 for several taxa, possibly reflecting a system-wide process. During 7 peak recruitment months each year, overall recruitment to reef habitat was significantly higher in non-reserve sites in 2 of 7 years. In contrast, recruitment to rubble habitat was significantly higher in reserves in 3 of 7 years. Specific fish taxa had variable patterns of recruitment to reserves and non-reserves: Despite high interannual variation in recruitment magnitude, Scaridae (parrotfish) densities were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves. Densities of two abundant goby taxa ( Gnatholepis thompsoni and Coryphopterus spp.) were also higher in reserves than in non-reserves, but the magnitude varied among years. Recruitment of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, did not differ consistently between reserves and non-reserves. Densities of Thalassoma bifasciatum had an opposite trend relative to other taxa, with densities typically higher in non-reserves than in reserves (in 6 of 7 years; significant in only 2 years). Higher recruit densities (scarids, gobies, and all rubble taxa together) within reserves were coupled with significantly lower densities of intermediate-sized piscivores and significantly greater cover of Dictyota spp. macroalgae and turfs relative to non-reserves. Reserves may be areas of relative refuge from predation for some fish recruits due to a combination of reduced predator abundance and enhanced small-scale structural habitat.

  12. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?, ?) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (?) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (?, ?) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (?, ?) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (?) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (?) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  13. The influence of the Mackenzie River plume on distribution and diversity of marine larval fish assemblages on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sally; Walkusz, Wojciech; Hanson, Mark; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    In the Beaufort Sea, freshwater input from the Mackenzie River creates a relatively warm and turbid plume across the coastal shelf region. To determine the influence of this plume on marine larval fish abundance, distribution, and assemblages, we sampled larval fish during July and August of 2007 using 500 ?m bongo nets on transects across the plume gradient at three sampling stations per transect, along with oceanographic measurements. Three larval fish assemblages were identified within three distinct oceanographic zones: intense plume, diffuse plume and oceanic. The intense plume assemblage was dominated by Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii); the diffuse plume assemblage was dominated by the Pricklebacks (sub-family Lumpeninae); and the oceanic assemblage was dominated by Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). Even though there were differences in relative abundance of particular species among these areas, no significant differences in total abundances of larval fish were found.

  14. Fish assemblages across the marine to low salinity transition zone of a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, Edward J.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2003-04-01

    This 3-year study provides a large-scale perspective of fish assemblage structure across an ocean-estuarine ecotone, given range of salinity encountered (0.1-32) based on sampling at 12 stations along 40 km from the Mullica River (river), Great Bay (bay), and the adjacent inner continental shelf (ocean) in southern New Jersey. Otter trawl (4.9 m, 6 mm mesh) collections were dominated by young-of-the-year of most of the 49 species encountered. Species richness and abundance appeared greatest in the ocean, decreased (with an increase in inter-station variability) in the bay, and appeared to increase again towards the uppermost river stations. The same areas contained three non-discrete, but identifiable, fish assemblages based on Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Members of the Triglidae and Stromateidae characterized the ocean and bay, whereas representatives of the Percichthyidae and Ictaluridae characterized the river. Several species, including Anchoa mitchilli and Cynoscion regalis, exhibited a ubiquitous distribution across the sampling area. Further analyses with Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified salinity and geographic distance, among the variables examined, as the most important determinants in shaping the assemblages. Other contributors included habitat heterogeneity and water depth. In summary, these observations indicate that large-scale patterns in the structure of this estuarine fish assemblage are primarily a result of individual species' responses to dominate environmental gradients, as well as ontogenetic migrations, whereas smaller-scale patterns appear to be the result of habitat associations that are most likely driven by foraging, competition, and/or predator avoidance.

  15. Input of organic matter enhances degradation of weathered diesel fuel in sub-tropical sediments.

    PubMed

    Horel, Agota; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    We investigated different types of biostimulation practices to enhance degradation of weathered conventional diesel fuel in sandy beach sediments from coastal Alabama. Biodegradation rates were measured following the addition of either inorganic nutrients, or organic matter derived from either plant material (Spartina alterniflora) or fish tissue (Chloroscombrus chrysurus) both common to the region. The greatest hydrocarbon degradation rates were observed in the C. chrysurus amended treatments (k=0.0119 d(-1)). Treatment with fish-derived organic matter increased the degradation rates by 104% as compared to control treatments, while inorganic nutrient addition increased the degradation rates by 57%. The addition of plant derived organic matter, however, only marginally enhanced the degradation rates (~7%) during the course of the study. Bacterial 16S rRNA analyses revealed that most sediment microorganisms belonged to the classes; Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The most frequently abundant hydrocarbon degraders were mostly similar to Achromobater sp., Microbulbifer sp., Ruegeria sp., and Pseudomonas sp. PMID:26151652

  16. Landslide-dammed paleolake perturbs marine sedimentation and drives genetic change in anadromous fish

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Benjamin H.; Roering, Joshua J.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Large bedrock landslides have been shown to modulate rates and processes of river activity by forming dams, forcing upstream aggradation of water and sediment, and generating catastrophic outburst floods. Less apparent is the effect of large landslide dams on river ecosystems and marine sedimentation. Combining analyses of 1-m resolution topographic data (acquired via airborne laser mapping) and field investigation, we present evidence for a large, landslide-dammed paleolake along the Eel River, CA. The landslide mass initiated from a high-relief, resistant outcrop which failed catastrophically, blocking the Eel River with an approximately 130-m-tall dam. Support for the resulting 55-km-long, 1.3-km3 lake includes subtle shorelines cut into bounding terrain, deltas, and lacustrine sediments radiocarbon dated to 22.5ka. The landslide provides an explanation for the recent genetic divergence of local anadromous (ocean-run) steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by blocking the