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1

Management of marine fish farming in the sub-tropical environment: a modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two deterministic models were applied to simulate hydrographic and water quality conditions within a sub-tropical marine fish culture site, where trash fish is used as feed. A two-dimensional, two-layer hydrodynamic model of tidal flows and salt transport calculated the water level, velocity and salinity in each grid cell of 50 m square in each layer within the culture area approximately

R. S. S. Wu; P. K. S. Shin; D. W. MacKay; M. Mollowney; D. Johnson

1999-01-01

2

Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish.  

PubMed

This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage. PMID:20110133

Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

2010-03-31

3

Sunrise ozone destruction found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanism of ozone loss is found in the sub-tropical marine boundary layer over the north Pacific. This ozone destruction occurs just after sunrise (hereafter Sunrise Ozone Destruction, SOD) and is commonly found throughout the year. SOD is a predominant ozone loss mechanism in winter, which takes place after sunrise in a few hours with 1~2ppbv of ozone depletion

Ippei Nagao; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Tanaka

1999-01-01

4

The role of Thalassoma lunare as a predator of juvenile fish on a sub-tropical coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of predation causes significant mortality in coral reef fishes immediately following settlement. However, much of what we know of predator identity is based on a small number of detailed studies. This study aims to identify the key predator of early juvenile coral reef fishes on Ningaloo Reef, North-Western Australia. Video cameras were used to observe patch reefs stocked with newly settled reef fish in the back-reef area between 12:00 and 20:30 h. The cameras were fitted with >610 nm light sources to allow observation in low light conditions. All strikes (attempted and successful) on newly settled fish were recorded, along with the time spent in the vicinity of experimental patch reefs with or without juvenile fish. A total of 69 strikes were observed over the 199 h of recorded video footage, with the majority of strikes occurring mid-afternoon between 13:00 and 15:30 h. Only one strike was observed during the twilight period, an hour either side of sunset (~18:45 h), and no strikes were observed after this period. The moonwrasse, Thalassoma lunare, was responsible for the majority of strikes (75.4 %), with the sandperch ( Parapercis clatharatha—10.1 %), spanish flag ( Lutjanus carponotatus—5.8 %) and ring wrasse ( Hologymnosus annulatus—2.9 %) the next highest contributors. T. lunare also spent significantly more time in the vicinity of reefs stocked with newly settled fish, than those without, during daylight hours. The results of the study are in contrast to the common perception that predation on newly settled fish is focused largely around crepuscular periods and suggests that diurnally active species, in particular T. lunare, are important predators of juvenile fish on the Ningaloo back-reef. The study also implies that generalist species can fulfil key functional roles and that the nature of these roles is not always apparent.

Holmes, T. H.; Wilson, S. K.; Vanderklift, M.; Babcock, R.; Fraser, M.

2012-12-01

5

Fishing Down the Marine Foodwebs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News addresses overfishing, an international problem with new and urgent consequences. The nine sites discussed provide information and opinions on overfishing. According to a recent study published in Science (Feb. 6, 1998; Vol. 279), the commercial fishing industry is fishing harder at the lower end of the food web as larger and more commercially valuable species disappear. "Fishing Down," or the catching of second-level creatures normally preyed upon by larger fish, is the fishing industry's response to the depletion of prized species such as tuna, cod, and swordfish. The results of fishing "lower," scientists warn, is impoverished, less-valuable ecosystems. A further, alarming prediction is that this downward trend could lead to a wholesale collapse of marine ecosystems. Author Daniel Pauly and colleagues argue that there is an urgent need for marine protected areas, where fishing is prohibited.

Payne, Laura X.

6

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

7

An overview of marine fish cytogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of cytogenetic studies of marine fish has increased in recent years. Fish groups, such as Perciformes, which comprises many of the extant marine teleosts of economic importance, show little divergence in chromosome number and most species display a diploid number of 48 acrocentric chromosomes. In the Serranidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae (Perciformes) and Mugilidae (Mugiliformes) small chromosome variations are restricted

P. M. Galetti Jr; C. T. Aguilar; W. F. Molina

2000-01-01

8

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

9

SCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002  

E-print Network

SCHROEDER AND LOVE.: RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 43, 2002 RECREATIONAL FISHING AND MARINE FISH POPULATIONS IN CALIFORNIA DONNA M. SCHROEDER AND MILTON S. LOVE Marine@lifesci.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT We present and review information regarding recre- ational angling and exploited marine fish

Love, Milton

10

Barcoding Atlantic Canada's commonly encountered marine fishes.  

PubMed

Marine fishes from the northwest Atlantic Ocean were analysed to determine whether barcoding was effective at identifying species. Our data included 177 species, 136 genera, 81 families and 28 orders. Overall, 88% of nominal species formed monophyletic clusters based on >500 bp of the CO1 region, and the average bootstrap value for these species was 98%. Although clearly effective, the percentage of species that were distinguishable with barcoding based on the criterion of reciprocal monophyletic clusters was slightly lower than has been documented in other studies of marine fishes. Eelpouts, sculpins and rocklings proved to be among the most challenging groups for barcoding, although we suspect that difficult identifications based on traditional (morphology based) taxonomy played a role. Within several taxa, speciation may have occurred too recently for barcoding to be effective (e.g. within Sebastes, Thunnus and Ammodytes) or the designation of distinct species may have been erroneous (e.g. within Antimora and Macrourus). Results were consistent with previous work recognizing particularly high levels of divergence within certain taxa, some of which have been recognized as distinct species (e.g. Osmerus mordax and Osmerus dentex; and Liparis gibbus and Liparis bathyarcticus), and some of which have not (e.g. within Halargyreus johnsonii and within Mallotus villosus). The results from this study suggest that morphology-based identification and taxonomy can be challenging in marine fishes, even within a region as well characterized as Atlantic Canada. Barcoding proved to be a very useful tool for species identification that will likely find a wide range of applications, including the fisheries trade, studies of range expansion, ecological analyses and population assessments. PMID:23253798

McCusker, M R; Denti, D; Van Guelpen, L; Kenchington, E; Bentzen, P

2013-03-01

11

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

12

75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0907301201-91203-01] RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish and fish products to the United States, and other...

2010-07-01

13

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

PubMed Central

Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy. PMID:21632631

Rochet, M.-J.; Benoit, E.

2012-01-01

14

Marine reserves: Fish life history and ecological traits matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data

Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Paolo Domenici; F. Badalamenti; M. Milazzo; J. M. Falcón; I. Bertocci; L. Benedetti-Cecchi; J. A. García-Charton; R. Goñi; J. A. Borg; A. Forcada; G. A. de Lucia; Á Pérez-Ruzafa; P. Afonso; A. Brito; I. Guala; L. Le Diréach; P. Sanchez-Jerez; P. J. Somerfield; S. Planes

2010-01-01

15

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

16

75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0907301201-91203-01 RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance public...

2010-04-30

17

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy waste outputs of four marine cage-cultured fish fed with trash fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trash fish used as aquafeeds in marine cage cultivation sometimes induced environmental risk. In this study, nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy waste outputs were measured in four marine cage-cultured carnivorous fish species – Sciaenops ocellatus, Plectorhynchus cinctus, Epinephelus coioides, and Rhabdosargus sarba – fed with trash fish for 6 weeks in laboratory. Waste outputs of cultured fish were divided into soft tissues

Zhongneng Xu; Xiaotao Lin; Qin Lin; Yufeng Yang; Yunxing Wang

2007-01-01

18

Food webs and the transmission of parasites to marine fish.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites of fish in marine systems are often considered to be generalists, lacking host specificity for both intermediate and definitive hosts. In addition, many parasites in marine waters possess life cycles consisting of long-lived larval stages residing in intermediate and paratenic hosts. These properties are believed to be adaptations to the long food chains and the low densities of organisms distributed over broad spatial scales that are characteristic of open marine systems. Moreover, such properties are predicted to lead to the homogenization of parasite communities among fish species. Yet, these communities can be relatively distinct among marine fishes. For benthos, the heterogeneous horizontal distribution of invertebrates and fish with respect to sediment quality and water depth contributes to the formation of distinct parasite communities. Similarly, for the pelagic realm, vertical partitioning of animals with depth will lead to the segregation of parasites among fish hosts. Within each habitat, resource partitioning in terms of dietary preferences of fish further contributes to the establishment of distinct parasite assemblages. Parasite distributions are predicted to be superimposed on distributional patterns of free-living animals that participate as hosts in parasite life cycles. The purpose of this review is first, to summarize distribution patterns of invertebrates and fish in the marine environment and relate these patterns to helminth transmission. Second, patterns of transmission in marine systems are interpreted in the context of food web structure. Consideration of the structure and dynamics of food webs permits predictions about the distribution and abundance of parasites. Lastly, parasites that influence food web structure by regulating the abundance of dominant host species are briefly considered in addition to the effects of pollution and exploitation on food webs and parasite transmission. PMID:12396218

Marcogliese, D J

2002-01-01

19

Survey of Anisakis larvae in marine fish of Taiwan.  

PubMed

A survey on the prevalence and intensity of larval anisakid infection in some species of marine fishes sold in the markets at Tan-shui in northern Taiwan was carried out from May to August 1980. The general infection rate was 37.7% with an average of 14.2 larvae per fish. A total of 13 species of examined fishes were found with Anisakis larvae, these were Argyrosomus argentatus, Caranx djeddaba, Diploprion bifasciatum, Evynnis cardinalis, Lethrinus haematopterus, Megalops cyprinoides, Nemipterus virgatus, Paraplagusia formosana, Plectorhinchus pictus, Rastrelliger chrysozonus, Saurida tumbil, Scolopsis vosmeri, and Trichiurus haumela. The highest intensity of Anisakis larvae was obtained in E. cardinalis with an average of 80.3 larvae per fish; the next was in N. virgatus (76.2 larvae/fish). The parasite could not be found in the other 20 species of fishes examined. PMID:3833830

Chao, D

1985-09-01

20

Illegal shark fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n  

E-print Network

Illegal shark fishing in the Gala´pagos Marine Reserve Lindsey A. Carr a,b,n , Adrian C. Stier c´pagos Shark fishing Marine reserves Conservation Enforcement Illegal a b s t r a c t Illegal shark fishing is thought to occur globally, including within so-called ``shark sanctuaries'', marine reserves and even

21

The Feeding Behavior and Ecology of Marine Fish Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral-ecological traits of pelagic marine fish larvae diagnostic of specific ecological roles are discussed. Topics considered include: parental effects (egg size, yolk quantity, spawn distribution); swimming behavior; feeding and searching behavior; prey size relation- ships; and abundance and distribution of prey. Pertinent literature is reviewed and unpublished data on the larvae of northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and Pacific mackerel,

JOHN R. HUNTER

22

Effects of Artisanal Fishing on Marine Communities in the Galápagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galápagos Islands harbor some of the least impacted marine ecosystems in the tropics, but there are indications that local artisanal fishing is affecting exploited marine communities. To quantify these effects, I sampled communities of fishes and sea urchins at a number of heavily fished and lightly fished sites throughout the central islands of the archipelago. Sites were selected based

Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

2001-01-01

23

Links between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas  

E-print Network

2007 Keywords: Body size Exploitation Fishing Grouper Hermaphroditism Meta-analysis Parrotfish A BLinks between sex change and fish densities in marine protected areas Philip P. Molloyb, *, John D S T R A C T Sex change is widespread among marine fishes, including many species that are fished heavily

Reynolds, John D.

24

Trash fish can be a source of betanodaviruses for cultured marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 360 samples of trash fish\\/mollusk used for feeding cultured marine fish were collected from 4 stations of National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Japan. The brain or eyes of the samples were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR assays to detect the coat protein gene of betanodavirus. Two species of trash

Dennis K. Gomez; Koh-ichiro Mori; Yasushi Okinaka; Toshihiro Nakai; Se Chang Park

2010-01-01

25

A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.  

PubMed

Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

2011-06-01

26

Fish Growth in Marine Culture Systems: A Challenge for Biotechnology.  

PubMed

: Aquaculture production is constrained largely by the growth efficiency of the species being produced. Nutritional approaches have played an important part in improving this situation, but, it is argued, the room for further improvement using such established techniques is limited. Alternative ways of improving fish production by utilizing recent biotechnological advances are explored and assessed as to their potential for commercialization in the near future. Transgenic technologies promise a revolution in aquaculture, but it is considered that consumer resistance may delay the use of transgenic fish for food production. An alternative approach could be the breeding of transgenic fodder plants without the amino acid deficiencies of existing alternatives to fish meal in aquaculture diets. The use of probiotics could reduce antibiotic use on fish farms while they might also provide the basis for "smart" diets, tailored to specific purposes by the inclusion of microorganisms. The selection and genetic engineering of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria could also pave the way for fully enclosed, recirculating marine culture systems, which would allow control of the environmental variables that currently restrain marine fish culture. PMID:10489415

Lyndon

1999-07-01

27

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...

2013-07-01

28

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...

2012-07-01

29

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...

2010-07-01

30

36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters...

2011-07-01

31

Ventricular myocardial architecture in marine fishes.  

PubMed

The fiber architecture of the ventricular myocardium has been studied in elasmobranch (Isurus oxyrhinchus, Galeorhinus galeus, Prionace glauca) and teleost (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus alalunga) fish species with hearts displaying mixed types of ventricular musculature (compact and trabecular). In all cases, the compact myocardium is organized in layers of fiber bundles with an orderly arrangement within the ventricular walls. The number of these layers appears to be dependent on the relative thickness of the compact myocardium. Differences in the pattern of myocardial fiber arrangement were observed among the different fish species. In elasmobranchs the compact myocardium at the level of the atrioventricular orifice is continuous with the trabeculated myocardium. Furthermore, in elasmobranchs the trabeculated myocardium displays a precise arrangement in arcuate trabeculae running from the auriculoventricular to the conoventricular orifices. In teleosts, the compact myocardium is independent of the trabeculated myocardium and a large number of fibers insert into the bulboventricular fibrous ring. The trabeculated myocardium in these species displays an anarchic arrangement except at the level of the bulboventricular orifice, where the fibers tend to be aligned longitudinally, also being inserted into the fibrous ring. Minor differences, consisting mainly of the presence of extra bundles of fibers, were also observed among different individuals of the same species. The possible relationship between myocardial fiber architecture and ventricular shape is discussed. PMID:3578842

Sanchez-Quintana, D; Hurle, J M

1987-03-01

32

Ontogeny of behaviour in larvae of marine demersal fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of behaviours that are relevant to larval dispersal of marine, demersal fishes is poorly understood. This\\u000a review focuses on recent work that attempts to quantify the development of swimming, orientation, vertical distribution and\\u000a sensory abilities. These behaviours are developed enough to influence dispersal outcomes during most of the pelagic larval\\u000a stage. Larvae swim in the ocean at speeds

Jeffrey M. Leis

2010-01-01

33

J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 173-187 Competition Between Fisheries and Marine Mammals  

E-print Network

- 1990s to the amount of food consumed by marine mammals, and to estimate the fraction of the primary for Prey and Primary Production in the Pacific Ocean Andrew W. Trites Marine Mammal Research Unit, the most important consumers of commercially exploited fish are other predatory fish, not marine mammals

Pauly, Daniel

34

Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response  

E-print Network

Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air. Keywords: Air exposure; Bonefish; Exercise; Albula vulpes; Ion loss; Marine; Recovery; Stress 1

Cooke, Steven J.

35

50 CFR 223.301 - Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes. 223.301 Section 223.301 Wildlife... Special rules—marine and anadromous fishes. (a) Middle Columbia River steelhead...NEP area by NMFS, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the...

2013-10-01

36

Imaginative solutions by marine organisms for drag reduction Frank E. Fish  

E-print Network

Imaginative solutions by marine organisms for drag reduction Frank E. Fish Department of Biology [4]. It is no accident that the shape of modern submarines, fish, and marine mammals are so closely for lift and ships do not undulate like fish for propulsion. The reason that the duplication of biological

Fish, Frank

37

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

38

Degradation and responses of coprostanol and selected sterol biomarkers in sediments to a simulated major sewage pollution event: A microcosm experiment under sub-tropical estuarine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation of coprostanol and related sterol biomarkers and Escherichia coli in ‘natural’ sediments from a highly mixed (marine and estuarine) sub-tropical environment following a simulated pollution event. This experiment revealed that sterols are synthesised and degraded over time by auto- and hetero trophic organisms within the sediment matrix from a onetime addition

Catherine Pratt; Jan Warnken; Rhys Leeming; Michael J. Arthur; Darren I. Grice

2008-01-01

39

Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983 – 1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of fishing on the abundance and species richness of families of coral reef fish at two islands\\u000a (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. Natural fishing experiments occurred in marine reserves at each island,\\u000a where long term estimates of fishing intensity were available. Responses to fishing were interpreted in terms of life

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1998-01-01

40

U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | National Marine Fisheries Service Fishing Tips to Protect  

E-print Network

fishing line and stash your trash. � Change fishing location if sea turtles or marine mammals show Fisheries Service Fishing Tips to Protect Sea Turtles and Marine Mammals We need your help The unintentional capture or injury of sea turtles and marine mammals during fishing is a significant threat to their health

41

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

42

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

43

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit to local  

E-print Network

Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit, it is important to evaluate how different stressors associated with this type of fishing affect fish survival. What follows is a brief Q & A review on the effects of air exposure. How long can a fish live out

Watson, Craig A.

44

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

45

Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO(2)-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO(2)-enriched conditions on directional responses of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) to daytime reef noise. Rearing and test conditions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions for the twenty-first century: current-day ambient, 600, 700 and 900 µatm pCO(2). Juveniles from ambient CO(2)-conditions significantly avoided the reef noise, as expected, but this behaviour was absent in juveniles from CO(2)-enriched conditions. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that ocean acidification affects the auditory response of fishes, with potentially detrimental impacts on early survival. PMID:21632617

Simpson, Stephen D; Munday, Philip L; Wittenrich, Matthew L; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Yan, Hong Y

2011-12-23

46

Residential indoor humidity control in tropics and sub-tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A\\/C) systems is widely seen in residential buildings in tropics and sub-tropics. However, most DX A\\/C systems are equipped with single-speed compressor and supply fan, relying on On—Off cycling as a low-cost approach to maintain only indoor dry-bulb temperature, whereas the indoor air humidity is not controlled directly. This also leads to

MY Chan; SM Deng; XG Xu

2009-01-01

47

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

48

Nitrogen pollution in mariculture: toxicity and excretion of nitrogenous compounds by marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The toxicological and environmental significance of N-containing effluents discharged to seawater from fish farms is difficult to establish. Environmental quality standards for N compounds in seawater are hard to derive in the context of aquaculture because the toxicity of NH3 and NO2- to marine fish is poorly understood. Furthermore, details of aquacultural effluents are not routinely reported. Marine teleosts

R. D. Handy; M. G. Poxton

1993-01-01

49

Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of e×tinction risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative criteria used to assign species to categories of extinction risk may seriously overestimate these risks for marine fishes. Contemporary perception is that marine fishes may be less vulnerable to extinction than other taxa, because of great natural variability in abundance, high fecundity, rapid population growth, and an intrinsically high capability of recovering from low population size. Contrary to perception,

Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2001-01-01

50

Small fish, big fish, red fish, blue fish: size-biased extinction risk of the world's freshwater and marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim In light of the current biodiversity crisis, there is a need to identify and protect species at greatest risk of extinction. Ecological theory and global-scale analyses of bird and mammal faunas suggest that small-bodied species are less vulnerable to extinction, yet this hypothesis remains untested for the largest group of vertebrates, fish. Here, we compare body-size distributions of freshwater

Julian D. Olden; Zeb S. Hogan; M. Jake Vander Zanden

2007-01-01

51

The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact of marine fish-farming depends very much on species, culture method, stocking density, feed type, hydrography of the site and husbandry practices. In general, some 85% of phosphorus, 80–88% of carbon and 52–95% of nitrogen input into a marine fish culture system as feed may be lost into the environment through feed wastage, fish excretion, faeces production and

R. S. S. Wu

1995-01-01

52

Marine nutrient contributions to tidal creeks in Virginia: spawning marine fish as nutrient vectors to freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived

S. E. Macavoy; G. C. Garman

2006-01-01

53

Competing use of marine space in a modernizing fishery: salmon farming meets lobster fishing  

E-print Network

Competing use of marine space in a modernizing fishery: salmon farming meets lobster fishing Brunswick. New farm sites are large, often located within or close to traditional lobster fishing areas research on interactions between salmon farming and lobster fishing around Deer Island and Grand Manan, New

Walters, Bradley B.

54

Shelf life of several marine fish species of Bangladesh during ice storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organoleptic, biochemical and bacteriological aspects of five tropical marine fish such as silver jewfish, Bombay duck, big-eye tuna, Chinese pomfret and ribbon fish stored in ice were studied. Organoleptically all fish were found acceptable for 10–13 days before becoming inedible. Proximate analysis showed that moisture content increased slightly; protein and lipid content decreased gradually and ash had little or no

Shaheed REZA; Mohammad A. J. Bapary; Chowdhury T. Ahasan

2009-01-01

55

Fish Oil Research, 1920-87, in the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA  

E-print Network

Fish Oil Research, 1920-87, in the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA MAURICE E. STANSBY fatty acids (which occur almost exclusively in the oil of fish) may have beneficial effects in re ducing research has also been carried out by laboratories of this agency on other aspects of fish oils which have

56

Three unrecorded marine fish species from Korean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three marine fish species are recorded for the first time from Korean waters: a molid (Ranzania laevis, 1 specimen, 279.8 mm SL) and bramid ( Pterycombus petersii, 3 specimens, 95.3-214.0 mm SL) collected from a large purse seine off Jeju Island, in the southern sea of Korea, and a carangid ( Carangoides dinema, 1 specimen, 194.5 mm SL) from a set net in coastal waters off Busan, in the southeastern sea of Korea. R. laevis is characterized by a wedge-shaped body and truncated clavus; P. petersii by the dorsal fin origin above or behind the posterior margin of eye, and dorsal and anal fins depressible; and C. dinema by a row of black blotches along the second dorsal fin base, the curved part of the lateral line longer than straight part, and 18 and 16 dorsal and anal fin rays, respectively. New Korean names are proposed for all three species.

Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jin Koo; Moon, Jee Hwan; Kim, Cheol Bum

2007-12-01

57

Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

58

APPARATUS AND METHODS EMPLOYED AT THE MARINE FISH HATCHERY AT FLODEVIG, NORWAY  

E-print Network

Hatchery. ~ The main point in artificial propagation of marine fishes is to hatch the greatest possible salinity, the water is pumped up from the bottom of the bay, a depth of about 8 fathoms. If the weather has

59

Traditional Fishing Patterns in the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument  

E-print Network

motivations beyond profit for maintaining fishing operations in the northern islands since many of the fishing in addition to the participants. For example, while on many trips fishing operations intended to make a profit

60

Marine macroalgae as foods for fishes: an evaluation of potential food quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  A revitalized view of feeding by herbivorous marine fishes is sought through two questions. First, What characteristics of\\u000a major taxa of algae identify them as predictably high or low quality foods? Second, are marine algae valuable foods for fishes\\u000a which do not mechanically disrupt cell walls and do not harbor specialized enzymes or microbes capable of lysing cell walls?\\u000a Energy,

W. Linn Montgomery; Shelby D. Gerking

1980-01-01

61

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: JJildlife and F'sheries Sciences POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOUS MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP IN THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH WATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Approved...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

2012-06-07

62

Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were corrected for total surface area of terrestrial and aquatic zones, annual catchment sequestration rates were more than 2 orders of magnitude higher compared with catchment and storage emissions. These data suggest subtropical forested catchments to be a major sink of greenhouse gas. Catchment sequestration was dominated by tree trunk growth rates and the major uncertainty associated in quantifying rates was initial tree size with larger size sequestering significantly higher amounts. Catchment and storage emissions were dominated by aquatic methane fluxes when expressed per unit area, however, when corrected for total surface area soil respiration exceeded aquatic methane fluxes by at least one order of magnitude. The major uncertainty associated with aquatic methane fluxes was in identification and intensity of ebullition zones where 2 to 7% of the aquatic surface area emitted over 97% of the total flux. The ebullition zones were consistently found in shallow depositional areas adjacent catchment inflows where substrates were dominated by forest litter. This audit greatly improves our understanding of both the drivers behind greenhouse gas cycling in sub-tropical freshwater storages and catchments as well as identifies the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying greenhouse cycling rates in these systems.

Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

2013-04-01

63

Mark retention and growth of jet-injected juvenile marine fish  

E-print Network

Mark retention and growth of jet-injected juvenile marine fish John F. Thedinga * Adam Moles the most common fish tags used (McFarlane et al., 1990), but they may affect survival, behavior, and growth, behavior, or growth. Studies that require such characteristics, therefore, are restricted in the type

64

Modelling the effects of establishing a marine reserve for mobile fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of the effects of a marine reserve on spawning stock biomass (SSB) and short- and long-term yield for a size-structured species that exhibits seasonal movements. The model considers the effects of protecting nursery and (or) spawning grounds under a range of fishing mortalities and fish mobility rates. We consider two extremes of effort redistribution following reserve

P. Apostolaki; E. J. Milner-Gulland; M. K. McAllister; G. P. Kirkwood

2002-01-01

65

PATTERNS OF LARVAL DRIFT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MARINE SHORE FISHES INFERRED FROM ALWZYME DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACf A multispecies analysis of allozyme data for 10 marine shore fishes was undertaken to identify patterns of genetic differentiation resulting from.larval drift. Previous studies suggest that allele frequencies in these fishes are sensitive primarily to the effects of migration, rather than to natural selection or historical factors. The following patterns recur in most species: 1) Two northern populations (La

ROBIN S. WAPLES; RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT

1987-01-01

66

Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

2014-01-01

67

Myxosporean parasites of marine fishes: their distribution in the world's oceans.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of different families of Myxosporea infecting marine fishes in the world's oceans - the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian. We also analyse their distribution in different orders of marine fishes. New families, genera and species of marine Myxosporea are continually being described and many more await description. Some regions, in particular the North Atlantic, have been more thoroughly investigated than others, so the analyses we present may not reflect the true distributions and we acknowledge that these may change considerably as other regions are investigated more fully. The distribution of myxosporean families in different taxonomic groups of marine fishes can indicate phylogenetic relationships between parasite and host and suggest the origins of different myxosporean taxa. We present some examples, while recognizing that new molecular information on phylogenetic relationships within the Myxozoa will lead to major changes in classification. PMID:25215526

Mackenzie, K; Kalavati, C

2014-11-01

68

Marine nutrient contributions to tidal creeks in Virginia: spawning marine fish as nutrient vectors to freshwater ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived from marine sources are 13C, 15N and 34S enriched relative to nutrients in freshwater. Here we examine sediment, particulate organic matter (POM), invertebrates and fish in two tidal freshwater tributaries of the James River USA. The d15N of POM became elevated (from 3.8 to 6.5%), coincident with the arrival of anadromous river herring (Alosa sp), indicating a pulse of marine nitrogen. However, the elevated 15N was not observed in sediment samples or among invertebrates, which did not experience a seasonal isotopic shift (there were significant differences however among the guilds of invertebrate). Anadromous Alosa aestivalis captured within the tidal freshwater were 13C and 34S enriched (-19.3 and 17.2%, respectively) relative to resident freshwater fishes (-26.4 and 3.6% respectively) captured within 2 weeks of the Alosa. Although it is likely that marine derived nitrogen was detected in the tidal freshwater, it was not in sufficient abundance to change the isotope signature of most ecosystem components.

Macavoy, S. E.; Garman, G. C.

2006-12-01

69

Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources. PMID:22952584

Iversen, Lars L?nsmann; M?ller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

2012-01-01

70

Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

2014-09-15

71

Marine Biofouling on Fish Farms and Its Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish farming industry suffers significantly from the effects of biofouling. The fouling of cages and netting, which is costly to remove, is detrimental to fish health and yield and can cause equipment failure. With rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, coupled with the tightening of legislation on the use of antifouling biocides, the problems of fish farm biofouling are

R. A. Braithwaite; L. A. McEvoy

2004-01-01

72

Synergistic Effects of Climate and Fishing in a Marine Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current climate change and overfishing are affecting the productivity and structure of marine ecosystems. This situation is\\u000a unprecedented for the marine biosphere and it is essential to understand the mechanisms and pathways by which ecosystems respond.\\u000a We report that climate change and overfishing are likely to be responsible for a rapid restructuring of a highly productive\\u000a marine ecosystem with effects

Richard R. Kirby; Gregory Beaugrand; John A. Lindley

2009-01-01

73

Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2005-01-01

74

Reconstruction of equilibrium-line altitudes for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past fluctuations of tropical and sub-tropical glaciers provide important palaeoclimate proxies for regions where other forms of evidence are rare. However, published equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) estimates for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers at the LGM vary widely, reflecting the diversity of methods and approaches employed by different research groups. This complicates regional and global comparisons of ELA estimates, and emphasises the

Douglas I. Benna; Lewis A. Owenb; Henry A. Osmastonc; Geoffrey O. Seltzer; Stephen C. Porterd; Bryan Marke

75

Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in kenyan coral reef fishing communities.  

PubMed

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S

2014-01-01

76

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

77

Marine ecologySpring algal bloom and larval fish survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different factors that influence the prevalent decline in fish stocks are currently subject to urgent and intense scrutiny. Here we combine the use of remote-sensing satellite data with a long-term data set of haddock recruitment off the eastern continental shelf of Nova Scotia, Canada, to show that the survival of the larval fish depends on the timing of the

Trevor Platt; Csar Fuentes-Yaco; Kenneth T. Frank

2003-01-01

78

Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a,  

E-print Network

a ship and fired at regular intervals producing a high intensity, low frequency (20­500 Hz) noiseImpact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid J.L. Fewtrell a, , R.D. Mc Keywords: Airgun Noise Fish Squid Behaviour a b s t r a c t In this study various species of captive marine

79

Identification of subpopulations in pelagic marine fish species using amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial stock complexity of marine fish species requires that population structure is taken into account in fisheries\\u000a management. The aim of this study was to determine whether the amino acid composition (AAC) of the adult fish allows the identification\\u000a of subpopulations within the stock. During a cruise in November 2003 along the entire Mediterranean coast of Spain, individuals\\u000a were

Isabel RiveiroCastor; Cástor Guisande; Paula Iglesias; Gualtiero Basilone; Angela Cuttitta; Ana Giráldez; Bernardo Patti; Salvatore Mazzola; Angelo Bonanno; Alba-Ruth Vergara; Isabel Maneiro

2011-01-01

80

Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities  

PubMed Central

No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

2012-01-01

81

'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE FISH USEFUL IN CHRONIC MARINE BIOASSAYS OF HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for chronic marine bioassays exposing the cyprinodontid fish Rivulus marmoratus, to 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. Purpose of the study was to illustrate the value of R. marmoratus as a chronic bioassay animal. Results demonstrated the relative insensitivity of R...

82

Determination of lethal dissolved oxygen levels for selected marine and estuarine fishes, crustaceans, and a bivalve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, which is a cold temperate region. The study period was August 1987 to September 1995. Standard

D. Miller; S. Poucher; L. Coiro

2002-01-01

83

SIMILASCAROPHIS N. GEN. N. SPP. (NEMATODA: CYSTIDICOLIDAE) PARASITIZING MARINE FISHES OFF THE CHILEAN COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus(Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott),

Gabriela Muñoz; María Teresa González; Mario George-Nascimento

2004-01-01

84

RAPID COMMUNICATION / COMMUNICATION RAPIDE Trends in the abundance of marine fishes  

E-print Network

RAPID COMMUNICATION / COMMUNICATION RAPIDE Trends in the abundance of marine fishes Jeffrey A of which are below 0.5BMSY. Combining population trends, a global multi- species index indicates biological diversity, (ii) use biological diversity in a sustainable fashion, and (iii) share the benefits

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

85

Review Article Studying sperm motility in marine fish: an overview on the state of the art  

E-print Network

(fresh water, sea or brackish water). They appear to be poorly protected compared to their femaleReview Article Studying sperm motility in marine fish: an overview on the state of the art By J from the seminal fluid into sea water, representing a large upward step in osmolality. The exception

Villefranche sur mer

86

Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms. PMID:23185338

Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

2012-01-01

87

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea  

E-print Network

using a newly developed miniature pressure-acceleration sensor. The brown meagre showed the broadestSound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic acceleration. In particular, hearing sensitivity to tone bursts of varying frequencies were measured in the red

Ladich, Friedrich

88

The Effect of a Marine Seismic Exploration on Fish Populations in British Columbia Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shell Oil Company of Canada conducted a marine seismic survey off the west coast of British Columbia during the summer months of 1963. Because of the potential damage to local fish populations through exposure to high velocity explosives, the Department of Fisheries of Canada conducted a pro- gram of supervision and control on the Company's field operations. The Com-

Roger K. Kearns; Forbes C. Boyd

89

Gel Forming Ability and Other Properties of Eleven Underutilized Tropical Marine Fish Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gel forming ability and other characteristics of the mince of 11 underutilized marine fish were studied. They were Bombay duck, silverbelly, sea catfish, silver jewfish, jewelled shad, queenfish, Spanish mackerel, hardtail, Indian tuna, tripletail and false conger eel. Mince was prepared from fillet and a portion of the mince was washed two times with cold water (5°C) containing 0.1%

A. AKM Nowsad; S. C. Chanda; S. Kanoh; E. Niwa

2000-01-01

90

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

91

Towards an integration between chromosome set manipulation, intergeneric hybridization and gene transfer in marine fish culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - In marine fish culture, production enhancement can be obtained not only through long- term projects of selective breeding to produce novel races and varieties according to the schemes of quantitative genetics, but also by exploiting the genetic gains arising from the application of innovative methods of biomanipulation at zygote, gamete, chromosome and gene levels, such as chromosome set

L. Colombo; A. Barbaro; A. Francescon; A. Libertini; M. Bortolussi; F. Argenton; L. Dalla Valle; S. Vianello; P. Belvedere

92

Proceedings Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems Alaska Sea Grant College Program AK-SG-97-01,1997  

E-print Network

. 1986)' while in temperate and tropical regions, the sardines, pilchards, ancho- vies, and flying fishesProceedings Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems Alaska Sea Grant College Program AK-SG-97-01,1997 A Forage Fish IsWhat? Summary of the Symposium Alan M. Springer and Suzann C. Speckman University of Alaska

93

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, ?ivind; Modahl, Ingebj?rg; Olesen, Niels J?rgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

94

Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans. PMID:23762473

O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

2013-01-01

95

Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.  

PubMed

In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

2014-02-01

96

Exploring Marine Conservation in the Classroom: Using Fish Population Data (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces teachers to the use of data on fish species diversity and relative abundance in the classroom. The data, from the Reef Environmental Educational Foundation (REEF), are collected by divers at sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and are used to address issues relating to fish population dynamics. Topics include relationships between habitats and populations; geographical variations in diversity and abundance; the use of population data in managing and planning aquaculture; and marine sanctuaries and conservation. Students will learn to interpret the data to understand diversity and abundance; understand the interpretation and use of parameters derived from population data, such as density and sighting frequency; and use the data to make and test predictions about relationships between habitats and species. Links are provided to access the data, to additional resources that use it, and to related websites on fish populations and marine conservation.

97

Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.  

PubMed

Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle. PMID:19603131

Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

2010-02-01

98

Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish  

PubMed Central

Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

Taylor, Brett M.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Kerr, Alexander M.

2012-01-01

99

Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

2011-01-01

100

Nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae and broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ of different components of broodstock diets such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids and phosphoglycerides. Some authors have also studied the nutritional quality of raw components used in broodstock diets for these species. However, few of them deal with Mediterranean fish species. A considerable amount of research has been devoted lately to study the nutritional

M. IZQUIERDO; CANARIO DE CIENCIAS MARINAS

101

Do freshwater fishes diversify faster than marine fishes? A test using state-dependent diversification analyses and molecular phylogenetics of new world silversides (atherinopsidae).  

PubMed

Freshwater habitats make up only ?0.01% of available aquatic habitat and yet harbor 40% of all fish species, whereas marine habitats comprise >99% of available aquatic habitat and have only 60% of fish species. One possible explanation for this pattern is that diversification rates are higher in freshwater habitats than in marine habitats. We investigated diversification in marine and freshwater lineages in the New World silverside fish clade Menidiinae (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae). Using a time-calibrated phylogeny and a state-dependent speciation-extinction framework, we determined the frequency and timing of habitat transitions in Menidiinae and tested for differences in diversification parameters between marine and freshwater lineages. We found that Menidiinae is an ancestrally marine lineage that independently colonized freshwater habitats four times followed by three reversals to the marine environment. Our state-dependent diversification analyses showed that freshwater lineages have higher speciation and extinction rates than marine lineages. Net diversification rates were higher (but not significant) in freshwater than marine environments. The marine lineage-through time (LTT) plot shows constant accumulation, suggesting that ecological limits to clade growth have not slowed diversification in marine lineages. Freshwater lineages exhibited an upturn near the recent in their LTT plot, which is consistent with our estimates of high background extinction rates. All sequence data are currently being archived on Genbank and phylogenetic trees archived on Treebase. PMID:23815658

Bloom, Devin D; Weir, Jason T; Piller, Kyle R; Lovejoy, Nathan R

2013-07-01

102

Biogeography of a southern hemisphere freshwater fish: how important is marine dispersal?  

PubMed

Galaxias maculatus is one of the world's most widely distributed freshwater fish. This species has a marine-tolerant juvenile phase, and a geographical range extending through much of the southern hemisphere. We conducted phylogeographic analyses of 163 control region haplotypes of G. maculatus, including samples from New Zealand (five locations), Tasmania (one location) and Chile (one location). A lack of genetic structure among New Zealand samples suggests that marine dispersal facilitates considerable gene flow on an intra-continental scale. The discovery of a Tasmanian-like haplotype in one of 144 New Zealand samples indicates that inter-continental marine dispersal occurs but is insufficient to prevent mitochondrial DNA differentiation among continents. The sister relationship of Tasmanian and New Zealand clades implies that marine dispersal is an important biogeographical mechanism for this species. However, a vicariant role in the divergence of eastern and western Pacific G. maculatus cannot be rejected. PMID:11091317

Waters, J M; Dijkstra, L H; Wallis, G P

2000-11-01

103

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States  

PubMed Central

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species. PMID:22629303

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

104

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

105

Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.  

PubMed

Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research. PMID:24952457

Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-08-15

106

Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.  

PubMed

Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

2014-10-28

107

A Locomotor Innovation Enables Water-Land Transition in a Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions. PMID:20585564

Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

2010-01-01

108

Fish Growth in Marine Culture Systems: A Challenge for Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Aquaculture production is constrained largely by the growth efficiency of the species being produced. Nutritional approaches\\u000a have played an important part in improving this situation, but, it is argued, the room for further improvement using such\\u000a established techniques is limited. Alternative ways of improving fish production by utilizing recent biotechnological advances\\u000a are explored and assessed as to their potential

A. R. Lyndon

1999-01-01

109

Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming I. The concept of the MOM system (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the concept of a management system called MOM (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring) which may be used to adjust the local environmental impact of marine fish farms to the holding capacity of the sites. The concept is based on integrating the elements of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of impact and environmental quality standards (EQS) into one system. The amount

Arne Ervik; Pia Kupka Hansen; Jan Aure; Anders Stigebrandt; Per Johannessen; Terje Jahnsen

1997-01-01

110

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATORY FISH, FORAGE FISHES, AND JUVENILE SALMONID MARINE SURVIVAL OFF THE COLUMBIA RIVER: A SIMPLE TROPHIC MODEL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trophic model that simulates interactions between a predatory fish (Pacific hake, Merluccius productus), for- age fish, and juvenile salmon off the Columbia River was constructed to identify if trophic interactions could account for marine mortality of Columbia River juve- nile salmon. The model estimates the number of juve- nile salmon that are eaten annually by Pacific hake off the

ROBERT L. EMMETT; DAVID B. SAMPSON

111

Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae  

PubMed Central

All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

2010-01-01

112

Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited  

PubMed Central

Background Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. Methods and Principal Findings Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. Conclusions Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution. PMID:19623248

Ban, Natalie C.; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

2009-01-01

113

Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

2012-01-01

114

Profiling of oxidized lipid products of marine fish under acute oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Free radical products including reactive oxygen species are potent to oxidize lipids and reliable measurements have been established mostly in human and rodent. To date, robust biomarkers were not used to assess the peroxidation in marine fish. The changes of oxidized lipid products from polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol were assessed after exposure of H(2)O(2) to fish (medaka). Oxidized lipid products released by free radical reaction (F(2)-isoprostanes and metabolites, F(3)-isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, 7-ketocholesterol, 7?-hydroxycholesterol), by lipoxygenase enzymes (5(S)-, 8(S)-, 12(S)- and 15(S)-HETE, and resolvin D1) and by cytochrome P450 (9(S)-, 11(S)- and 20-HETE, and 27-hydroxycholestrol) were measured in fish muscle using LC/MS/MS. Arachidonate, docosahexaenoate, eicosapentaenoate and cholesterol levels, and antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, SOD and gluthathione reductase) measurement were also determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes especially catalase were elevated in presence of H(2)O(2) however longer exposure time suppressed the antioxidant activities. Arachidonate, docosahexaenoate, eicosapentaenoate and cholesterol levels were reduced in presence of H(2)O(2) and oxidized lipid products (isoprostanes, neuroprostanes 5(S)-HETE, 20-HETE, 7-ketocholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and resolvin D1) were rapidly released in the fish muscle. This study validates oxidized lipid products, noticeably isoprostanes are measurable in marine fish muscle and should be considered when assessing oxidative stress especially due to exogenous factors. PMID:23220612

Chung, Ming Long Sirius; Lee, Kai Yan Eric; Lee, Chung-Yung Jetty

2013-03-01

115

Multi-biomarker responses in fishes from two typical marine aquaculture regions of South China.  

PubMed

The impact of typical pollutants upon the fish-farming was assessed by use of a battery of biomarkers in two typical marine aquaculture regions in South China. Biotransformation parameters including 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in five cultured fish species. Pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), heavy metals and antibiotics (quinolones and sulfonamides) in sediments were characterized. Higher pollutant residue levels were observed in Dapeng Cove. EROD, APND and ERND activities were lower in fish from Dapeng Cove compared with fish from Hailing Island, while it is just on the contrary for GST and MDA. ERND, APND and GST showed sensitivity corresponding to different pollutants. Small fish species seemed to exhibit more sensitive to pollutants. The study further supports usefulness of multi-biomarker approach considering multiple species to define the effects of anthropogenic inputs in marine aquaculture systems. PMID:23010653

He, Xiuting; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Xinyu; Pan, Debo; Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Ximei

2012-11-01

116

Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus  

SciTech Connect

The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Graham, M. [Vancouver Public Aquarium, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

117

Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

2014-01-01

118

Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

2014-08-01

119

[Stoichiometry of cytochromes and oxygen tension in skeletal muscles of marine fish].  

PubMed

The character of oxygen tension distribution and peculiarities of cytochromes stoichiometry in skeletal muscles of bottom and pelagic species of marine fish were compared. It is shown, that the limitation of muscle activity increases the number of hypoxic zones in the muscle tissue. The mitochondrial electron-transporting chain then obtain the uncompensated type of organization, expressed in the increase of the share of the terminal complex aa3 on the background of general reduction of cytochromes content in the muscles. The reaction is of an adaptive character and can be implemented by pelagic fish species in conditions of experimental hypokinesia. PMID:24868912

Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

2014-01-01

120

Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish  

SciTech Connect

Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

1986-09-01

121

Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal Electron Transport Components and Mixed-Function Oxygenases in the Marine Fish 'Stenotomus versicolor'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, benzo(s)pyrene hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase activities in hepatic microsomes from the marine fish scup (Stenotomus versicolor) were characterized according to dependence of pH, temperature, ionic strength and Mg2+....

J. J. Stegeman, R. L. Binder, A. Orren

1978-01-01

122

Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

123

Regional climatic warming drives long-term community changes of British marine fish.  

PubMed Central

Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marine fish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had dramatic effects on community composition. Each assemblage contained a subset of dominant species whose abundances were strongly linked to annual mean sea-surface temperature. Species' latitudinal ranges were not good predictors of species-level responses, however, and the same species did not show congruent trends between sites. This suggests that within a region, populations of the same species may respond differently to climatic change, possibly owing to additional local environmental determinants, interspecific ecological interactions and dispersal capacity. This will make species-level responses difficult to predict within geographically differentiated communities. PMID:15156925

Genner, Martin J.; Sims, David W.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Southall, Emily J.; Southward, Alan J.; Henderson, Peter A.; Hawkins, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

124

The underwater electro-olfactogram: A tool for the study of the sense of smell of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recording the olfactory receptor activity of marine fishes presents problems due to the shunting of the electrical signals by the highly conductive sea water, which results in significant signal loss. By recording the large signal-to-noise ratio D. C. potentials using the underwater electro-olfactogram (EOG), we were able to study olfactory receptor properties of freshwater and marine fishes in a

W. L. Silver; J. Caprio; Joan F. Blackwell; D. Tucker

1976-01-01

125

Alternative attractors in marine ecosystems: A comparative analysis of fishing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of Ecopath with Ecosim mass-balance model and perturbation by fishing, the existence of alternative attractors in marine ecosystems was explored. The ecosystem was investigated in the form of bottom-up, mixed and top-down control, respectively. Furthermore, fishery species were changed from wasp-waist to top predators. Thus, the effect of the trophic level to the existence of the alternative

Jianfeng Feng; Hongli Wang; Dongwei Huang; Shengpeng Li

2006-01-01

126

Measuring marine fish biodiversity: temporal changes in abundance, life history and demography  

PubMed Central

Patterns in marine fish biodiversity can be assessed by quantifying temporal variation in rate of population change, abundance, life history and demography concomitant with long-term reductions in abundance. Based on data for 177 populations (62 species) from four north-temperate oceanic regions (Northeast Atlantic and Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, North mid-Atlantic), 81% of the populations in decline prior to 1992 experienced reductions in their rate of loss thereafter; species whose rate of population decline accelerated after 1992 were predominantly top predators such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), sole (Solea solea) and pelagic sharks. Combining population data across regions and species, marine fish have declined 35% since 1978 and are currently less than 70% of recorded maxima; demersal species are generally at historic lows, pelagic species are generally stable or increasing in abundance. Declines by demersal species have been associated with substantive increases in pelagic species, a pattern consistent with the hypothesis that increases in the latter may be attributable to reduced predation mortality. There is a need to determine the consequences to population growth effected by the reductions in age (21%) and size (13%) at maturity and in mean age (5%) and size (18%) of spawners, concomitant with population decline. We conclude that reductions in the rate of population decline, in the absence of targets for population increase, will be insufficient to effect a recovery of marine fish biodiversity, and that great care must be exercised when interpreting multi-species patterns in abundance. Of fundamental importance is the need to explain the geographical, species-specific and habitat biases that pervade patterns of marine fish recovery and biodiversity. PMID:15814348

Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Baum, Julia K

2005-01-01

127

Comparative utilization of shallow water habitats at Galveston, Texas by immature marine fish  

E-print Network

recruitment of domin- ant taxa. Shallow water habitats were dominated by offshore-spawned larval and juvenile gulf menhaden, spot, and Atlantic croaker (~Mk d 1 t ) d ( g 1 f 11 d ' . I! y 1 nakeo goby (Gobiosoma bosci), and sand seatrout (Cvnoscion... erratically. The beach generally functioned as a temporary nursery for small immigrating larvae of offshore spawners during fall and winter, and a temporary habitat for migrating juvenile marine fish during summer. Influence of an offshore water mass upon...

Guillen, George Joseph

2012-06-07

128

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

129

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

130

Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.  

PubMed

Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

2014-02-01

131

Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

132

Soil microbial eco-physiological response to nutrient enrichment in a sub-tropical wetland  

E-print Network

Soil microbial eco-physiological response to nutrient enrichment in a sub-tropical wetland R. Corstanje a,*, K.R. Reddy a , J.P. Prenger a , S. Newman b , A.V. Ogram a a Soil and Water Science to the hydrolytic enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase, b-glucosidase and aminopeptidase. We also monitored

Florida, University of

133

Recruitment patterns of scleractinian corals in an isolated sub-tropical reef system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of recruits of scleractinian corals on settlement plates at Lord Howe Island, a small isolated sub-tropical island 630 km off the Australian coastline, was within the range of values reported for comparable studies on the Great Barrier Reef. However, there was a difference in the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, with recruitment at Lord Howe Island during the

V. J. Harriott

1992-01-01

134

The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.  

PubMed

The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

Barrett, James H; Locker, Alison M; Roberts, Callum M

2004-12-01

135

The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.  

PubMed Central

The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

2004-01-01

136

The Role of Biophysical Parameters in the Antilipopolysaccharide Activities of Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Numerous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from marine fish have been identified, isolated and characterized. These peptides act as host defense molecules that exert antimicrobial effects by targeting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The LPS-AMP interactions are driven by the biophysical properties of AMPs. In this review, therefore, we will focus on the physiochemical properties of AMPs; that is, the contributions made by their sequences, net charge, hydrophobicity and amphipathicity to their mechanism of action. Moreover, the interactions between LPS and fish AMPs and the structure of fish AMPs with LPS bound will also be discussed. A better understanding of the biophysical properties will be useful in the design of AMPs effective against septic shock and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, including those that commonly produce wound infections. PMID:24633250

Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

2014-01-01

137

2.-EXTENSION OF THE RECORDED RANGE OF CERTAIN MARINE AND FRESH-WATER FISHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST OF  

E-print Network

2.-EXTENSION OF THE RECORDED RANGE OF CERTAIN MARINE AND FRESH-WATER FISHES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST is to direct attention to a number of fishes inhabiting the fresh and salt water of the Atlantic seaboard and five fresh-water species at greater or less distances beyond the ranges hitherto given. One

138

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of some marine fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of marine fishes, including two of the main maricultured fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, were examined for ectoparasitic trichodinids. A total of five species of trichodinids belonging to three genera, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830, Paratrichodina Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella rámek-Huek, 1953 were reinvestigated following dry silver impregnation. These were: Trichodina rectuncinata Raabe, 1958,

Kuidong Xu; Weibo Song; Alan Warren; Joong Ki Choi

2001-01-01

139

Risk Assessment of Residual DDTs in Freshwater and Marine Fish Cultivated Around the Pearl River Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected\\u000a from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China\\u000a (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed

S. Y. Leung; C. K. Kwok; X. P. Nie; K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

2010-01-01

140

Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on size, age, and enforcement capacity. A grand (total) mean of nineteen 22.3 ha coral reef reserves, protected for a mean duration of 8.2 years, were included in the meta-analyses. The overall density of fishes was higher in the reserves compared with the fished reefs and this difference was largely accounted for by exploited fishes. However, the overall density of fishes within the same reserves remained similar from the period before its establishment to several years following its establishment. Only the density of nonexploited fishes increased significantly during years subsequent to the establishment of the reserves. Neither age nor size of reserves correlated with pattern of change in fish density following the establishment of the reserves; however, fish density was consistently higher in larger and older reserves relative to smaller and younger reserves in the spatial comparison. Furthermore, well-enforced reserves had higher density of exploited fishes relative to less-enforced reserves in both spatial and temporal comparisons. In general, the magnitude and trajectory of change in fish density following the establishment of Philippine marine reserves are influenced by (1) functional groups of fishes under consideration, (2) size and age of the reserve, and (3) level of enforcement of the regulatory mechanisms necessary to sustain a marine reserve.

Maliao, R. J.; White, A. T.; Maypa, A. P.; Turingan, R. G.

2009-12-01

141

The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle  

PubMed Central

Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

2014-01-01

142

The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.  

PubMed

Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

2014-01-01

143

Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?  

PubMed Central

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

2012-01-01

144

Are we predicting the actual or apparent distribution of temperate marine fishes?  

PubMed

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change--particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km(2) study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L

2012-01-01

145

Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration. PMID:24401080

2014-01-01

146

Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.  

PubMed

Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss. PMID:24507451

Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

2014-03-15

147

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

148

Population structure and phylogeography in Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a mass-aggregating marine fish.  

PubMed

To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

Jackson, Alexis M; Semmens, Brice X; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S; Heppell, Scott A; Bush, Phillippe G; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A B; Calosso, Marta C; Sealey, Kathleen S; Schärer, Michelle T; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

149

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS AND RECOVERY OF A NEW NEMATODE SPECIES DUJARDINASCARIS MUJIBI (HETEROCHEILIDAE) FROM A MARINE EDIBLE FISH OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is an important factor in the fish biology, to the extent of governing their growth, maturity and migratory movements. Therefore, this research was aimed to investigate the feeding habits of marine edible fish Sphyraena forsteri (Cuvier, 1829) collected during February 2006 to July 2007 from fresh landing at fish harbor, Karachi coast, Pakistan. The gut analysis of 120 fish

Y. AKHTAR; F. M. BILQEES

150

Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

2014-08-01

151

Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.  

PubMed

Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

2013-12-01

152

Extraordinary Aggressive Behavior from the Giant Coral Reef Fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a Remote Marine Reserve  

PubMed Central

Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world’s largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

Munoz, Roldan C.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Laughlin, Joseph L.; Teer, Bradford Z.

2012-01-01

153

Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study  

PubMed Central

As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

2014-01-01

154

Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.  

PubMed

As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring efforts within the CMR network. PMID:25360763

Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

2014-01-01

155

Fish host-cestode parasite stable isotope enrichment patterns in marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes from Northern Canada.  

PubMed

Cestode parasites from freshwater (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus), estuarine (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis) and marine (Greenland cod, Gadus ogac) fish from northern Quebec, Canada, were used to investigate the hypotheses that cestode parasites are (13)C and (15)N enriched relative to host food sources, but (15)N depleted with respect to host muscle tissue as a result of differential enrichment during the assimilation of common nutrient sources. Cestode parasites and fish were generally similarly enriched in (13)C with respect to common food sources and, in the case of Greenland cod, cestode parasites were (13)C enriched relative to host tissue. Cestode parasites were also generally (15)N enriched with respect to mean host dietary signatures, but depleted with respect to host muscle tissue. In the case of Greenland cod cestode parasites, no significant (15)N enrichment relative to host dietary signature was observed. Cestode parasites appear generally to experience smaller (15)N enrichment than hosts as a result of trophic transfer of common dietary sources. Differential (15)N enrichment patterns in parasites and fish may be attributed to differences in parasite and host metabolism, particularly the anaerobic and aerobic natures of their respective metabolisms. Results imply that isotope enrichment paradigms developed for the study of aquatic foodwebs cannot be routinely applied to quantitatively assess the role of parasites in aquatic foodwebs and that reference to host muscle tissue measures will not allow accurate characterization of parasite foodweb position. Appropriate reference to assimilated food sources is required to accurately estimate parasite isotopic enrichment patterns and to determine parasite trophic position relative to the host. PMID:15621744

Power, Michael; Klein, Geoff

2004-12-01

156

Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical–biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30–60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28–89%. PMID:23007086

Blanchard, Julia L.; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J. Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Barange, Manuel

2012-01-01

157

Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species  

PubMed Central

Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally exploited marine fish species. We show that individuals with larger-sized mouths and more streamlined and elongated bodies were more vulnerable to passively operated hook-and-line fishing independent of the individual's body size or condition. While the greater vulnerability of individuals with larger mouth gapes can be explained by the direct physical interaction with hooks, selection against streamlined and elongated individuals could either involve a specific foraging mode or relate to underlying elevated swimming behavior. Harvesting using passive gear is common around the globe, and thus, size-independent selection on body shape is expected to be widespread potentially leaving behind individuals with smaller oral gapes and more compact bodies. This might have repercussions for food webs by altering foraging and predation. PMID:25360257

Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Linde-Medina, Marta; Arlinghaus, Robert

2014-01-01

158

Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics in the Sub-tropical Micro-tidal Richmond River Estuary, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended sediment transport and sedimentation dynamics in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary were investigated between July 1994 and June 1996. During low flow months the estuary received net sediment inputs from the continental shelf; during high flow the estuary exported sediment to the continental shelf depending on the magnitude of floods. Flow-weighted sampling along with a one-dimensional unsteady flow hydrodynamic

S. Hossain; B. Eyre; D. Mcconchie

2001-01-01

159

Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent. PMID:22363219

Wang, Mengyue; Nie, Yuxiao; Peng, Ying; He, Fen; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu; Li, Xiaobo

2011-01-01

160

Stochastic population dynamics and life-history variation in marine fish species.  

PubMed

We examined whether differences in life-history characteristics can explain interspecific variation in stochastic population dynamics in nine marine fish species living in the Barents Sea system. After observation errors in population estimates were accounted for, temporal variability in natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate was negatively related to generation time. Mean natural mortality rate, annual recruitment, and population growth rate were lower in long-lived species than in short-lived species. Thus, important species-specific characteristics of the population dynamics were related to the species position along the slow-fast continuum of life-history variation. These relationships were further associated with interspecific differences in ecology: species at the fast end were mainly pelagic, with short generation times and high natural mortality, annual recruitment, and population growth rates, and also showed high temporal variability in those demographic traits. In contrast, species at the slow end were long-lived, deepwater species with low rates and reduced temporal variability in the same demographic traits. These interspecific relationships show that the life-history characteristics of a species can predict basic features of interspecific variation in population dynamical characteristics of marine fish, which should have implications for the choice of harvest strategy to facilitate sustainable yields. PMID:22854080

Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Grøtan, Vidar; Aanes, Sondre; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Aanes, Ronny

2012-09-01

161

A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

2011-02-01

162

Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury in several marine fish species.  

PubMed

Bioaccessibility refers to the maximum bioavailability of pollutant ingested with food, and its measurements can lead to a more accurate risk assessment as compared to the measurements of total concentrations of pollutant in food. This study examined the factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury (MeHg) in nine species of marine fish with an aim to identify ways of reducing MeHg bioaccessibility. MeHg bioaccessibility without any treatment in the nine species of marine fish ranged from 16.0 to 67.7%. Steaming, grilling, and frying reduced MeHg bioaccessibility by 29.4-77.4% for rabbitfish and 74.6-95.8% for grouper. Co-consumption of phytochemical-rich foods such as green tea decreased the bioaccessibility of MeHg by 72.2% for rabbitfish and 74.0% for grouper, whereas meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid increased it by 39.2-108% for rabbitfish and 45.3-75.7% for grouper. The bioaccessibilities of both MeHg and inorganic mercury were independent of the total Hg concentration and the exposure route (dietary vs dissolved). In eight of the nine species studied, bioaccessibility was negatively correlated with the extent to which MeHg was partitioned into the metal-rich granule fraction and the trophically available fraction. It was positively correlated with partitioning into the cellular debris fraction. This study demonstrated the important control of subcellular distribution in MeHg bioaccessibility. PMID:21650469

He, Mei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2011-07-13

163

Toxicity of Residual Chlorines from Hypochlorite-treated Seawater to Marine Amphipod Hyale barbicornis and Estuarine Fish Oryzias javanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess possible adverse effects of residual chlorines from hypochlorite-treated seawater to non-target marine organisms,\\u000a bioassays were carried out on marine amphipod Hyale barbicornis and estuarine fish Oryzias javanicus. Acute toxicity tests were first conducted using various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by a long-term\\u000a exposure to residual chlorines from a test water treated with 1 mg L?1 NaOCl. Results

Nathaniel C. Añasco; Jiro Koyama; Shoko Imai; Kuniaki Nakamura

2008-01-01

164

Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.  

PubMed

Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics. PMID:23929385

Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

2013-11-01

165

Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes  

PubMed Central

Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385

Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.

2013-01-01

166

Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. Results The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Conclusion Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment. PMID:21504921

Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

167

Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. PMID:24200045

Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-03-01

168

Natural transfer of helminths of marine origin to freshwater fishes with observations on the development of Diphyllobothrium alascense.  

PubMed

Infective stages of helminths of 5 species that occur as adults in marine mammals were found in burbot, Lota lota (L.) (Gadidae), from the lower Kuskokwim River (southwestern Alaska): Diphyllobothrium alascense Rausch et Williamson, 1958; Pyramicocephalus phocarum (Fabricius, 1780); Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1801); Corynosoma semerme (Forsell, 1904); and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878). Some larval stages were obtained also from smelt, Osmerus mordax dentex Steindachner, an anadromous fish important as prey of burbot. Burbot, which are freshwater fish, could become paratenic hosts of those helminths by means of at least 3 interactions: by consuming marine fishes in brackish waters at river mouths, by feeding on marine fishes that enter lower reaches of rivers, or by preying on anadromous fishes as they migrate up rivers. Consumption of burbot by people may result in infection by helminths of marine origin; of those recorded, only P. decipiens may be significantly pathogenic. Attempts to rear P. phocarum in dogs were unsuccessful. Plerocercoids of D. alascense, of very small size and found only in the gastric lumen of burbot, readily infected dogs. For study of their development, strobilae were obtained at intervals of 48 hr to 32 days postinfection. In heavy infections, some strobilae developed slowly, while others underwent rapid development. PMID:10780552

Rausch, R L; Adams, A M

2000-04-01

169

Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20

ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

1999-01-01

170

TOXICITY OF CADMIUM AND COPPER AND THEIR EFFECT ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MARINE FISH MUGIL SEHELI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed to estimate the toxicity of cadmium and copper to fingerlings of marine fish Mugil seheli, as well as the effect of different concentratios of Cd and Cu on some biochemical parameters (Aspartate and alanine transaminase enzymes, glucose, glycogen, lipid and protein) in the fish organs. 96-h LC50s of Cd and Cu were 5.36 and 1.64 ppm,

EMAD H. ABOU EL-NAGA; KHALID M. EL-MOSELHY; MOHAMED A. HAMED

171

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

2014-01-01

172

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.  

PubMed

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

2014-01-01

173

Ascaridoidea: a simple DNA assay for identification of 11 species infecting marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds.  

PubMed

Eleven species belonging to superfamily Ascaridoidea, which infect marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds, were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method. The following species were investigated: Anisakis pegreffi, A. physeteris, and A. simplex (parasites of fish and mammals), Contracaecum osculatum, C. radiatum, and C. rudolphi (parasites of mammals and fish-eating birds), Hysterothylacium aduncum (a parasite of fish), Porrocaecum angusticolle, P. crassum, P. depressum, and P. ensicaudatum (parasites of fish-eating birds). PCR-amplified rDNA regions encompassing ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2 produced on templates of genomic DNA isolated from all investigated species were digested with TaqI, AluI, BsuRI, and RsaI endonucleases. Restriction patterns showed that endonuclease TaqI is the most useful enzyme for identification of all investigated species. No variations in restriction patterns within each species were detected. Therefore, we propose that the PCR-RFLP assay described in this report may be used for identification of marine and freshwater parasites from superfamily Ascaridoidea. PMID:12243736

Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy; Sitko, Jiri; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

2002-05-01

174

Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.  

PubMed

Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

2011-05-01

175

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciercoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-Jose; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Saez, Raquel

2014-01-01

176

Effects of In Vivo Exposure to Tamoxifen on a Non-Target Species, the Marine Fish Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus)  

EPA Science Inventory

Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical that is used world-wide to treat certain breast cancers. Because tamoxifen has been detected in aquatic environments, a study was undertaken to investigate its biological effects in a non-target species, the marine fish cunner (Taut...

177

CORRELATION OF MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITY WITH ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF A MARINE FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Specimens of mullet (Mugil cephalus), a marine fish, were given single doses of 3-methylcholanthrene intraperitoneally and the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxygenase system in the liver was measured by the metabolism of benzo(a)-pyrene. The enzyme system was found to...

178

Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

Day, Bill D., Comp.

179

Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling

Ivan Muñoz; María J. Martínez Bueno; Ana Agüera; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba

2010-01-01

180

Rocky reef fish assemblages at six Mediterranean marine protected areas: broad-scale patterns in assemblage structure, species richness and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish assemblages inhabiting shallow rocky reefs at six Italian marine protected areas (MPAs) were investigated to assess broad-scale patterns in assemblage structure, species richness and composition, and to evaluate the presence of a latitudinal gradient in the distribution pattern of a thermophilic fish, the ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo. Fish abundance was estimated by visual censuses carried out within the integral

G. La Mesa; P. Guidetti; S. Bussotti; R. Cattaneo-Vietti; A. Manganaro; A. Molinari; G. F. Russo; N. Spanò; G. Vetrano; L. Tunesi

2012-01-01

181

Molecular identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes collected in Turkish waters.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis (or anisakidosis). These parasites in the Turkish waters still remain unexplored. This study aims the molecular identification of Anisakis species in Turkey's coast from Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea and specifically to screen for zoonotic species in commonly commercialized a total of 1145 fish belonging to 31 different species using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene. A total of 776 Anisakis type I larvae were isolated in 56/1145 (4.8%) fish of 7 species from Turkish waters. The combining all of our results, e.g., morphology, PCR-RFLP, ITS region, and the cox2 gene, conclusively supported the identification of 3 Anisakis spp. taken from marine fish hosts, namely Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis typica and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.str.)/A. pegreffii hybrid genotype. No Anisakis larvae were isolated from the Black Sea whereas A. pegreffii, A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotype was found in the Aegean Sea and A. pegreffii was only isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This study represents the first identification of A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotypes from Turkish waters. Moreover, in the present study first record of the presence of A. pegreffii is also reported from Turkish coasts of Aegean and Mediterranean Sea. No zoonotic Anisakis species were found in commonly commercialized 1025 fish belonging to 16 different species from the Black Sea, thus Turkish populations who consume captured fish from the Black Sea may have a less risk of human anisakiasis or allergies. However, the prevalence of larvae were 47.1% and 46% and recognized zoonotic A. pegreffii were identified from the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coast, suggesting a high threat of anisakiasis or allergies for Turkish populations who consume fish originating in these regions. PMID:24485564

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Yardimci, Banu; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Acici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

2014-03-17

182

Similascarophis n. gen. n. spp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitizing marine fishes off the Chilean coast.  

PubMed

Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott), Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, Girella laevifrons (Tschudi), and Graus nigra Philippi. Morphology and morphometry are compared between 2 new Similascarophis species: Similascarophis maulensis n. sp. and S. chilensis n. sp., which differ in the presence of sublabia and in the length of the glandular esophagus and left spicule. We also recorded Similascarophis sp. in 2 other host species, which showed some distinct proportional measurements, although these differences were not sufficiently clear to identify them as a new species. PMID:15357077

Muñoz, Gabriela; González, María Teresa; George-Nascimento, Mario

2004-08-01

183

Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the variability in site features amongst estuaries highlighted the tolerance of these species to different available environmental conditions and provided fundamental information for future spatially explicit modelling of their distribution. This should ultimately enable the prediction of species response to habitat alterations.

Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

2010-03-01

184

Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect

A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: (1) sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and (2) concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed.

Malins, D.C.; McCain, B.B.; Myers, M.S.; Brown, D.W.; Krahn, M.M.; Roubal, W.T.; Schiewe, M.H.; Landahl, J.T.; Chan, S.L.

1987-04-01

185

Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.  

PubMed Central

A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

1987-01-01

186

Why can't young fish eat plants? Neither digestive enzymes nor gut development preclude herbivory in the young of a stomachless marine herbivorous fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most young fishes lack the ability to function as herbivores, which has been attributed to two aspects of the digestive system: elevated nitrogen demand and a critical gut capacity. We compared the digestive morphology and biochemistry of two size classes of the marine herbivore Hyporhamphus regularis ardelio, pre-ontogenetic trophic shift (pre-OTS, <100mm) and post-ontogenetic trophic shift (post-OTS, >100mm), to determine

Ryan D. Day; Donovan P. German; Ian R. Tibbetts

2011-01-01

187

Cladogenesis and loss of the marine life-history phase in freshwater galaxiid fishes (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae).  

PubMed

Switches from migratory (diadromous) to nonmigratory (freshwater) life histories are known to have occurred repeatedly in some aquatic taxa. However, the significance of the loss of diadromy as an initiator for speciation remains poorly understood. The rivers of New Zealand's South Island house a species flock of recently derived nonmigratory galaxiid fishes known as the Galaxias vulgaris complex. Members of this complex are morphologically and genetically similar to the diadromous G. brevipinnis found in New Zealand and southeastern Australia. We hypothesised that South Island's G. vulgaris complex (at least 10 nonmigratory lineages) represents a number of independent radiations from a migratory G. brevipinnis stock, with repeated loss of diadromy. Sequence data were obtained for 31 ingroup samples (G. vulgaris complex and G. brevipinnis) plus four outgroup taxa. A well-resolved phylogeny based on 5039 base pairs of the mitochondrial genome suggests that diadromy has been lost on three separate occasions. Thus, speciation in these galaxiid fishes is partly an incidental phenomenon caused by switches from diadromous to nonmigratory strategies. However, much of the subsequent nonmigratory diversity is monophyletic, suggesting that drainage evolution (vicariance) has also played a major role in cladogenesis. Levels of sequence divergence among major ingroup lineages (1.6-12.7%) suggest that the radiation is considerably older relative to Northern Hemisphere (postglacial) complexes of salmonid, osmerid, and gasterosteid fishes. Sympatric taxa are not monophyletic, suggesting that their coexistence reflects secondary contact rather than sympatric speciation. The monophyly of New Zealand G. brevipinnis is well supported, but both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear sequences indicate that G. brevipinnis is paraphyletic on an intercontinental scale. The divergence (maximum 11.5%) between Tasmanian and New Zealand G. brevipinnis, although large, supports marine dispersal rather than vicariance as the principle biogeographic mechanism on an intercontinental scale. PMID:11327165

Waters, J M; Wallis, G P

2001-03-01

188

Using Environmental DNA to Census Marine Fishes in a Large Mesocosm  

PubMed Central

The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible. PMID:24454960

Kelly, Ryan P.; Port, Jesse A.; Yamahara, Kevan M.; Crowder, Larry B.

2014-01-01

189

Alternative nursery habitat for estuarine associated marine fish during prolonged closure of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mfolozi estuary, located on the east coast of South Africa, was historically directly linked to the adjacent St Lucia estuarine system, the largest estuarine system in Africa and a World Heritage Site. The Mfolozi used to be the main feeder system to maintain lake levels in St Lucia, but increased siltation from sugar cane farming in the Mfolozi floodplain led to artificial separation of the two systems in 1950. Reduced freshwater inflow due to drought conditions caused the St Lucia mouth to remain closed from June 2002 to present, coinciding with low lake levels and hypersaline conditions, except for a brief period during 2007 after the St Lucia mouth breached. These conditions led to disruption of larval recruitment into the system and major changes in biotic communities. Due to the importance of the St Lucia - Mfolozi System link, a study was initiated in 2007 on the fish community of the Mfolozi system, which was sampled using seine and gill nets. The 48 species recorded were dominated by juveniles of marine spawners, particularly Leiognathus equula and Valamugil cunnesius and the estuarine spawners Ambassis dussumieri and Ambassis natalensis. Estuarine dependent marine spawning species formed 68% of both the species numbers and CPUE, an indication of the regional importance of the Mfolozi estuary as an alternate refuge for juvenile marine fish during periods when the St Lucia system remained closed. Post-larval recruits of marine spawning species were particularly abundant, but low zoobenthic densities caused a rapid decline in numbers of benthic feeders shortly after their recruitment into the system. The importance of the Mfolozi estuary in maintaining marine brood stocks of estuarine dependent marine fish is discussed with particular reference to estuarine degradation and the ecological integrity of the St Lucia system.

Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

2009-10-01

190

[Advanced approaches to studying the population diversity of marine fishes: new opportunities for fisheries control and management].  

PubMed

Recent conceptual and technological advances now enable fisheries geneticists to detect and monitor the dynamics and distribution of marine fish populations more effectively than ever before. Information on the extent of genetically-based divergence among populations, so-called "population diversity", is crucial in the quest to manage exploited living resources sustainably since it endows evolutionary potential in the face of environmental change. The generally limited dialogue between scientists, fisheries managers and policy makers, however, continues to constrain integration of population genetic data into tangible policy applications. Largely drawing on the approach and outputs from a European research project, FishPopTrace, we provide an example how the uncovering of marine fish population diversity enables players from genetics, forensics, management and the policy realm to generate a framework tackling key policy-led questions relating to illegal fishing and traceability. We focus on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in European populations of cod, herring, hake and common sole, and explore how forensics together with a range of analytical approaches, and combined with improved communication of research results to stakeholders, can be used to secure sufficiently robust, tractable and targeted data for effective engagement between science and policy. The essentially binary nature of SNPs, together with generally elevated signals of population discrimination by SNPs under selection, allowed assignment of fish to populations from more areas and with higher certainty than previously possible, reaching standards suitable for use in a court of law. We argue that the use of such tools in enforcement and deterrence, together with the greater integration of population genetic principles and methods into fisheries management, provide tractable elements in the arsenal of tools to achieve sustainable exploitation and conservation of depleted marine fish stocks. PMID:22384692

Zelenina, D A; Martinson, Ia T; Ogden, R; Volkov, A A; Zelenina, I A; Carvalho, G R

2011-12-01

191

Examining the fish microbiome: vertebrate-derived bacteria as an environmental niche for the discovery of unique marine natural products.  

PubMed

Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected to examine the bacterial communities of fish intestines (which we have termed the fish microbiome) as a new source of microbial and biosynthetic diversity for natural products discovery. To test the hypothesis that the fish microbiome contains microorganisms with unique capacity for biosynthesizing natural products, we examined six species of fish through a combination of dissection and culture-dependent evaluation of intestinal microbial communities. Using isolation media designed to enrich for marine Actinobacteria, we have found three main clades that show taxonomic divergence from known strains, several of which are previously uncultured. Extracts from these strains exhibit a wide range of activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens, as well as several fish pathogens. Exploration of one of these extracts has identified the novel bioactive lipid sebastenoic acid as an anti-microbial agent, with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, and Vibrio mimicus. PMID:22574119

Sanchez, Laura M; Wong, Weng Ruh; Riener, Romina M; Schulze, Christopher J; Linington, Roger G

2012-01-01

192

Depth and medium-scale spatial processes influence fish assemblage structure of unconsolidated habitats in a subtropical marine park.  

PubMed

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L; Malcolm, Hamish A; Bucher, Daniel J; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D A

2014-01-01

193

Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park  

PubMed Central

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

2014-01-01

194

Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Hearing and Tissues - Draft Final Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy  

SciTech Connect

Snohomish Public Utility District No.1 plans to deploy two 6 meter OpenHydro tidal turbines in Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, under a FERC pilot permitting process. Regulators and stakeholders have raised questions about the potential effect of noise from the turbines on marine life. Noise in the aquatic environment is known to be a stressor to many types of aquatic life, including marine mammals, fish and birds. Marine mammals and birds are exceptionally difficult to work with for technical and regulatory reasons. Fish have been used as surrogates for other aquatic organisms as they have similar auditory structures. This project was funded under the FY09 Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to Snohomish PUD, in partnership with the University of Washington - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, the Sea Mammal Research Unit, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of this study will inform the larger research project outcomes. Proposed tidal turbine deployments in coastal waters are likely to propagate noise into nearby waters, potentially causing stress to native organisms. For this set of experiments, juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the experimental model. Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m diameter OpenHydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened (http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/ESA-Salmon-Listings/Salmon-Populations/Chinook/CKPUG.cfm); the fish used in this experiment were hatchery raised and their populations are not in danger of depletion. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Experimental results indicate that non-lethal, low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.

2011-09-30

195

Trichodinid ectoparasites (ciliphora: Peritrichida) of some marine fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea.  

PubMed

Five species of marine fishes, including two of the main maricultured fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, were examined for ectoparasitic trichodinids. A total of five species of trichodinids belonging to three genera, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830, Paratrichodina Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella Srámek-Husek, 1953 were reinvestigated following dry silver impregnation. These were: Trichodina rectuncinata Raabe, 1958, T. jadranica (Raabe, 1958) Haider, 1964, Paratrichodina globonuclea Lom, 1963, P. obliqua Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella lomi Xu, Song & Warren, 1999. Morphometric data and comparative descriptions of these trichodinids are provided along with details of their prevalence and intensity of infestation. PMID:11642224

Xu, K; Song, W; Warren, A; Choi, J K

2001-09-01

196

Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.  

PubMed

In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2010-05-01

197

Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.  

PubMed

Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

198

Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, Jose Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melia, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

199

Shoaling behaviour enhances risk of predation from multiple predator guilds in a marine fish.  

PubMed

Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile shoaling zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as shoaling behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced shoaling behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272

Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

2013-06-01

200

Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from Marine Fish in Southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2014-01-01

201

Occurrence and molecular identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from marine fish in southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

Anshary, Hilal; Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A; Ogawa, Kazuo

2014-02-01

202

Simultaneous Detection of Marine Fish Pathogens by Using Multiplex PCR and a DNA Microarray  

PubMed Central

We coupled multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray to construct an assay suitable for the simultaneous detection of five important marine fish pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Listonella anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The array was composed of nine short oligonucleotide probes (25-mer) complementary to seven chromosomal loci (cyt, rpoN, gyrB, toxR, ureC, dly, and vapA) and two plasmid-borne loci (fatA and A.sal). Nine primer sets were designed to amplify short fragments of these loci (100 to 177 bp) in a multiplex PCR. PCR products were subsequently labeled by nick translation and hybridized to the microarray. All strains of the five target species (n = 1 to 21) hybridized to at least one species-specific probe. Assay sensitivities ranged from 100% for seven probes to 83 and 67% for the two remaining probes. Multiplex PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against 23 related species of bacteria (n = 40 strains; 100% specificity). Using purified genomic DNA, we were able to detect PCR products with <20 fg of genomic DNA per reaction (equivalent to four or five cells), and the array was at least fourfold more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for detecting PCR products. In addition, our method allowed the tentative identification of virulent strains of L. anguillarum serotype O1 based on the presence of the fatA gene (67% sensitivity and 100% specificity). This assay is a sensitive and specific tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in fish and humans. PMID:15070982

González, Santiago F.; Krug, Melissa J.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Santos, Ysabel; Call, Douglas R.

2004-01-01

203

Molecular detection and characterization of nodavirus in several marine fish species from the northeastern Atlantic.  

PubMed

Nodaviruses (NNV) are responsible for causing disease outbreaks mainly in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of fishes throughout the world. This disease has seriously limited the culture of marine fishes over the last decade. In the Atlantic provinces of Canada, disease caused by a nodavirus was first reported in juvenile Atlantic cod being reared in Nova Scotia, in 1999. More recently, disease outbreaks caused by nodavirus have been identified in hatchery-reared Atlantic cod and haddock in Newfoundland and New Brunswick, respectively, and along the east coast of the USA. The presence of NNV in wild Atlantic cod adults and wild winter flounder has also been reported. Nodaviruses were isolated from cultured Atlantic cod and haddock, as well as from wild winter flounder from a variety of geographical localities, and their virus coat (capsid) protein genes were partially sequenced. An analysis of the data indicates that all of the nodaviruses isolated from eastern North America were closely related to one another, but that they were distinct from the European isolates already sequenced. Regardless of host species, isolates from close geographical localities were more similar than those from distant geographical areas. At the protein level, differences in coat protein sequences were seen only for strains isolated from Atlantic cod originating from Newfoundland. Our results suggest that NNV may have been present in the Atlantic off Canada and on the east coast of the USA for some time, and has evolved to form a monophyletic group, distinct from other isolates found in cold-water species. Non-lethal methods for detection of NNV are necessary to develop management strategies for this disease, and would be an asset to diagnosticians and producers. Based on the results of this study, new primers were designed and developed for an improved RT-PCR assay able to detect North Atlantic nodaviruses in ovarian fluids, eggs and other tissues. The application of this test to field samples is discussed. PMID:15672873

Gagné, N; Johnson, S C; Cook-Versloot, M; MacKinnon, A M; Olivier, G

2004-12-13

204

Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n?=?4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection. PMID:24454934

Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

205

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Hunter, Ms.

2009-07-07

206

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Jones, Cory

2009-09-28

207

Cloning of matrix Gla protein in a marine cartilaginous fish, Prionace glauca : preferential protein accumulation in skeletal and vascular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and\\u000a Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft tissue extracts, while the accumulation of the protein\\u000a was found mainly in calcified tissues. More recently, the MGP gene expression was also studied in marine teleost fish where

J. B. Ortiz-Delgado; D. C. Simes; C. S. B. Viegas; B. J. Schaff; C. Sarasquete; M. L. Cancela

2006-01-01

208

Identification of renal transporters involved in sulfate excretion in marine teleost fish  

PubMed Central

Sulfate (SO42?) is the second most abundant anion in seawater (SW), and excretion of excess SO42? from ingested SW is essential for marine fish to survive. Marine teleosts excrete SO42? via the urine produced in the kidney. The SO42? transporter that secretes and concentrates SO42? in the urine has not previously been identified. Here, we have identified and characterized candidates for the long-sought transporters. Using sequences from the fugu database, we have cloned cDNA fragments of all transporters belonging to the Slc13 and Slc26 families from mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). We compared Slc13 and Slc26 mRNA expression in the kidney between freshwater (FW) and SW mefugu. Among 14 clones examined, the expression of a Slc26a6 paralog (mfSlc26a6A) was the most upregulated (30-fold) in the kidney of SW mefugu. Electrophysiological analyses of Xenopus oocytes expressing mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mouse Slc26a6 (mSlc26a6) demonstrated that all transporters mediate electrogenic Cl?/SO42?, Cl?/oxalate2?, and Cl?/nHCO3? exchanges and electroneutral Cl?/formate? exchange. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated that the SO42?-elicited currents of mfSlc26a6A is quite large (?35 ?A at +60 mV) and 50- to 200-fold higher than those of mfSlc26a6B and mSlc26a6. Conversely, the currents elicited by oxalate and HCO3? are almost identical among mfSlc26a6A, mfSlc26a6B, and mSlc26a6. Kinetic analysis revealed that mfSlc26a6A has the highest SO42? affinity as well as capacity. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that mfSlc26a6A localizes to the apical (brush-border) region of the proximal tubules. Together, these findings suggest that mfSlc26a6A is the most likely candidate for the major apical SO42? transporter that mediates SO42? secretion in the kidney of marine teleosts. PMID:19812358

Kato, Akira; Chang, Min-Hwang; Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Ogoshi, Maho; Nakazato, Takeru; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F.

2009-01-01

209

Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics in the Sub-tropical Micro-tidal Richmond River Estuary, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment transport and sedimentation dynamics in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary were investigated between July 1994 and June 1996. During low flow months the estuary received net sediment inputs from the continental shelf; during high flow the estuary exported sediment to the continental shelf depending on the magnitude of floods. Flow-weighted sampling along with a one-dimensional unsteady flow hydrodynamic model of the estuary estimated that about fifty percent of the flood-borne suspended sediment was transported through the estuary to the continental shelf during two minor floods (with a 2-year return period), whereas, one hundred percent of the flood-borne sediment was transported to the continental shelf during a moderate flood (with a 5-year return period). Marker horizons confirmed a net accumulation of sediment in the Richmond River estuary at the salt-fresh water interface during all post flood recovery stages.

Hossain, S.; Eyre, B.; Mcconchie, D.

2001-05-01

210

Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide  

PubMed Central

Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north–south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial–temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K.; Wake, Bronwyn D.; Snow, Joseph T.; Honey, David J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Moore, C. Mark

2014-01-01

211

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... Transplant Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Fish Share Compartir Fish, frogs, toads, and the water they live in ... more likely than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status ...

212

Fluctuations in food supply drive recruitment variation in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

Reproductive rates and survival of young in animal populations figure centrally in generating management and conservation strategies. Model systems suggest that food supply can drive these often highly variable properties, yet for many wild species, quantifying such effects and assessing their implications have been challenging. We used spatially explicit time series of a well-studied marine reef fish (black surfperch Embiotoca jacksoni) and its known prey resources to evaluate the extent to which fluctuations in food supply influenced production of young by adults and survival of young to subadulthood. Our analyses reveal: (i) variable food available to both adults and to their offspring directly produced an order of magnitude variation in the number of young-of-year (YOY) produced per adult and (ii) food available to YOY produced a similar magnitude of variation in their subsequent survival. We also show that such large natural variation in vital rates can significantly alter decision thresholds (biological reference points) important for precautionary management. These findings reveal how knowledge of food resources can improve understanding of population dynamics and reduce risk of overharvest by more accurately identifying periods of low recruitment. PMID:23015631

Okamoto, Daniel K.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Reed, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

213

Glugea vincentiae n. sp. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae) infecting the Australian marine fish Vincentia conspersa (Teleostei: Apogonidae).  

PubMed

A parasite of the marine fish Vincentia conspersa was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This parasite develops in the subcutaneous tissue of the body and fins, forming spherical xenomas about 1-2 mm in diameter surrounded by a layer of amorphous material. The observed characteristics of the new parasite are in line with those of the other Glugea species; merogony takes place in the outer zone of the cytoplasm of the host cell, sporogony takes place in sporophorous vesicles, and mature spores are located in the central part of the xenoma. Meronts were cylindrical uninucleate or occasionally triradiate multinucleate, with plasmodia in direct contact with the host cytoplasm. Sporogonic plasmodia divided by multiple cleavage to produce sporoblast mother cells, which after binary fission became sporoblasts. Two types of spores were recognized, both uninucleate, i.e., ovoid or slightly ovoid microspores with a mean size of 5.1 x 2.2 microm and much less frequent as elongated oval macrospores with a mean size of 8.9 x 3.1 microm. The polar tube has between 12 and 14 coils arranged in 1, 2, or 3 layers. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that this microsporidian infecting V. conspersa is a new species of Glugea, which we have named Glugea vincentiae. PMID:15856891

Vagelli, A; Paramá, A; Sanmartín, M L; Leiro, J

2005-02-01

214

Structural and functional connectivity of marine fishes within a semi-enclosed Newfoundland fjord.  

PubMed

The interplay between structural connectivity (i.e. habitat continuity) and functional connectivity (i.e. dispersal probability) in marine fishes was examined in a coastal fjord (Holyrood Pond, Newfoundland, Canada) that is completely isolated from the North Atlantic Ocean for most of the year. Genetic differentiation was described in three species (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, white hake Urophycis tenuis and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua) with contrasting life histories using seven to 10 microsatellite loci and a protein-coding locus, PanI (G. morhua). Analysis of microsatellite differentiation indicated clear genetic differences between the fjord and coastal regions; however, the magnitude of difference was no more elevated than adjacent bays and was not enhanced by the fjord's isolation. Osmerus mordax was characterized by the highest structure overall with moderate differentiation between the fjord and St Mary's Bay (F(ST)c.0.047). In contrast, U. tenuis and G. morhua displayed weak differentiation (F(ST) < 0.01). Nonetheless, these populations did demonstrate high rates (< 75%) of Bayesian self-assignment. Furthermore, elevated differentiation was observed at the PanI locus in G. morhua between the fjord and other coastal locations. Interestingly, locus-specific genetic differentiation and expected heterozygosity were negatively associated in O. mordax, in contrast to the positive associations observed in U. tenuis and G. morhua. Gene flow in these species is apparently unencumbered by limited structural connectivity, yet the observed differentiation suggests that population structuring exists over small scales despite high dispersal potential. PMID:20738621

Bradbury, I R; Snelgrove, P V R; Bentzen, P; de Young, B; Gregory, R S; Morris, C J

2009-10-01

215

Transport and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary, Australia - a budget approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary were quantified and material budgets were developed over two years of contrasting freshwater discharge. During both years >74% of the nitrogen and >84% of the phosphorus load entered the estuary during one month when flooding occurred in the catchment. Due to larger flood magnitude, loads during the 1995\\/96 year were

LESTER J. McKEE; BRADLEY D. EYRE; Shahadat Hossain

2000-01-01

216

Gill histopathology of wild marine fish in Tasmania: potential interactions with gill health of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

This study surveyed conditions in the gills of wild marine fish in Tasmania to determine potential interactions between wild and cultured fish. Wild marine fish of 12 species were captured from three Atlantic salmon farm sites and three reference sites around Tasmania. The survey concentrated on three species, red cod, Pseudophycis bachus, sand flathead, Platycephalus bassensis, and jack mackerel, Trachurus declivus. Seventy-six per cent of salmon pens contained wild fish species. The number of species found in a pen ranged from one to nine and the number of individuals ranged from one to 23. Trichodinids were prevalent and occurred on seven of the 13 species examined. Trichodina occurred on the gills of all but one specimen of red cod. Monogenean gill flukes were observed on all three major species sampled and were abundant on sand flathead. Other parasites and conditions observed in the survey included metacercariae of digenean trematodes, epitheliocystis and cysts of unknown origin. Infestations of trichodinids on red cod and monogenean gill flukes on sand flathead were significantly more intense at farm sites than at reference sites. Atlantic salmon sampled at the same time from the farms were only affected by amoebic gill disease and isopods. PMID:15575879

Nowak, B F; Dawson, D; Basson, L; Deveney, M; Powell, M D

2004-12-01

217

Community composition of demersal marine fishes on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf and at Herschel Island, Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the community structure of demersal marine fishes on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf and at Herschel Island, Yukon Territory. Fishes were sampled along five transects during the summers of 2006-2009 to assess community structure. Environmental parameters were documented to examine habitat associations of fishes. Results indicate a shift in community composition at approximately 50 m depth in both areas, forming distinct shallow and deepwater assemblages. A subset of species define the assemblages, with Gymnocanthus tricuspis and Ulcina olrikii typifying the < 50 m and > 50 m groups, respectively, on the shelf. At Herschel Island, U. olrikii did not typify the > 50 m group, suggesting differences in species composition relative to Canadian Beaufort Shelf transects. However, differences in community composition between the two areas were not statistically significant. Boreogadus saida were common to shallow and deep assemblages. Depth and salinity best grouped the sites in a manner consistent with species' abundances on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf. Attempts to match biotic data with environmental parameters at Herschel Island stations were not conclusive. Investigation is required into the role of larger scale processes (e.g., upwelling events, ice-scouring, and plume dynamics) in driving the distributions of marine fishes in the Beaufort Sea.

Majewski, Andrew R.; Lynn, Brittany R.; Lowdon, Mark K.; Williams, William J.; Reist, James D.

2013-11-01

218

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

219

ACIDBASE REGULATION, BRANCHIAL TRANSFERS AND RENAL OUTPUT IN A MARINE TELEOST FISH (THE LONG HORNED SCULPIN MYOXOCEPHALUS OCTODECIMSPINOSUS) DURING EXPOSURE TO LOW SALINITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A number of studies have implied a linkage between acid-base and ion exchanges in both freshwater and seawater fish, although little is known about the branchial and renal acid-base transfers involved as the animals move between different salinities. To investigate the role of these transfers in a marine teleost fish as it is exposed to a dilute environment, we

JAMES B. CLAIBORNE; JULIE S. WALTON

220

Bioindicators and reproductive effects of prolonged 17beta-oestradiol exposure in a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus).  

PubMed

The effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) on mortality, growth rates, sexual maturation, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression and reproductive success were investigated during an 8-month, water-borne exposure of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Indicators of oestrogenic exposure were investigated as predictors of population-level reproductive success. E2 exposure concentrations were <5 (below limit of detection), 16+/-3, 97+/-20 and 669+/-151 ng l(-1) (bootstrap means and standard errors). The carrier solvent (<20 microl l(-1) propan-2-ol) significantly reduced the rate of egg production compared to untreated fish, but did not significantly affect male VTG mRNA expression, brood size, or the other studied parameters. Fish exposed to 16 ng l(-1) E2 showed few adverse effects compared with solvent only-exposed fish. Exposure to 97 ng l(-1) E2 significantly inhibited male sexual maturation, induced male VTG mRNA expression and delayed spawning. The 97 ng l(-1) E2 exposed population also produced fertile eggs at a significantly slower rate than solvent controls; however, brood size, fertility and overall reproductive success were not significantly affected. Exposure to 669 ng l(-1) E2 significantly increased mortality, adversely affected haematological parameters and caused an almost total lack of reproductive activity, with both sexes failing to mature. Reproductive failure following exposure to 669 ng l(-1) E2 was evident in both sexes when crossed with untreated animals. This work indicates that marine fish are similarly as sensitive to oestrogenic exposure as freshwater fish, that exposure biomarkers such as VTG are more sensitive to exposure than are reproductive effects, and that the use of carrier solvents in long-term reproductive studies should be avoided. PMID:17289167

Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Megginson, Colin; Miller, Colin; Moffat, Colin F

2007-03-30

221

Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Quattrini, A. M.; Ross, S. W.

2006-01-01

222

Reduced density of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum inside a Caribbean marine reserve linked to increased predation pressure by fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease has dramatically reduced populations of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Caribbean reefs, contributing to an increased abundance of macroalgae and reduction of coral cover. Therefore, recovery of D. antillarum populations is critically important, but densities are still low on many reefs. Among the many potential factors limiting these densities, the focus of this study is on predation pressure by fishes. Marine reserves provide opportunities to examine large-scale manipulations of predator-prey interactions and, therefore, D. antillarum densities were compared inside and outside a reserve in The Bahamas (Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park; ECLSP). Urchins and their fish predators were surveyed at nine sites inside and outside the ECLSP. Because of lower fishing effort, the total biomass of urchin predators, weighted by their dietary preferences for urchins, was significantly higher inside the ECLSP. Furthermore, fish community structure was significantly different inside the Park because of the increased biomass of the majority of species. No urchins were seen inside the ECLSP and this was significantly lower than the density of 0.04 urchin m-2 outside the Park. Regression analysis indicated that the relationship between the biomass of urchin predators and the proportion of transects containing urchins was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in fish biomass dramatically reduce urchin abundances. The link between lower density of urchins and higher density of their predators inside the ECLSP is strengthened by discounting five alternative primary mechanisms (variations in macroalgal cover, larval supply, environmental setting, density of other urchin species and abundance of predators not surveyed). Caribbean marine reserves have an important conservation role, but increased fish predation appears to reduce densities of D. antillarum. Urchins currently have limited functional significance on Bahamian reefs, but any future recovery of D. antillarum is likely to be limited in reserves, with potentially important ecological consequences.

Harborne, A. R.; Renaud, P. G.; Tyler, E. H. M.; Mumby, P. J.

2009-09-01

223

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

224

Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

2014-10-01

225

Radionuclides in marine fishes and birds from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline.  

PubMed

Amchitka Island (51degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965-1971. There have been no substantive studies of radionuclides in marine fishes and birds in the area since the mid-1970's. In this study, levels of 60Co, 52Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and the actinides (241Am, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U) were studied in ten marine fish species (including Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus and Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis) and five marine bird species (including Glaucous-winged Gulls Larus glaucescens, Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata, and Common Eider Ducks Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka. The same species were collected at a reference site, Kiska Island (52 degrees N lat; 177 degrees E long), about 130 km west of Amchitka. Each sample was a composite of edible muscle from five or more individual fish or birds of similar size (+/-15%) from the same sampling station. The null hypotheses of no differences among species or between Amchitka and Kiska were tested. Most analytic results were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA), even when 1,000 g sizes and 72 h counting times were used. The only radionuclides detected above the MDA were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, and 238U. There were significant differences in 137Cs as a function of species, but not location, for top predatory fishes. Of the fishes, eight of ten species had 137Cs values above the MDA for some samples; only one bird, Glaucous-winged Gull, had 137Cs values above the MDA. The highest concentrations of 137Cs were in Dolly Varden [Salvelinus malma, 0.780 (Bq kg(-1) wet weight)] and Pacific Cod (0.602 Bq kg(-1)). In aggregate for any actinides, 73 of 234 (31%) composites for fish were above the MDA, compared to only 3 of 98 (3%) for birds. 234U and 238U, radionuclides that are primarily natural in origin, were routinely detected in these biological samples, but there were no significant differences in mean concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. The concentrations of all radionuclides examined at Amchitka are similar to those of other uncontaminated Northern Hemisphere sites, and are lower than those reported for fishes and birds from the Irish Sea in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing facility, an area with known contamination. PMID:17293699

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Stabin, Michael; Favret, Derek; Jewett, Stephen; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Tim; Weston, James; Jeitner, Christian; Volz, Conrad

2007-03-01

226

To fear or to feed: the effects of turbidity on perception of risk by a marine fish.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are currently experiencing a number of worsening anthropogenic stressors, with nearshore reefs suffering from increasing sedimentation because of growing human populations and development in coastal regions. In habitats where vision and olfaction serve as the primary sources of information, reduced visual input from suspended sediment may lead to significant alterations in prey fish behaviour. Here, we test whether prey compensate for reduced visual information by increasing their antipredator responses to chemically mediated risk cues in turbid conditions. Experiments with the spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, found that baseline activity levels were reduced by 23 per cent in high turbidity conditions relative to low turbidity conditions. Furthermore, risk cues elicited strong antipredator responses at all turbidity levels; the strongest antipredator responses were observed in high turbidity conditions, with fish reducing their foraging by almost 40 per cent, as compared with 17 per cent for fish in clear conditions. This provides unambiguous evidence of sensory compensation in a predation context for a tropical marine fish, and suggests that prey fish may be able to behaviourally offset some of the fitness reductions resulting from anthropogenic sedimentation of their habitats. PMID:21849308

Leahy, Susannah M; McCormick, Mark I; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O

2011-12-23

227

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

228

Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2014-09-01

229

Nitrogen Cycling and Community Structure of Proteobacterial ?-Subgroup Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria within Polluted Marine Fish Farm Sediments  

PubMed Central

A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20 and 40 m from the cage. The data suggest that nitrogen cycling was significantly disrupted directly beneath the fish cage, with inhibition of nitrification and denitrification. Although visual examination indicated some slight changes in sediment appearance at 20 m, all other measurements were similar to those obtained at 40 m, where the sediment was considered pristine. The community structures of proteobacterial ?-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the sampling sites were compared by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), using primers which target this group. PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and with oligonucleotide hybridization probes specific for different ammonia oxidizers. A DGGE doublet observed in PCR products from the highly polluted fish cage sediment sample was present at a lower intensity in the 20-m sample but was absent from the pristine 40-m sample station. Band migration, hybridization, and sequencing demonstrated that the doublet corresponded to a marine Nitrosomonas group which was originally observed in 16S rDNA clone libraries prepared from the same sediment samples but with different PCR primers. Our data suggest that this novel Nitrosomonas subgroup was selected for within polluted fish farm sediments and that the relative abundance of this group was influenced by the extent of pollution. PMID:9872782

McCaig, Allison E.; Phillips, Carol J.; Stephen, John R.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Harvey, S. Martyn; Herbert, Rodney A.; Embley, T. Martin; Prosser, James I.

1999-01-01

230

Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.

Eliassen, M.

1988-12-01

231

Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

2014-11-01

232

Marine and farmed fish on the Polish market: comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD/Fs and other contaminants.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses were performed in nine fish species that are popular on the Polish market. These included Baltic fish (cod, herring, salmon), fish farmed in Poland (carp, trout), marine fish imported from China (Alaska pollock, sole), and farmed fish imported from Vietnam and China (sutchi catfish, tilapia). The nutritional composition (amino acid, micro- and macronutrients, fat-soluble vitamins - A(1), D(3), E) and certain contaminants (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs; indicator polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB(6); polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs; dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dl-PCBs; organotin compounds, OCTs; dyes, malachite green and crystal violet; veterinary drug residues, nitrofurans and chloramphenicol; toxic metals, Cd, Pb, Hg) in the muscle tissues of fish were determined. It was confirmed that the fish species analyzed were excellent sources of amino acids, and were rich in phosphorous and selenium. Baltic Sea fish (salmon, herring), fish farmed in Poland (carp and trout), and tilapia were also rich in vitamin D(3). Traces of OCP, PCB(6), OCT, dyes, veterinary drug residues, and heavy metals were detected in concentrations which do not pose a threat to consumers at the current rate of fish consumption in Poland. However, the problem might arise from the content of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fatty Baltic fish. The fish species analyzed, differed in their nutritional values and degrees of contamination. We suggest that for optimum health and safety, it is advisable that consumers include a variety of different fish species in their diets. PMID:22014661

Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Usydus, Zygmunt; Malesa-Cie?wierz, Ma?gorzata; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Ruczy?ska, Wies?awa

2011-12-01

233

Recovery of a Temperate Reef Assemblage in a Marine Protected Area following the Exclusion of Towed Demersal Fishing  

PubMed Central

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as ‘the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls’. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

2013-01-01

234

Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.  

PubMed

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

235

Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.  

PubMed

Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ER?) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

2014-09-15

236

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

237

Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination  

PubMed Central

Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors influencing fish population distribution and dynamics. PMID:25255325

Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

2014-01-01

238

Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.  

PubMed

An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification. PMID:23009091

Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

2012-12-01

239

Transport and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary, Australia – A budget approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the sub-tropicalRichmond River estuary were quantified and materialbudgets were developed over two years of contrastingfreshwater discharge. During both years >74% of thenitrogen and >84% of the phosphorus load enteredthe estuary during one month when flooding occurred inthe catchment. Due to larger flood magnitude, loadsduring the 1995\\/96 year were 3.3 and 2.5 times greaterthan during the

Lester J. McKee; Bradley D. Eyre; Shahadat Hossain

2000-01-01

240

Three Years of Fisheries Statistics on Marine Sport Fishing in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1936 the California Division of Fish and Game has collected statistics on the ocean sport fishery as a part of its management program. Operators of pleasure fishing boats make out daily reports on the catches of their passengers. Annual catches average 2,000,000 fish with a weight of 6,000,000 pounds. The tabulated reports show: monthly and annual catches of each

Richard S. Croker

1940-01-01

241

Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Monaco, M. E.; Friedlander, A. M.; Caldow, C.; Christensen, J. D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, R.

2007-01-01

242

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor ecology; fish biology; fish pathology; fisheries science; seaweed biology; maritime studies; and ocean Island Biological Laboratory, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Maine Department of Marine

Thomas, Andrew

243

Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information

Jacquomo Monk; Daniel Ierodiaconou; Euan Harvey; Alex Rattray; Vincent L. Versace

2012-01-01

244

Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water.  

PubMed

We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched ?(15)N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher ?(15)N than older fish. These differences in ?(15)N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:23173190

Johnson, Susan P; Schindler, Daniel E

2013-02-23

245

Fluxes and distribution of dissolved iron in the eastern (sub-) tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian dust transport from the Saharan/Sahel desert regions is considered the dominant external input of iron (Fe) to the surface waters of the eastern (sub-) tropical North Atlantic Ocean. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the sources of dissolved Fe (DFe) and quantified DFe fluxes to the surface ocean in this region. In winter 2008, surface water DFe concentrations varied between <0.1 nM and 0.37 nM, with an average of 0.13 ± 0.07 nM DFe (n = 194). A strong correlation between mixed layer averaged concentrations of dissolved aluminum (DAl), a proxy for dust input, and DFe indicated dust as a source of DFe to the surface ocean. The importance of Aeolian nutrient input was further confirmed by an increase of 0.1 nM DFe and 0.05 ?M phosphate during a repeat transect before and after a dust event. An exponential decrease of DFe with increasing distance from the African continent, suggested that continental shelf waters were a source of DFe to the northern part of our study area. Relatively high Fe:C ratios of up to 3 × 10-5 (C derived from apparent oxygen utilization (AOU)) indicated an external source of Fe to these African continental shelf waters. Below the wind mixed layer along 12°N, enhanced DFe concentrations (>1.5 nM) correlated positively with apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and showed the importance of organic matter remineralization as an DFe source. As a consequence, vertical diffusive mixing formed an important Fe flux to the surface ocean in this region, even surpassing that of a major dust event.

Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Steigenberger, Sebastian; Powell, Claire F.; van Haren, Hans; Patey, Matthew D.; Baker, Alex R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

2012-09-01

246

Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland

Eliassen

1988-01-01

247

Evidence for visual constraints in large marine fish stocks Dag L. Aksnes1  

E-print Network

constrained fish stocks relate inversely to light attenuation for the Black Sea, where long time series series that combines optical properties and fish data. For the Black Sea, however, unique times series. 1997) are available. As pointed out by Daskalov (2002), the Black Sea as a study object has important

Aksnes, Dag L.

248

A Comparison of Pathology Found in Three Marine Fish Treated with Endocrine Disrupting Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as the estrogen estradiol (E2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histopathologically compared and evaluated the effect of EDCs in three species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentat...

249

CAN TISSUE ANOMALIES THAT OCCUR IN MARINE FISH IMPLICATE SPECIFIC POLLUTANT CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The advantage of using tissue abnormalities in wild fish as a measure of fish health is that the abnormality, unlike sensitive biochemical anomalies, cannot be said to have occurred during capture or transport. This paper is concerned with factors (chemical, physical, or biologic...

250

Protection of Habitat Types: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of a Small Marine Reserve and Impacts of Different Habitats on the Diversity and Abundance of Coral Reef Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Konstantin S. Tkachenko and Keryea Soong (2010) Protection of habitat types: a case study of the effectiveness of a small marine reserve and impacts of different habitats on the diversity and abundance of coral reef fishes. Zoological Studies 49(2): xxx-xxx. The aim of this work was to compare coral reef fish communities from a small recently established marine reserve (a

Konstantin S. Tkachenko; Keryea Soong

2010-01-01

251

Seasonality of sulfate reduction and pore water solutes in a marine fish farm sediment: the importance of temperature and sedimentary organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reduction and pore water solutes related to sulfur cycling and anaerobic processes (short chain fatty acids (SCFA), SO42-, TCO2, NH4+, dissolved sulfides (?H2S) and CH4) were examined during one year at a marine fish farm. Mineralization of fish farm waste products was rapid in this non-bioturbated, organic rich sediment. Stimulation of sulfate reduction rates (SRR) occurred primarily in the

Marianne Holmer; Erik Kristensen

1996-01-01

252

High gene flow in reef fishes and its implications for ad-hoc no-take marine reserves.  

PubMed

Integration of genetic connectivity information in effective marine reserve (MR) design is important in sustaining marine biodiversity. Here, genetic connectivity based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three reef fish species, namely Epinephelus merra (n = 67; 32 from Bolinao, 14 from Alaminos, and 21 from Masinloc), Parupeneus multifasciatus (n = 23; 12 from Bolinao and 11 from Masinloc), and Odonus niger (n = 35; 21 from Mabini and 14 from Tingloy), sampled across western Luzon, Philippines, was inferred by assessing their genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and historical demography. The results show high haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the three species. Tests for population structure indicate high gene flow and no spatial genetic structuring for the three species. Mismatch analyses suggest unimodal distribution for E. merra and P. multifasciatus, but bimodal distribution for O. niger. Even with differences in mismatch distributions, all the three species exhibit low raggedness index indicating demographic population expansion. The bimodal distribution of O. niger could be attributed to the mixing of two isolated populations. High gene flow between sampling locations implies genetic exchanges and connectivity between many small MRs and fishing grounds in western Luzon, Philippines, at a scale similar to our study. This research is among the first few to elucidate the high genetic connectivity of reef fish communities across the Philippines (here western Luzon), but it also calls for more support (i.e. government and academia) for genetic research that aims to (1) understand the maintenance of megadiversity of the country and (2) search for effective biodiversity conservation options for the coral reefs. PMID:23530464

Matias, Ambrocio Melvin A; Anticamara, Jonathan A; Quilang, Jonas P

2013-10-01

253

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, THEIR DERIVATIVES, AND HEAVY METALS IN MARINE FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine organisms living in environments containing toxic chemicals are often exposed simultaneously to many different classes of compounds, which collectively pose a different threat of toxicological effects than is posed separately by the individual compounds. The present resear...

254

The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Multiple datasets show global maxima of marine biodiversity in the Indo–Malay–Philippines archipelago (IMPA). Analysis of distribution data for 2983 species reveals a pattern of richness on a finer scale and identifies a peak of marine biodiversity in the central Philippine Islands and a secondary peak between peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. This pattern is repeated in diverse habitat and higher taxa

Kent E. Carpenter; Victor G. Springer

2005-01-01

255

Characterization of the marine fish assemblage associated with the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County, Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some shallow (<7 m, water depth) nearshore hardbottom areas of southeast Florida have been reported to function as important juvenile fish habitat. Much of this area has been impacted by one or more local beach renourishments (sand fill to offset erosion). We characterized the nearshore fish communities and compared the fish assemblages adjacent to renourished beach to those adjacent to never-renourished beach along a 30-km stretch of coastline, primarily in Broward County, using three visual census methods. Two hundred transect-counts, 100 point-counts and 98 rover-diver counts were completed during June-August 2001. In transect- and point-counts, abundance of all fish species and their sizes were recorded; the rover-diver counts consisted of a simple species list. In total, 164 species and over 72,000 fish were recorded. The highest number of species (145) was recorded with the rover-diver counts. The transects-counts had 118 species and 109 species were recorded on the point-counts. With either all the sites adjacent to renourished beach pooled and compared to the pooled never-renourished sites or individual comparisons amongst renourished and neighboring never-renourished sites, no consistent differences were noted in fish abundance or species richness (ANOVA) or among fish assemblage structure (MDS plot of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices). However, although the data show no obvious distinct difference between the renourished and never-renourished sites, due to several important confounding factors (e.g., census methodology, longshore movement of sand fill) and the absence of baseline data prior to any renourishment, it would be premature to translate these results into management strategies. The assemblage structure, in terms of percentage of juvenile fish (<5 cm) as well as percent contributions by family, was similar for the point-counts and transect-counts. However, in mean density per m 2 of substrate, greater abundance and greater species richness values were recorded with the transect-counts than with the point-counts. Newly settled and early juveniles were the dominant component (>84%) of the inshore fish community, consisting primarily (>90%) of grunts (Haemulidae). After the grunts, the wrasses (Labridae) at about 5%, and damselfish (Pomacentridae) at roughly 2% were the predominant families. It is clear from this study and others that the nearshore hardbottom of Broward County is an important juvenile fish habitat, especially for grunts. However, the nearshore hardbottom does not appear to be obligate habitat for these fishes as fishes associated with this area are, apparently, not unique to the nearshore hardbottom either in species or ontogenic stage.

Baron, Robert M.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Spieler, Richard E.

2004-07-01

256

Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE) are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host-pathogen interactions and evolutionary history of immunogenetics from fish to mammals. PMID:20707909

2010-01-01

257

C-BANDING OF CHROMOSOMES FROM THREE ESTABLISHED MARINE FISH CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic regions of individuals pa...

258

An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

Epps, Brenden P

2010-01-01

259

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies on Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P-450 from a Marine Teleost Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 from fish (Stenotomus versicolor), untreated or treated with 3-methylcholanthrene, 5,6-benzo-flavone, or tricaine methanesulfonate, exhibited an absorption maximum at 450 nm when reduced and ligated to CO. Microsomes fr...

M. Chevion, J. J. Stegeman, J. Peisach, W. E. Blumberg

1977-01-01

260

Density Responses of Subarctic Coastal Marine Fish and Crabs to Artificial Reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally complex habitats provide refuge from predators and higher invertebrate prey density—and therefore have higher densities of young fish—than do noncomplex (or barren) sea floors. Artificial reefs are used worldwide to increase seabed complexity in an attempt to increase fish and invertebrate densities and biomass. We employed small-scale tetrahedral reefs to test three hypotheses: (1) that increased habitat complexity increases

Philip S. Sargent; Robert S. Gregory; David C. Schneider

2006-01-01

261

Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.  

PubMed

Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. PMID:25180652

Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

2015-01-01

262

Spatial and temporal variation in fish community structure of a marine embayment in Zanzibar, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variation in the fish community structure were studied in a tropical non-estuarine embayment in Chwaka\\u000a Bay, Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish samples were collected bi-monthly (at each spring low tide) for 1 year (November 2001–October\\u000a 2002) from a range of bay habitats ranging from mangroves deep inside the bay to seagrass beds close to the mouth of the bay.

B. R. Lugendo; A. de Groene; I. Cornelissen; A. Pronker; I. Nagelkerken; G. van der Velde; Y. D. Mgaya

2007-01-01

263

Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)  

PubMed Central

The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37–66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2009–2017. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. PMID:23636803

Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

264

Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

2011-01-01

265

Environmental Forcing of Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical and Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L?1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L?1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L?1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L?1 d?1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L?1 d?1 (1?, n?=?65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdottir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.

2011-01-01

266

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

267

Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine

Djibril Faye; Luis Tito de Morais; Jean Raffray; Oumar Sadio; Omar Thiom Thiaw; François Le Loc’h

2011-01-01

268

The impact of postglacial marine invasions on the genetic diversity of an obligate freshwater fish, the longnose dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae ), on the Quebec peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postglacial seas are expected to have had significant effects on the genetic structure of populations of obli- gate freshwater fishes. To assess this influence, mitochondrial DNA variability was evaluated in 32 populations of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) of the Quebec peninsula located within and outside of the maximum extent of marine invasions of the Champlain and Laflamme seas. Three clades

Philippe Girard; Bernard Angers

2006-01-01

269

Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

270

The western Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae), in Florida: Evidence for reproduction and parasitism in the first exotic marine fish established in state waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many exotic fresh-water and brackish-water fish species have become established in Florida waters, but the red lionfish is the first entirely marine species that appears to have become established here. We give a detailed account of the initial collections of adult specimens from off St. Augustine and Jacksonville, including data on morphometrics, meristics, and gonad histology. Our review of historical

Ramon Ruiz-Carus; Richard E. Matheson; Daniel E. Roberts; Paula E. Whitfield

2006-01-01

271

Ontogeny, tissue distribution, and hormonal regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) in a marine fish, Sparus aurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have cloned insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 from a marine hermaphroditic fish species, the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and determined its structure, ontogeny, tissue distribution, and hormonal regulation. The sea bream IGFBP-2 precursor consists of 286 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 22 residues and a mature protein of 264 residues. The

B Funkenstein; W Tsai; T Maures; C Duan

2002-01-01

272

An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

2010-09-01

273

Cloning and functional characterisation of polyunsaturated fatty acid elongases of marine and freshwater teleost fish.  

PubMed

Enzymes that lengthen the carbon chain of polyunsaturated fatty acids are key to the biosynthesis of the highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. A Mortierella alpina cDNA polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase sequence identified mammalian, amphibian, zebrafish and insect expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in GenBank. Consensus primers were designed in conserved motifs and used to isolate full length cDNA from livers of several fish species by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The amplified cDNAs encoded putative open reading frames (ORFs) of 288-294 amino acids that were highly conserved among the fish species. Heterologous expression in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrated that all of the ORFs encoded elongases with the ability to lengthen polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates with chain lengths from C18 to C22 and also monounsaturated fatty acids, but not saturated fatty acids. There were differences in the functional competence of the elongases from different fish species. Most of the fish elongases showed a pattern of activity towards different fatty acid substrates in the rank order C18>C20>C22, although the tilapia and turbot elongases had similar activity towards 18:4n-3 and 20:5n-3. The fish elongases generally showed greater activity or similar activities with n-3 than with n-6 homologues, with the exception of the cod enzyme which was more active towards n-6 fatty acids. PMID:16183312

Agaba, Morris K; Tocher, Douglas R; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Dickson, Cathryn A; Dick, James R; Teale, Alan J

2005-11-01

274

Phylogeny of immunoglobulin structure and function. VII. Monomeric and tetrameric immunoglobulins of the margate, a marine teleost fish.  

PubMed Central

The margate, a marine teleost fish, was found to contain both high (16S) and low (7S) molecular weight antibodies 17 days after initial immunization. The 16S antibodies were detectable with both haemagglutination and antigen-binding assays, whereas the 7S antibodies were only detected by the latter technique. Margate 16S (molecular weight approximately 700,000) and 7S (molecular weight approximately 175,000) immunoglobulins were isolated and shown to be antigenically indistinguishable. They therefore appear to belong to the same immunoglobulin class and to have a tetramer--monomer relationship. Experiments with stored sera indicated the 7S protein is probably not an in vitro degradation product of the 16S molecule. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1184121

Clem, L W; McLean, W E

1975-01-01

275

Impact of Intensive Land-Based Fish Culture in Qingdao, China, on the Bacterial Communities in Surrounding Marine Waters and Sediments  

PubMed Central

The impact of intensive land-based fish culture in Qingdao, China, on the bacterial communities in surrounding marine environment was analyzed. Culture-based studies showed that the highest counts of heterotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrifying, and nitrate-reducing bacteria were found in fish ponds and the effluent channel, with lower counts in the adjacent marine area and the lowest counts in the samples taken from 500?m off the effluent channel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to assess total bacterial diversity. Fewer bands were observed from the samples taken from near the effluent channel compared with more distant sediment samples, suggesting that excess nutrients from the aquaculture facility may be reducing the diversity of bacterial communities in nearby sediments. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DGGE bands indicated that the bacteria community of fish-culture-associated environments was mainly composed of Flavobacteriaceae, gamma- and deltaproteobacteria, including genera Gelidibacter, Psychroserpen, Lacinutrix, and Croceimarina. PMID:21922024

Li, Qiufen; Zhang, Yan; Juck, David; Fortin, Nathalie; Greer, Charles W.

2011-01-01

276

Identification of intestinal bicarbonate transporters involved in formation of carbonate precipitates to stimulate water absorption in marine teleost fish.  

PubMed

Marine teleost fish precipitate divalent cations as carbonate deposits in the intestine to minimize the potential for excessive Ca2+ entry and to stimulate water absorption by reducing luminal osmotic pressure. This carbonate deposit formation, therefore, helps maintain osmoregulation in the seawater (SW) environment and requires controlled secretion of HCO3(-) to match the amount of Ca2+ entering the intestinal lumen. Despite its physiological importance, the process of HCO3(-) secretion has not been characterized at the molecular level. We analyzed the expression of two families of HCO3(-) transporters, Slc4 and Slc26, in fresh-water- and SW-acclimated euryhaline pufferfish, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus), and obtained the following candidate clones: NBCe1 (an Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter) and Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B (putative Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B have potent HCO3(-)-transporting activity as electrogenic Cl(-)/nHCO3(-) exchangers, whereas mefugu NBCe1 functions as an electrogenic Na+-nHCO3(-) cotransporter. Expression of NBCe1 and Slc26a6A was highly induced in the intestine in SW and expression of Slc26a6B was high in the intestine in SW and fresh water, suggesting their involvement in HCO3(-) secretion and carbonate precipitate formation. Immunohistochemistry showed staining on the apical (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B) and basolateral (NBCe1) membranes of the intestinal epithelial cells in SW. We therefore propose a mechanism for HCO3(-) transport across the intestinal epithelial cells of marine fish that includes basolateral HCO3(-) uptake (NBCe1) and apical HCO3(-) secretion (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B). PMID:18216137

Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Kato, Akira; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mistry, Abinash C; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

2008-04-01

277

Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem integrity. PMID:17650253

Davoren, Gail K

2007-08-01

278

Recruitment in marine fishes: Is it regulated by starvation and predation in the egg and larval stages?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used literature reports to evaluate the hypotheses that: 1. year-class strenght in marine fishes is determined by mortality operating during the pre-juvenile stage of the life history, and 2. recruitment in marine fishes can be regulated by starvation and predation in the egg and larval stages. The available evidence is largely consistent with the first hypothesis, although mortality operating during the juvenile and post-juvenile stage may moderate the variation induced at the pre-juvenile stage. The hypothesis that recruitment can be regulated by starvation during the larval stage was assessed in relation to Hjort's 'critical period' and Cushing's 'match-mismatch rs hypotheses. The available evidence does not support a major link between food abundance at the time of first feeding, and recruitment (Hjort's 'critical period'). The hypothesized relationship between recruitment and the coincidence between the seasonal timing of plankton production and the seasonal abundance of larvae (Cushing's 'match-mismatch') is generally supported. However, the relationships are weak and the importance of the strength of the coupling between seasonal cycles in plankton and larval abundance appears to be weaker than had previously been surmised. Recent evidence, which suggests that failure to distinguish between food abundance in the environment and the availability of food to individual larvae may have comprimised the evaluation of these hypotheses, is reviewed. The relationship between mortality due to predation and its potential effects on recruitment was evaluated with reference to two emerging paradigms, the 'bigger is better' and the 'stage duration' hypotheses. We conclude that failure to fully evaluate the assumptions underlying these hypotheses may have led to erroneous generalizations regarding the importance of size at age/stage and growth rate on the probability of death due to predation. Neither the 'bigger is better', nor the 'stage duration' hypotheses is unequivocally supported.

Leggett, W. C.; Deblois, E.

279

Metal concentrations in marine fishes collected from Hara biosphere in Iran.  

PubMed

The metal levels (Hg, As, Cu, and Zn) in tissues of edible fish species (Pampus argenteus, Sillago sihama, Liza klunzingeri and Platycephalus indicus) were evaluated. The metal concentrations were found to follow the order: liver > kidney > gill > muscle, except for Zn from P. argenteus showing an inversion of liver and kidney. Generally, the benthic species (P. indicus and S. sihama) showed a marked potential for tolerating high metal levels. Significant negative correlations were found between fish size/age and metals concentration in the most organs. The element levels in the muscles were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations, except for mercury in S. sihama and P. indicus. PMID:23160745

Mohammadnabizadeh, Sahar; Afshari, Reza; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

2013-02-01

280

Diverting the Colorado River leads to a dramatic life history shift in an endangered marine fish  

E-print Network

; Gleick, 2003). The physical and chemical im- pacts of upstream dams and diversions on estuaries are well Totoaba A B S T R A C T Diversion of river water has diminished freshwater flow into many estuaries worldwide, yet the effects of these diversions on marine fisheries, many of which depend on estuaries

Gerber, Leah R.

281

Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fisheries data supplied to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) by national agencies have served as the primary tool for many global and regional studies. However, it is recognised that these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. This study reconstructed total marine fisheries catches from 1950 to 2005 for

J Jacquet; H Fox; H Motta; A Ngusaru; D Zeller

2010-01-01

282

Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response to variable exercise and exposure to air.  

PubMed

Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air exposure regimens. Results showed that metabolic disturbances (lactate production, hyperglycemia) increased following exercise and exposure to air, and that the magnitude of metabolic disturbance was proportional to the duration of the stressful event. Fish required between 2-4 h to return to resting values. Exercise and exposure to air also resulted in significant increases in plasma Ca2+, Cl- and Na+, but the magnitude of these ionic changes did not vary with exercise or exposure to air duration and required over 4-h to return to baseline levels. Mortality following exercise was observed only for fish that had been exposed to air for 3 min and not in fish that had been exposed to air for 1 min. Together, results from this study provide a physiological basis for management strategies that can improve the post-release survival of bonefish that have been caught during a catch-and-release angling event. PMID:17884649

Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gravel, Marie-Ange; Redpath, Tara; Hanson, Kyle C; Gingerich, Andrew J; Murchie, Karen J; Danylchuk, Sascha E; Koppelman, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Tony L

2007-11-01

283

Comparative persistence of marine fish larvae from pelagic versus demersal eggs off southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groupings of larval fish were repeatedly identified by principal component analyses of larval densities from four broad-scale surveys during the spring and summer of 1985–1987 off southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. Larvae originating from pelagic eggs (four species within Gadidae and Pleuronectidae) constituted one group, which were uniformly distributed over the sampling area with densities not correlated with bathymetry, although

I. M. Suthers; K. T. Frank

1991-01-01

284

Life history correlates of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relationships among life history traits, density dependence, and population dynamics is a central goal in ecology. It is also vital if we are to predict how populations respond to and recover from exploitation. We used data for 54 stocks of commercially exploited fish species to examine relationships between maximum annual recruitment at low stock size and the density

Nicholas B. Goodwin; Alastair Grant; Allison L. Perry; Nicholas K. Dulvy; John D. Reynolds

2006-01-01

285

Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

2013-03-31

286

Replicate divergence between and within sounds in a marine fish: the copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus)  

E-print Network

of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using 17 microsatellite DNA loci. Overall, subdivision (FST) was low identified two genetic groups across all sam- ples, a single genetic group among only coast samples, two than coast sites fish. Reduced physical connectivity and selection against immigrants in contrasting

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

287

Frequency and intensity of productivity regime shifts in marine fish stocks  

PubMed Central

Fish stocks fluctuate both in abundance and productivity (net population increase), and there are many examples demonstrating that productivity increased or decreased due to changes in abundance caused by fishing and, alternatively, where productivity shifted between low and high regimes, entirely unrelated to abundance. Although shifts in productivity regimes have been described, their frequency and intensity have not previously been assessed. We use a database of trends in harvest and abundance of 230 fish stocks to evaluate the proportion of fish stocks in which productivity is primarily related to abundance vs. those that appear to manifest regimes of high or low productivity. We evaluated the statistical support for four hypotheses: (i) the abundance hypothesis, where production is always related to population abundance; (ii) the regimes hypothesis, where production shifts irregularly between regimes that are unrelated to abundance; (iii) the mixed hypothesis, where even though production is related to population abundance, there are irregular changes in this relationship; and (iv) the random hypothesis, where production is random from year to year. We found that the abundance hypothesis best explains 18.3% of stocks, the regimes hypothesis 38.6%, the mixed hypothesis 30.5%, and the random hypothesis 12.6%. Fisheries management agencies need to recognize that irregular changes in productivity are common and that harvest regulation and management targets may need to be adjusted whenever productivity changes. PMID:23322735

Vert-pre, Katyana A.; Amoroso, Ricardo O.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Hilborn, Ray

2013-01-01

288

Aquatic Toxicology 50 (2000) 97107 Uptake and effects of nitrite in the marine teleost fish  

E-print Network

relatively minor compared with those reported in freshwater fish. Blood methemoglobin levels increased from as a result of pollution with nitrogenous waste and imbalance in bacterial nitrification and denitrification processes. Nitrite is generally much more toxic to freshwater organ- isms than to seawater organisms (Eddy

Grosell, Martin

289

77 FR 71259 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...available on the Team Web site or by request...Category I Hawaii-based deep- set longline fishery...will be closed to deep-set longline fishing...Islands Regional Office web site. The notice...serious injury in the deep-set longline fishery...Islands Regional Office web site. The...

2012-11-29

290

Cloning of matrix Gla protein in a marine cartilaginous fish, Prionace glauca: preferential protein accumulation in skeletal and vascular systems.  

PubMed

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft tissue extracts, while the accumulation of the protein was found mainly in calcified tissues. More recently, the MGP gene expression was also studied in marine teleost fish where it was found to be associated with chondrocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells. To date no information is available on the sites of MGP expression or accumulation in cartilaginous fishes that diverged from osteichthyans, a group that includes mammals, over 400 million years ago. The main objectives of this work were to study the sites of MGP gene expression and protein accumulation by means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. MGP mRNA and protein were localized as expected not only in cartilage from branchial arches and vertebra but also in the endothelia of the vascular system as well as in the tubular renal endothelium. The accumulation of MGP in non mineralized soft tissues was unexpected and suggests differences in localization or regulation of this protein in shark soft tissues compared to tetrapods and teleosts. Our results also corroborate the hypothesis that in Prionace glauca, as previously shown in mammals, the MGP protein probably also acts as a calcification inhibitor, protecting soft tissues from abnormal and ectopic calcification. PMID:16411118

Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Simes, D C; Viegas, C S B; Schaff, B J; Sarasquete, C; Cancela, M L

2006-07-01

291

Application of mercury isotopes for tracing trophic transfer and internal distribution of mercury in marine fish feeding experiments.  

PubMed

Feeding experiments were performed to investigate mercury (Hg) isotope fractionation during trophic transfer and internal distribution of total Hg (THg) in marine fish on exposure to natural seafood. Young-of-the-year amberjack (Seriola dumerili) were fed with either blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus; 2647 ng/g THg) or brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus; 25.1 ng/g THg) for 80 d or 50 d, respectively, and dissected for muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and blood. After 30 d of tuna consumption, Hg isotopes (?(202) Hg and ?(199)Hg) of the amberjack organs shifted to the tuna value (?(202)Hg = 0.55‰, ?(199)Hg = 1.54‰,), demonstrating the absence of Hg isotope fractionation. When amberjack were fed a shrimp diet, there was an initial mixing of the amberjack organs toward the shrimp value (?(202)Hg = -0.48‰, ?(199)Hg = 0.32‰), followed by a cessation of further shifts in ?(199)Hg and a small shift in ?(202)Hg. The failure of ?(199)Hg to reach the shrimp value can be attributed to a reduction in Hg bioaccumulation from shrimp resulting from feeding inhibition and the ?(202)Hg shift can be attributed to a small internal fractionation during excretion. Given that the feeding rate and Hg concentration of the diet can influence internal Hg isotope distribution, these parameters must be considered in biosentinel fish studies. PMID:23787815

Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Chirby, Michelle A; Chesney, Edward J

2013-10-01

292

Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps  

PubMed Central

Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

293

Fish assemblages associated with natural and anthropogenically-modified habitats in a marine embayment: comparison of baited videos and opera-house traps.  

PubMed

Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

Wakefield, Corey B; Lewis, Paul D; Coutts, Teresa B; Fairclough, David V; Langlois, Timothy J

2013-01-01

294

[Hypoglycemic activity of berberin and extract obtained from the bark of Phellodendron lavalei, introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia].  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate hypoglycemic activity of Berberin and extract obtained from the bark of Phellodendron Lavalei, which is introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia-Kobuleti. The study was carried out to reveal comparative hypoglycemic activity and acute toxicity of alkaloid Berberin and bark extract of Phellodendron Lavalei. Effects of Berberin hydrochloride and bark extract on blood glucose level was studied on mice. Measurement of blood glucose level was carried out on fasting animals using glucose meter "GlucoLab"--auto-coding. The study showed that Berberin hydrochloride dose 150 mg/kg, extract (obtained from the bark of Phellodendron Lavalei) dose 400 mg/kg and glybenclamid dose 0.25 mg/kg practically decreased blood glucose level of mice in a same pattern. Received data allows us to suggest that Phellodendron Lavalei, introduced in sub tropic areas of Georgia contains active hypoglycemic components. In conclusion the possible use of Phellodendron Lavalei as a plant raw material for obtaining hypoglycemic substances needs to be decided after further study of efficacy, mechanism of action of extracts and active components of Phellodendron Lavalei on experimental models of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20834078

2010-01-01

295

Biogeochemical processes in intensive zero-effluent marine fish culture with recirculating aerobic and anaerobic biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemical processes that drive nutrient transformations and recycling in organic marine sediment–water environments were studied for 17 months in a zero-effluent intensive recirculating culture system. The system consisted of a 10 m3 gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) tank coupled to aerobic and anaerobic water treatment elements. Nutrients and alkalinity were measured in the system to quantify the main biogeochemical processes. Fractions of

Amir Neori; Michael D. Krom; Jaap van Rijn

2007-01-01

296

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants. PMID:23817947

Jiménez, Jaime E; Arriagada, Aldo M; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Camus, Patricio A; Avila-Thieme, M Isidora

2013-08-01

297

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

2013-08-01

298

Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: non-essential versus essential.  

PubMed

Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe. PMID:23017951

Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

2012-12-01

299

Thermal evolution of Cretaceous Tethyan marine waters inferred from oxygen isotope composition of fish tooth enamels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of subtropical (30–35°N) upper ocean temperatures through the Cretaceous is inferred from the oxygen isotope compositions of 64 fish teeth (enamel) coming from the western Tethyan platform. Mean ?18O values of 22‰ at the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary decrease, with oscillations to 18.5‰ around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, and progressively increase to 21.5‰ by the end of the Cretaceous. The similarity

Emmanuelle Pucéat; Christophe Lécuyer; Simon M. F. Sheppard; Gilles Dromart; Stéphane Reboulet; Patricia Grandjean

2003-01-01

300

Fish assemblages across the marine to low salinity transition zone of a temperate estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This 3-year study provides a large-scale perspective of fish assemblage structure across an ocean-estuarine ecotone, given range of salinity encountered (0.1-32) based on sampling at 12 stations along 40 km from the Mullica River (river), Great Bay (bay), and the adjacent inner continental shelf (ocean) in southern New Jersey. Otter trawl (4.9 m, 6 mm mesh) collections were dominated by young-of-the-year of most of the 49 species encountered. Species richness and abundance appeared greatest in the ocean, decreased (with an increase in inter-station variability) in the bay, and appeared to increase again towards the uppermost river stations. The same areas contained three non-discrete, but identifiable, fish assemblages based on Detrended Correspondence Analysis. Members of the Triglidae and Stromateidae characterized the ocean and bay, whereas representatives of the Percichthyidae and Ictaluridae characterized the river. Several species, including Anchoa mitchilli and Cynoscion regalis, exhibited a ubiquitous distribution across the sampling area. Further analyses with Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified salinity and geographic distance, among the variables examined, as the most important determinants in shaping the assemblages. Other contributors included habitat heterogeneity and water depth. In summary, these observations indicate that large-scale patterns in the structure of this estuarine fish assemblage are primarily a result of individual species' responses to dominate environmental gradients, as well as ontogenetic migrations, whereas smaller-scale patterns appear to be the result of habitat associations that are most likely driven by foraging, competition, and/or predator avoidance.

Martino, Edward J.; Able, Kenneth W.

2003-04-01

301

Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.;Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2014-01-01

302

Breaking Bergmann's rule: truncation of Northwest Atlantic marine fish body sizes.  

PubMed

A strictly species-centric view of human impacts on ecological communities may conceal important trait changes key to ecosystem functioning and stability. Analyses of body size and community composition data for 326 Northwest Atlantic fish species sampled across > 900000 km2 over three decades revealed a rapid and widespread reduction of body sizes driven by declines within species and changes in relative abundances. The changes were unrelated to species richness but of sufficient magnitude to eliminate biogeographic scale gradients of increasing body size with latitude commonly characterized as Bergmann's rule. These changes have persisted despite reduced potential for intraspecific competition and favorable bottom water temperatures, both of which should lead to increased growth rates. The aggregate body sizes in these Northwest Atlantic fish communities may now represent a mismatch between the environmental variability characteristic of the Northwest Atlantic and the historical body size, life history traits, and productivity of species across this region. We discuss how these changes may jeopardize the potential for recovery of these important temperate/subarctic ecosystems. PMID:20957939

Fisher, Jonathan A D; Frank, Kenneth T; Leggett, William C

2010-09-01

303

Simultaneous identification of five marine fish pathogens belonging to the genera Tenacibaculum, Vibrio, Photobacterium and Pseudomonas by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to develop a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) assay for the identification of five fish pathogens (Tenacibaculum soleae, Tenacibaculum maritimum, Vibrio harveyi, Photobacterium damselae and Pseudomonas baetica) of importance in marine aquaculture. Species-specific probes were designed targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ISR) or the 23S rRNA gene. Reference and clinical strains of each

J. R. López; J. I. Navas; N. Thanantong; R. de la Herran; O. A. E. Sparagano

304

Biological weighting of ultraviolet (280–400?nm) induced mortality in marine zooplankton and fish. I. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, productivity-determining biophysical interactions occur in the upper 0 to 30?m of the\\u000a water column. The eggs and larvae of several commercially important marine invertebrates and fishes (e.g. Gadus morhua L.) are found in this layer. Measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficients for ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 320?nm,\\u000a UV-B) at various locations in this

J. H. M. Kouwenberg; H. I. Browman; J. J. Cullen; R. F. Davis; J.-F. St-Pierre; J. A. Runge

1999-01-01

305

Influence of marine reserve size and boundary length on the initial response of exploited reef fishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the influence of reserve size and boundary length on the relative rate of fish density change in reserves versus\\u000a fished reference reefs for three exploitable-sized reef fish categories: (1) combined fish (34 species of Haemulidae, Lutjanidae,\\u000a Serranidae, and hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus); (2) Haemulidae (13 species); and (3) Lutjanidae (9 species). If reef habitat boundaries are highly permeable to

Aaron Bartholomew; James A. Bohnsack; Steven G. Smith; Jerald S. Ault; Douglas E. Harper; David B. McClellan

2008-01-01

306

The culture of some marine fishes in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a power plant  

E-print Network

' beryl)'n (C p ); Pl 'da p p, P ht t 1 (Lf );Atl t' k, ~Mt d lt (L' 1; bl kd om, P~ac 's (Id eos); reddr, ~dc' n* o ll t (L' ): t 'p d list, ~Mtt ~ht 11 LITERATURE REVIEW Pond culture of fish has been going on for centuries virtually throughout... D 0 c( L t III X Q 0 ttt 0 IU 8 g IV IU D Q 0 C 4 W 0 g 0 td D 0 0 a I LIJ EJ P C O 0 0 IA Gl O R O IK ct ILI Y O ct CS IIS C9 IZ ct X CJ CII O I ?S Cc AI AI Co I- ICI X EJ n. (L CL IL O tr...

Luebke, Richard William

2012-06-07

307

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

308

Multilocus sequence analysis of the marine bacterial genus Tenacibaculum suggests parallel evolution of fish pathogenicity and endemic colonization of aquaculture systems.  

PubMed

The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species. PMID:24973065

Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

2014-09-01

309

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).  

PubMed

The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006. PMID:23859426

Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

2013-09-01

310

Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry  

PubMed Central

Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

2012-01-01

311

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.  

PubMed

The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife. PMID:24496035

Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

2014-04-01

312

Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability-diversity implications.  

PubMed

A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

Rossberg, Axel G; Farnsworth, Keith D; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K

2011-06-01

313

Limited ecological population connectivity suggests low demands on self-recruitment in a tropical inshore marine fish (Eleutheronema tetradactylum: Polynemidae).  

PubMed

The diversity of geographic scales at which marine organisms display genetic variation mirrors the biophysical and ecological complexity of dispersal by pelagic larvae. Yet little is known about the effect of larval ecology on genetic population patterns, partly because detailed data of larval ecology do not yet exist for most taxa. One species for which this data is available is Eleutheronema tetradactylum, a tropical Indo-West Pacific shorefish. Here, we use a partial sequence mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and five microsatellite loci to survey the genetic structure of E. tetradactylum across northern Australia. Structure was found throughout the range and isolation by distance was strong, explaining approximately 87 and 64% of the genetic variation in microsatellites and mtDNA, respectively. Populations separated by as little as 15 km also showed significant genetic structure, implying that local populations are mainly insular and self-seeding on an ecological time frame. Because the larvae of E. tetradactylum have lower swimming performance and poor orientation compared with other tropical fishes, even modest larval abilities may permit self-recruitment rather than passive dispersal. PMID:21518062

Horne, John B; Momigliano, Paolo; Welch, David J; Newman, Stephen J; Van Herwerden, Lynne

2011-06-01

314

Species specificity in the magnitude and duration of the acute stress response in Mediterranean marine fish in culture.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the species-specific stress response for seven Mediterranean fishes in culture. Also, to evaluate the method of measuring free cortisol concentration in the rearing water as a non-invasive and reliable indicator of stress in marine species, of aquaculture importance. Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae); common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae); common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae); sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae); dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae); meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Sciaenidae) and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) were subjected to identical acute stress (5-6 min chasing and 1-1.5 min air exposure) under the same environmental conditions and samples were analyzed by the same procedures. Results indicated that there was a clear species-specificity in the magnitude, timing and duration of the stress response in terms of cortisol, glucose and lactate. European sea bass showed a very high response and dusky grouper and meagre a very low response, except plasma glucose concentrations of dusky grouper which was constantly high, while sharpsnout sea bream presented a protracted stress response, up to 8h. The present study confirmed that free cortisol release rate into the water can be used as a reliable stress indicator. PMID:21712040

Fanouraki, E; Mylonas, C C; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

2011-09-01

315

Assessment of Economic Losses to Recreational Activities from 1988 Marine Pollution Events and Assessment of Economic Losses from Long-Term Contamination of Fish within the New York Bight to New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper economic losses from recent marine pollution events associated with recreational activities to New Jersey are examined. In addition, assessment of economic losses from long-term contamination of fish from the New York Bight to New Jersey are presented. During the 1987 and 1988 summer season, marine pollution and debris wash-ups occurred almost simultaneously in New York and New

Douglas D Ofiara; Bernard Brown

1999-01-01

316

Delta-8 desaturation activity varies among fatty acyl desaturases of teleost fish: high activity in delta-6 desaturases of marine species.  

PubMed

The benefits of dietary fish and fish oil are derived from n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) that have beneficial effects in a range of human diseases and pathologies such as cardiovascular and other inflammatory disorders, neural development and neurological pathologies. The precursor of n-3 LC-PUFA, 18:3n-3 does not have the same beneficial effects prompting interest in the pathways of endogenous synthesis of LC-PUFA in vertebrates. The LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway classically involves ?6 and ?5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), but it was recently shown that ?6 Fad in mammals also displayed ?8 activity demonstrating a possible alternative "?8-pathway" for the synthesis of LC-PUFA. Our primary hypothesis was that ?8 desaturase activity would be a common feature of vertebrate ?6 Fads, and so the aim of the present study was to determine the ability of teleostei Fads for ?8 desaturation activity. To this end, cDNAs for Fads from a range of freshwater, diadromous and marine teleost fish species were assayed for ?8 activity in the heterologous yeast expression system. In summary, the present study has demonstrated that ?8 desaturation activity was also a characteristic of fish orthologs, although the activity varied notably between freshwater/diadromous and marine fish species, with the latter possessing Fads2-like proteins with ?8 activity far higher than mammalian FADS2. The data showed that, generally, the fish Fad are technically ?-3 desaturases, with new double bonds introduced 3C beyond a pre-existing double bond. However, the ability of zebrafish and rabbitfish Fads, previously characterised as ?6/?5 bifunctional desaturases, to introduce non-methylene interrupted double bonds in 20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6 suggested that a novel combination of regioselectivity modes operates within these enzymes. PMID:21571087

Monroig, Oscar; Li, Yuanyou; Tocher, Douglas R

2011-08-01

317

Life-history correlates of maximum population growth rates in marine fishes.  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that populations of animals with late maturity, low fecundity, large body size and low body growth rates will have low potential rates of population increase at low abundance. If this is true, then these traits may be used to predict the intrinsic rate of increase for species or populations, as well as extinction risks. We used life-history and population data for 63 stocks of commercially exploited fish species from the northeast Atlantic to test relationships between life-history parameters and the rate of population increase at low abundance. We used cross-taxonomic analyses among stocks and among species, and analyses that accounted for phylogenetic relationships. These analyses confirmed that large-bodied, slow-growing stocks and species had significantly lower rates of recruitment and adult production per spawning adult at low abundance. Furthermore, high ages at maturity were significantly correlated with low maximum recruit production. Contrary to expectation, fecundity was significantly negatively related to recruit production, due to its positive relationship with maximum body size. Our results support theoretical predictions, and suggest that a simply measured life-history parameter can provide a useful tool for predicting rates of recovery from low population abundance. PMID:12427316

Denney, Nicola H; Jennings, Simon; Reynolds, John D

2002-01-01

318

Xenobiotic metabolism markers in marine fish with different trophic strategies and their relationship to ecological variables.  

PubMed

Nine fish species of commercial interest from six teleost families and two species of elasmobranchs were selected for characterisation of hepatic biomarkers used in early-warning assessment of pollutant exposure. The sampling was carried out in front of the Barcelona coast (NW Mediterranean) during December 2006 at shelf (53 m) and slope (660 m) depths. The enzymes considered included the antioxidant defence catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), phase I ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and phase II glutathione S-transferase (GST). Protein yield (PY) was used as a general marker of hepatic protein synthesis. Significant interspecies differences were evidenced, although each marker varied independently. Enzymatic activities in teleosts were higher than in elasmobranchs; they were very low in Scyliorhinus canicula (mainly a benthic feeder), but not so low in Galeus melastomus (pelagic feeder). In relation to depth, shallow water, shelf-living species had higher metabolic activities. Trophic variables were significantly related to PY and EROD activity, and were especially high in benthic/suprabenthic feeders. Trophic level (deduced from stable isotopy) and stomach fullness were associated with all hepatic markers, except GR. Swimming capacity was related to all hepatic enzymes. Our findings can be applied, not only from the perspective of conservation ecology regarding pollution, but also in fisheries, due to the economic interest of the species involved. PMID:18708160

Solé, M; Rodríguez, S; Papiol, V; Maynou, F; Cartes, J E

2009-01-01

319

Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Marine Aspergillus terreus var. africanus Against Some Virulent Fish Pathogens.  

PubMed

Screening of fungal isolates collected from different locations of Alexandria coast, Egypt, was carried out to obtain new biologically active metabolites against some virulent fish pathogens (Edwardsiella tarda, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio ordalli and Vibrio angularuim). Among 26 fungal isolates, Aspergillus terreus var. africanus was identified as the most potent isolate. Production of the bioactive material was optimized using response surface methodology including fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, pH, and thermo-stability. Spectral properties of the gas chromatography/mass spectrum of the ethyl acetate crude extract were determined. Partially purified components of the crude extract were chromatographically separated and bioassayed. Out of ten separated compounds, five were with considerable antibacterial agent. The bio-toxicity of crude showed a slight toxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 = 1,500 ?g/l). Antibacterial activity of the crude was compared with some known standard antibiotics and found to be superior over many where its MIC against some pathogen reached 1 ?g/ml. PMID:23997326

Barakat, Khouloud M; Gohar, Yousry M

2012-09-01

320

Residues of PBDEs in northeastern Pacific marine fish: evidence for spatial and temporal trends.  

PubMed

In the flesh (skinless fillet) of chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. keta, O. kisutch, O. gorbuscha, and O. nerka, respectively), sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from several sites in the northeast Pacific sampled between 2002 and 2008, tetra- and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (BDE 47, 49, 99, and 100) dominated the congener distribution. Chinook and sablefish contained the highest concentrations, followed by sockeye, coho, and pink salmon, and pollock. In sockeye from the Bering Sea - Aleutians and from the Gulf of Alaska, total tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations fell significantly between 2002 and 2005; in sablefish from Gulf of Alaska, there was a steady but statistically nonsignificant decline in BDE concentrations between 2002 and 2008. Relative proportions of the main BDE congeners did not change appreciably over time, within species or location. All species except sockeye salmon showed a clear southeastward increase in BDE concentrations, implying an increasing gradient in general ecosystem contamination. In chinook, coho, and sablefish, especially, the southeastward trend in increasing total concentrations was associated with increasing proportions of BDEs 47 and 100. Chinook returning to western North American natal streams appeared to accumulate most of their PBDE burden towards the end of their migration. Fish from more northern sampling sites often had higher proportions of more highly brominated congeners than those from more southern sites, perhaps reflecting contamination from Asian sources where higher-brominated commercial PBDE formulations are used. In sablefish and pollock, the relative proportions of BDEs 99 and 47 varied inversely in almost a 1:1 ratio, implying debromination of BDE 99 to 47. PMID:21360729

Ikonomou, Michael G; Teas, Howard J; Gerlach, Robert; Higgs, Dave; Addison, Richard F

2011-06-01

321

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

322

A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the aquarium for…

Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

323

Fishing Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

1988-01-01

324

Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 ?g/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

2014-09-01

325

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

326

[Levels distribution and risk assessment of the indicator and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in ten different species of marine fish of Bohai Bay, China].  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly lipohilic compounds with high metabolic persistence and toxicity. PCBs tend to accumulate in the aquatic food chain and make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. Industries in the Bohai Bay include iron and steel smelting, cement manufacturing and waste incineration, which are potential emission sources of PCBs. In this study, risks and potential effects of PCBs in the Bohai Bay were assessed. Twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and seven indicator PCBs in marine fish samples were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The concentrations of dl-PCBs in marine fishes ranged from 28.9 pg x g(-1) to 1067.6 pg x g(-1) wet weight. The concentrations of indicator PCBs were between 185.5 pg x g(-1) and 8 371.7 pg x g(-1) wet weight. PCB-118 and PCB-105 were the major congeners of the dl-PCBs congeners, which contributed 41% - 56% and 15% - 21%, respectively. The predominant indicator PCBs were PCB-153 and PCB-138, which contributed 27% and 22%, respectively. The concentrations of dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs were relatively low as compared with those in other studies. PMID:25158507

Wang, Sha-Sha; Gao, Li-Rong; Tian, Yi-Ling; Zhu, Shuai; Zhang, Qin

2014-06-01

327

50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10 Wildlife and...MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

2012-10-01

328

50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10 Wildlife and...MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

2011-10-01

329

50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10 Wildlife and...MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

2010-10-01

330

A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures  

PubMed Central

Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity. Tropical forests harbour among the highest levels of terrestrial species diversity and are likely to experience rapid land-use change in the coming decades. Synthetic analyses of observed responses of species are useful for quantifying how land use affects biodiversity and for predicting outcomes under land-use scenarios. Previous applications of this approach have typically focused on individual taxonomic groups, analysing the average response of the whole community to changes in land use. Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups—invertebrates, ‘herptiles’ (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds—respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests. We show significant independent impacts of land use, human vegetation offtake, forest cover and human population density on both occurrence and abundance of species, highlighting the value of analysing multiple explanatory variables simultaneously. Responses differ among the four groups considered, and—within birds and mammals—between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species. PMID:25143038

Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N.; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Blandon, Abigayil; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Booth, Hollie L.; Day, Julie; De Palma, Adriana; Harrison, Michelle L. K.; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Pynegar, Edwin; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Mace, Georgina M.; Scharlemann, Jorn P. W.; Purvis, Andy

2014-01-01

331

Incidence and distribution of microfungi in a treated municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

Drinking water quality is usually determined by its pathogenic bacterial content. However, the potential of water-borne spores as a source of nosocomial fungal infection is increasingly being recognised. This study into the incidence of microfungal contaminants in a typical Australian municipal water supply was carried out over an 18 month period. Microfungal abundance was estimated by the membrane filtration method with filters incubated on malt extract agar at 25 degrees C for seven days. Colony forming units were recovered from all parts of the system and these were enumerated and identified to genus level. The most commonly recovered genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Nonparametric multivariate statistical analyses of the data using MDS, PCA, BEST and bubble plots were carried out with PRIMER v6 software. Positive and significant correlations were found between filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria. This study has demonstrated that numerous microfungal genera, including those that contain species which are opportunistic human pathogens, populate a typical treated municipal water supply in sub-tropical Australia. PMID:20617048

Sammon, Noel B; Harrower, Keith M; Fabbro, Larelle D; Reed, Rob H

2010-04-01

332

HIRDLS Observations of Strat-Trop Exchange in Thin Laminae in the Sub-Tropical Jet Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) data show atmospheric structures in the mid-latitude UT/LS region in which thin layers of low-latitude air having a low ozone mixing ratio move pole-ward over the subtropical jet stream during northern hemisphere winter, and simultaneously layers of mid-latitude air from the lowermost stratosphere, with higher ozone amounts move equator-ward beneath them. These layers appear to be too thin vertically to be seen by other instruments. The flows were observed between double tropopauses, at the time of a sudden stratospheric warming. This study extends the previous work to evaluate the frequency of such events as a function of time. Particular attention has been focused on the frequency, size, and effects of these structures at the end of the Northern Hemisphere winter, when more frequent tropopause fold events have been reported. Comparison to the overall dynamical situation shown by the GEOS-5 data reveals certain conditions in which these flows occur. The relationship of these structures to double tropopauses and the sub-tropical jet will be shown.

Gille, J.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.; Phillips, T.; Barnett, J.; Khosravi, R.

2007-12-01

333

Incidence and Distribution of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Drinking water quality is usually determined by its pathogenic bacterial content. However, the potential of water-borne spores as a source of nosocomial fungal infection is increasingly being recognised. This study into the incidence of microfungal contaminants in a typical Australian municipal water supply was carried out over an 18 month period. Microfungal abundance was estimated by the membrane filtration method with filters incubated on malt extract agar at 25 °C for seven days. Colony forming units were recovered from all parts of the system and these were enumerated and identified to genus level. The most commonly recovered genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Nonparametric multivariate statistical analyses of the data using MDS, PCA, BEST and bubble plots were carried out with PRIMER v6 software. Positive and significant correlations were found between filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria. This study has demonstrated that numerous microfungal genera, including those that contain species which are opportunistic human pathogens, populate a typical treated municipal water supply in sub-tropical Australia. PMID:20617048

Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

2010-01-01

334

Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

2010-10-01

335

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.  

PubMed

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-05-01

336

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth  

PubMed Central

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress–evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress–evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity–depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-01-01

337

Normalization strategies for gene expression studies by real-time PCR in a marine fish species, Scophthalmus maximus.  

PubMed

Thorough evaluation of normalization approaches is a fundamental aspect in real-time quantitative RT-PCR experiments to avoid artificial introduced intergroup variations. In our study, we tested three normalization strategies in an experimental data set derived from a toxicological exposure of Scophthalmus maximus to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonist WY-14643. Juvenile turbots were exposed by repeated injections to 5 mg or 50 mg WY-14643/kg, and liver samples were taken at day 1, 7 and 21. Specifically, the mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (prdx5) was normalized to the cDNA content, to the mRNA expression of single reference genes (b-actin, b-act; elongation factor 1 ?, ef1a; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gapdh; ribosomal protein L8, rpl8; tata-box binding protein, tbp; tubulin beta 2C chain, tubb2c; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3, ub2l3) or to a combination of multiple reference genes using geNorm, BestKeeper or NormFinder algorithms. Four single reference genes (ef1a, rpl8, tubb2c, tbp) did not show any significant differences between the treatment groups over time, while significant intergroup variations were observed for cDNA content, gapdh, b-act and ub2l3. The normalization of prdx5 to the valid (not altered) single reference genes led to significant up-regulated (prdx5/rpl8), not-regulated (prdx5/ef1a; prdx5/tbp) or down-regulated (prdx5/tubb2c) mRNA expression pattern. The multiple reference gene approaches resulted in different rankings and combinations of the most stable expressed reference genes (geNorm: ef1a>rpl8>b-act; BestKeeper: ub2l3>gapdh>ef1a; NormFinder: b-act>ef1a). However, the normalization with the three multiple reference gene procedures demonstrated consistent expression pattern with a significant up-regulation of prdx5 in response to the higher concentration after 21 days. Concluding, even if not yet established as "gold" standard for expression profiling in environmental toxicology or physiology using freshwater or marine fish models, the multiple reference gene approach is recommended, since it eliminates any biased results, which represented the major flaw of single reference genes. PMID:23517768

Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

2013-06-01

338

Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish--why and how? Rod W. Wilsona,*, Jonathan M. Wilsonb  

E-print Network

Intestinal fluids of most marine teleosts are alkaline (pH 8.4­9.0) and contain high levels of HCO3 � are discussed. One consequence of the luminal alkalinity and high bicarbonate concentrations is precipitation; Osmoregulation; pH-stat titration; Water absorption; Chloride­bicarbonate exchange 1. Introduction Marine teleost

Grosell, Martin

339

Seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions among watershed nutrient loading, circulation, and biogeochemical cycling determine the capacity of estuaries to accommodate introduced nutrients. Baseline quantification of loading, flushing time, export, and internal processes is essential to understand responses of sub-tropical estuaries to variable climate and nutrient loading. The goal of this study was to develop seasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) budgets for the two estuaries in south Florida, the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) and the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), from 2002-2008 spanning various climatic conditions. The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Biogeochemical Model was used to generate water, salt, and (DIN and DIP) budgets. The predicted increase in internal DIN production for the CRE vs. the SLE was associated with increased external DIN loading. Water column DIN concentrations decreased and stabilized in both estuaries as flushing time increased to > 10 d. The CRE demonstrated heterotrophy or balanced metabolism across all seasonal budgets. Although the SLE was also sensitive to DIN loading, system autotrophy and net ecosystem metabolism increased with DIP loading to this estuary. This included a huge DIP consumption and bloom of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) following hurricane-induced discharge in 2005. Additionally, while denitrification offered a loss pathway for inorganic nitrogen in the CRE, this potential was not evident for the smaller and more anthropogenically altered St. Lucie Estuary. Disparities between total and inorganic loading ratios suggested that management actions should examine the role of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in attempts to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the SLE. Establishment of quantitative loading limits for anthropogenically impacted estuaries requires an understanding of the inter-seasonal and inter-annual relationships for both N and P, circulation and flushing, variability in plankton community composition, and the dynamics of DON.

Buzzelli, C.; Wan, Y.; Doering, P. H.; Boyer, J. N.

2013-02-01

340

Three potential sources of microfungi in a treated municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system. PMID:21556175

Sammon, Noel B; Harrower, Keith M; Fabbro, Larelle D; Reed, Rob H

2011-03-01

341

Potential interactions between diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance and the electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments.  

PubMed

The considerable extent of construction and operation of marine renewable energy developments (MRED) within U.K. and adjacent waters will lead, among other things, to the emission of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and subsea sounds into the marine environment. Migratory fishes that respond to natural environmental cues, such as the Earth's geomagnetic field or underwater sounds, move through the same waters that the MRED occupy, thereby raising the question of whether there are any effects of MRED on migratory fishes. Diadromous species, such as the Salmonidae and Anguillidae, which undertake large-scale migrations through coastal and offshore waters, are already significantly affected by other human activities leading to national and international conservation efforts to manage any existing threats and to minimize future concerns, including the potential effect of MRED. Here, the current state of knowledge with regard to the potential for diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance to be affected by MRED is reviewed. The information on which to base the review was found to be limited with respect to all aspects of these fishes' migratory behaviour and activity, especially with regards to MRED deployment, making it difficult to establish cause and effect relationships. The main findings, however, were that diadromous species can use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and direction finding during migrations. Juveniles of anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta and close relatives of S. trutta respond to both the Earth's magnetic field and artificial magnetic fields. Current knowledge suggests that EMFs from subsea cables may interact with migrating Anguilla sp. (and possibly other diadromous fishes) if their movement routes take them over the cables, particularly in shallow water (<20 m). The only known effect is a temporary change in swimming direction. Whether this will represent a biologically significant effect, for example delayed migration, cannot yet be determined. Diadromous fishes are likely to encounter EMFs from subsea cables either during the adult movement phases of life or their early life stages during migration within shallow, coastal waters adjacent to natal rivers. The underwater sound from MRED devices has not been fully characterized to determine its acoustic properties and propagation through the coastal waters. MRED that require pile driving during construction appear to be the most relevant to consider. In the absence of a clear understanding of their response to underwater sound, the specific effects on migratory species of conservation concern remain very difficult to determine in relation to MRED. Based on the studies reviewed, it is suggested that fishes that receive high intensity sound in close proximity to construction may be physiologically affected to some degree, whereas those at farther distances, potentially up to several km, may exhibit behaviour responses; the effect of which is unknown and will be dependent on the properties of the received sound and receptor characteristics and condition. Whether there are behavioural effects on the fishes during operation is unknown but any change to the environment and subsequent response by the fishes would need to be considered over the lifetime of the MRED. It is not yet possible to determine if effects relating to sound exposure are biologically significant. The current assumptions of limited effects are built on an incomplete understanding of how the species move around their environment and interact with natural and anthropogenic EMFs and subsea sound. A number of important knowledge gaps exist, principally whether migratory fish species on the whole respond to the EMF and the sound associated with MRED. Future research should address the principal gaps before assuming that any effect on diadromous species results in a biological effect. PMID:22803729

Gill, A B; Bartlett, M; Thomsen, F

2012-07-01

342

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

...........................................................35 U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE.....................................36 Oregon Coastal Field Office..........................................36 OREGON DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE .................39 Marine Resources Program...................................10 Department of Fisheries & Wildlife ...................................10 Marine Fisheries Genetics

343

Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on

R. A. Khan

1990-01-01

344

USE OF A TEMPERATE REEF-FISH COMMUNITY TO IDENTIFY PRIORITIES IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A MARINE PROTECTED AREA  

E-print Network

to climatic oscillations such as those predicted as part of global warming. This study analysed the fish communities in hard substrata (Harmelin-Vivien and Harmelin 1975), especially in coral reef ecology where decisively to a profound change of perspective in ecological studies of coral-reef fish communities. Basic

345

USE OF INTERTIDAL MANGROVE AND SEA WALL HABITATS BY CORAL REEF FISHES IN THE WAKATOBI MARINE PARK, INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intertidal mangroves and manmade structures such as sea walls (jetties) may be used as nursery areas by coral reef fishes. Fishes utilizing these intertidal habitats near the island of Kaledupa were observed by visual census on ten occasions each, to identify the species utilizing these habitats, compare the abundance and diversity at the two sites, observe the degree of site-fidelity,

Judith S. Weis; Peddrick Weis

2005-01-01

346

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

347

Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod's penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish. PMID:23593590

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-01-01

348

Freshwater and Marine Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Freshwater and Marine Image Bank is an ongoing digital collection of images related to freshwater and marine topics, in all their diversity. It includes images of fish, shellfish, and marine mammals, pictures of fish hatcheries and dams and vessels, materials related to polar exploration, regional and traditional fisheries, and limnological (freshwater) subjects. Its scope is global.

Washington, University O.

2010-02-16

349

Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.

Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

2011-05-01

350

Development of a promising fish model (Oryzias melastigma) for assessing multiple responses to stresses in the marine environment.  

PubMed

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been "taken into labs" by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

351

Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation  

E-print Network

exploited for food Marine Conservation · Risks to Marine Biodiversity · Overexploitation of marine resources · Global climate change · Pollution · Coastal habitat destruction or degradation · Invasive species · Advantages within reserves: % Reduce fishing mortality: · more effective than quotas % Reduce habitat

352

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

353

METHODS FOR SPAWNING, CULTURING, AND CONDUCTING TOXICITY TESTS WITH EARLY-LIFE STAGES OF ESTUARINE AND MARINE FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides a detailed description of the life history, geographical distribution of the life history, geographical distribution, and procedures for laboratory spawning, culturing and testing of five fishes: the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus ; the inlan...

354

Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different ? chains, ?1 and ?2, as well as a ? component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (p<0.01). Maximal solubility of individual collagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

2014-04-15

355

Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

356

Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Lions ecosystem was described using the Ecopath mass-balance model to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of the multispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of cetaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input data were based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishing data, stock assessment outputs, stomach content analyses and published information. Results showed that the functional groups were organised into five trophic levels with the highest one represented by dolphins, anglerfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna, European hake and European conger. European pilchard and European anchovy dominated in terms of fish biomass and catch. Other fish with high biomass such as Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting were highly important in the food web. Seabirds, dolphins and cuttlefish-squids represented keystone species. Important coupled pelagic-demersal-benthic interactions were described. The 7 different fisheries analysed were operating at mean trophic levels situated between 2.6 for small artisanal boats, and 4.1 for purse seines (> 24 m) targeting large pelagic fish, indicating an intensively exploited ecosystem. Large trawlers (24-40 m) had the highest impact on most of the groups considered; while purse seines (12-24 m) targeting small pelagic fish had the lowest impact. Preliminary results highlighted the importance of data sources for further ecosystem and fisheries analyses and management scenarios.

B?naru, D.; Mellon-Duval, C.; Roos, D.; Bigot, J.-L.; Souplet, A.; Jadaud, A.; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.

2013-02-01

357

Molecular Analysis of Anisakis Type I Larvae in Marine Fish from Three Different Sea Areas in Korea  

PubMed Central

Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi

2014-01-01

358

Molecular analysis of Anisakis type I larvae in marine fish from three different sea areas in Korea.  

PubMed

Anisakiasis, a human infection of Anisakis L3 larvae, is one of the common foodborne parasitic diseases in Korea. Studies on the identification of anisakid larvae have been performed in the country, but most of them have been focused on morphological identification of the larvae. In this study, we analyzed the molecular characteristics of 174 Anisakis type I larvae collected from 10 species of fish caught in 3 different sea areas in Korea. PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses of rDNA ITS and mtDNA cox1 revealed that the larvae showed interesting distribution patterns depending on fish species and geographical locations. Anisakis pegreffii was predominant in fish from the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Meanwhile, both A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex s.str.) larvae were identified in fish from the East Sea, depending on fish species infected. These results suggested that A. pegreffii was primarily distributed in a diverse species of fish in 3 sea areas around Korea, but A. simplex s.str. was dominantly identified in Oncorhynchus spp. in the East Sea. PMID:25246717

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2014-08-01

359

Tracing silicon cycling in the Okavango Delta, a sub-tropical flood-pulse wetland using silicon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering of silicate minerals releases elements into solution whereas the neoformation of secondary minerals works in the opposite direction, potentially confounding estimates of silicate weathering rates. Silicon isotopes (?30Si) may be a useful tool to investigate these processes. Here, we present 82 ?30Si measurements from surface waters, pore waters, biogenic silica (BSi), clays, sand and vegetation from the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a freshwater sub-tropical, flood-pulse wetland. Hydrologically, the Okavango is dominated by evapotranspiration water losses to the atmosphere. It receives an annual pulse of water that inundates seasonal floodplains, while river baseflow is sufficient to maintain a permanent floodplain. ?30Si in dissolved silica (DSi) in surface waters along a 300 km transect at near-peak flood show a limited range (0.36-1.19‰), implying the Delta is well buffered by a balance of processes adding and removing DSi from the surface water. A key control on DSi concentrations is the uptake, production of BSi and recycling of Si by aquatic vegetation, although the net isotopic effect is necessarily small since all BSi re-dissolves on short timescales. In the sediments, BSi ?30Si (n = 30) ranges from -1.49‰ to +0.31‰ and during dissolution, residual BSi tends towards higher ?30Si. The data permit a field-based estimate of the fractionation associated with BSi dissolution, ?30BSi-DSi = -0.26‰, though it is unclear if this is an artefact of the process of dissolution. Clay ?30Si ranges from -0.97‰ to +0.10‰, (n = 15, mean = -0.31‰) and include the highest values yet published, which we speculate may be due to an equilibrium isotope effect during diagenetic transformation of BSi. Two key trends in surface water DSi ?30Si merit further examination: declining ?30Si in an area roughly corresponding to the permanent floodplains despite net DSi removal, and increasing ?30Si in the area corresponding to the seasonal floodplains. We infer that evaporative enrichment of surface waters creates two contrasting regimes. Chemical weathering of low ?30Si phases releases low ?30Si DSi in the relatively dilute waters of the permanent floodplains, whereas silicon removal via clay formation or vegetation uptake is the dominant process in the more enriched, seasonal floodplains.

Frings, Patrick J.; De La Rocha, Christina; Struyf, Eric; van Pelt, Dimitri; Schoelynck, Jonas; Hudson, Mike Murray; Gondwe, Mangaliso J.; Wolski, Piotr; Mosimane, Keotsheple; Gray, William; Schaller, Jörg; Conley, Daniel J.

2014-10-01

360

Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special

H. O Pörtner; B Berdal; R Blust; O Brix; A Colosimo; B De Wachter; A Giuliani; T Johansen; T Fischer; R Knust; G Lannig; G Naevdal; A Nedenes; G Nyhammer; F. J Sartoris; I Serendero; P Sirabella; S Thorkildsen; M Zakhartsev

2001-01-01

361

Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in two marine fish species collected in Galveston Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Galveston Bay estuary exhibited a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the comparative sensitivity of various biomarkers in fish from different bay locations were determined. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 > 1,000 ng/g. The induction of cytochrome P4501A-(CYP1A)-dependent hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, CYPIA mRNA levels, or CYPIA immunoreactive protein in hardhead catfish was highly variable in the field-collected fish and in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In contrast, significant differences were seen in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites in hardhead catfish from polluted versus less polluted areas. In croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, EROD and glutathione S-transferase activities, immunoreactive CYP1A protein, biliary PAH metabolites, and PAH-DNA adducts were higher at the contaminated stations compared with less polluted locations. These studies suggest that the croaker is a good species for monitoring contaminants that induce CYP1A-mediated responses. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were also sensitive indicators of exposure to PAH contamination in both species of fish.

Willett, K.L.; Steinberg, M.A.; Safe, S.H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology; McDonald, S.J.; Beatty, K.B.; Kennicutt, M.C. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

362

Are low but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation in marine fishes 'biologically meaningful'? A case study of coastal Atlantic cod.  

PubMed

A key question in many genetic studies on marine organisms is how to interpret a low but statistically significant level of genetic differentiation. Do such observations reflect a real phenomenon, or are they caused by confounding factors such as unrepresentative sampling or selective forces acting on the marker loci? Further, are low levels of differentiation biologically trivial, or can they represent a meaningful and perhaps important finding? We explored these issues in an empirical study on coastal Atlantic cod, combining temporally replicated genetic samples over a 10-year period with an extensive capture-mark-recapture study of individual mobility and population size. The genetic analyses revealed a pattern of differentiation between the inner part of the fjord and the open skerries area at the fjord entrance. Overall, genetic differentiation was weak (average F(ST) ?=?0.0037), but nevertheless highly statistical significant and did not depend on particular loci that could be subject to selection. This spatial component dominated over temporal change, and temporal replicates clustered together throughout the 10-year period. Consistent with genetic results, the majority of the recaptured fish were found close to the point of release, with <1% of recaptured individuals dispersing between the inner fjord and outer skerries. We conclude that low levels of genetic differentiation in this marine fish can indeed be biologically meaningful, corresponding to separate, temporally persistent, local populations. We estimated the genetically effective sizes (N(e) ) of the two coastal cod populations to 198 and 542 and found a N(e) /N (spawner) ratio of 0.14. PMID:21199035

Knutsen, H; Olsen, E M; Jorde, P E; Espeland, S H; André, C; Stenseth, N C

2011-02-01

363

Examining the Fish Microbiome: Vertebrate-Derived Bacteria as an Environmental Niche for the Discovery of Unique Marine Natural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, marine invertebrates have been a prolific source of unique natural products, with a diverse array of biological activities. Recent studies of invertebrate-associated microbial communities are revealing microorganisms as the true producers of many of these compounds. Inspired by the human microbiome project, which has highlighted the human intestine as a unique microenvironment in terms of microbial diversity, we elected

Laura M. Sanchez; Weng Ruh Wong; Romina M. Riener; Christopher J. Schulze; Roger G. Linington

2012-01-01

364

Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMarine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have

Ricardo Betancur-R; Arturo Acero P; Hermann Duque-Caro; Scott R. Santos; Michael Knapp

2010-01-01

365

Spatial structure and temporal patterns in a large marine ecosystem: Exploited reef fishes of the southeast United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf of the southeast United States forms one of North America's Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). Despite increased attention on ecosystem management, fisheries within this LME continue to be managed on a single stock basis, in part because interactions among species and environmental effects are poorly understood. Using fishery data from two different sources (recreational and commercial), we applied

Kyle W. Shertzer; Erik H. Williams; J. Christopher Taylor

2009-01-01

366

32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...

2012-07-01

367

32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...

2011-07-01

368

Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)  

PubMed Central

One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment. PMID:23840721

Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

2013-01-01

369

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6, 139-164 (1996) Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem  

E-print Network

yield, maintenance of biodiversity and protection from the effects of pollution and habitat degradation the effects of harvesting (top down) or changes in the physical environment (bottom up) are responsible approaches to fisheries management. Sorting out the causes and effects of fluctuations in fish abundance

370

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone  

E-print Network

of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have

Price, Paul A.

371

A fully integrated GIS-based model of particulate waste distribution from marine fish-cage sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Geographical Information System (GIS) offers a powerful modelling environment capable of handling large databases. It is a very suitable environment in which to develop a suite of tools designed for environmental management of aquaculture sites, including carrying capacity prediction, land–water interactions and multi-site effects. One such tool, presented here, is a fully integrated and validated particulate fish waste dispersion

R. A. Corner; A. J. Brooker; T. C. Telfer; L. G. Ross

2006-01-01

372

REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

373

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding  

E-print Network

Automatic Fish Classification for Underwater Species Behavior Understanding Concetto Spampinato an automatic fish classi- fication system that operates in the natural underwater en- vironment to assist marine biologists in understanding fish behavior. Fish classification is performed by combining two types

Fisher, Bob

374

Trypanosome infections of marine fish in the southern Barents Sea and the invasive red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus.  

PubMed

The red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus was introduced to the Barents Sea from the North Pacific in the 1960s. A previous study concluded that it may be indirectly responsible for increased transmission of Trypanosoma murmanense to cod Gadus morhua in the southern Barents Sea by promoting an increase in the population of the leech vector Johanssonia arctica. Eleven species of fish, totalling 681 individuals, caught in October 2002 along the coast of Finnmark, were examined for trypanosome infections. The aims were to investigate changes in levels of infection in cod since 1999-2001, and to extend the sampling to other fish species. Relatively high infection levels were found in cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides, while other species were lightly infected or uninfected. In cod, no significant geographical differences in levels of infection were found, but haddock were significantly more heavily infected in western Finnmark. PMID:20843528

Malovic, Ivana; Hemmingsen, Willy; MacKenzie, Ken

2010-12-01

375

Identification of seagrasses in the gut of a marine herbivorous fish using DNA barcoding and visual inspection techniques.  

PubMed

Traditional visual diet analysis techniques were compared with DNA barcoding in juvenile herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens collected in Moreton Bay, Australia, where at least six species of seagrass occur. The intergenic spacer trnH-psbA, suggested as the optimal gene for barcoding angiosperms, was used for the first time to identify the seagrass in fish guts. Four seagrass species and one alga were identified visually from gut contents; however, there was considerable uncertainty in visual identification with 38 of 40 fish having unidentifiable plant fragments in their gut. PCR and single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) were able to discriminate three seagrass families from visually cryptic gut contents. While effective in identifying cryptic gut content to family level, this novel method is likely to be most efficient when paired with visual identification techniques. PMID:21722114

Chelsky Budarf, A; Burfeind, D D; Loh, W K W; Tibbetts, I R

2011-07-01

376

Food control by applied biochemistry of marine organisms: Comparison of proteins and metabolites from fish and invertebrate muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most fishery products consist of muscle tissue from fish and invertebrates. Differences in the molecular structure and in metabolism of muscles can be utilized to characterize and identify various seafood. Creatine and arginine were found to be useful for the differentiation between imitation crab/shrimp meat and real crustacean meat. Octopine served as an indicator for the meat of cephalopods and mussels. In order to identify the animal species of a fishery product, several electrophoretic methods were used. It depended on the type of product, whether sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar proteins were better suited. Raw products were best analysed by isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins. Two types of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumins of fish and soluble calcium-binding proteins of invertebrates, were especially useful for species identification. Due to their thermal stability, these proteins gave species-specific patterns for cooked products, too. Two other techniques were also investigated: urea gel isoelectric focusing, and sodium dodecyl sulphate — polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These methods were applied in the analysis of products where the sarcoplasmic proteins had been removed by washing steps, i.e. imitation crab meat made from surimi, and of other raw and cooked products. The myosin light chains gave protein patterns that were characteristic for many species. Paramyosin, which is absent from vertebrate muscle, indicated the presence of mollusc muscle. It was shown that the determination, of arginine kinase activity enabled differentiation between raw fish muscle and invertebrate muscles.

Rehbein, H.

1995-03-01

377

Piscivory does not cause pansteatitis (yellow fat disease)in Oreochromis mossambicus from an African sub-tropical reservoir  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Pansteatitis (yellow fat disease) is ubiquitous in the free-ranging population of Oreochromis mossambicus from Loskop Reservoir (LR), South Africa. The disease is nutritionally mediated and associated with a diet high in polyunsaturated or rancid fats, frequently of fish origi...

378

Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Background Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a ?2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by ?150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM) in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated ?0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at ?0.78 my. Main Conclusions/Significance Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life history traits and dispersal capabilities, will determine the extent by which the SMM has influenced marine phylogeography in the region. PMID:20644638

Betancur-R, Ricardo; Acero P., Arturo; Duque-Caro, Hermann; Santos, Scott R.

2010-01-01

379

Survival against the odds: ontogenetic changes in selective pressure mediate growth-mortality trade-offs in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

For organisms with complex life cycles, variation among individuals in traits associated with survival in one life-history stage can strongly affect the performance in subsequent stages with important repercussions on population dynamics. To identify which individual attributes are the most influential in determining patterns of survival in a cohort of reef fish, we compared the characteristics of Pomacentrus amboinensis surviving early juvenile stages on the reef with those of the cohort from which they originated. Individuals were collected at hatching, the end of the planktonic phase, and two, three, four, six and eight weeks post-settlement. Information stored in the otoliths of individual fish revealed strong carry-over effects of larval condition at hatching on juvenile survival, weeks after settlement (i.e. smaller-is-better). Among the traits examined, planktonic growth history was, by far, the most influential and long-lasting trait associated with juvenile persistence in reef habitats. However, otolith increments suggested that larval growth rate may not be maintained during early juvenile life, when selective mortality swiftly reverses its direction. These changes in selective pressure may mediate growth-mortality trade-offs between predation and starvation risks during early juvenile life. Ontogenetic changes in the shape of selectivity may be a mechanism maintaining phenotypic variation in growth rate and size within a population. PMID:17439850

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

2007-01-01

380

Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in São Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. PMID:18558454

Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de; Delitti, Welington Braz Carvalho; Domingos, Marisa

2008-12-01

381

Towards an enhanced use of soil databases for assessing water availability in (sub)tropical regions using fractal-based methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the completion of numerous elaborate soil surveys in many (sub)tropical regions of the African continent during the past decades, vast databases with soil properties of the prevailing soil orders in these regions have been assembled in order to support agricultural stakeholders throughout crucial decision-making processes. Unfortunately, even though soil hydraulic properties are of primary interest for designing sustainable farming practices, guiding crop choice and irrigation scheduling, a substantial share of the soil surveys is restricted to the collection of soil chemical properties. This bias principally originates from the fact that soil chemical characteristics like pH, organic carbon/matter (OC/OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS) can be determined readily. On the other hand, determination of the hydraulic properties of a soil on the field or in the lab, is much more time consuming, particularly the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) which is generally considered as one of the most important physical property since it constitutes the footprint of a soil. Owing to the incompleteness of most soil databases in (sub)tropical regions, either much valuable information is discarded because the assessment of meaningful indices in land evaluation such as the soil available water capacity (AWC), the hydraulic conductivity are merely based upon those soil samples for which hydraulic properties were measured, or one has to resort to pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The latter are equations for deducing hydraulic properties of a soil from physico-chemical data that are commonly available in soil survey reports (sand, silt, clay, OC/OM, CEC, etc.). Yet, such PTFs are only locally applicable because their derivation rests on statistical or machine learning techniques and has no physical basis. Recently, however, physically-based, and hence globally applicable, fractal methods have been put forward for assessing a soil's SWRC based upon its particle-size distribution, which is a significantly more available property in dedicated soil databases than its hydraulic properties. Notwithstanding the fact that these methods offer a means to fully exploit soil databases of (sub)tropical regions, their applicability methods has only been demonstrated for soils from temperate regions. Here, we first demonstrate the applicability of such fractal-based methods for some soil orders (Acrisols and Ferrasols) that are typically tied up with (sub)tropic climate zones. Then, the fractal-based method that gave rise to the best performance indices for the considered soil families is used to retrieve the spatio-temporal distribution of the AWC across Lower Congo, which is one of the agricultural hotspots of Democratic Republic of Congo whose soil physical properties have therefore been surveyed elaborately. Since this map is based upon the entire soil database of Lower Congo, which is the advent of using the aforementioned fractal-based methods for translating the measured soil physical properties like texture into the otherwise unknown soil hydraulic properties, it reflects the spatial variability of the AWC in more detail, such that it is of greater value for the involved stakeholders during the process of crop, harvest and tillage selection.

Botula Manyala, Y.; Baetens, J.; Baert, G.; Van Ranst, E.; Cornelis, W.

2012-12-01

382

Development of an accurate procedure for the determination of arsenic in fish tissues of marine origin by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High accuracy procedures for the determination of arsenic are needed for assigning reference values to certified reference materials (CRMs). There are a number of problems associated with the determination of total arsenic by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Arsenobetaine (AsB) (the major species in fish) gives an enhanced response (9%) when compared to inorganic arsenic(V) and is very difficult to decompose. Chloride causes interference at m/ z 75 by the formation of ArCl + and chloride levels can be significant in marine fish. Also residual carbon in digests can lead to enhancement of arsenic signals by charge transfer effects. This can easily lead to erroneous quantification when compared to standards that do not contain carbon. This newly developed procedure overcomes these issues by complete mineralisation of the matrix leaving insignificant amounts of residual carbon and by removal of chlorine by evaporation. A detection limit of 30 ng/g was achieved. Recoveries for the following CRMs: DORM 2 100.1 ± 4.3%, SRM1548 96.1 ± 4.6%, BCR 422 103.6 ± 6.2% and SRM2976 105.9 ± 6.2% were obtained. The digestion procedure uses open vessel wet digestion with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid held at 300 °C. The decomposition of AsB was confirmed by speciation analysis of the digest. Carbon ( m/ z 13) was monitored to demonstrate the efficiency of the digestion. Instrumentation for the reduction of ArCl + interference was not required and this view is supported by the recovery data. Measurements were performed by external calibration using tellurium as an internal standard.

Entwisle, John; Hearn, Ruth

2006-04-01

383

Genetic characterization of pPHDP60, a novel conjugative plasmid from the marine fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.  

PubMed

A new plasmid designated pPHDP60 from a strain of the marine bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida isolated from diseased seabream has been characterised. pPHDP60 consists of 59,731bp, has a G+C content of 37.2% and encodes 63 predicted open-reading frames (ORFs). The plasmid backbone sequence includes, among other genes, 15 ORFs homologous to proteins of type IV conjugation systems described in IncP-type plasmids. Two modules could be distinguished within pPHDP60 sequence. One module included 10 genes of a putative type II secretion system with homologues in other Photobacterium and Vibrio plasmids. A second module exhibiting a transposon structure included a functional haloalkane dehalogenase gene linB as well as a toxin/antitoxin system. Additional interesting features of pPHDP60 include its ability to be conjugally transferred to several Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23474463

Balado, Miguel; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

2013-07-01

384

Effects of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Partially Combusted Crude Oil from Kuwait's Oil Fires (from Desert Storm) on Survival and Growth of the Marine Fish Menidia beryllina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the water-solube fraction of partially combusted crude oil (PCCO) from oil fires in Kuwait on survival and growth of the marine fishMenidia beryllinawere studied relative to those of Kuwaiti crude oil (CO). Survival was studied as a function of total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations [TPH] in 96-hr static exposures. The specific growth rate (SGR) and specific growth inhibition (SGI)

Sami N. Al-Yakoob; Deke Gundersen; Lawrence Curtis

1996-01-01

385

Taxonomy of trichodinids from the gills of marine fishes in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, with descriptions of two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of marine fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea were examined for ectoparasitic trichodinids (Protozoa, Ciliophora). A total of seven species belonging to the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830, including two new species, occurred as gill parasites. These were T. rectispina n. sp., T. circinantis n. sp., T. frequentis Shtein, 1979, T. jarmilae Lom & Laird, 1969, T. hexagrammi Zhukov, 1964, T. minima Shtein,

Kuidong Xu; Weibo Song; Alan Warren

2002-01-01

386

Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

Cossa, Daniel

2013-10-01

387

ACTIVITIES OF AMMONIA ASSIMILATION ENZYMES AS INDICATORS OF THE RELATIVE SUPPLY OF NITROGEN SUBSTRATES FOR MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SUB-TROPICAL COASTAL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The supply of nitrogen substrates available for bacterial production in seawater was determined using the activities of ammonia assimilation enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Expression of GS and GDH by bacteria in pure culture is generally ind...

388

New marine studies center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.

389

Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma, off Lizard Island. U. seriolae Lester 1982 is reported here from Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi, from sites off Queensland and from Jurien Bay, Western Australia. Comparative genetic analyses also revealed that an unidentified species of Unicapsula from Epinephelus septemfasciatus off Japan whose rDNA sequence data are available on GenBank is consistent with U. seriolae. This suggests that U. seriolae may also exhibit low host specificity and may be distributed widely throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. In comparison to other myxozoan genera, it is clear that the species richness of Unicapsula spp. falls well below that displayed by either Ceratomyxa spp. or Kudoa spp. The discovery of a further new species of Unicapsula in Australia now brings the total worldwide number of formally described Unicapsula species to a modest 11. Nonetheless, this taxon remains of significant interest to commercial and recreational fisheries through the potential production of macroscopic pseudocysts in fish muscle and post-mortem muscle liquefaction, both of which can render fish fillets unpalatable and unmarketable. PMID:23812600

Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

2013-08-01

390

KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K43.1: As, Hg, Se and methylmercury content in marine fish (swordfish)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparison CCQM-K43.1, arsenic, mercury, selenium and methylmercury in marine fish (swordfish), was organized by the inorganic analysis working group (IAWG) of CCQM as a subsequent key comparison of CCQM-K43. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) is the coordinating laboratory for this subsequent key comparison. Nine NMIs and one unofficial institute participated in CCQM-K43.1. The data of the unofficial institute were treated as reference data. All participants were allowed to choose the measurands (arsenic, mercury, selenium and methylmercury) of their interest. For measurement of arsenic, mercury and selenium, different measurement methods (IDMS, ICP-MS, AAS and INAA) were used and all participants with one exception used microwave digestion methods. For measurement of methylmercury, all participants used IDMS and different extraction methods (microwave, mechanical shaker and ultrasonic) were used. Most results agreed well with one or two apparent outlier(s) for arsenic and selenium. The agreement of measurement results between NMIs is very good for mercury and methylmercury. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

2009-01-01

391

Historical introgression and the role of selective vs. neutral processes in structuring nuclear genetic variation (AFLP) in a circumpolar marine fish, the capelin (Mallotus villosus).  

PubMed

The capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a widespread marine fish species for which previous work has identified geographically distinct mtDNA clades, the frontiers of which are well within adult and larval dispersal capabilities. Here, we use AFLPs to test for the presence of nuclear gene flow among clades. In addition, we evaluate genetic structuring within one clade, the Northwest Atlantic (NWA). We found that each of the mtDNA clades corresponds with a unique nuclear DNA genetic cluster. Within the NWA clade, we detected individuals with small but significant amounts of genetic ancestry from other clades, likely due to historical introgression. Further support for historical introgression comes from analyses of variance in locus-specific differentiation, which support introgression between some clades and divergence without gene flow between others. Within the NWA, we identified two genetic clusters that correspond to sites in geographically adjacent areas. However, these clusters differ primarily at 'outlier' loci, and a genetic subdivision (K=2) was not supported by genetic clustering programs using neutral loci. Significant neutral F(ST) differentiation was found only between sites that otherwise differed at outlier loci. Thus, these populations may be in the initial stages of 'isolation by adaptation'. These results suggest strong between-clade reproductive isolation despite opportunities for gene flow and support the hypothesis that selection can contribute to divergence in otherwise 'open' systems. PMID:21492266

Colbeck, Gabriel J; Turgeon, Julie; Sirois, Pascal; Dodson, Julian J

2011-05-01

392

On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus.  

PubMed

Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae) also from D. kurroides, has long, slender, winding lemnisci, many epidermal nuclei, and a narrow anterior trunk with a shoulder armed with 20 circles of tightly packed spines, the posterior four circles of which have abruptly larger spines than those in the anterior circles. Neorhadinorhynchus atypicalis n. sp. (Cavisomidae) from the rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn 1782) (Siganidae), has the largest number of proboscis hooks per row, testes wider than long, and four clustered cement glands. Micracanthorhynchica kuwaitensis Amin and Sey 1996 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from the spottail needlefish Strongylura strongylura (van Hasselt 1823) (Belonidae) was similar to specimens originally described from the Arabian Gulf off the Kuwaiti coast. These acanthocephalans were collected in small numbers but stood out as uniquely and considerably different from their closest relatives to warrant their reporting. All species of acanthocephalans and their host and geographic distribution are described, and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus is provided. PMID:21400117

Amin, Omar M; Van Ha, Nguyen

2011-09-01

393

First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

2011-01-01

394

An In Situ, Individual-Based Approach to Quantify Connectivity of Marine Fish: Ontogenetic Movements and Residency of Lingcod  

PubMed Central

As modern fishery assessments change in an effort to be more accurate and encompass the range of potential ecosystem interactions, critical information on the ecology of species including life history, intra and inter-specific competitive interactions and habitat requirements must be added to the standard fishery-dependent and independent data sets. One species whose movements and habitat associations greatly affects exploitation patterns is lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, which support an economically important fishery along the coastal waters of the Pacific Coast of North America. High site fidelity and limited movements within nearshore areas are hypothesized to have resulted in high catchability, a major factor that has contributed to overfished stocks. Thus, assessing the level of movement and connectivity among lingcod subpopulations inhabiting nearshore habitats is a prerequisite to determining the condition of lingcod stocks. We used the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) Project acoustic receiver array in Alaska's Prince William Sound to monitor movements and residency of 21 acoustic-tagged lingcod for up to 16 months. Eight of sixteen lingcod (50%) initially aged at 2.5- to 3.5- years-old dispersed from their tag site. Dispersal was highly seasonal, occurring in two, five-week periods from mid-December through January and from mid-April through May. Dispersal in winter may be related to sexually immature lingcod or newly-mature male lingcod being displaced by territorial males. Spring dispersal may be indicative of the onset of migratory behavior where lingcod move out into Prince William Sound and possibly the offshore waters of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results reveal a pattern of ontogenetic dispersal as lingcod approach 4-years-old and exceed 50 cm total length. The large proportion of tagged fish migrating out of Port Gravina, their tagging site, reflects a high level of connectivity among Prince William Sound subpopulations. Our results also support the hypotheses that these subpopulations may be highly susceptible to overfishing because most fish show long residence times. PMID:21179191

Bishop, Mary Anne; Reynolds, Brad F.; Powers, Sean P.

2010-01-01

395

Mr. And Mrs. Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An award-winning marine education program that comes to elementary schools all over the world to perform hilarious, yet highly educational assembly programs about life in the sea. Site features information on marine life, links to additional information, merchandise information, and background on Mr. and Mrs. Fish.

396

Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai‘i  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions with known histories are rare, especially in the sea, and empirical studies of the genetic consequences are even rarer. Fifty-five years ago, the state of Hawai‘i began a remarkable, if unintentional, ‘experiment’ with the introduction of three reef fishes, Lutjanus fulvus, Cephalopholis argus and Lutjanus kasmira. All have since expanded from the initial introduction of 2204 to 3163 individuals; however, historical records show that initially L. fulvus remained scarce, C. argus had modest population expansion and L. kasmira experienced rapid population growth. The consequences of differential population growth rates are apparent in F-statistics: Hawaiian L. fulvus demonstrate strong and significant haplotype frequency shifts from the founder location (FST = 0.449), C. argus shows low but significant differentiation (FST = 0.066) and L. kasmira is nearly identical to the founder location (FST = 0.008). All three species had higher mtDNA diversity in the introduced range, which can be explained by multiple sources for L. fulvus and L. kasmira, but not for C. argus. We conclude that lag time before population expansion, in conjunction with genetic drift, has defined the genetic architecture of these three species in the introduced range. PMID:22874747

Gaither, Michelle R.; Toonen, Robert J.; Bowen, Brian W.

2012-01-01

397

Patterns in the abundance and size-distribution of syngnathid fishes among habitats in a seagrass-dominated marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syngnathid fishes were sampled using a 1 m wide beam trawl during the day and night in each season from summer 1996/1997 to summer 1997/1998 in five habitat types in an approximately 90 km 2 area located on the lower west coast of Australia. The seagrasses Amphibolis griffithii, Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia coriacea and shallow unvegetated sand were all in depths of 4-9 m, while deep habitat, which comprised mainly bare sand with isolated patches of the seagrasses Heterozostera tasmanica and Halophila ovalis, occurred at depths of 12-16 m. While A. griffithii and P. sinuosa each formed dense monospecific meadows, P. coriacea occurred in sparse clumps surrounded by areas of bare sand and patches of H. tasmanica. While catches of spotted pipefish Stigmatopora argus occurred mainly in P. sinuosa and P. coriacea, individuals of this species that exceeded ca. 55 mm in snout-vent length were far more abundant in the former habitat whereas smaller fish occurred mostly in the latter. Densities of S. argus were similar in P. sinuosa and P. coriacea, but differed between seasons, and a season/habitat interaction was present. In contrast, wide-bodied pipefish Stigmatopora nigra were collected mainly in P. coriacea and deep habitat and, although the densities were greater in P. coriacea than in deep habitat, the size-distributions of this species in these habitats were similar. Notably, S. nigra was never collected in P. sinuosa. Although less abundant than the above pipefish, the long-snouted pipefish Vanacampus poecilolaemus was collected almost exclusively in P. sinuosa. Few syngnathids were collected from shallow unvegetated sand or from A. griffithii, which differed markedly in plant structure from both Posidonia species. It is suggested that these syngnathid species occupy habitats that best enable them to remain inconspicuous to predators. Both S. argus and S. nigra have green or brown colouration and mimic strap-like seagrass leaves which they grasp with prehensile tails, whereas V. poecilolaemus, which is dark coloured and lacks a prehensile tail, most likely lies among the rich detrital material that accumulates beneath the dense P. sinuosa canopy. The movement of larger-sized S. argus from the narrow-leaved P. coriacea to the relatively broad-leaved P. sinuosa may enable the adults of this species to be better camouflaged than if they had remained in the former habitat. As they grow to only approximately half the size of S. argus, S. nigra of all sizes could remain concealed in narrow-leaved seagrasses like P. coriacea and H. tasmanica. The presence of more S. nigra in P. coriacea compared with deep habitat probably reflected the greater expanse of seagrass canopy available in the former habitat, while the inability of either Stigmatopora species to mimic the short leaves of A. griffithii could help to explain their scarcity in this seagrass. The almost total absence of S. nigra and small S. argus from P. sinuosa could be due to their inability to grasp the relatively broad leaves of this seagrass or the presence in this habitat of predators that selectively predate these smaller pipefish. That very few small-sized S. argus were present in P. coriacea during winter 1997, despite the fact that males of both Stigmatopora species carried broods of young in all seasons, suggests that the reproductive output of this species and/or the survival of recruits varied during the study period.

Kendrick, A. J.; Hyndes, G. A.

2003-07-01

398

Variability in size-selective mortality obscures the importance of larval traits to recruitment success in a temperate marine fish.  

PubMed

In fishes, the growth-mortality hypothesis has received broad acceptance as a driver of recruitment variability. Recruitment is likely to be lower in years when the risk of starvation and predation in the larval stage is greater, leading to higher mortality. Juvenile snapper, Pagrus auratus (Sparidae), experience high recruitment variation in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. Using a 5-year (2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011) data set of larval and juvenile snapper abundances and their daily growth histories, based on otolith microstructure, we found selective mortality acted on larval size at 5 days post-hatch in 4 low and average recruitment years. The highest recruitment year (2005) was characterised by no size-selective mortality. Larval growth of the initial larval population was related to recruitment, but larval growth of the juveniles was not. Selective mortality may have obscured the relationship between larval traits of the juveniles and recruitment as fast-growing and large larvae preferentially survived in lower recruitment years and fast growth was ubiquitous in high recruitment years. An index of daily mortality within and among 3 years (2007, 2008, 2010), where zooplankton were concurrently sampled with ichthyoplankton, was related to per capita availability of preferred larval prey, providing support for the match-mismatch hypothesis. In 2010, periods of low daily mortality resulted in no selective mortality. Thus both intra- and inter-annual variability in the magnitude and occurrence of selective mortality in species with complex life cycles can obscure relationships between larval traits and population replenishment, leading to underestimation of their importance in recruitment studies. PMID:24871134

Murphy, Hannah M; Warren-Myers, Fletcher W; Jenkins, Gregory P; Hamer, Paul A; Swearer, Stephen E

2014-08-01

399

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from eastern Germany and Poland since 1979 indicated an increase in concentrations during the 1990s. Livers of Atlantic salmons did not contain quantifiable concentrations of any of the fluorochemicals monitored. PFOS is a widespread contaminant in wildlife from the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas, while FOSA and PFOA were detected only in certain locations indicating their sporadic spatial distribution. PMID:12188342

Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Günter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P

2002-08-01

400

NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY ADVISORY COUNCIL APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

Tourism _____ Economic Development _____ Recreational/Commercial Fishing _____ Recreational Diving Home protection and management of marine or Great Lake resources 2. Formal community and professional affiliations

401

Socioeconomic assessment of marine fisheries of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand is currently one of the ten largest fishing nations in the world. In 1996, fish production reached 3.7 million t with 90% of the production coming from the marine fisheries sector and 10% from inland fisheries. Thai fishing operates in four fishing grounds namely, the Gulf of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, the South China Sea and the Bay of

Pongpat Boonchuwongse; Waraporn Dechboon

402

32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.  

...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons...