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1

Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish.  

PubMed

This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage. PMID:20110133

Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

2010-03-31

2

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

3

Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. I. Sediment quality and community structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of improvement in sediment quality and recovery of macrobenthic community upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Median sediment particle diameter (Md?) and levels of total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia–nitrogen (NH3–N) and total phosphorus (TP),

P. K. S. Shin; N. W. Y. Lam; R. S. S. Wu; P. Y. Qian; S. G. Cheung

2008-01-01

4

Comparative Toxicology of Marine Fishes and Crustaceans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data collected on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans was evaluated for its predictive power of assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and chromic maximum acceptable...

G. W. Suter A. E. Rosen

1986-01-01

5

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

6

The Future of Marine Fish Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce: overfishing, where fishermen take more fish than they need; destructive fishing practices, such as bottom trawling where fishermen catch other species in their nets by mistake; and ecosystem pollution from boats or from industrial and agricultural runoff.

J. Emmet Duffy (Collegy of William and Mary, Virginia Intitute of Marine Science;)

2009-12-11

7

Feeding Larval Marine Fishes in the Laboratory: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in rearing marine fishes under laboratory conditions has intensified during the past decade, and there is every reason to believe that this trend will continue. The larval stages of marine fishes are being investigated experimentally because of t...

R. C. May

1970-01-01

8

Fish stings and other marine envenomations.  

PubMed

West Virginia, it would seem, is an unlikely place for physicians to encounter patients with poisonous marine envenomations. To the contrary, West Virginias who vacation at the beach may be envenomated and require further evaluation and treatment when they return home. Likewise, certain aquarium pets or even freshwater fish may envenomate those who have contact with them. Such underwater sea creatures can cause local and systemic toxic or allergic reactions which potentially can be serious. This article describes these possible toxic encounters as well as first aid and medical management. PMID:1926838

Bee, M

1991-07-01

9

75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0907301201-91203-01] RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish and fish products to the United States, and other...

2010-07-01

10

Economic Assessment of Marine Recreational Fishing in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a comprehensive economic analysis of marine recreational fishing (MRF) activity between Point Conception, California and the Mexican border during 1983. MRF participation, effort and catch are listed. The report describes the demand fo...

1986-01-01

11

Marine reserves: Fish life history and ecological traits matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data

Joachim Claudet; Craig W. Osenberg; Paolo Domenici; F. Badalamenti; M. Milazzo; J. M. Falcón; I. Bertocci; L. Benedetti-Cecchi; J. A. García-Charton; R. Goñi; J. A. Borg; A. Forcada; G. A. de Lucia; Á Pérez-Ruzafa; P. Afonso; A. Brito; I. Guala; L. Le Diréach; P. Sanchez-Jerez; P. J. Somerfield; S. Planes

2010-01-01

12

Polychaetes as indicators of marine fish farm organic enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fish farms cause environmental disturbance of sediment due to uneaten food and fish faeces that accumulate on the sea bottom. These products give rise to organic enrichment followed by degradation processes; reduction of level of dissolved oxygen in the bottom water; generation of high levels of sulfides; changes of benthic assemblages and even azoic conditions. The soft bottom benthic

P. Tomassetti; S. Porrello

2005-01-01

13

Oxidative enzymes in the urinary apparatus of several marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The distribution and activities of several oxidative enzymes in the urinary apparatus of seven marine fish species (hagfish, lesser spotted dogfish, electric ray, herring, marine catfish, cod, sea-horse) have been studied. Species were selected from three main taxonomic groups: Cyclostomata, Elasmobranchii and Teleostei. Distinctly positive enzyme reactions were found in the tubular elements of the kidney and the collecting duct-archinephric

Hartmut Hentschel; Wilfried Meyer

1982-01-01

14

Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

15

Geographical gradients of marine herbivorous fishes: patterns and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new data and the first rigorous analysis of latitudinal and thermal gradients of diversity, density and biomass\\u000a of marine herbivorous fishes and review proposed explanatory mechanisms. Consistently, negative relationships between latitude,\\u000a and positive relationships between sea surface temperature (SST), and relative richness and relative abundance of herbivorous\\u000a fishes were found worldwide. Significant differences in the strength of gradients

S. R. Floeter; M. D. Behrens; C. E. L. Ferreira; M. J. Paddack; M. H. Horn

2005-01-01

16

Communication Networks in Marine Recreational Fishing: Information-Seeking Behavior, Fishing Knowledge, and Diffusion of Fishing Innovations Among Marine Recreational Fisherman in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is an assessment and evaluation of the marine recreational fishing (MRF) information dissemination system in North Carolina. First, a content analysis and panel evaluation of MRF brochures was conducted to identify the primary informational co...

R. R. Perdue C. J. Betz

1991-01-01

17

Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.  

PubMed

We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P < 0.01, odds ratio = 2.19). The proportion of fishing gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California. PMID:19395745

Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

2009-04-01

18

Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes.  

PubMed

The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. PMID:21190762

Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marín, Arnaldo

2011-03-01

19

The Amount of Space Available for Marine and Freshwater Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author notes that 41.2% of all fish species live in less than one one-hundredth of one percent of the available water. Calculations show that there are about 11300 cu km of water per marine species but only about 15 cu km for each freshwater species, ...

M. H. Horn

1972-01-01

20

Hindgut Fermentation in Three Species of Marine Herbivorous Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbioses with gut microorganisms provides a means by which terrestrial herbivores are able to obtain energy. These microorganisms ferment cell wall materials of plants to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are then absorbed and used by the host animal. Many marine herbivorous fishes contain SCFA (predominantly acetate) in their hindgut, indicative of gut microbial activity, but rates of SCFA production

Douglas O. Mountfort; Jane Campbell; Kendall D. Clements

2002-01-01

21

50 CFR 223.301 - Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special rules-marine and anadromous fishes. 223.301 Section 223.301 Wildlife... Special rulesâmarine and anadromous fishes. (a) Middle Columbia River steelhead...NEP area by NMFS, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the...

2013-10-01

22

Phase transitions in marine fish recruitment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent resurgence of interest in fisheries recruitment as a dynamic and complex process that is integrated over several life stages, with a variety of factors acting across scales to initiate, modulate, and constrain population abundance and variability. In this paper, we review the theory of recruitment phase transitions using a marine fisheries perspective. We propose that

Janet T. Duffy-Anderson; Kevin Bailey; Lorenzo Ciannelli; Philippe Cury; Andrea Belgrano; Nils Chr. Stenseth

2005-01-01

23

The enhancement of marine fish stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to augment marine finfish stocks by releasing eggs and yolk-sac larvae were started in the 1870s, using mainly cod and plaice. Trials running over several decades in the USA, UK and Norway failed to show any statistically proven enhancement, even in coastal waters. Experiments to transplant juvenile flatfish, such as plaice and turbot, from areas of low growth to

J. H. S. Blaxter

2000-01-01

24

Distribution of Iodine in Marine and Fresh Water Fishes from Sindh Regions of Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine content in muscles of fresh and marine fish collected from different coastal parts and fresh water resources were analyzed by selective ion electrode method. It was found that fresh fish were rich in iodine content (mean of 23-10 ?g kg-1 on dry weight basis). Also the iodine content of marine fish, Epinephalus malbaricus (17 ?g kg-1) and Johnius belangeri (19 ?g kg-1) on dry weight basis, was higher than that of other marine fish. Significant regional differences were noted in the iodine content of marine fish as compared to fresh water fish.

Azmat, Rafia; Talat, Rukhsana; Junaid Mahmood, Syed

25

Total and Organic Mercury in Marine Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine total and organic mercury levels in the muscle tissue of certain pelagic and inshore fish of Hawaii which are used for human consumption is reported. In all species, except the Pacific Blue Marlin, there was close correlation between ...

J. B. Rivers J. E. Pearson C. D. Shultz

1972-01-01

26

Trash fish can be a source of betanodaviruses for cultured marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 360 samples of trash fish\\/mollusk used for feeding cultured marine fish were collected from 4 stations of National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, Japan. The brain or eyes of the samples were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR assays to detect the coat protein gene of betanodavirus. Two species of trash

Dennis K. Gomez; Koh-ichiro Mori; Yasushi Okinaka; Toshihiro Nakai; Se Chang Park

2010-01-01

27

Environmental management of marine fish culture in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Marine fish farming is an important commercial practice in Hong Kong. Marine fish farms located in eutrophic coastal waters often face the threat of severe dissolved oxygen depletion associated with algal blooms and red tides. On the other hand, mariculture activities also contribute to pollution. The sustainable management of mariculture requires proper siting of the fish farms and stocking density control. Both of these are related to the carrying capacity of the water body concerned, which is mainly governed by its flushing characteristics. A simple method to determine the carrying capacity of a fish farm has been developed by using three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modelling and its effective coupling with a diagenetic water quality model. A systematic methodology using numerical tracer experiments has been developed to compute the tidal flushing in a fish farm. The flushing time is determined from the results of a numerical tracer experiment using robust 3D hydrodynamic and mass transport models. A unit tracer concentration is initially prescribed inside the region of interest and zero elsewhere; the subsequent mass transport and the mass removal process are then tracked. The fish farms are usually situated in well-sheltered shallow embayments and may not connect directly to the open water. It is found that it is necessary to define both "local" and "system-wide" flushing times to represent the effectiveness of the mass exchange with the surrounding water body and the open sea respectively. A diagenetic water quality model simulating the sediment-water-pollutant interaction is employed to address the response of the water column and the benthic layer to pollution discharges. With the flushing rate reliably computed, the carrying capacity of the fish farm can be determined in terms of key water quality parameters: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, organic nitrogen and potential lowest dissolved oxygen level on a day of negligible photosynthetic production. The predictions are well-supported by field data. PMID:12787621

Lee, J H W; Choi, K W; Arega, F

2003-01-01

28

Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.  

PubMed

Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled. PMID:23324945

Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-03-01

29

Brain acetylcholinesterase as a marine pesticide biomarker using Brazilian fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of some fishes from the coast of Rio de Janeiro State was studied as a possible pesticide biomarker in marine environmental monitoring. AChE specific activity in brain varied from 145 to 530U\\/g of proteins and the Michaelis–Menten constant (KM) for acetylthiocholine varied from 104 to 291?M among the 20 species studied. The enzyme sensitivity to methyl paraoxon,

Manildo M. Oliveira; Moacelio V. Silva Filho; Vera L. F. Cunha Bastos; Flavio C. Fernandes; Jayme Cunha Bastos

2007-01-01

30

Distribution of Iodine in Marine and Fresh Water Fishes from Sindh Regions of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine content in muscles of fresh and marine fish collected from different coastal parts and fresh water resources were analyzed by selective ion electrode method. It was found that fresh fish were rich in iodine content (mean of 23-10 mug kg-1 on dry weight basis). Also the iodine content of marine fish, Epinephalus malbaricus (17 mug kg-1) and Johnius belangeri

Rafia Azmat; Rukhsana Talat; Syed Junaid Mahmood

2008-01-01

31

Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983 – 1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of fishing on the abundance and species richness of families of coral reef fish at two islands\\u000a (Sumilon and Apo) in the Philippines from 1983 to 1993. Natural fishing experiments occurred in marine reserves at each island,\\u000a where long term estimates of fishing intensity were available. Responses to fishing were interpreted in terms of life

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1998-01-01

32

Genotoxic effects of profenofos on the marine fish, Therapon jarbua.  

PubMed

Profenofos (EC(50)) is a persistent and toxic organophosphorus insecticide. Animals get exposed to profenofos via food and water. The present study was designed to explore the genotoxic effect of profenofos in the marine fish. The ubiquitously occurring marine fish, Therapon jarbua, was exposed to profenofos and its effect on DNA was measured using comet (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay. DNA damage were scored using mean percentage of tail length and compared with the comet classes' viz., 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the first three doses, the (21.5, 43.0 and 86.0 µg L(-1)) comets were observed, of which the mean tail length differed significantly (p?marine environments using Comet assay as an identification tool. We infer that organophosphorus insecticides may be dangerous to the marine lives. PMID:21859359

Janaki Devi, V; Nagarani, N; Yokesh Babu, M; Vijayalakshimi, N; Kumaraguru, A K

2012-02-01

33

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

34

Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).  

PubMed

A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae. PMID:23831892

Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

2013-12-01

35

Effects of customary marine closures on fish behavior, spear-fishing success, and underwater visual surveys.  

PubMed

Customary management systems (i.e., management systems that limit the use of marine resources), such as rotational fisheries closures, can limit harvest of resources. Nevertheless, the explicit goals of customary management are often to influence fish behavior (in particular flight distance, i.e., distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat), rather than fish abundance. We explored whether the flight distance of reef fishes targeted by local artisanal fishers differed between a customary closure and fished reefs. We also examined whether flight distance of these species affected fishing success and accuracy of underwater visual census (UVC) between customary closed areas and areas open to fishing. Several species demonstrated significant differences in flight distance between areas, indicating that fishing activity may increase flight distance. These relatively long flight distances mean that in fished areas most target species may stay out of the range of spear fishers. In addition, mean flight distances for all species both inside and outside the customary-closure area were substantially smaller than the observation distance of an observer conducting a belt-transect UVC (mean [SE]= 8.8 m [0.48]). For targeted species that showed little ability to evade spear fishers, customary closures may be a vital management technique. Our results show that customary closures can have a substantial, positive effect on resource availability and that conventional UVC techniques may be insensitive to changes in flight behavior of fishes associated with fishing. We argue that short, periodic openings of customary closures may allow the health of the fish community to be maintained and local fishers to effectively harvest fishes. PMID:21129032

Feary, David A; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A

2011-04-01

36

Linkages between atmospheric mercury deposition and the methylmercury content of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced Hg deposition to productive marine systems may result in concurrent increases in monomethyl Hg (MMHg) concentrations of marine fish. Consequently, it is important to understand what effects an increasing Hg supply may have on the marine food chain. A simple ocean model is employed to estimate the fraction of total Hg inputs which is required to sustain “average” marine

K. R. Rolfhus; W. F. Fitzgerald

1995-01-01

37

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, On Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus.  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

38

Effects of Two Progestins, Norethindrone and Levonorgestrel, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals that enter the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended impacts on reproduction in fish, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (...

39

Some camallanid nematodes from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia.  

PubMed

Two new, one known and three unidentified species of the nematode family Camallanidae are reported and described from the intestines of marine perciform fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia, South Pacific: Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1952 from the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae), the yellowstriped goatfish Upeneus vittatus and the whitesaddle goatfish Parupeneus ciliatus (both Mullidae) (new host records); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) variolae sp. n. from the white-edged lyretail Variola albimarginata (type host) and the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (both Serranidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) longus sp. n. from the twotone tang Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 1 (female tail with 2 terminal spikes on a digit-like projection) from the speckled sand-perch Parapercis hexophtalma (Pinguipedidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 2 (female tail with 1 spike on a digit-like projection) from the drab emperor Lethrinus ravus (Lethrinidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 3 (female tail with a smooth digit-like protrusion) from the two-lined monocle bream Scolopsis bilineata (Nemipteridae). Camallanus paracarangis Velasquez, 1980 is synonymized with C. carangis. Several additional species of Camallanus from marine fish of the Indo-Pacific region may be synonymous with C. carangis as it has a poorly sclerotized left spicule and 3 small caudal projections on the tail of young (i.e., non-gravid) females. The fourth-stage larva of C. carangis is described for the first time. P. (S.) variolae differs from most similar species of this region mainly in the position (i.e., at level or posterior to the nerve ring) and shape of deirids. P. (S.) longus differs from the similar P. (S.) chaimha mainly in a different arrangement of postanal papillae, shape of the female tail, much longer right spicule (429 microm) and longer body of gravid females (38-55 mm). All Camallanus and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) spp. reported here represent the first records of camallanids from marine fishes in New Caledonian waters. PMID:17120503

Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Rigby, Mark C

2006-09-01

40

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

41

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.  

PubMed

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea. PMID:25035585

Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

2014-09-01

42

Distribution of Epiphytic Diatoms in a Sub-Tropical Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within estuaries, seagrasses may represent an order of magnitude greater surface area relative to sediments for the colonization and growth of diatoms. Fossil diatom distributions have proven useful in inferring paleoenvironmental conditions. The strength of these inferences is dependent upon defining the environmental relationships of contempory diatom compositions. The present investigation characterized the modern epiphytic diatom flora on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at seven sites in the sub-tropical Florida Bay estuary and at one Atlantic Ocean site east of the upper Florida Keys. These sites were sampled six times between March 2000 and April 2001. Diatom species composition was related to water quality parameters using multivariate statistics. 338 diatom species were identified. The seven most abundant species from pooled samples were Cocconeis placentula, Brachysira aponina, Nitzschia liebetruthii, Hyalosynedra laevigata, Amphora cf. tenerrima, Mastogloia crucicula, and M. pusilla. These seven species collectively accounted for 51.7 percent of all valves counted and occurred in at least 85 percent of all samples. Analysis of similiarity and NMDS ordination of species relative abundances revealed four distinct diatom communities across the study region. The spatial variability of these communities was correlated with salinity and water-column nutrient availability. Summertime communities were significantly different from winter-spring communities, but these communities showed a gradual temporal progression with much overlap. The temporal variability was correlated with temperature. Indicator species analysis identified many species significantly influencing the four spatial groups. The Atlantic marine site was characterized by many different Mastogloia species and some epipsammic (sand-grain associated) diatoms (i.e., Cymatosira lorenziana, Dimerogramma dubium, and Neofragilaria nicobarica). Mastogloia pusilla, Rhopalodia pacifica, and Cocconeis woodii were strong indicators of the Gulf of Mexico marine site. Reimerothrix floridensis was particularly abundant in the western interior of Florida Bay (i.e., sites 2, 3, and 4) during summer months. The eastern interior of Florida Bay was characterized by high relative abundances of Brachysira aponina and Nitzschia liebetruthii. The optima and tolerance of these indicator species relative to individual water quality parameters were also determined.

Frankovich, T. A.; Gaiser, E. E.; Wachnicka, A.; Zieman, J. C.

2005-05-01

43

Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

There is a growing realization that the scale and degree of population connectivity are crucial to the dynamics and persistence of spatially structured populations. For marine organisms with complex life cycles, experiences during larval life may influence phenotypic traits, performance, and the probability of postsettlement survival. For a Caribbean reef fish (Thalassoma bifasciatum) on an oceanic island, we used otolith (ear stone) elemental profiles of lead (Pb) to assign recent settlers to a group that developed in waters elevated in Pb concentrations throughout larval life (i.e., nearshore signature) and a group that developed in waters depleted in Pb (i.e., offshore signature), potentially dispersing from upstream sources across oceanic waters. Larval history influenced early life history traits: offshore developers initially grew slowly but compensated with fast growth upon entering nearshore waters and metamorphosed in better condition with higher energy reserves. As shown in previous studies, local production contributed heavily to settlement: at least 45% of settlers developed nearshore. However, only 23% of survivors after the first month displayed a nearshore otolith profile. Therefore, settlers with different larval histories suffered differential mortality. Importantly, selective mortality was mediated by larval history, in that the postsettlement intensity of selection was much greater for fish that developed nearshore, potentially because they had developed in a less selectively intense larval environment. Given the potential for asymmetrical postsettlement source-based survival, successful spatial management of marine populations may require knowledge of “realized connectivity” on ecological scales, which takes into account the postsettlement fitness of individuals from different sources.

Hamilton, Scott L.; Regetz, James; Warner, Robert R.

2008-01-01

44

Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids in marine fishes.  

PubMed

Classification and identification of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids found in marine fish is difficult because of their novel parasitism and morphology. Recent sequence analysis has helped, but only seven sequences are available. Therefore, the usefulness of molecular methods for differentiation of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids, as well as genetic differences between the muscle and the other site-parasitizing didymozoids are quite unclear. In the present study, six unidentified didymozoid isolates from the trunk muscles of four marine fish species (Diagramma pictum, Plectorhinchus cinctus, Pagrus major and Cypselurus heterurus) were examined genetically using sequence analysis (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS-2 and coxI). All isolates were placed phylogenetically as a lineage independent of other site-parasitizing didymozoids at 18S rDNA, ITS-2 and coxI. They were grouped into three distinct lineages. The present and the previous unidentified or identified didymozoids from trunk muscles were found to differ clearly for every host species by sequence analysis, suggesting that muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are host-specific. This report is the first describing the molecular characteristics of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids by sequence analysis targeting the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci, which is proposed as a superior method for didymozoid differentiation. PMID:24827110

Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru; Maehara, Tomofumi

2014-06-01

45

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

46

Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of e×tinction risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative criteria used to assign species to categories of extinction risk may seriously overestimate these risks for marine fishes. Contemporary perception is that marine fishes may be less vulnerable to extinction than other taxa, because of great natural variability in abundance, high fecundity, rapid population growth, and an intrinsically high capability of recovering from low population size. Contrary to perception,

Jeffrey A. Hutchings

2001-01-01

47

The Potential for the Restoration of Marine Ornamental Fish Populations Through Hatchery Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of tropical and subtropical marine fish are being depleted worldwide to supply increasing demands of the aquarium industry and fresh seafood market. Overfishing and destructive harvest techniques have left some marine fish populations virtually extirpated in a number of primarily underdeveloped countries. In situations where only small remnant populations and significantly degraded habitat remain, population recovery even under the

David A. Ziemann

2001-01-01

48

The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens, J. D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N. K., and Walker, P. A. 2000. The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 476-494. The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of

J. D. Stevens; R. Bonfil; N. K. Dulvy; P. A. Walker

2000-01-01

49

The hypophysis of the marine teleost fish, Mugil auratus Risso.  

PubMed

Owing to its lack of a hypophysial stalk, the hypophysis of the marine fish, Mugil auratus, is of the platybasic type. Its differentiation into adenohypophysial and neurohypophysial regions well conforms with the situation already recognized in other fishes. But, although the adenohypophysis shows distinction into pro-, meso- and meta-adenophypophysis, the lineo-vertical arrangement which they assume is not of common occurrence. By contrast, the neurohypophysis forms the usual central nervous core, surrounded by the adenohypophysial regions. The acidophils constituting the pro-adenohypophysis, having a deep staining affinity, resemble those in the meso-adenohypophysial region. The acidophils of the meso-adenohypophysis occupy a small region, whereas their associating cyanophils occupy a larger ventral region. The meta-adenohypophysis consists of an integral convoluted sac of epithelial amphiphilic cells. Such encloses the bulk of the neurohypophysis. It is remarkable that the neurohypophysial fibres never interdigitate among the meta-adenohypophysial cells, so they are more closely related in arrangement to tetrapods than to fishes. PMID:1030913

Rizkalla, W

1976-01-01

50

Brain acetylcholinesterase as a marine pesticide biomarker using Brazilian fishes.  

PubMed

Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of some fishes from the coast of Rio de Janeiro State was studied as a possible pesticide biomarker in marine environmental monitoring. AChE specific activity in brain varied from 145 to 530 U/g of proteins and the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)) for acetylthiocholine varied from 104 to 291 microM among the 20 species studied. The enzyme sensitivity to methyl paraoxon, evaluated by the inhibition kinetic constants, shows that some species (Paralonchurus brasiliensis and Genidens genidens) are more sensitive (IC50-30 min=455 and 468 nM, respectively). The less sensitive Merluccius hubbsi and Percophis brasiliensis (IC50-30 min=3339 and 3259 nM, respectively) belong to the super-order Paracanthopterygii, which includes the more ancient species. On the other hand, more susceptible species belong to the super-order Acanthopterygii, which includes more recent species. These results suggest a possible evolutionary linkage for AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. The application of inhibition kinetic constants for fish brain AChE in phylogenetic studies is still being investigated. The results have shown that a fish sentinel species should have the highest brain AChE level among the more sensitive ones. PMID:17118441

Oliveira, Manildo M; Silva Filho, Moacelio V; Cunha Bastos, Vera L F; Fernandes, Flavio C; Cunha Bastos, Jayme

2007-05-01

51

Marine nutrient contributions to tidal creeks in Virginia: spawning marine fish as nutrient vectors to freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal freshwater streams are typically viewed as conduits for the transport of sediment and nutrients to the coasts. Some coastal streams however experience seasonal migrations of anadromous fish returning to the freshwater to spawn. The fish may be vectors for the delivery of marine nutrients to nutrient poor freshwater in the form of excreted waste and post-spawning carcasses. Nutrients derived

S. E. Macavoy; G. C. Garman

2006-01-01

52

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of farmed marine fish species in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, otherwise known as fish encephalitis or viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is an emerging problem in several farmed marine fish species in various geographic areas all over the world. Since summer 1995, heavy losses affecting mainly juvenile and adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) have been observed in several on-growing facilities in Italy. Dying fish show abnormal swimming

G. Bovo; T. Nishizawa; C. Maltese; F. Borghesan; F. Mutinelli; F. Montesi; S. De Mas

1999-01-01

53

Three unrecorded marine fish species from Korean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three marine fish species are recorded for the first time from Korean waters: a molid (Ranzania laevis, 1 specimen, 279.8 mm SL) and bramid ( Pterycombus petersii, 3 specimens, 95.3-214.0 mm SL) collected from a large purse seine off Jeju Island, in the southern sea of Korea, and a carangid ( Carangoides dinema, 1 specimen, 194.5 mm SL) from a set net in coastal waters off Busan, in the southeastern sea of Korea. R. laevis is characterized by a wedge-shaped body and truncated clavus; P. petersii by the dorsal fin origin above or behind the posterior margin of eye, and dorsal and anal fins depressible; and C. dinema by a row of black blotches along the second dorsal fin base, the curved part of the lateral line longer than straight part, and 18 and 16 dorsal and anal fin rays, respectively. New Korean names are proposed for all three species.

Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jin Koo; Moon, Jee Hwan; Kim, Cheol Bum

2007-12-01

54

Sensitivity of marine systems to climate and fishing: Concepts, issues and management responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern fisheries research and management must understand and take account of the interactions between climate and fishing, rather than try to disentangle their effects and address each separately. These interactions are significant drivers of change in exploited marine systems and have ramifications for ecosystems and those who depend on the services they provide. We discuss how fishing and climate forcing interact on individual fish, marine populations, marine communities, and ecosystems to bring these levels into states that are more sensitive to (i.e. more strongly related with) climate forcing. Fishing is unlikely to alter the sensitivities of individual finfish and invertebrates to climate forcing. It will remove individuals with specific characteristics from the gene pool, thereby affecting structure and function at higher levels of organisation. Fishing leads to a loss of older age classes, spatial contraction, loss of sub-units, and alteration of life history traits in populations, making them more sensitive to climate variability at interannual to interdecadal scales. Fishing reduces the mean size of individuals and mean trophic level of communities, decreasing their turnover time leading them to track environmental variability more closely. Marine ecosystems under intense exploitation evolve towards stronger bottom-up control and greater sensitivity to climate forcing. Because climate change occurs slowly, its effects are not likely to have immediate impacts on marine systems but will be manifest as the accumulation of the interactions between fishing and climate variability — unless threshold limits are exceeded. Marine resource managers need to develop approaches which maintain the resilience of individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems to the combined and interacting effects of climate and fishing. Overall, a less-heavily fished marine system, and one which shifts the focus from individual species to functional groups and fish communities, is likely to provide more stable catches with climate variability and change than would a heavily fished system.

Perry, R. Ian; Cury, Philippe; Brander, Keith; Jennings, Simon; Möllmann, Christian; Planque, Benjamin

2010-02-01

55

Perfluoroalkyl Acid contamination and polyunsaturated Fatty Acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

56

Residential indoor humidity control in tropics and sub-tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A\\/C) systems is widely seen in residential buildings in tropics and sub-tropics. However, most DX A\\/C systems are equipped with single-speed compressor and supply fan, relying on On—Off cycling as a low-cost approach to maintain only indoor dry-bulb temperature, whereas the indoor air humidity is not controlled directly. This also leads to

MY Chan; SM Deng; XG Xu

2009-01-01

57

Genome analysis of Betanodavirus from cultured marine fish species in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betanodavirus is the causative agent of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy disease in marine fish. This disease is responsible for most of the mass mortalities that occurred in marine fish hatcheries in Malaysia. The genome of this virus consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules which are the RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 molecule contains the

Julian Ransangan; Benny Obrain Manin

58

Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

2014-03-01

59

Viral and bacterial diseases of marine fish and shellfish in Japanese hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, seed production techniques have been exploited for about 80 species of marine fish and shellfish. However, mass mortalities due to infectious and non-infectious diseases have often occurred in larvae and juveniles reared in marine hatcheries. Among these problems the viral and bacterial diseases with their control measures are reviewed in this paper. Since around the middle of the

Kiyokuni Muroga

2001-01-01

60

The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reviews the significance of lipids at different early stages of marine fish larvae. Lipids in broodstock nutrition are considered to be important for the quality of the larvae. Lipids affect the spawning and the egg quality of many fish species and a deficiency in (n?3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in broodstock negatively affects fecundity, fertilization rate

Jose R. Rainuzzo; Kjell I. Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

1997-01-01

61

Carbohydrate utilisation by microbial symbionts in the marine herbivorous fishes Odax cyanomelas and Crinodus lophodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate uptake and catabolism by the gut microbiota of two species of temperate marine herbivorous fish were investigated using enzyme extracts prepared from microbial pellets. The fish studied were the herring cale Odax cyanomelas (Family Odacidae), which feeds on Ecklonia radiata, and the sea carp Crinodus lophodon (Family Aplodactylidae), which feeds primarily on red and green algae. Constitutive phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase

G. S. Seeto; P. C. Veivers; K. D. Clements; M. Slaytor

1996-01-01

62

Key to the Estuarine and Marine Fishes of Texas (Second Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The key is a compilation of known literature, covering the identification of estuarine and marine fishes, into a single volume and includes only those adult fishes known or expected to occur along the Texas coast. The format consists of a key to the order...

J. C. Parker B. J. Gallaway D. Moore

1972-01-01

63

CONFOUNDING EFFECTS OF THE EXPORT OF PRODUCTION AND THE DISPLACEMENT OF FISHING EFFORT FROM MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves affect areas outside reserve boundaries via the displacement of fishing effort and the export of production. Here we focus on how these key factors interact to influence the results seen once reserves are created. For a settlement-limited fishery, export of increased production from within reserves can offset the effects of dis- placed fishing effort. We develop simple mathematical

Benjamin S. Halpern; Steven D. Gaines; Robert R. Warner

2004-01-01

64

Chlorophyte and rhodophyte starches as factors in diet choice by marine herbivorous fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in the digestibility of algal starches that could affect the diet choices of marine herbivorous fish. We examined nine species of algae from New Zealand. Five of these species were dietary (i.e. species eaten by herbivorous fish); three chlorophytes Enteromorpha sp., Ulva rigida, and Caulerpa geminata, and two rhodophytes Champia

W. Lindsey Zemke-White; K. D. Clements

1999-01-01

65

Proximate Composition of Raw and Cooked Thai Freshwater and Marine Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximate composition and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) were determined in eight freshwater and eight marine fish species which are commonly consumed in Thailand. Appropriate household cooking methods, i.e., boiling, steaming, roasting and frying were used for fish preparation. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein, 17–22 g\\/100 g. Wide variation in protein content, 16–32 g\\/100 g, between species and methods

Prapasri Puwastien; Kunchit Judprasong; Eakkarach Kettwan; Kriengkrai Vasanachitt; Yupaporn Nakngamanong; Lalita Bhattacharjee

1999-01-01

66

Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

2014-01-01

67

Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

Pittman, Simon J; Monaco, Mark E; Friedlander, Alan M; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S; Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D; Wedding, Lisa M; Caldow, Chris

2014-01-01

68

Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.  

PubMed

No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1) on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1) (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1), or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. PMID:21858183

Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Erisman, Brad; Galland, Grantly R; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Sala, Enric; Ezcurra, Exequiel

2011-01-01

69

Extinction Risk and Overfishing: Reconciling Conservation and Fisheries Perspectives on the Status of Marine Fishes  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved.

Davies, Trevor D.; Baum, Julia K.

2012-01-01

70

Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in the ocean, but their impacts on marine species are hotly debated. We evaluated marine fish statuses using conservation (Red List threatened or not) and fisheries (above or below reference points) metrics, compared their alignment, and diagnosed why discrepancies arise. Whereas only 13.5% of Red Listed marine fishes (n = 2952) are threatened, 40% and 21% of populations with stock assessments (n = 166) currently are below their more conservative and riskier reference points, respectively. Conservation and fisheries metrics aligned well (70.5% to 80.7%), despite their mathematical disconnect. Red Listings were not biased towards exaggerating threat status, and egregious errors, where populations were categorized at opposite extremes of fisheries and conservation metrics, were rare. Our analyses suggest conservation and fisheries scientists will agree on the statuses of exploited marine fishes in most cases, leaving only the question of appropriate management responses for populations of mutual concern still unresolved. PMID:22872806

Davies, Trevor D; Baum, Julia K

2012-01-01

71

Detection of a Diverse Marine Fish Fauna Using Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our findings provide a strong proof-of-concept with great perspectives for future monitoring of marine biodiversity and resources.

Iversen, Lars L?nsmann; M?ller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

2012-01-01

72

Larval anisakid infections in marine fish from three sea areas of the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marine fish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea. PMID:23230326

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Ok-Hee; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

2012-12-01

73

Larval Anisakid Infections in Marine Fish from Three Sea Areas of the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to determine the infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish collected from 3 sea areas of the Republic of Korea. Total 86 marine fish (8 species) collected from the East Sea (Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do), 171 fish (10 species) from the South Sea (Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do), and 92 fish (7 species) from the Yellow Sea (Incheon Metropolitan City) were examined by both naked eyes and artificial digestion method. Among the total of 349 fish examined, 213 (61.0%) were infected with 8 species of anisakid larvae, i.e., Anisakis simplex, 6 types of Contracaecum spp., and Raphidascaris sp., and the mean larval density was 13.8 per infected fish. Anisakid larvae were detected in 45 fish (52.3%) from the East Sea, 131 fish (76.6%) from the South Sea, and 37 fish (40.2%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 4.0, 16.6, and 15.9, respectively. Anisakis simplex larvae were detected in 149 fish (42.7%), and the mean larval density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were found in 26 fish (30.2%) collected from the East Sea, 96 fish (56.1%) from the South Sea, and 27 fish (29.3%) from the Yellow Sea. The average numbers of larvae detected were 2.9, 10.3, and 10.5, respectively. Conclusively, the present study suggests that the infection rate and density of anisakid larvae are more or less higher in the fish from the South Sea than those from the East Sea or the Yellow Sea.

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Sang-Eun; Park, Ok-Hee; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2012-01-01

74

Epiphytic calcium carbonate production and facies development within sub-tropical seagrass beds, Inhaca Island, Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seagrass beds have been widely recognised as playing an important role in influencing carbonate sediment facies development. This reflects their role not only as facilitators of fine sediment settling and stabilisation, but also as substrates for epiphytic organisms that, after death, contribute skeletal carbonate to the sediment substrate. In low latitude (reef-related) settings, epiphytic carbonate production rates are often high and this, in combination with the trapping of carbonate mud produced by a range of associated calcareous algal species, typically results in the development of carbonate mud-rich facies. Whilst such environments, and their associated sediment substrates, have been widely documented, studies of seagrass facies in marginal (sub-tropical/warm temperate) marine settings have not been conducted from a sedimentological perspective. This study determines rates of epiphytic carbonate production on two seagrass species Thalassodendron ciliatum and Thalassia hemprichii, and examines seagrass sediment facies from a sub-tropical reef-related environment in southern Mozambique. Dense seagrass beds colonise primarily siliciclastic sediment substrates and are characterised by low rates of epiphytic carbonate production (mean: 43.9 g CaCO 3 m -2 year -1 for T. ciliatum, and 33.4 g CaCO 3 m -2 year -1 for T. hemprichii). Epiphytic encrusters are dominated by thin, monostromatic layers of the crustose coralline red algae Hydrolithon farinosum, along with rotaliid smaller benthic foraminifera (including Asterorotalia cf. gaimardi and Spirillina sp.) and the soritid Peneroplis sp., as well as rare encrusting acervulinid foraminifera, serpulids and bryozoans. Epiphytic calcium carbonate production rates are therefore low and this is reflected in the low (<15%) carbonate content of the seagrass sediments, as well as the low (<1%) sediment fine (<63 ?m size fraction) content. This study suggests that mud-rich sediment facies do not necessarily develop in conjunction with seagrass beds and that mud-poor facies may develop in some seagrass-colonised environments. At these sites (sub-tropical and siliciclastic-sediment dominated) this is suggested to reflect both the low levels of epiphytic and benthic algal carbonate mud production as well as a net outflux of fine-grained sediment due to tidal current-induced sediment resuspension. In keeping with carbonate facies generally there are thus likely to be latitude and environment-related shifts in the composition and character of seagrass related sediment facies.

Perry, C. T.; Beavington-Penney, S. J.

2005-02-01

75

Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

2014-09-15

76

Efficacy of adapted estuarine fish-based multimetric indices as tools for evaluating ecological status of the marine environment.  

PubMed

The assessment of ecological status of marine fish communities required by the marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) emphasises the need for fish-based ecological indices in marine waters. In this study we adapt five estuarine multimetric indices to the marine environment and apply them in three types of substrates, analysing the metrics responsible for the obtained patterns of ecological status. The results show inefficiency of the community degradation index (CDI) and the biological health index (BHI) in ecological status assessment and disagreement between the estuarine biotic integrity index (EBI), the estuarine fish community index (EFCI) and the transitional fish classification index (TFCI). Analysis of individual metrics suggests lack of representativeness and consideration for the particularities of each substrate's typical fish communities. None of the tested indices were efficient on the marine environment, urging the need for new marine indices that account for differences between types of substrate and depth. PMID:18723192

Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique

2008-10-01

77

Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2005-01-01

78

Mercury in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes from Southern Brazil and its ecological implication.  

PubMed

In this study, we measured the mercury concentration in 27 different fish species with high commercial value. Samples were taken from a region characterized by the diversity of aquatic environments. Mercury concentration in marine fish species varied from 30.4 to 216 ng g(-1), while in estuarine species, it varied from 12.4 to 60.3 ng g(-1). Compared to mercury concentration in marine species, none of the specimens from estuarine environment has reached a mercury concentration of 100 ng g(-1). However, mercury concentrations in species from the freshwater Patos lagoon are remarkably higher (15.3 to 462 ng g(-1)) than those from the estuarine or marine region. Even though mercury concentrations in these fish species did not exceed the maximum level (500 ng g(-1)) allowed by WHO for human consumption, they represent the main food source for sea birds and mammals coming from South Pole during their migration period. PMID:19011981

Kütter, V T; Mirlean, N; Baisch, P R M; Kütter, M T; Silva-Filho, E V

2009-12-01

79

Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea  

PubMed Central

The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

2011-01-01

80

Morphology, fine structure, biochemistry, and function of the spermatic ducts in marine fish.  

PubMed

The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marine fish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium. PMID:14517103

Lahnsteiner, Franz

2003-10-01

81

Conservation physiology of marine fishes: advancing the predictive capacity of models  

PubMed Central

At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity, assessing risks for local populations, or predicting and mitigating the spread of invasive species.

J?rgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio; Azzurro, Ernesto; Burrows, Michael T.; Cheung, William W. L.; Cucco, Andrea; Holt, Rebecca E.; Huebert, Klaus B.; Marras, Stefano; McKenzie, David; Metcalfe, Julian; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Sinerchia, Matteo; Fleng Steffensen, John; Teal, Lorna R.; Domenici, Paolo

2012-01-01

82

Binding and movement ofsilver in the intestinal epithelium ofa marine teleost fish, the European flounder (Platichthys flesus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

a Abstract The intestine has been indicated as a site of waterborne silver toxicity in marine fish and chronic effects at the intestine have been observed at concentrations far below acutely toxic level. Thus, models of silver toxicity to marine fish need to consider the intestine as a biotic ligand. The present study characterises binding of silver to the intestine

C. Hogstrand; C. M. Wood; N. R. Bury; R. W. Wilson; J. C. Rankin; M. Grosell

2002-01-01

83

Binding and movement of silver in the intestinal epithelium of a marine teleost fish, the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestine has been indicated as a site of waterborne silver toxicity in marine fish and chronic effects at the intestine have been observed at concentrations far below acutely toxic level. Thus, models of silver toxicity to marine fish need to consider the intestine as a biotic ligand. The present study characterises binding of silver to the intestine of the

C Hogstrand; C. M Wood; N. R Bury; R. W Wilson; J. C Rankin; M Grosell

2002-01-01

84

Salinity acclimation and free amino acid enrichment of copepod nauplii for first-feeding of larval marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live foods used in a marine fish hatchery must provide the nutrients needed for the rapidly developing larvae. Marine pelagic fish eggs can contain up to 50% of their total amino acid pool as free amino acids (FAA), of which most is used up shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding as a source of energy. Copepod nauplii are richer

L. C. Lindley; R. P. Phelps; D. A. Davis; K. A. Cummins

2011-01-01

85

Spatio-temporal patterns of fishing pressure on UK marine landscapes, and their implications for spatial planning and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal distribution of fishing pressure on marine landscapes in offshore UK (England and Wales) waters is assessed, based on a time-series of fishing vessel monitoring system (VMS) data for UK and foreign fleets deploying beam and otter trawls, and scallop dredges. The results reveal that marine landscapes with coarse or mixed sediments and weak or moderate tide stress are

Vanessa Stelzenmuller; Stuart I. Rogers; Craig M. Mills

2008-01-01

86

Mechanisms of acid-base excretion across the gills of a marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Na+\\/H+ and Cl-\\/HCO3 - exchanges in the branchial epithelium are thought to be primarily responsible for acid-base transfers in fish. Several different cellular mechanisms have been proposed to drive these exchanges in fresh water and marine species. We measured the acid- base balance and net H+ transfers (?H+) in the marine long-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus) following acidosis. ?H+ was determined

James B. Claiborne; Erin Perry; Shenna Bellows; Jennifer Campbell

1997-01-01

87

Marine ecologySpring algal bloom and larval fish survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different factors that influence the prevalent decline in fish stocks are currently subject to urgent and intense scrutiny. Here we combine the use of remote-sensing satellite data with a long-term data set of haddock recruitment off the eastern continental shelf of Nova Scotia, Canada, to show that the survival of the larval fish depends on the timing of the

Trevor Platt; Csar Fuentes-Yaco; Kenneth T. Frank

2003-01-01

88

Uptake, metabolism and discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, metabolism and discharge of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 14C-naphthalene and 3H-3,4-benzopyrene, were studied in 3 species of marine fish (mudsucker or sand goby, Gillichthys mirabilis; sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus; sand dab, Citharichthys stigmaeus). The path of hydrocarbons through the fish included entrance through the gills, metabolism by the liver, transfer of hydrocarbons and their metabolites to the bile, and,

R. F. Lee; R. Sauerheber; G. H. Dobbs

1972-01-01

89

Influence of marine alga against mercury-induced biochemical changes, structural destabilization, and genotoxicity in marine tiger fish, Therapon jarbua  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study elucidated the protective role of alga against mercury (Hg)-induced toxicity in marine fish. Bath immersion with mercury chloride (HgCl) [0.125 and 0.25?ppm] in combination with the algal extract (3?ppm) to Therapon jarbua offered a significant protection against Hg only induced disturbed liver function, damaged histoarchitecture, elevated oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation of tissues. Mercury exposure decreased hepatic superoxide

N. Nagarani; A. K. Kumaraguru

2012-01-01

90

Behavior, Ecology and Toxicity of Venomous Marine Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the grant period a definitive investigation was made on the electron microscopy of a fish venom gland. Two of 72 electron micrographs taken were chosen for particular study, and are described in this report. (Modified author abstract)

F. E. Russell

1973-01-01

91

'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE FISH USEFUL IN CHRONIC MARINE BIOASSAYS OF HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Results are reported for chronic marine bioassays exposing the cyprinodontid fish Rivulus marmoratus, to 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. Purpose of the study was to illustrate the value of R. marmoratus as a chronic bioassay animal. Results demonstrated the relative insensitivity of R...

92

Species of Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six species of copepods of the genus Caligus (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan are reported. They are: C. absens n. sp. from Priacanthus blochii and P. macracanthus; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scolopsis vosmeri; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decapterus kurroides; C. laticaudus Shiino, 1960 from Lutjanus vitta and Parapristiopoma trilineatum; C. nengai Rangnekar, Rangnekar & Murti,

Ju-shey Ho; Ching-Long Lin; Shiu-Nan Chen

2000-01-01

93

Substitution of live food by formulated diets in marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, it was considered impossible to feed newly hatched marine fish species with a compound diet. Substituting a compound diet for live prey was performed several weeks after hatching, depending on the species. Compound diets were well ingested at the early stage but larvae died with a gut full of food, suggesting that larvae were unable to digest the

Chantal Cahu; José Zambonino Infante

2001-01-01

94

Surface disinfection of eggs from marine fish: evaluation of four chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

For surface disinfection of marine fish eggs Buffodine (1.06% free iodine), glutaraldehyde, chloramine-T and sodium hypochlorite (5% free chlorine) were tested using plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) as the main species for evaluation. Glutaraldehyde was the most promising candidate of the four chemicals tested. Good bactericidal effects without any documented negative effects on eggs and larvae were obtained at concentrations of

I. Salvesen; O. Vadstein

1995-01-01

95

Paleocoastal marine fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas: perspectives from Daisy Cave, California.  

PubMed

Analysis of over 27,000 fish bones from strata at Daisy Cave dated between about 11,500 and 8500 cal B.P. suggests that early Channel Islanders fished relatively intensively in a variety of habitats using a number of distinct technologies, including boats and the earliest evidence for hook-and-line fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas. The abundance of fish remains and fishing-related artifacts supports dietary reconstructions that suggest fish provided more than 50 percent of the edible meat represented in faunal samples from the early Holocene site strata. The abundance and economic importance of fish at Daisy Cave, unprecedented among early sites along the Pacific Coast of North America, suggest that early maritime capabilities on the Channel Islands were both more advanced and more variable than previously believed. When combined with a survey of fish remains from several other early Pacific Coast sites, these data suggest that early New World peoples effectively used watercraft, captured a diverse array of fish, and exploited a variety of marine habitats and resources. PMID:20043375

Rick, T C; Erlandson, J M; Vellanoweth, R L

2001-10-01

96

Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.  

PubMed

1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

2013-11-01

97

Severe Inbreeding and Small Effective Number of Breeders in a Formerly Abundant Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

In contrast to freshwater fish it is presumed that marine fish are unlikely to spawn with close relatives due to the dilution effect of large breeding populations and their propensity for movement and reproductive mixing. Inbreeding is therefore not typically a focal concern of marine fish management. We measured the effective number of breeders in 6 New York estuaries for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), a formerly abundant fish, using 11 microsatellite markers (6–56 alleles per locus). The effective number of breeders for 1–2 years was remarkably small, with point estimates ranging from 65–289 individuals. Excess homozygosity was detected at 10 loci in all bays (FIS?=?0.169–0.283) and individuals exhibited high average internal relatedness (IR; mean?=?0.226). These both indicate that inbreeding is very common in all bays, after testing for and ruling out alternative explanations such as technical and sampling artifacts. This study demonstrates that even historically common marine fish can be prone to inbreeding, a factor that should be considered in fisheries management and conservation plans.

O'Leary, Shannon J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.; Fast, Mark D.; Chapman, Demian D.

2013-01-01

98

Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.  

PubMed

Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further study is needed to determine the role of small-scale marine reserves in the conservation of tropical marine biodiversity. PMID:21513198

Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

2011-03-01

99

Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change.  

PubMed

In light of ocean warming and loss of Arctic sea ice, harvested marine fishes of boreal origin (and their fisheries) move poleward into yet unexploited parts of the Arctic seas. Industrial fisheries, already in place on many Arctic shelves, will radically affect the local fish species as they turn up as unprecedented bycatch. Arctic marine fishes are indispensable to ecosystem structuring and functioning, but they are still beyond credible assessment due to lack of basic biological data. The time for conservation actions is now, and precautionary management practices by the Arctic coastal states are needed to mitigate the impact of industrial fisheries in Arctic waters. We outline four possible conservation actions: scientific credibility, 'green technology', legitimate management and overarching coordination. PMID:24105993

Christiansen, Jørgen S; Mecklenburg, Catherine W; Karamushko, Oleg V

2014-02-01

100

Miocene marine incursions and marine/freshwater transitions: Evidence from Neotropical fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonian rivers contain a remarkable fauna of endemic species derived from taxa that generally occur in oceans and seas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine-derived lineages, including opportunistic invasions via estuaries, vicariance related to uplift of the Andes, and vicariance related to Miocene marine incursions and connections. Here, we examine available data for marine-derived lineages of four groups: stingrays (Myliobatiformes), drums (Sciaenidae), anchovies (Engraulididae), and needlefish (Belonidae). Geographic distributions, age estimates (determined using fossils, biogeography, and molecular data sets), and phylogenies for these taxa are most compatible with origination during the Miocene from marine sister groups distributed along the northern coast of South America. We speculate that unique ecological and biogeographic aspects of the Miocene upper Amazonian wetland system, most notably long-term connections with marine systems, facilitated the evolutionary transition from marine to freshwater habitats.

Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Albert, James S.; Crampton, William G. R.

2006-03-01

101

Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.  

PubMed

Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs. PMID:22761836

Taylor, Brett M; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Kerr, Alexander M

2012-01-01

102

Incorporation of recreational fishing effort into design of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Theoretical models of marine protected areas (MPAs) that explore benefits to fisheries or biodiversity conservation often assume a dynamic pool of fishing effort. For instance, effort is homogenously distributed over areas from which subsets of reserves are chosen. I tested this and other model assumptions with a case study of the multiple-use Jervis Bay Marine Park. Prior to zoning of the park I conducted 166 surveys of the park's recreational fisheries, plotting the location of 16,009 anglers. I converted these plots into diagrams of fishing effort and analyzed correlates between fishing and habitat and the effect of two reserve designs-the draft and final zoning plans of the park-on the 15 fisheries observed. Fisheries were strongly correlated with particular habitats and had negatively skewed and often bimodal spatial distribution. The second mode of intensely fished habitat could be 6 SD greater than the fishery's mean allocation of effort by area. In the draft-zoning plan, sanctuary zone (no-take) area and potential subduction of fishing effort were similar. In the final plan, which was altered in response to public comment, the area of sanctuary zone increased, and the impact on fishing effort decreased. In only one case was a fishery's most intensely targeted location closed to fishing. Because of the discriminating manner with which fishers target habitats, if simple percentage targets are used for planning, sanctuary location can be adjusted to avoid existing fishing effort. According to modeled outcomes, the implication of this may be diminished reserve effectiveness. To address this, reserve area should be implicitly linked to subducted fishing effort when promoting or modeling MPAs. PMID:17002764

Lynch, Tim P

2006-10-01

103

Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast.

Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

2011-01-01

104

Strontium and barium uptake in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor and trace element analyses of fish otoliths (ear stones) may provide a high-resolution reconstruction of temperature histories and trace element compositions of aquatic systems where other environmental proxies are not available. However, before otoliths can be used to reconstruct water chemistry, it is essential to validate the assumption that trace metals in otoliths are deposited in proportion to dissolved

GRETCHEN E. BATH; S IMON R. THORROLD; CYNTHIA M. JONES; STEVEN E. CAMPANA; JAMES W. MCLAREN; JOSEPH W. H. LAM

2000-01-01

105

Effect of frying, grilling, and steaming on amino acid composition of marine fishes.  

PubMed

Amino acid and proximate compositions were determined in six raw and cooked marine fish species that are commonly consumed in Turkey. The changes in amino acid and proximate content were found to be significant for all cooking methods in all fish species. Cooking did, in general, significantly increase the contents of essential, semiessential, and other amino acids compared with raw fish species. Grilled Atlantic bonito, anchovy, and bluefish and fried mullet and hake appeared to be more valuable fish dishes for obtaining the officially recommended appropriate daily intake of essential amino acids for humans. Moisture, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents of raw fish ranged between 48.01% and 83.05%, 0.87% and 30.48%, 1.10% and 1.61%, and 0.09% and 8.70%, respectively. All fresh fish investigated were high in protein: 11.20-17.14 g/100 g. Wide variations in protein content (18.11-25.65 g/100 g) between species and methods of cooking were observed. Fried fish had intermediate fat values, whereas grilled and steamed fishes had a comparatively low value. PMID:20874243

Erkan, Nuray; Özden, Özkan; Selçuk, Arif

2010-12-01

106

Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A., Jr.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

2012-01-01

107

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PREDATORY FISH, FORAGE FISHES, AND JUVENILE SALMONID MARINE SURVIVAL OFF THE COLUMBIA RIVER: A SIMPLE TROPHIC MODEL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trophic model that simulates interactions between a predatory fish (Pacific hake, Merluccius productus), for- age fish, and juvenile salmon off the Columbia River was constructed to identify if trophic interactions could account for marine mortality of Columbia River juve- nile salmon. The model estimates the number of juve- nile salmon that are eaten annually by Pacific hake off the

ROBERT L. EMMETT; DAVID B. SAMPSON

108

A Locomotor Innovation Enables Water-Land Transition in a Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Background Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. Methodology/Principal Findings Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force) measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. Conclusions/Significance My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.

Hsieh, Shi-Tong Tonia

2010-01-01

109

DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide robust support for most morphologically based taxon concepts and also highlight key areas of taxonomic uncertainty worthy of reappraisal.

Mabragana, Ezequiel; Diaz de Astarloa, Juan Martin; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; Gonzalez Castro, Mariano

2011-01-01

110

Biocomplexity in a highly migratory pelagic marine fish, Atlantic herring  

PubMed Central

The existence of biologically differentiated populations has been credited with a major role in conferring sustainability and in buffering overall productivity of anadromous fish population complexes where evidence for spatial structure is uncontroversial. Here, we describe evidence of correlated genetic and life history (spawning season linked to spawning location) differentiation in an abundant and highly migratory pelagic fish, Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea (NS) and adjacent areas. The existence of genetically and phenotypically diverse stocks in this region despite intense seasonal mixing strongly implicates natal homing in this species. Based on information from genetic markers and otolith morphology, we estimate the proportional contribution by NS, Skagerrak (SKG) and Kattegat and western Baltic (WBS) fish to mixed aggregations targeted by the NS fishery. We use these estimates to identify spatial and temporal differences in life history (migratory behaviour) and habitat use among genetically differentiated migratory populations that mix seasonally. Our study suggests the existence of more complex patterns of intraspecific diversity than was previously recognized. Sustainability may be compromised if such complex patterns are reduced through generalized management (e.g. area closures) that overlooks population differences in spatial use throughout the life cycle.

Ruzzante, Daniel E; Mariani, Stefano; Bekkevold, Dorte; Andre, Carl; Mosegaard, Henrik; Clausen, Lotte A.W; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Hutchinson, William F; Hatfield, Emma M.C; Torstensen, Else; Brigham, Jennifer; Simmonds, E. John; Laikre, Linda; Larsson, Lena C; Stet, Rene J.M; Ryman, Nils; Carvalho, Gary R

2006-01-01

111

Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

Paddack, M. J.; Estes, J. A.

2000-01-01

112

Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish  

PubMed Central

As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment.

Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

2013-01-01

113

Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited  

PubMed Central

Background Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. Methods and Principal Findings Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. Conclusions Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution.

Ban, Natalie C.; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

2009-01-01

114

Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances.

2012-01-01

115

Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. PMID:24862838

Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

2014-08-01

116

Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae  

PubMed Central

All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae.

Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

2010-01-01

117

Embryonic exposure to PFOS induces immunosuppression in the fish larvae of marine medaka.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a global pollutant that has been studied because of its health risks. PFOS has been shown to have immune toxicity. However, few studies have focused on the immune responses of fish larvae exposed to PFOS at early embryonic stages. In this study, the larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were evaluated for postnatal immune toxicity after embryonic exposure to PFOS (0, 1, 4 and 16mg/L) from 2 days post fertilization (dpf). The physiological indices, survival rates, PFOS elimination kinetics, liver histology and gene transcription in the fish larvae were examined after depuration. The elimination rate constant (ke) of PFOS in the fish larvae ranged from 0.04±0.00 to 0.07±0.01d(-1). Embryonic exposure to PFOS severely compromised the postnatal survival of fish larvae after depuration. The survival rate and body width decreased in a concentration dependent manner. PFOS impaired the liver structure in the fish larvae by enlarging the cell nuclei and damaging the cell structure. To explore the toxic mechanisms that affect the immune responses, fish larvae at 27 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to elicit an inflammatory response. The inflammatory response and immune-related genes were generally up-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 0mg/L PFOS. In contrast, the genes were all markedly down-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 1 and 4mg/L PFOS. These results suggest that early life exposure to PFOS could alter immunoregulation functions, leading to functional dysfunction or weakness of the immune system in fish larvae. The immunosuppression effects caused by PFOS could reduce the efficiency of immune defense mechanisms and increase the susceptibility to infectious agents, which may contribute to various detrimental health effects in the fish larvae. PMID:23545396

Fang, Chao; Huang, Qiansheng; Ye, Ting; Chen, Yajie; Liu, Liangpo; Kang, Mei; Lin, Yi; Shen, Heqing; Dong, Sijun

2013-06-01

118

Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

2014-03-01

119

[Stoichiometry of cytochromes and oxygen tension in skeletal muscles of marine fish].  

PubMed

The character of oxygen tension distribution and peculiarities of cytochromes stoichiometry in skeletal muscles of bottom and pelagic species of marine fish were compared. It is shown, that the limitation of muscle activity increases the number of hypoxic zones in the muscle tissue. The mitochondrial electron-transporting chain then obtain the uncompensated type of organization, expressed in the increase of the share of the terminal complex aa3 on the background of general reduction of cytochromes content in the muscles. The reaction is of an adaptive character and can be implemented by pelagic fish species in conditions of experimental hypokinesia. PMID:24868912

Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

2014-01-01

120

Hepatic and Extrahepatic Microsomal Electron Transport Components and Mixed-Function Oxygenases in the Marine Fish 'Stenotomus versicolor'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, benzo(s)pyrene hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase activities in hepatic microsomes from the marine fish scup (Stenotomus versicolor) were characterized according to dependence of pH, temperature, ionic strength and Mg2+....

J. J. Stegeman R. L. Binder A. Orren

1978-01-01

121

Toxicity of Pyrethroids to Marine Invertebrates and Fish: A Literature Review and Test Results with Sediment-Sorbed Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on acute and chronic toxicity of permethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and flucythinate to marine invertebrates and fishes are reviewed. Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with sediment-source fenvalerate and cypermethrin under static and flow...

J. R. Clark L. R. Goodman P. W. Borthwick J. M. Patrick G. M. Cripe

1989-01-01

122

Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001–2.581 and 0.003–1.307?mg\\/kg, respectively; those for fish, such

Ju-Sung Park; So-Young Jung; Yeo-Joon Son; Su-Jeong Choi; Mi-Sun Kim; Jeong-Gon Kim; So-Hyun Park; Sang-Me Lee; Young-Zoo Chae; Min-Young Kim

2011-01-01

123

Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in the closing remarks delivered by Joseph Gaydos, SeaDoc Society and Chair of the Puget Sound Science Panel. Dr. Gaydos’ presentation referenced the 2011 paper by Murray Rudd in the journal Conservation Biology, “How research-prioritization exercises affect conservation policy.” The paper points out that policy makers and funding agencies are more likely to gain a full understanding of issues when they are presented with research findings from an aligned research program. That is, compared to unaligned research strategies, where work is not based on identified research priorities.

Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

2013-01-01

124

Determination of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn Concentration in Edible Marine Fish Acanthopagurus berda (DANDYA) Along Baluchistan Coast-Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been intensively investigated during recent years. The present study is related to the monitoring of heavy metal distribution in the edible marine fish, 'Dandya'. The fish samples were digested by using a mixture of 5 mL HNO3 (65%) and 0.5 mL HClO4 (70%) and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result

ITRAT ZEHRA; TASNEEM KAUSER; ERUM ZAHIR; IFTIKHAR IMAM NAQVI

125

Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: Low activity of fatty acyl ?5 desaturation in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fish have an absolute dietary requirement for C20 and C22 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies using cultured cell lines indicated that underlying this requirement in\\u000a marine fish was either a deficiency in fatty acyl ?5 desaturase or C18–20 elongase activity. Recent research in turbot cells found low C18–20 elongase but high ?5 desaturase activity. In the present study,

Douglas R. Tocher; Cristina Ghioni

1999-01-01

126

Trajectories and magnitude of change in coral reef fish populations in Philippine marine reserves: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are widely implemented worldwide to meet both conservation and fisheries management goals. This study examines\\u000a the efficacy of Philippine marine reserves using meta-analysis by comparing variations in fish density (1) between reserves\\u000a and adjacent fished reefs (spatial comparison), (2) within reserves before establishment relative to years following the establishment\\u000a (temporal comparison), and (3) among reserves classified based on

R. J. Maliao; A. T. White; A. P. Maypa; R. G. Turingan

2009-01-01

127

A CARD-FISH protocol for the identification and enumeration of epiphytic bacteria on marine algae.  

PubMed

A CARD-FISH protocol was developed and applied to analyse surface-associated bacteria on the marine algae Ulva lactuca, Delisea pulchra, Corallina officinalis, Amphiroa anceps, Porphyra sp. and Sargassum linearifolium. The combination of Alexa(546)-labelled tyramide as the reporter molecule with SYBR Green II counterstain allowed for superior detection of the hybridised probe fluorescence against plant tissue from which pigment autofluorescence has been reduced. PMID:16216355

Tujula, Niina A; Holmström, Carola; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Crocetti, Gregory R

2006-06-01

128

Agar culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious pathogen of farmed salmonid and marine fish.  

PubMed

Piscirickettsia salmonis, a serious bacterial pathogen of farmed marine fish, previously considered culturable only in eukaryotic cell-culture systems, was grown for the first time on agar and broth containing enhanced levels of cysteine, thus greatly increasing the potential for isolation, in vitro culture and study of this organism. Virulence towards Atlantic salmon following passage on agar media was retained in a controlled laboratory trial. Of the studied temperatures, optimal growth on agar was observed at 22 degrees C. PMID:18028392

Mikalsen, Jarle; Skjaervik, Olaf; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Wasmuth, Marit A; Colquhoun, Duncan J

2008-01-01

129

Absolute stereostructures of chaetomugilins G and H produced by a marine-fish-derived Chaetomium species.  

PubMed

Chaetomugilins G and H were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish, Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and chemical transformation. In addition, the absolute configuration of chaetoviridin C was established by derivatization from chaetomugilin A. These compounds exhibited a growth inhibitory activity against cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cells. PMID:19461670

Yamada, Takeshi; Yasuhide, Muroga; Shigeta, Hirohumi; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

2009-07-01

130

Mercuric chloride induced proteotoxicity and structural destabilization in marine fish (Therapon jarbua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction byproducts derived from lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were measured in tissues of marine fish (Therapon jarbua) exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl) in water dispersions of 0.125 or 0.25 ppm. LPO was significantly increased in various tissues relative to control values after 96-h exposure. SOD and

N. Nagarani; V. Janaki Devi; A. K. Kumaraguru

2011-01-01

131

Do Mediterranean fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs differ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish assemblages associated with marine caves and rocky cliffs were investigated in the Salento Peninsula (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea) by using visual census methods. Sampling was done at three sites, each of which included 4 habitat types: the external and the internal portions of caves, and shallow and deep rocky cliffs. 10 and 13 species were found exclusively inside cave habitats (e.g. Corcyrogobius lichtensteini, Thorogobius ephippiatus and Grammonus ater) or in rocky cliffs (e.g. Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa, Sparisoma cretense, Spondyliosoma cantharus), respectively. The four habitat types shared 10 species, and the external portions of the caves shared the most species (both with the internal cave portions and the external rocky cliffs). As a general rule, dissimilarity in the fish assemblage structure between habitats was far greater than dissimilarity between sites. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with caves) and Chromis chromis (typifying rocky cliffs, mainly the deep ones) mostly contributed to dissimilarities between caves and rocky cliffs. Apogon imberbis (mostly associated with internal caves) and Coris julis (mainly associated to external cave portions) contributed strongly to dissimilarities between internal and external cave portions, while C. chromis, Symphodus mediterraneus and C. julis (associated with the deeper cliffs) and Thalassoma pavo (mostly present in shallow cliffs) differentiated deep and shallow cliffs. Diplodus vulgaris, Oblada melanura and Mullus surmuletus showed a marked increase in density during the cold season in the caves. These results show that fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs rich in marine caves (in terms of relative densities, species composition, species richness, exclusive species and presence of juveniles of some valuable species) may be affected by the peculiar ecological conditions within caves, which could provide additional resources for fishes (e.g. food availability, refuge against predators, sand patches within a rocky matrix) compared to rocky reefs without caves. These results suggest that stretches of rocky coasts rich in marine caves should be considered within management/conservation programs (e.g. when establishing Marine Protected Areas).

Bussotti, S.; Guidetti, P.

2009-01-01

132

New species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) from marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new coccidian species are described from marine fish collected on the French Mediterranean coast near Banyuls-sur-Mer and on the coast of Newfoundland. All have sporocysts with well-developed Stieda bodies and are placed into the genusEimeria: E. catalana sp. nova from the intestine ofCrenilabrus mediterraneus, E. hexagona sp. nova from the digestive tract ofOnos tricirratus, E. ivanae sp. nova from

Ji?í Lom; Iva Dykovfi

1981-01-01

133

In situ ontogeny of behaviour in pelagic larvae of three temperate, marine, demersal fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of behaviour relevant to dispersal was studied in situ with reared pelagic larvae of three warm temperate, marine,\\u000a demersal fishes: Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Acanthopagrus australis and Pagrus auratus (both Sparidae). Larvae of 5–14 mm SL were released in the sea, and their swimming speed, depth and direction were observed\\u000a by divers. Behaviour differed among species, and to some extent,

Jeffrey M. Leis; Amanda C. Hay; Thomas Trnski

2006-01-01

134

A CARD–FISH protocol for the identification and enumeration of epiphytic bacteria on marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CARD–FISH protocol was developed and applied to analyse surface-associated bacteria on the marine algae Ulva lactuca, Delisea pulchra, Corallina officinalis, Amphiroa anceps, Porphyra sp. and Sargassum linearifolium. The combination of Alexa546-labelled tyramide as the reporter molecule with SYBR Green II counterstain allowed for superior detection of the hybridised probe fluorescence against plant tissue from which pigment autofluorescence has been

Niina A. Tujula; Carola Holmström; Marc Mußmann; Rudolf Amann; Staffan Kjelleberg; Gregory R. Crocetti

2006-01-01

135

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these\\u000a three cell lines

Hua-Rong Guo; Shi-Cui Zhang; Hong-Yan Li; Shang-Liang Tong; Jian-Hai Xiang

2002-01-01

136

Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages  

PubMed Central

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

137

Description and genetic characterisation of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) larvae parasitic in Australian marine fishes.  

PubMed

Nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (family Raphidascarididae) infect various species of marine fish in both the larval and adult stages. Humans can be accidentally infected upon eating infected seafood. In spite of their importance, relatively little is known of their occurrence and systematics in Australia. An examination of various species of marine teleosts in Australian waters revealed a high prevalence of Hysterothylacium larval types. In the present study, seven previously undescribed Hysterothylacium larval morphotypes (V to VII and IX to XII) were discovered. In total we found 10 different morphotypes and we genetically characterised nine morphotypes identified. A morphological dichotomous identification key has been established to differentiate these morphotypes. Since some larvae of Hysterothylacium from marine fishes cannot be differentiated morphologically from other nematode larvae, such as Paraheterotyphlum, Heterotyphlum, Iheringascaris and Lapetascaris, the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of these larvae were characterised to confirm their taxonomic status. This genetic characterisation implied that some distinct morphotypes belong to different developmental stages of the same species. In addition, it revealed that some morphotypes can comprise distinct genotypes. No match was found between ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences obtained from larvae in the present study and those from adults available in the GenBank, highlighting the lack of knowledge on occurrence of adult nematodes infecting Australian fish. PMID:23085044

Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Gasser, Robin; Beveridge, Ian

2013-06-01

138

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

139

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

140

Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.  

PubMed

In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

2011-01-01

141

Methylmercury and trace elements in the marine fish from coasts of East China.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is an important source of human exposure to heavy metals. To determine the health risks for metals by consumption of marine fish in China, three species of fish, namely large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were collected and analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (T-Hg), selenium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. The large yellow croakers had the highest concentrations of mercury, lead, nickel and zinc, and the levels of MeHg were positively correlated to T-Hg. The ratios of MeHg to T-Hg in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in silver pomfret, indicating differences in accumulation and magnification of MeHg in these two types of fish. The concentration of T-Hg was found to decrease as the Se level in fish tissues increased. Cadmium levels in 16% of the samples were higher than the criterion recommended by the European Commission Regulation. The concentrations of other metals were well below international standards. A human health risk assessment showed that the estimated daily intake of these metals did not exceed the reference dose established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The hazard quotients (HQs) were all less than 1, indicating a situation of no risk for consumption of these fish. PMID:23802158

Xia, Chonghuan; Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

2013-01-01

142

Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125ng\\/g wet wt) and axial

K. C. Cheung; H. M. Leung; K. Y. Kong; M. H. Wong

2007-01-01

143

Do You Know Our Marine Fish? A Marine Education Infusion Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide teaching materials for middle school and junior high school teachers in northern New England, this marine education unit presents teacher-tested ideas and activities for use in the classroom and in field trips to the ocean. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so teachers of many…

Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip

144

Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish samples, collected from Suruga-bay (located on Pacific coast in the middle of Honshu, Japan) showed 1E-10 to 7E-10, which was consistent with that of surface seawater.

Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

2014-05-01

145

Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.  

PubMed

Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ?6/?3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality. PMID:24799210

Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

2014-10-01

146

A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas (MPAs) can benefit fisheries through export of pelagic eggs and larvae and the net emigration of adults and juveniles (spillover). Spillover was investigated for a marine protected area on the north shore of Oahu, Hawai‘i utilizing a seascape approach. This study incorporated habitat variables and underwater visual surveys of fishes and benthos measured at two distinct scales (125 m2 and 1000 m2) inside and outside the protected area at varying distance from the boundary. The relationship between fish biomass from fine-scale surveys and key habitat variables was found to account for a large portion of the variability for both resource (targeted) fish species (15%) and non-resource fish (28%). The remaining variation in resource fish biomass was significantly correlated with distance from the MPA boundary showing a decreasing gradient from inside to outside (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.001), indicating fish spillover at a local scale (p = 0.45). The evidence of spillover based on the fine-scale surveys was corroborated by results from broad-scale surveys, which also showed a significant relationship (r2 = 0.19, p < 0.01) between resource fish biomass and distance from the MPA boundary. In addition, observed spatial distribution of fishing effort was consistent with predictions that fishers respond to biomass gradients across protected area boundaries. Fish spillover can help mitigate costs associated with the establishment of marine protected areas in terms of lost fishing area and therefore have a positive effect on the attitudes of fishers toward marine reserves and marine protected areas.

Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2013-01-01

147

Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish.  

PubMed

Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A(2). We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H(2)O(2)) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

Grim, Jeffrey M; Hyndman, Kelly A; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W; Crockett, Elizabeth L

2011-11-15

148

Are We Predicting the Actual or Apparent Distribution of Temperate Marine Fishes?  

PubMed Central

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change – particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km2 study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions.

Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L.

2012-01-01

149

Are we predicting the actual or apparent distribution of temperate marine fishes?  

PubMed

Planning for resilience is the focus of many marine conservation programs and initiatives. These efforts aim to inform conservation strategies for marine regions to ensure they have inbuilt capacity to retain biological diversity and ecological function in the face of global environmental change--particularly changes in climate and resource exploitation. In the absence of direct biological and ecological information for many marine species, scientists are increasingly using spatially-explicit, predictive-modeling approaches. Through the improved access to multibeam sonar and underwater video technology these models provide spatial predictions of the most suitable regions for an organism at resolutions previously not possible. However, sensible-looking, well-performing models can provide very different predictions of distribution depending on which occurrence dataset is used. To examine this, we construct species distribution models for nine temperate marine sedentary fishes for a 25.7 km(2) study region off the coast of southeastern Australia. We use generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM) and maximum entropy (MAXENT) to build models based on co-located occurrence datasets derived from two underwater video methods (i.e. baited and towed video) and fine-scale multibeam sonar based seafloor habitat variables. Overall, this study found that the choice of modeling approach did not considerably influence the prediction of distributions based on the same occurrence dataset. However, greater dissimilarity between model predictions was observed across the nine fish taxa when the two occurrence datasets were compared (relative to models based on the same dataset). Based on these results it is difficult to draw any general trends in regards to which video method provides more reliable occurrence datasets. Nonetheless, we suggest predictions reflecting the species apparent distribution (i.e. a combination of species distribution and the probability of detecting it). Consequently, we also encourage researchers and marine managers to carefully interpret model predictions. PMID:22536325

Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Harvey, Euan; Rattray, Alex; Versace, Vincent L

2012-01-01

150

Regulation of red fluorescent light emission in a cryptic marine fish  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal colouration is a trade-off between being seen by intended, intra- or inter-specific receivers while not being seen by the unintended. Many fishes solve this problem by adaptive colouration. Here, we investigate whether this also holds for fluorescent pigments. In those aquatic environments in which the ambient light is dominated by bluish light, red fluorescence can generate high-contrast signals. The marine, cryptic fish Tripterygion delaisi inhabits such environments and has a bright red-fluorescent iris that can be rapidly up- and down-regulated. Here, we described the physiological and cellular mechanism of this phenomenon using a neurostimulation treatment with KCl and histology. Results KCl-treatment revealed that eye fluorescence regulation is achieved through dispersal and aggregation of black-pigmented melanosomes within melanophores. Histology showed that globular, fluorescent iridophores on the anterior side of the iris are grouped and each group is encased by finger-like extensions of a single posterior melanophore. Together they form a so-called chromatophore unit. By dispersal and aggregation of melanosomes into and out of the peripheral membranous extensions of the melanophore, the fluorescent iridophores are covered or revealed on the anterior (outside) of the iris. Conclusion T. delaisi possesses a well-developed mechanism to control the fluorescent emission from its eyes, which may be advantageous given its cryptic lifestyle. This is the first time chromatophore units are found to control fluorescent emission in marine teleost fishes. We expect other fluorescent fish species to use similar mechanisms in the iris or elsewhere in the body. In contrast to a previously described mechanism based on dendritic fluorescent chromatophores, chromatophore units control fluorescent emission through the cooperation between two chromatophore types: an emitting and an occluding type. The discovery of a second mechanism for fluorescence modulation strengthens our view that fluorescence is a relevant and adaptive component of fish colouration.

2014-01-01

151

Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.  

PubMed

Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss. PMID:24507451

Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

2014-03-15

152

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.  

PubMed

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296-1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling. PMID:24776718

Pham, Christopher K; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

153

Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish.  

PubMed

To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

Jackson, Alexis M; Semmens, Brice X; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S; Heppell, Scott A; Bush, Phillippe G; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A B; Calosso, Marta C; Sealey, Kathleen S; Schärer, Michelle T; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

154

Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST?=?0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.004) and SNPs (FST?=?0.002, p?=?0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions.

Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Scharer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

2014-01-01

155

Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Bottom trawl fishing threatens deep-sea ecosystems, modifying the seafloor morphology and its physical properties, with dramatic consequences on benthic communities. Therefore, the future of deep-sea fishing relies on alternative techniques that maintain the health of deep-sea ecosystems and tolerate appropriate human uses of the marine environment. In this study, we demonstrate that deep-sea bottom longline fishing has little impact on vulnerable marine ecosystems, reducing bycatch of cold-water corals and limiting additional damage to benthic communities. We found that slow-growing vulnerable species are still common in areas subject to more than 20 years of longlining activity and estimate that one deep-sea bottom trawl will have a similar impact to 296–1,719 longlines, depending on the morphological complexity of the impacted species. Given the pronounced differences in the magnitude of disturbances coupled with its selectivity and low fuel consumption, we suggest that regulated deep-sea longlining can be an alternative to deep-sea bottom trawling.

Pham, Christopher K.; Diogo, Hugo; Menezes, Gui; Porteiro, Filipe; Braga-Henriques, Andreia; Vandeperre, Frederic; Morato, Telmo

2014-01-01

156

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS AND RECOVERY OF A NEW NEMATODE SPECIES DUJARDINASCARIS MUJIBI (HETEROCHEILIDAE) FROM A MARINE EDIBLE FISH OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is an important factor in the fish biology, to the extent of governing their growth, maturity and migratory movements. Therefore, this research was aimed to investigate the feeding habits of marine edible fish Sphyraena forsteri (Cuvier, 1829) collected during February 2006 to July 2007 from fresh landing at fish harbor, Karachi coast, Pakistan. The gut analysis of 120 fish

Y. AKHTAR; F. M. BILQEES

157

Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.  

PubMed

Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt. PMID:15038000

Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

2004-04-01

158

Chaetomugilins, new selectively cytotoxic metabolites, produced by a marine fish-derived Chaetomium species.  

PubMed

Chaetomugilins A-F have been isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum originally isolated from the marine fish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, some chemical transformations and an X-ray analysis. These compounds exhibited significant growth inhibition against cultured P388 cells and HL-60 cells. In addition, chaetomugilins A, C and F showed selective cytotoxic activities against 39 human cancer cell lines. PMID:19168975

Yasuhide, Muroga; Yamada, Takeshi; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

2008-10-01

159

Three new azaphilones produced by a marine fish-derived chaetomium globosum.  

PubMed

Three new metabolites, chaetomugilin S, dechloro-chaetomugilin A and dechloro-chaetomugilin D, were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marine fish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated based on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and some chemical transformations. Particularly, chaetomugilins T and U are the first compounds without a chlorine atom in azaphilones isolated from this fungal strain, to date. In addition, these compounds moderately inhibited the growth of cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cell lines. PMID:22617549

Yamada, Takeshi; Jinno, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

2012-08-01

160

Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

Polonium-210 ((210)Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher (210)Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg(-1) for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg(-1) for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. PMID:24334195

Mársico, E T; Ferreira, M S; São Clemente, S C; Gouvea, R C S; Jesus, E F O; Conti, C C; Conte, C A; Kelecom, A G A C

2014-02-01

161

Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.  

PubMed

Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes. PMID:22701606

Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

2012-01-01

162

Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical-biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30-60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28-89%. PMID:23007086

Blanchard, Julia L; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Barange, Manuel

2012-11-01

163

Potential consequences of climate change for primary production and fish production in large marine ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Existing methods to predict the effects of climate change on the biomass and production of marine communities are predicated on modelling the interactions and dynamics of individual species, a very challenging approach when interactions and distributions are changing and little is known about the ecological mechanisms driving the responses of many species. An informative parallel approach is to develop size-based methods. These capture the properties of food webs that describe energy flux and production at a particular size, independent of species' ecology. We couple a physical–biogeochemical model with a dynamic, size-based food web model to predict the future effects of climate change on fish biomass and production in 11 large regional shelf seas, with and without fishing effects. Changes in potential fish production are shown to most strongly mirror changes in phytoplankton production. We project declines of 30–60% in potential fish production across some important areas of tropical shelf and upwelling seas, most notably in the eastern Indo-Pacific, the northern Humboldt and the North Canary Current. Conversely, in some areas of the high latitude shelf seas, the production of pelagic predators was projected to increase by 28–89%.

Blanchard, Julia L.; Jennings, Simon; Holmes, Robert; Harle, James; Merino, Gorka; Allen, J. Icarus; Holt, Jason; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Barange, Manuel

2012-01-01

164

Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.  

PubMed

Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish. PMID:16870232

Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

2007-01-01

165

The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through otolith microchemical and electronic tagging approaches. Retentive and dispersive behaviours confer resiliency against early survival conditions that vary spatially. Examples of contingent structure are increasingly numerous for diadromous fishes. Here, a nursery habitat associated with a contingent behaviour may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. For flatfish and other marine fishes, contingent structure is probable but not well documented. Proximate factors leading to contingent structure are poorly known, but for diadromous fishes, time of spawning and early life history energetic thresholds is hypothesized to lead to alternative life cycles. Here again time of spawning may lead to the storage effect by hedging against spatial variance in early vital rates. Managing for the storage effect will be promoted by conservation of adult age structure and early habitats upon which both strong and weak year-classes rely.

Secor, David H.

2007-02-01

166

Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from korean coastal fish markets.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

2014-06-01

167

Barriers to gene flow in Embiotoca jacksoni, a marine fish lacking a pelagic larval stage.  

PubMed

Marine species generally show high dispersal capabilities, which should be accompanied by high levels of gene flow and low speciation rates. However, studies that focused on the relationship between dispersal and gene flow in marine fishes have been inconclusive. This study focuses on the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni, a temperate reef fish that lacks a pelagic larval stage and lives on almost continuous reefs along the California and Baja California coasts. Mitochondrial control-region sequences from 240 individuals were obtained, and phylogeographic patterns were analyzed. A major phylogeographic break was found at Santa Monica Bay, a sandy expanse that prevents adult dispersal. Deep water separating the southern California Channel Islands was also found to be a major barrier to gene flow. Minor phylogeographic breaks were also detected in the Big Sur/Morro Bay and in the Punta Eugenia/Guerrero Negro regions, but none in the Point Conception region. Gene flow levels in E. jacksoni were found to be almost identical to those of another species with limited dispersal, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, thus indicating that the lack of a pelagic larval stage combined with barriers to adult dispersal may have had similar effects on these two species. PMID:10937199

Bernardi, G

2000-02-01

168

Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters. PMID:22779112

Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

2012-06-01

169

Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction  

PubMed Central

Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates—fishes—remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims.

Friedman, Matt

2009-01-01

170

A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

2011-02-01

171

Ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction.  

PubMed

Despite the attention focused on mass extinction events in the fossil record, patterns of extinction in the dominant group of marine vertebrates-fishes-remain largely unexplored. Here, I demonstrate ecomorphological selectivity among marine teleost fishes during the end-Cretaceous extinction, based on a genus-level dataset that accounts for lineages predicted on the basis of phylogeny but not yet sampled in the fossil record. Two ecologically relevant anatomical features are considered: body size and jaw-closing lever ratio. Extinction intensity is higher for taxa with large body sizes and jaws consistent with speed (rather than force) transmission; resampling tests indicate that victims represent a nonrandom subset of taxa present in the final stage of the Cretaceous. Logistic regressions of the raw data reveal that this nonrandom distribution stems primarily from the larger body sizes of victims relative to survivors. Jaw mechanics are also a significant factor for most dataset partitions but are always less important than body size. When data are corrected for phylogenetic nonindependence, jaw mechanics show a significant correlation with extinction risk, but body size does not. Many modern large-bodied, predatory taxa currently suffering from overexploitation, such billfishes and tunas, first occur in the Paleocene, when they appear to have filled the functional space vacated by some extinction victims. PMID:19276106

Friedman, Matt

2009-03-31

172

Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury in several marine fish species.  

PubMed

Bioaccessibility refers to the maximum bioavailability of pollutant ingested with food, and its measurements can lead to a more accurate risk assessment as compared to the measurements of total concentrations of pollutant in food. This study examined the factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury (MeHg) in nine species of marine fish with an aim to identify ways of reducing MeHg bioaccessibility. MeHg bioaccessibility without any treatment in the nine species of marine fish ranged from 16.0 to 67.7%. Steaming, grilling, and frying reduced MeHg bioaccessibility by 29.4-77.4% for rabbitfish and 74.6-95.8% for grouper. Co-consumption of phytochemical-rich foods such as green tea decreased the bioaccessibility of MeHg by 72.2% for rabbitfish and 74.0% for grouper, whereas meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid increased it by 39.2-108% for rabbitfish and 45.3-75.7% for grouper. The bioaccessibilities of both MeHg and inorganic mercury were independent of the total Hg concentration and the exposure route (dietary vs dissolved). In eight of the nine species studied, bioaccessibility was negatively correlated with the extent to which MeHg was partitioned into the metal-rich granule fraction and the trophically available fraction. It was positively correlated with partitioning into the cellular debris fraction. This study demonstrated the important control of subcellular distribution in MeHg bioaccessibility. PMID:21650469

He, Mei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2011-07-13

173

Toxicity of Residual Chlorines from Hypochlorite-treated Seawater to Marine Amphipod Hyale barbicornis and Estuarine Fish Oryzias javanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess possible adverse effects of residual chlorines from hypochlorite-treated seawater to non-target marine organisms,\\u000a bioassays were carried out on marine amphipod Hyale barbicornis and estuarine fish Oryzias javanicus. Acute toxicity tests were first conducted using various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by a long-term\\u000a exposure to residual chlorines from a test water treated with 1 mg L?1 NaOCl. Results

Nathaniel C. Añasco; Jiro Koyama; Shoko Imai; Kuniaki Nakamura

2008-01-01

174

Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish  

PubMed Central

Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protection Agency standard acute fish bioassays, cigarette butt-derived leachate was analysed for aquatic toxicity. Survival was the single endpoint and data were analysed using Comprehensive Environmental Toxicity Information System to identify the LC50 of cigarette butt leachate to fish. Results The LC50 for leachate from smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco) was approximately one cigarette butt/l for both the marine topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the freshwater fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Leachate from smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco), was less toxic, with LC50 values of 1.8 and 4.3 cigarette butts/l, respectively for both fish species. Unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) were also found to be toxic, with LC50 values of 5.1 and 13.5 cigarette butts/l, respectively, for both fish species. Conclusion Toxicity of cigarette butt leachate was found to increase from unsmoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette filters (no tobacco) to smoked cigarette butts (smoked filter + tobacco). This study represents the first in the literature to investigate and affirm the toxicity of cigarette butts to fish, and will assist in assessing the potential ecological risks of cigarette butts to the aquatic environment.

Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

2011-01-01

175

Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in coastal marine fishes.  

PubMed

Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in marine fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics. PMID:23929385

Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

2013-11-01

176

Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: radionuclide concentrations in fish and clams and estimated doses via the marine pathway  

SciTech Connect

The survey consisted, in part, of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates. As a secondary phase, terrestrial and marine samples were collected to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to atoll inhabitants. The marine sample collection, processing, and dose assessment methodology are presented as well as the concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and any of the other gamma emitters in fish and clam muscle tissue from the different species collected. Doses are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in fish and clam muscle tissue assuming an average daily intake of 200 and 10 g, respectivelty. The /sup 90/Sr concentration in muscle tissue is very low and there is little difference in the average concentrations from the different fish from different atolls or islands. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentration in the muscle tissue of all reef species, however, is higher than that in pelagic lagoon fish. In contrast, /sup 137/Cs concentrations are lowest in the muscle tissue of the bottom-feeding reef species and highest in pelagic logoon fish. Recent measurements of radionuclide concentrations in fish muscle tissue and other marine dietary items from international sources show that the average concentrations in species from the Marshall Islands are comparable to those in fish typically consumed as food in the United States and are generally lower than those in most international marine dietary items. The whole-body dose rates based on continuous consumption of 200 g/d of fish range from 0.028 to 0.1 mrem/y; the bone-marrow dose rates range from 0.029 to 0.12 mrem/y. The dose commitment, or 30-y integral doses, range from 0.00063 to 0.0022 rem for the whole body and from 0.00065 to 0.0032 rem for the bone marrow. (ERB)

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Eagle, R.J.

1981-08-18

177

Three novel myxobolid species of genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from marine fish in Japan.  

PubMed

Myxosporean genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) are closely related in morphology and molecular phylogeny, speciose with approximately 1,000 nominal species. The majority of them are recorded from freshwater fish worldwide, and few are known from marine fish. In this study, three myxobolid spp. are described from marine fish around Japan. Two novel Henneguya spp., Henneguya ogawai sp. n. and Henneguya yokoyamai sp. n., are described from two black sea breams (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) fished in the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan. Plasmodia of the former species were localized in the esophageal or intestinal wall, and those of the latter species were in the wall of the gall bladder and peritoneum. Spore development in plasmodia of these two species was synchronous. The spore body of H. ogawai sp. n. was 11.0 (8.9-12.2)??m in length, 6.9 (6.3-7.5)??m in width, 5.9 (5.2-6.6)??m in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 10.0 (8.4-12.7)??m long; total spore length, 21.1 (19.2-23.4)??m. It contained two polar capsule, 4.3 (3.8-5.2)?×?1.9 (1.4-2.3)??m. The spore body of H. yokoyamai sp. n. was 11.0 (10.1-13.7)??m in length, 7.1 (6.6-7.5)??m in width, and 5.6 (4.5-6.4)??m in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 14.1 (10.8-17.0)??m long; total spore length, 25.0 (21.9-29.2)??m. It contained two polar capsules, 3.7 (3.1-4.2)?×?2.0 (1.8-2.4)??m. A novel Myxobolus sp., Myxobolus machidai sp. n., is described from a spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) fished in the Sea of Japan, off Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Plasmodia were embedded in the esophageal wall. Its round spore was small in size, 9.0 (8.1-9.4)??m in length, 7.8 (7.5-8.3)??m in width, and 5.5 (5.1-6.0)??m in thickness. It contained two polar capsules, 3.5 (3.2-3.8)?×?2.3 (2.2-2.5)??m. Spore development in a plasmodium was asynchronous. Nucleotide sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of these two novel Henneguya spp. revealed a close phylogenetic relationship with the marine clade of Henneguya spp.; however, they were distinct in morphology and SSU rDNA sequence from any known species. M. machidai sp. n. was grouped with freshwater Henneguya spp. in a phylogenetic tree based on the SSU rDNA, distant from a known marine clade of Myxobolus spp. reported mainly from the Mediterranean Sea. This is the first record of Henneguya-Myxobolus spp. from natural marine water in Japan. PMID:22476601

Li, Yang-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yoichi; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2012-08-01

178

Parasites as biological tags for stock discrimination in marine fish from South American Atlantic waters.  

PubMed

The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space. PMID:17578590

Timi, Juan T

2007-06-01

179

Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands:
an annotated checklist.
 

PubMed

An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts. PMID:24871150

Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

2014-01-01

180

The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and ?-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

2010-12-01

181

Comparing the nursery role of inner continental shelf and estuarine habitats for temperate marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine-estuarine transition represents an important biogeographic boundary, yet juvenile marine finfish have been observed in both temperate inner continental shelf (ICS) and estuarine habitats during the summer nursery period. In a direct comparison of ICS and estuary nurseries, spatial and temporal patterns in species composition, biodiversity, size structure, and relative abundance of age-0 fishes were tested using contemporaneous data from multiyear (2004-2006) trawl surveys of the Maryland ICS near Assateague Island, MD, and lower Chesapeake Bay, VA (estuary). Survey data from both habitats showed similar seasonal progression of assemblage structure, biodiversity phenologies, and dominant species identities. Late summer densities for four of five numerically dominant species varied by habitat. Densities of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and Atlantic butterfish Peprilus triacanthus were higher in the ICS; whereas summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus density was higher in the estuary. Density of spot Leiostomus xanthurus did not differ between habitats. Apparent daily growth rates of these five species, as estimated by modal length progression, were not significantly different between the two habitats. Although individual species displayed varying affinities for ICS versus estuarine habitats, this study provides strong evidence that the ICS of the Middle Atlantic Bight is capable of functioning interchangeably with polyhaline estuarine regions as nursery habitat for a diverse group of marine finfish.

Woodland, Ryan J.; Secor, David H.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Wilberg, Michael J.

2012-03-01

182

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys.

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciercoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-Jose; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Saez, Raquel

2014-01-01

183

Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.  

PubMed

The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani

2012-09-01

184

Respiratory uptake kinetics of neutral hydrophobic organic chemicals in a marine benthic fish, Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae.  

PubMed

We investigated the respiratory uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organohalogen pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE #47) in a marine benthic fish, Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae. The respiratory uptake efficiencies (EW) of the chemicals, of which there have been no reports for the majority of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), were obtained by measuring the respiratory uptake rate constants (k1) and the oxygen consumption rates of fish. Fish were exposed to water in which these chemicals were dissolved at environmentally relevant concentrations for 28 d, followed by 168 d of depuration in clean seawater. The k1 and EW values for 99 compounds were obtained, and they ranged from 2000 to 42000 L kg-lipid(-1) d(-1) and from 0.060 to 1.3, respectively. The EW values of the chemicals, except for PAHs, tended to increase with increasing values of the log octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW) of the chemicals up to a log KOW of 5. For log KOW in the range 3-5, the EW values in this study were much lower than those in a published study (about one-third). As a result of analysis by a two-phase resistance model, the resistance of transport rates to the lipid phase in this study was lower than was the case in the published study. These findings indicate that the EW predicted by the published study for log KOW in the range 3-5 may differ among fish species and water temperature, and further study is needed. PMID:23962382

Kobayashi, Jun; Sakurai, Takeo; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Shunji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Kawai, Toru; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Takada, Hideshige; Suzuki, Noriyuki

2013-11-01

185

Evidence for spillover of reef fishes from a no-take marine reserve: An evaluation using the before-after control-impact (BACI) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-take marine reserves (NTRs) may promote recovery of exploited populations within their boundaries and spillover of fishes to adjacent fishing grounds, thus potentially benefiting the local fisheries. Although some studies have measured spillover by examining gradients of fish abundance and body size across reserve boundaries, there are no such studies to date including information from before reserve establishment, thus seriously

R. B. Francini-Filho; R. L. Moura

2008-01-01

186

The supply of amino acids during early feeding stages of marine fish larvae: a review of recent findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In marine fish larvae, the sum of protein deposition, turnover and catabolism necessary for their rapid growth dictates a high amino acid (AA) requirement. Once the yolk is exhausted, the digestive tract becomes the vital organ that ensures a steady supply of dietary AA to the growing larval tissues. In this paper, we discuss the demand and availability of AA

I. Rønnestad; S. K. Tonheim; H. J. Fyhn; C. R. Rojas-Garc??a; Y. Kamisaka; W. Koven; R. N. Finn; B. F. Terjesen; Y. Barr; L. E. C. Conceição

2003-01-01

187

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a Simple Tool to Aid Modelling of Particulate Waste Distribution at Marine Fish Cage Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of particulate organic waste from marine fish farm cages on to sea-bed sediments can cause major changes to the benthic ecosystem. Validated spatial models are considered as the most cost-effective tools for predicting environmental impacts. An improved version of an existing predictive particulate waste distribution model for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is presented, which uses Geographic Information

O. M. Pérez; T. C. Telfer; M. C. M. Beveridge; L. G. Ross

2002-01-01

188

Two Anisakid Nematodes from Marine Fishes off New Caledonia, Including Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris ) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce & Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri

František Moravec; Jean-Lou Justine

2005-01-01

189

Comparative digestive enzyme ontogeny in two marine larval fishes: Pacific threadfin ( Polydactylus sexfilis ) and bluefin trevally ( Caranx melampygus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific activity of digestive enzymes; aspartic and serine protease, collagenase, lipase, acid and alkaline amylase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and chitinase was assayed throughout early development in two species of marine fishes: the Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis) and bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus). Specific enzyme activities were determined on whole larval extracts sampled at selected stages of development, from day

Bong G. Kim; S. Divakaran; Christopher L. Brown; Anthony C. Ostrowski

2001-01-01

190

Molecular identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes collected in Turkish waters.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis (or anisakidosis). These parasites in the Turkish waters still remain unexplored. This study aims the molecular identification of Anisakis species in Turkey's coast from Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea and specifically to screen for zoonotic species in commonly commercialized a total of 1145 fish belonging to 31 different species using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene. A total of 776 Anisakis type I larvae were isolated in 56/1145 (4.8%) fish of 7 species from Turkish waters. The combining all of our results, e.g., morphology, PCR-RFLP, ITS region, and the cox2 gene, conclusively supported the identification of 3 Anisakis spp. taken from marine fish hosts, namely Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis typica and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.str.)/A. pegreffii hybrid genotype. No Anisakis larvae were isolated from the Black Sea whereas A. pegreffii, A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotype was found in the Aegean Sea and A. pegreffii was only isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. This study represents the first identification of A. typica and A. simplex s.str./A. pegreffii hybrid genotypes from Turkish waters. Moreover, in the present study first record of the presence of A. pegreffii is also reported from Turkish coasts of Aegean and Mediterranean Sea. No zoonotic Anisakis species were found in commonly commercialized 1025 fish belonging to 16 different species from the Black Sea, thus Turkish populations who consume captured fish from the Black Sea may have a less risk of human anisakiasis or allergies. However, the prevalence of larvae were 47.1% and 46% and recognized zoonotic A. pegreffii were identified from the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coast, suggesting a high threat of anisakiasis or allergies for Turkish populations who consume fish originating in these regions. PMID:24485564

Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Yardimci, Banu; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Acici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

2014-03-17

191

Selenium/mercury molar ratios in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish from the USA: variation, risk, and health management.  

PubMed

Fish provide healthy protein as well as recreational and cultural benefits, but can also contain mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants that have adverse effects on humans and other organisms, particularly developing fetuses. Recently, some authors have suggested that a molar excess of selenium (Se) [e.g., selenium/mercury (Se/Hg) molar ratio >1] confers protection from Hg toxicity derived from fish consumption. Herein, we review our studies of Hg and Se in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish (mainly marine), examining the following: (1) whether and how Se/Hg molar ratios vary among species; (2) whether and how the molar ratios vary within species; (3) whether the molar ratios differ between freshwater and saltwater fish; (4) whether mean molar ratio values provide a reliable indication of potential risk to fish consumers; and (5) whether mean Se/Hg molar ratios are sufficiently constant (e.g., low variation) to allow for use in risk assessment, risk management, or risk communication. In saltwater fish, mean Se/Hg molar ratios varied from 0.3 in mako shark to 68.1 in whiting. For freshwater fish, the mean ratios varied from 0.68 in bowfin to 20.8 in black crappie. Commercial seafood (mainly saltwater) showed great variation in ratios; shrimp and scallops had very high ratios. There was somewhat less variability in the ratios for freshwater fish compared with the fish from saltwater, but there was no overall predictable difference in variation in Se/Hg molar ratios. For both saltwater and freshwater fish, some species with mean molar ratios above 1 had a significant proportion of individual fish with molar ratios below 1. Overall, this indicates great variation in measures of central tendencies and in measures of dispersion. We suggest that relying on the Se/Hg molar ratio as a method of predicting reduced risk from Hg toxicity is problematic because of the great variation among and within fish species, and the variation is not predictable because Hg varies by season, size of the fish, and location of the fish (which is not available for commercial fish). With the high variation in ratios, and low predictability, the ratios are currently not useful for risk assessment and risk management, and vulnerable individuals cannot rely on mean Se/Hg molar ratios for protection from Hg toxicity. PMID:24192499

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

192

Species of Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan.  

PubMed

Six species of copepods of the genus Caligus (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan are reported. They are: C. absens n. sp. from Priacanthus blochii and P. macracanthus; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scolopsis vosmeri; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decrapterts kurroides; C. laticaudus Shiino, 1960 from Lutjanus vitta and Parapristiopoma trilineatum; C. nengai Rangnekar, Rangnekar & Murti, 1953 from Triacanthus biaculeatus; and C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 from Drepane punctata, Liza macrolepis and Terapon jarbua. C. distortus Pillai & Natarajan, 1977 is relegated to a synonym of C. nengai and C. multispinosus Shen, 1957 reported by Lin et al. (1994) from the cultured sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli is a misidentification for C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933. PMID:10845649

Ho, J S; Lin, C L; Chen, S N

2000-07-01

193

Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.  

PubMed Central

A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12.

Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

1987-01-01

194

Identification of DNA damage in marine fish Therapon jarbua by comet assay technique.  

PubMed

The marine fish Therapon jarbua was exposed to acute concentration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). In static acute toxicity bioassays at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr LC50 values were estimated for each concentrations such as control, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 ppm, respectively. DNAdamage (single-strand break) was also studied in gill, kidney and blood tissues at single-cell levels in the specimens exposed to different acute doses of HgCl2, by applying single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). Dose-dependent responses were observed in DNA damage in all tissues. A comparison of DNA damage in all tissue at two concentration namely, 0.125 and 0.25 ppm indicated that the gill cells (maximum damage as 249.3 and 289.7 AU) were more sensitive to the heavy metal exposure than kidney (maximum 225.17 AU) and blood cells (maximum 200.3 AU). This study explored the utility of the comet assay for in vivo laboratory studies using fish for screening the genotoxic potential for various agents. PMID:23359994

Nagarani, N; Devi, V Janaki; Kumaraguru, A K

2012-07-01

195

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Li, Hong-Yan; Tong, Shang-Liang; Xiang, Jian-Hai

2002-09-01

196

Endocrine regulation of carbonate precipitate formation in marine fish intestine by stanniocalcin and PTHrP.  

PubMed

In marine fish, high epithelial bicarbonate secretion by the intestine generates luminal carbonate precipitates of divalent cations that play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. In vitro studies highlight the involvement of the calciotropic hormones PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) and stanniocalcin (STC) in the regulation of epithelial bicarbonate transport. The present study tested the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo. Sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles received single intraperitoneal injections of piscine PTHrP(1-34), the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or purified sea bream STC, or were passively immunized with polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sea bream STC (STC-Ab). Endocrine effects on the expression of the basolateral sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (Slc4a4.A), the apical anion exchangers Slc26a6.A and Slc26a3.B, and the V-type proton pump ?-subunit (Atp6v1b) in the anterior intestine were evaluated. In keeping with their calciotropic nature, the hypocalcaemic factors PTHrP(7-34) and STC up-regulated gene expression of all transporters. In contrast, the hypercalcaemic factor PTHrP(1-34) and STC antibodies down-regulated transporters involved in the bicarbonate secretion cascade. Changes in intestine luminal precipitate contents provoked by calcaemic endocrine factors validated these results: 24 h post-injection either PTHrP(1-34) or immunization with STC-Ab reduced the carbonate precipitate content in the sea bream intestine. In contrast, the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) increased not only the precipitated fraction but also the concentration of HCO3(-) equivalents in the intestinal fluid. These results confirm the hypothesis that calciotropic hormones have a regulatory role in carbonate precipitate formation in vivo in the intestine of marine fish. Furthermore, they illustrate for the first time in fish the counteracting effect of PTHrP and STC, and reveal an unexpected contribution of calcaemic factors to acid-base balance. PMID:24501133

Gregório, Sílvia F; Carvalho, Edison S M; Campinho, Marco A; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

2014-05-01

197

Alternative nursery habitat for estuarine associated marine fish during prolonged closure of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mfolozi estuary, located on the east coast of South Africa, was historically directly linked to the adjacent St Lucia estuarine system, the largest estuarine system in Africa and a World Heritage Site. The Mfolozi used to be the main feeder system to maintain lake levels in St Lucia, but increased siltation from sugar cane farming in the Mfolozi floodplain led to artificial separation of the two systems in 1950. Reduced freshwater inflow due to drought conditions caused the St Lucia mouth to remain closed from June 2002 to present, coinciding with low lake levels and hypersaline conditions, except for a brief period during 2007 after the St Lucia mouth breached. These conditions led to disruption of larval recruitment into the system and major changes in biotic communities. Due to the importance of the St Lucia - Mfolozi System link, a study was initiated in 2007 on the fish community of the Mfolozi system, which was sampled using seine and gill nets. The 48 species recorded were dominated by juveniles of marine spawners, particularly Leiognathus equula and Valamugil cunnesius and the estuarine spawners Ambassis dussumieri and Ambassis natalensis. Estuarine dependent marine spawning species formed 68% of both the species numbers and CPUE, an indication of the regional importance of the Mfolozi estuary as an alternate refuge for juvenile marine fish during periods when the St Lucia system remained closed. Post-larval recruits of marine spawning species were particularly abundant, but low zoobenthic densities caused a rapid decline in numbers of benthic feeders shortly after their recruitment into the system. The importance of the Mfolozi estuary in maintaining marine brood stocks of estuarine dependent marine fish is discussed with particular reference to estuarine degradation and the ecological integrity of the St Lucia system.

Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

2009-10-01

198

Depth and medium-scale spatial processes influence fish assemblage structure of unconsolidated habitats in a subtropical marine park.  

PubMed

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region. PMID:24824998

Schultz, Arthur L; Malcolm, Hamish A; Bucher, Daniel J; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D A

2014-01-01

199

Depth and Medium-Scale Spatial Processes Influence Fish Assemblage Structure of Unconsolidated Habitats in a Subtropical Marine Park  

PubMed Central

Where biological datasets are spatially limited, abiotic surrogates have been advocated to inform objective planning for Marine Protected Areas. However, this approach assumes close correlation between abiotic and biotic patterns. The Solitary Islands Marine Park, northern NSW, Australia, currently uses a habitat classification system (HCS) to assist with planning, but this is based only on data for reefs. We used Baited Remote Underwater Videos (BRUVs) to survey fish assemblages of unconsolidated substrata at different depths, distances from shore, and across an along-shore spatial scale of 10 s of km (2 transects) to examine how well the HCS works for this dominant habitat. We used multivariate regression modelling to examine the importance of these, and other environmental factors (backscatter intensity, fine-scale bathymetric variation and rugosity), in structuring fish assemblages. There were significant differences in fish assemblages across depths, distance from shore, and over the medium spatial scale of the study: together, these factors generated the optimum model in multivariate regression. However, marginal tests suggested that backscatter intensity, which itself is a surrogate for sediment type and hardness, might also influence fish assemblages and needs further investigation. Species richness was significantly different across all factors: however, total MaxN only differed significantly between locations. This study demonstrates that the pre-existing abiotic HCS only partially represents the range of fish assemblages of unconsolidated habitats in the region.

Schultz, Arthur L.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Linklater, Michelle; Smith, Stephen D. A.

2014-01-01

200

The infection status of anisakid larvae in marine fish and cephalopods from the Bohai Sea, China and their taxonomical consideration.  

PubMed

The infection status of anisakid larvae was examined in 290 marine fish of 25 species and in 108 cephalopods of 3 species purchased in Bayuquan region, Yingko city nearby the coast of the Bohai Sea from may to August 1992. A total of 7,327 larvae were collected from 156 fish of 19 species and 8 squids of one species. The 3rd-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex were collected from 121 fish (63.4%) of 15 species (N = 191) and from 8 squids (14.8%) of one species (N = 54), and they were total, 5,992 (81.8%). Out of remaining 1,335 larvae, 154 (2.1%) were classified as Thynnascaris type B from 23 fish of 4 species, 1,013 (13.8%) as Thynnascaris type C from 79 fish of 13 species. 164 (2.2%) as Hysterothylacium China type V from 20 fish of 4 species, 3 (0.04%) as Raphidascaris from 3 fish of 2 species and one was Pseudoterranova decipiens larva. PMID:9100435

Ma, H W; Jiang, T J; Quan, F S; Chen, X G; Wang, H D; Zhang, Y S; Cui, M S; Zhi, W Y; Jiang, D C

1997-03-01

201

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Jones, Cory

2009-09-28

202

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Hunter, Ms.

2009-07-07

203

MARINE FISH LARVAE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL: EFFECTS OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT FACTORS: SPOTTED SEATROUT ('CYNOSCION NUEBLOSUS') AND LINED SOLE ('ACHIRUS LINEATUS')  

EPA Science Inventory

Standard culture methods were developed for larvae of two common marine fishes, the spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus and the lined sole Achirus lineatus. Culture methods were described and the relationships of survival, growth and yield to temperatures, food concentrations an...

204

Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish--why and how?  

PubMed

Intestinal fluids of most marine teleosts are alkaline (pH 8.4-9.0) and contain high levels of HCO(3)(-) equivalents (40-130 mM) which are excreted at a significant rate (>100 microEq kg(-1) h(-1)). Recent research reveals the following about this substantial HCO(3)(-) secretion: (1) It is not involved in acid-base regulation or neutralisation of stomach acid, but increases in parallel with drinking rate at elevated ambient salinities suggesting a role in osmoregulation; (2) In species examined so far, all sections of the intestine can secrete bicarbonate; (3) The secretion is dependent on mucosal Cl(-), sensitive to mucosal DIDS, and immuno-histochemistry indicates involvement of an apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. In addition, hydration of CO(2) via carbonic anhydrase in combination with proton extrusion appears to be essential for bicarbonate secretion. The mode of proton extrusion is currently unknown but potential mechanisms are discussed. One consequence of the luminal alkalinity and high bicarbonate concentrations is precipitation of calcium and magnesium as carbonate complexes. This precipitation is hypothesised to reduce the osmolality of intestinal fluids and thus play a potential role in water absorption and osmoregulation. The present studies on European flounder reveal that elevated luminal calcium (but not magnesium) concentrations stimulate intestinal bicarbonate secretion both acutely and chronically, in vitro and in vivo. At the whole animal level, the result of this elevated bicarbonate secretion was increased calcium precipitation with an associated reduction in the osmolality of rectal fluids and plasma. These observations suggest direct functional links between intestinal bicarbonate secretion, divalent cation precipitation and osmoregulation in marine teleost fish. PMID:12421549

Wilson, Rod W; Wilson, Jonathan M; Grosell, Martin

2002-11-13

205

A preliminary study on the diversity of fish species and marine fish faunas of the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are 3048 species of fish occurring in the China Seas (CS), of which at least 2321 species are found in the South China Sea (SCS), belonging to 35 orders, 236 families and 822 genera. The fish species diversity is analyzed in this paper based on biogeography, biostatistics, fishing methods, etc. It is found that the regional environment, especially biological factors, plays an important role in the distribution of faunas, and there are two fish faunas in the SCS, one in the north and another in the center and south. This regional division is of value for sustainable fishery production and efficient management of fishery resources.

Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Zhang, Meizhao; Li, Fengqi; Chen, Dagang

2008-05-01

206

Changes in Fish Assemblages following the Establishment of a Network of No-Take Marine Reserves and Partially-Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing) are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20–40 m depth between 2008–2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n?=?4 BRUV stations per site). Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection.

Kelaher, Brendan P.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Broad, Allison; Rees, Matthew J.; Jordan, Alan; Davis, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

207

Simultaneous Detection of Marine Fish Pathogens by Using Multiplex PCR and a DNA Microarray  

PubMed Central

We coupled multiplex PCR and a DNA microarray to construct an assay suitable for the simultaneous detection of five important marine fish pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Listonella anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). The array was composed of nine short oligonucleotide probes (25-mer) complementary to seven chromosomal loci (cyt, rpoN, gyrB, toxR, ureC, dly, and vapA) and two plasmid-borne loci (fatA and A.sal). Nine primer sets were designed to amplify short fragments of these loci (100 to 177 bp) in a multiplex PCR. PCR products were subsequently labeled by nick translation and hybridized to the microarray. All strains of the five target species (n = 1 to 21) hybridized to at least one species-specific probe. Assay sensitivities ranged from 100% for seven probes to 83 and 67% for the two remaining probes. Multiplex PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against 23 related species of bacteria (n = 40 strains; 100% specificity). Using purified genomic DNA, we were able to detect PCR products with <20 fg of genomic DNA per reaction (equivalent to four or five cells), and the array was at least fourfold more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for detecting PCR products. In addition, our method allowed the tentative identification of virulent strains of L. anguillarum serotype O1 based on the presence of the fatA gene (67% sensitivity and 100% specificity). This assay is a sensitive and specific tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in fish and humans.

Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Krug, Melissa J.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Santos, Ysabel; Call, Douglas R.

2004-01-01

208

Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas.

Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, Jose Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melia, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

209

Assessing dispersal patterns of fish propagules from an effective mediterranean marine protected area.  

PubMed

Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called 'recruitment subsidy', the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas. PMID:23284887

Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

210

New azaphilones, seco-chaetomugilins A and D, produced by a marine-fish-derived Chaetomium globosum.  

PubMed

Seco-chaetomugilins A and D were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, along with the chemical transformation from known chaetomugilins A and D. Seco-chaetomugilin D exhibited growth inhibitory activity against cultured P388, HL-60, L1210, and KB cells. PMID:19597583

Yamada, Takeshi; Muroga, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Reiko

2009-01-01

211

In vivo MR spectroscopy and MR imaging on non-anaesthetized marine fish: techniques and first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) experiments were carried out in non-anaesthetized marine fish with a maximum body length of 40 cm using a 4.7 T horizontal magnet. In flow-through animal chambers long-term investigations could be carried out for several days in a sessile benthic zoarcid species, the eelpout Zoarces viviparus, as well as in a pelagic

Christian Bock; Franz-Josef Sartoris; Hans-Otto Portner

212

Cuckoldry rates in the Molly Miller ( scartella cristata ; blenniidae), a hole-nesting marine fish with alternative reproductive tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed and employed to assess genetic maternity and paternity of embryos in nest-tended clutches of the Molly Miller (Scartella cristata), a marine fish in which alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) by males were recently described from behavioral and morphological evidence. Genetic data gathered for 1,536 surveyed progeny, from 23 barnacle-nest holes in a single Floridian population, indicate that

Mark Mackiewicz; Brady A. Porter; Elizabeth E. Dakin; John C. Avise

2005-01-01

213

Integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents: physicochemical, acute toxicity and benthic community analyses.  

PubMed

An integrated ecotoxicological assessment of marine sediments affected by land-based marine fish farm effluents was developed using physicochemical and benthic community structure analyses and standardised laboratory bioassays with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), amphipods (Ampelisca brevicornis) and sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus). Intertidal sediment samples were collected at five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, from the aquaculture effluent to a clean site. The effective concentration (EC50) from bacterial bioluminescence and A. brevicornis survival on whole sediments and P. lividus larval developmental success on sediment elutriates were assessed. Numbers of species, abundance and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna of sediment samples. In parallel, redox potential, pH, organic matter and metal levels (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured in situ. Water and sediment physicochemical analysis revealed the exhibition of a spatial gradient in the RSP, evidenced by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced and acidic conditions, high organic enrichment and metal concentrations at the most contaminated sites. Whereas, the benthic fauna biodiversity decreased the bioassays depicted decreases in EC50, A. brevicornis survival, P. lividus larval success at sampling sites closer to the studied fish farms. This study demonstrates that the sediments polluted by fish farm effluents may lead to alterations of the biodiversity of the exposed organisms. PMID:23681739

Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

2013-08-01

214

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

215

Comparison of the coat protein genes of five fish nodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), a nodavirus, is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in larval striped jack fish. In the present study, the SJNNV coat protein gene was sequenced and compared with that of four known insect nodaviruses and with four other fish nodaviruses causing VNN. The SJNNV coat protein gene was 1410 bases in length

Toyohiko Nishizawa; Koh-ichiro Mori; Makoto Furuhashi; Toshihiro Nakai; Iwao Furusawa; Kiyokuni Muroga

1995-01-01

216

Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The use of marine reserves as tools either for conservation or fisheries management requires rigorous empirical evidence for the recovery of exploited species within them. 2. The relative density and size structure of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae), an intensively exploited reef fish species, were measured, using baited underwater video, inside and outside three northern New Zealand marine reserves

TREVOR J. WILLIS; RUSSELL B. MILLAR; RUSS C. BABCOCK

217

Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.  

PubMed

Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933

Lacy, E R; Reale, E

1989-07-01

218

Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.  

PubMed

Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included. PMID:21898201

Amin, Omar M; O?uz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

2011-10-01

219

Two new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off South Carolina.  

PubMed

Two new species of philometrid nematodes, Philometra gymnothoracis n. sp. and Philometroides marinus n. sp., are described from female specimens collected from the body cavity of the spotted moray, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) (Muraenidae, Anguilliformes), and the cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Rachycentridae, Perciformes), respectively, from off the Atlantic coast of South Carolina. Philometra gymnothoracis n. sp. is mainly characterized by the conspicuously depressed mouth, the presence of 8 small cephalic papillae arranged in 4 submedian pairs, the esophagus with an anterior bulbous inflation, 2 small papilla-like caudal projections, the body length of the gravid female 435-760 mm, short ovaries, the length of larvae from the uterus 474-544 microm, and by the location in the host (body cavity). Philometroides marinus n. sp. differs from its congeners parasitizing marine and brackish water fishes mainly in having small cuticular bosses only on the anterior part of the body; in possessing 4 markedly large cephalic projections, each with 2 minute papillae, 2 large caudal projections, and in the location in the host (body cavity); the body length of subgravid and gravid females is 130-550 mm and that of larvae from the uterus 600-642 microm. PMID:19115785

Moravec, Frantisek; de Buron, Isaure

2009-06-01

220

Fluctuations in food supply drive recruitment variation in a marine fish  

PubMed Central

Reproductive rates and survival of young in animal populations figure centrally in generating management and conservation strategies. Model systems suggest that food supply can drive these often highly variable properties, yet for many wild species, quantifying such effects and assessing their implications have been challenging. We used spatially explicit time series of a well-studied marine reef fish (black surfperch Embiotoca jacksoni) and its known prey resources to evaluate the extent to which fluctuations in food supply influenced production of young by adults and survival of young to subadulthood. Our analyses reveal: (i) variable food available to both adults and to their offspring directly produced an order of magnitude variation in the number of young-of-year (YOY) produced per adult and (ii) food available to YOY produced a similar magnitude of variation in their subsequent survival. We also show that such large natural variation in vital rates can significantly alter decision thresholds (biological reference points) important for precautionary management. These findings reveal how knowledge of food resources can improve understanding of population dynamics and reduce risk of overharvest by more accurately identifying periods of low recruitment.

Okamoto, Daniel K.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Reed, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

221

Consequences of the historical demography on the global population structure of two highly migratory cosmopolitan marine fishes: the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)  

PubMed Central

Background Yellowfin and skipjack tuna are globally distributed in the world's tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Since little, if any, migration of these fishes occurs between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans, one might expect to see genetic differences between sub-populations in these ocean basins. However, yellowfin and skipjack tuna have extremely large population sizes. Thus, the rate of genetic drift should be slower than that observed for other tunas. Results Low levels of genetic differentiation were observed between Atlantic and Pacific samples of yellowfin tuna. In contrast, no genetic differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Pacific samples of skipjack tuna. Conclusion Much lower levels of genetic differentiation were found among sub-populations of yellowfin tuna compared to those observed for other large tunas, probably due to the large population size of yellowfin tuna. Since skipjack tuna appear to have even larger population sizes, it is not surprising that no genetic differentiation was detected between Atlantic and Pacific samples of these fish.

Ely, Bert; Vinas, Jordi; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Black, Donna; Lucas, Luciano; Covello, Kelly; Labrie, Alexis V; Thelen, Eric

2005-01-01

222

Gill histopathology of wild marine fish in Tasmania: potential interactions with gill health of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

This study surveyed conditions in the gills of wild marine fish in Tasmania to determine potential interactions between wild and cultured fish. Wild marine fish of 12 species were captured from three Atlantic salmon farm sites and three reference sites around Tasmania. The survey concentrated on three species, red cod, Pseudophycis bachus, sand flathead, Platycephalus bassensis, and jack mackerel, Trachurus declivus. Seventy-six per cent of salmon pens contained wild fish species. The number of species found in a pen ranged from one to nine and the number of individuals ranged from one to 23. Trichodinids were prevalent and occurred on seven of the 13 species examined. Trichodina occurred on the gills of all but one specimen of red cod. Monogenean gill flukes were observed on all three major species sampled and were abundant on sand flathead. Other parasites and conditions observed in the survey included metacercariae of digenean trematodes, epitheliocystis and cysts of unknown origin. Infestations of trichodinids on red cod and monogenean gill flukes on sand flathead were significantly more intense at farm sites than at reference sites. Atlantic salmon sampled at the same time from the farms were only affected by amoebic gill disease and isopods. PMID:15575879

Nowak, B F; Dawson, D; Basson, L; Deveney, M; Powell, M D

2004-12-01

223

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

224

Changes in wild fish assemblages after the establishment of a fish farming zone in an oligotrophic marine ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species composition, abundance and diversity of demersal fish assemblages has been investigated in an oligotrophic coastal bay in the Aegean Sea which is a designated zone for the development of aquaculture. Samples were collected using experimental trawling, before the establishment of fish cages in the area during early June 1987 and after attaining the maximal production of the aquaculture zone in late May 2001. The overall abundance of the fish assemblage increased by a factor of 4 and the average trophic level of the fish community increased from 3.59 to 3.79. Traditional diversity indices showed an increase in dominance but the distinctness measures of biodiversity showed that the overall structure obtained after the establishment of fish farming was not phylogenetically impoverished. Multivariate analysis showed that the community differences between the two periods are quantitative rather than qualitative. Comparisons in length frequencies between the two periods indicated that specimens of the species compared were either similar or larger in the second period. The species favoured by the presence of aquaculture were not the ones normally feeding on the food pellets under the cages but those normally occurring in the fishing grounds of the study. It is concluded that the release of nutrients from fish farming in nutrient-poor systems can have a positive effect on local fisheries with no visible negative change in species composition or biodiversity.

Machias, A.; Karakassis, I.; Labropoulou, M.; Somarakis, S.; Papadopoulou, K. N.; Papaconstantinou, C.

2004-08-01

225

How Nemo finds home: the neuroecology of dispersal and of population connectivity in larvae of marine fishes.  

PubMed

Nearly all demersal teleost marine fishes have pelagic larval stages lasting from several days to several weeks, during which time they are subject to dispersal. Fish larvae have considerable swimming abilities, and swim in an oriented manner in the sea. Thus, they can influence their dispersal and thereby, the connectivity of their populations. However, the sensory cues marine fish larvae use for orientation in the pelagic environment remain unclear. We review current understanding of these cues and how sensory abilities of larvae develop and are used to achieve orientation with particular emphasis on coral-reef fishes. The use of sound is best understood; it travels well underwater with little attenuation, and is current-independent but location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize sound for orientation will have location-dependent orientation. Larvae of many species and families can hear over a range of ~100-1000 Hz, and can distinguish among sounds. They can localize sources of sounds, but the means by which they do so is unclear. Larvae can hear during much of their pelagic larval phase, and ontogenetically, hearing sensitivity, and frequency range improve dramatically. Species differ in sensitivity to sound and in the rate of improvement in hearing during ontogeny. Due to large differences among-species within families, no significant differences in hearing sensitivity among families have been identified. Thus, distances over which larvae can detect a given sound vary among species and greatly increase ontogenetically. Olfactory cues are current-dependent and location-dependent, so species that primarily utilize olfactory cues will have location-dependent orientation, but must be able to swim upstream to locate sources of odor. Larvae can detect odors (e.g., predators, conspecifics), during most of their pelagic phase, and at least on small scales, can localize sources of odors in shallow water, although whether they can do this in pelagic environments is unknown. Little is known of the ontogeny of olfactory ability or the range over which larvae can localize sources of odors. Imprinting on an odor has been shown in one species of reef-fish. Celestial cues are current- and location-independent, so species that primarily utilize them will have location-independent orientation that can apply over broad scales. Use of sun compass or polarized light for orientation by fish larvae is implied by some behaviors, but has not been proven. Use of neither magnetic fields nor direction of waves for orientation has been shown in marine fish larvae. We highlight research priorities in this area. PMID:21562025

Leis, Jeffrey M; Siebeck, Ulrike; Dixson, Danielle L

2011-11-01

226

Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ? = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

2014-02-01

227

Benthic foraminifera assemblages as elemental pollution bioindicator in marine sediments around fish farm (Vrgada Island, Central Adriatic, Croatia).  

PubMed

Effects on sediments of fish farming activity near Vrgada Island was analysed through living and total foraminiferal assemblages and concentration of major, minor and trace elements from three sediment cores. Elemental concentrations of sediments are in accordance with carbonate characteristics of the surrounding area and show mostly natural element variations between sampling locations and throughout the cores, with no significant increases due to fish farming activity. Only phosphorus concentration shows elevate values below the fish cage, assigned to fish pellets. Foraminiferal communities are dominated by epifaunal and stress tolerant species, while diversity indices point to normal marine conditions. The type of substrate and phosphorus content in sediments principally influence foraminiferal community composition, while other elemental concentrations have no perceptible effect on the assemblages. Some foraminiferal species Ammoniatepida, Ammoniabeccarii, Elphidiumcrispum, Elphidiummacellum and genus Haynesina are confirmed to be tolerant to elevated nutrient (phosphorus) content, while Ammonia parkinsoniana shows sensitivity to pollution. Postmortem processes cause decrease of foraminiferal density and species richness with core depth. All results point to negligible influence of fish farming and relatively stable environmental conditions at all sampling locations. PMID:24768261

Vidovi?, Jelena; Dolenec, Matej; Dolenec, Tadej; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Zvab Roži?, Petra

2014-06-15

228

Modulation of aromatase activity as a mode of action for endocrine disrupting chemicals in a marine fish.  

PubMed

The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase. Because brain aromatase activity in fish is up to 1000 times that in mammals, fish may be especially susceptible to negative effects from environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that impact aromatase activity. In this study, the effects of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), octylphenol (OP), and androstatrienedione (ATD) on reproduction and aromatase activity in brains and gonads from the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) was investigated. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between changes in aromatase activity and reproductive output in a marine fish, as well as compare aromatase activity to two commonly used indicators of EDC exposure, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Results with E2, EE2, and ATD indicate that aromatase activity in cunner brain and ovary are affected differently by exposure to these EDCs. In the case of E2 and EE2, male brain aromatase activity was signficantly increased by these treatments, female brain aromatase activity was unaffected, and ovarian aromatase activity was significantly decreased. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor ATD resulted in significantly decreased aromatase activity in male and female brain, but had no significant impact on ovarian aromatase activity. Regardless of test chemical, a decrease or an increase in male brain aromatase activity relative to controls was associated with decreased egg production in cunner and was also correlated with significant changes in GSI in both sexes. E2 and EE2 significantly elevated plasma VTG in males and females, while ATD had no significant effect. Treatment of cunner with OP had no significant effect on any measured endpoint. Overall, results with these exposures indicate EDCs that impact aromatase activity also affect reproductive output in spawning cunner. PMID:24418745

Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Zaroogian, Gerald E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Laws, Susan C

2014-02-01

229

Nitrogen Cycling and Community Structure of Proteobacterial ?-Subgroup Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria within Polluted Marine Fish Farm Sediments  

PubMed Central

A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20 and 40 m from the cage. The data suggest that nitrogen cycling was significantly disrupted directly beneath the fish cage, with inhibition of nitrification and denitrification. Although visual examination indicated some slight changes in sediment appearance at 20 m, all other measurements were similar to those obtained at 40 m, where the sediment was considered pristine. The community structures of proteobacterial ?-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at the sampling sites were compared by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), using primers which target this group. PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and with oligonucleotide hybridization probes specific for different ammonia oxidizers. A DGGE doublet observed in PCR products from the highly polluted fish cage sediment sample was present at a lower intensity in the 20-m sample but was absent from the pristine 40-m sample station. Band migration, hybridization, and sequencing demonstrated that the doublet corresponded to a marine Nitrosomonas group which was originally observed in 16S rDNA clone libraries prepared from the same sediment samples but with different PCR primers. Our data suggest that this novel Nitrosomonas subgroup was selected for within polluted fish farm sediments and that the relative abundance of this group was influenced by the extent of pollution.

McCaig, Allison E.; Phillips, Carol J.; Stephen, John R.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Harvey, S. Martyn; Herbert, Rodney A.; Embley, T. Martin; Prosser, James I.

1999-01-01

230

Identifying Fish Habitats: the use of spatially explicit habitat modeling and prediction in marine research  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods of optimally identifying and predicting marine habitat occurrence are needed to help best address management issues such as marine reserve designation, fisheries stock assessment and aquaculture planning across large areas. A combination of video sampling, acoustic remote sensing and learning-based classification methods are proposed as a means of optimally identifying marine habitats. More commonly used in the identification

Katrina Baxter; Mark Shortis

231

Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod.  

PubMed

Five isolates from marine fish (W3(T), WM, W1S, S2 and S3) and three isolates misclassified as Photobacterium phosphoreum, originating from spoiled modified atmosphere packed stored cod (NCIMB 13482 and NCIMB 13483) and the intestine of skate (NCIMB 192), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were members of the genus Photobacterium. Sequence analysis using the gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA and rpoA loci showed that these isolates formed a distinct branch in the genus Photobacterium, and were most closely related to Photobacterium aquimaris, Photobacterium kishitanii, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. The luxA gene was present in isolates W3(T), WM, W1S, S2 and S3 but not in NCIMB 13482, NCIMB 13483 and NCIMB 192. AFLP and (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the eight isolates represented at least five distinct genotypes. DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed 89% relatedness between isolate W3(T) and NCIMB 192, and values below 70% with the type strains of the phylogenetically closest species, P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T), P. kishitanii LMG 23890(T), P. aquimaris LMG 26951(T) and P. phosphoreum LMG4233(T). The strains of this new taxon could also be distinguished from the latter species by phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, we propose to classify this new taxon as Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., with W3(T) (=NCCB 100098(T)=LMG 27681(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24951451

Figge, Marian J; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van Uijen, Astrid; De Vos, Paul; Huys, Geert; Robertson, Lesley

2014-07-01

232

A new species of monorchiid digenean from marine fishes in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean off Patagonia.  

PubMed

Proctotrema bartolii n. sp. (Digenea: Monorchiidae) is described based on naturally and experimental obtained adults from the marine fishes Odontesthes smitti (Lahille), O. nigricans (Richardson) (Atherinopsidae) and Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier) (Eleginopidae) off Patagonia, Argentina, in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Its generic identification is based on the presence of a unipartite terminal organ with the metraterm uniting with its distal region, an unarmed genital atrium, a single testis, a vitellarium follicular lateral to the ovary and ventral sucker, and uterine coils occupying most of hindbody. The new species differs from P. bacilliovatum Odhner, 1911, P. amphitruncatum Fischthal & Thomas, 1969 and P. guptai Ahmad & Dhar, 1987 in having a smaller body (305-650 vs 1,600-3,080, 1,500-1,800 and 2,150-2,670 ?m, respectively), a round vs funnel-shaped oral sucker, a smooth vs lobed ovary, a saccular rather than tubular excretory vesicle, the number of vitelline follicles (12-16 vs 8-9, 9 and 6-8, respectively), and wider eggs (25-31 × 15-20 vs 28-37 × 9-12, 24-28 × 7-10, and 24-30 × 8-10 ?m, respectively). Moreover, the new species differs from P. bacilliovatum and P. amphitruncatum in having a saccular rather than a coiled seminal vesicle, and from P. bacilliovatum and P. guptai in having its tegument completely vs partly spined. Proctotrema Odhner, 1911 is considered to be restricted to these four species. This is the first report of a species of this genus from South American waters. PMID:21390586

Carballo, María Cecilia; Laurenti, Sonia; Cremonte, Florencia

2011-03-01

233

Transposable elements in fish chromosomes: a study in the marine cobia species.  

PubMed

Rachycentron canadum, a unique representative of the Rachycentridae family, has been the subject of considerable biotechnological interest due to its potential use in marine fish farming. This species has undergone extensive research concerning the location of genes and multigene families on its chromosomes. Although most of the genome of some organisms is composed of repeated DNA sequences, aspects of the origin and dispersion of these elements are still largely unknown. The physical mapping of repetitive sequences on the chromosomes of R. canadum proved to be relevant for evolutionary and applied purposes. Therefore, here, we present the mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization of the transposable element (TE) Tol2, the non-LTR retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3, together with the 18S and 5S rRNA genes in the chromosome of this species. The Tol2 TE, belonging to the family of hAT transposons, is homogeneously distributed in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes but with huge colocalization with the 18S rDNA sites. The hybridization signals for Rex1 and Rex3 revealed a semi-arbitrary distribution pattern, presenting differentiated dispersion in euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. Rex1 elements are associated preferentially in heterochromatic regions, while Rex3 shows a scarce distribution in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes. The colocalization of TEs with 18S and 5S rDNA revealed complex chromosomal regions of repetitive sequences. In addition, the nonpreferential distribution of Rex1 and Rex3 in all heterochromatic regions, as well as the preferential distribution of the Tol2 transposon associated with 18S rDNA sequences, reveals a distinct pattern of organization of TEs in the genome of this species. A heterogeneous chromosomal colonization of TEs may confer different evolutionary rates to the heterochromatic regions of this species. PMID:23969732

Costa, G W W F; Cioffi, M B; Bertollo, L A C; Molina, W F

2013-01-01

234

77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...nighttime fishing restrictions of medium mesh gillnets operating in North Carolina coastal...mortality rates associated with medium mesh gillnets. NMFS also amends the BDTRP with...are not repeated here. Nighttime Medium Mesh Gillnet Fishing Restrictions in North...

2012-07-31

235

Population Genetic Studies Revealed Local Adaptation in a High Gene-Flow Marine Fish, the Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)  

PubMed Central

The genetic differentiation of many marine fish species is low. Yet local adaptation may be common in marine fish species as the vast and changing marine environment provides more chances for natural selection. Here, we used anonymous as well as known protein gene linked microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA to detect the population structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in the Northwest Pacific marginal seas. Among these loci, we detected at least two microsatellites, anonymous H16 and HSP27 to be clearly under diversifying selection in outlier tests. Sequence cloning and analysis revealed that H16 was located in the intron of BAHCC1 gene. Landscape genetic analysis showed that H16 mutations were significantly associated with temperature, which further supported the diversifying selection at this locus. These marker types presented different patterns of population structure: (i) mitochondrial DNA phylogeny showed no evidence of genetic divergence and demonstrated only one glacial linage; (ii) population differentiation using putatively neutral microsatellites presented a pattern of high gene flow in the L. polyactis. In addition, several genetic barriers were identified; (iii) the population differentiation pattern revealed by loci under diversifying selection was rather different from that revealed by putatively neutral loci. The results above suggest local adaptation in the small yellow croaker. In summary, population genetic studies based on different marker types disentangle the effects of demographic history, migration, genetic drift and local adaptation on population structure and also provide valuable new insights for the design of management strategies in L. polyactis.

Wang, Le; Liu, Shufang; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Guo, Liang; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

2013-01-01

236

Evaluation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure condition and energy allocated to reproduction in marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimates of fish energy density at specific times prior to spawning may provide suitable proxies for egg production, and thereby help to explain some of the observed annual variation in recruits per spawner. Our goal is to develop and test modifications of BIA technology to measure energy allocation to reproduction for a variety of marine fishes. To date, a newly developed measuring board and probe system stabilized readings, which was demonstrated by a significant reduction in the coefficients of variation for impedance measures. Total body water, wet and dry weights could be predicted with very good precision (r2 = 0.92-0.99) using BIA measures of reactance or resistance for a number of finfish species. While constituent relationships (e.g. body water- body mass functions) did not differ seasonally, we did find that BIA measures are sensitive to body composition changes related to the seasonal spawning cycle. In an examination of monthly samples of tilefish, phase angle decreased below 15° in post-spawning (regressed) females. Such a monthly trend, which suggests available energy had decreased following the spawning season, was not evident from other, more traditional measures of condition including body-muscle water content, Fulton's K or ordinal measures of fat deposition (such as mesenteric fat). These preliminary results show that BIA technology is a promising application for tracking and efficiently predicting energetic condition of marine fishes.

Fitzhugh, G. R.; Wuenschel, M. J.; McBride, R. S.

2010-04-01

237

Histopathology of Trypanorhyncha plerocercoids (Cestodes) in some Marine Fish from Waters of the Arabian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March, 1997, 150 fresh fish specimens from the waters of Arabian Gulf, 95 of fish belonging to Groupers, Epinephelus aerola- tus (local name Simman) and the other 55 fish specimens belonging to Emperor lethrinus sp. (local name Sheiry) were subjected to parasito- logical examination. Free floriceps Trypanorhyncha plerocercoids lar- vae were found in the flesh, while encysted forms of

M. M. IBRAHIM

2000-01-01

238

Actual ratios of triacylglycerol positional isomers and enantiomers comprising saturated fatty acids and highly unsaturated fatty acids in fishes and marine mammals.  

PubMed

It has been previously shown that the positional isomers of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing palmitic acid (P) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as DHA (D) and EPA (E) vary between fishes and marine mammals. However, it has not yet been understood why in marine mammals HUFAs are located only at the ? position when two palmitic acid chains combine, and not in fishes. In order to gain further understanding of the biosynthetic pathways involved in the formation of these asymmetric TAGs, we investigated whether the HUFA in the TAG of marine mammals exists predominantly at the sn-1 or sn-3 position. We examined the TAG positional isomers and enantiomers in marine organisms in detail. As a result, while PDP and PEP were not detected, sn-PPD and sn-PPE were found in abundance in marine mammals. For fishes, on the other hand, PDP, PEP, sn-PPD, and sn-PPE were all identified. In the case of TAGs that contain two HUFAs and one palmitic acid, marine mammals were rich in DPD and EPE whereas fishes were rich in sn-PDD and sn-PEE. PMID:24292353

Nagai, Toshiharu; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Jiang, Yanying; Ishikawa, Keiko; Wakatabe, Tokuhisa; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kojima, Koichi; Kuroda, Ikuma; Saito, Tadao; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

2013-01-01

239

Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.  

PubMed

Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries. PMID:24391841

Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

2013-01-01

240

Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.  

PubMed

Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (<1mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ER?) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

2014-09-15

241

Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America.  

PubMed

The extent of mercury contamination in Surinamese food fishes due to small-scale gold mining was investigated by determination of the total mercury concentration in 318 freshwater fishes, 109 estuarine fishes, and 110 fishes from the Atlantic Ocean. High background levels were found in the piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus (0.35 microg Hg x g(-1) muscle tissue, wet mass basis) and the peacock cichlid Cichla ocellaris (0.39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve. Average mercury levels in freshwater fishes were higher in piscivorous species than in nonpiscivorous species, both in potentially contaminated water bodies (0.71 and 0.19 microg x g(-1), respectively) and in the control site (0.25 and 0.04 microg x g(-1), respectively). Mercury concentrations in piscivorous freshwater fishes were significantly higher in rivers potentially affected by gold mining than in the control site. In 57% of 269 piscivorous freshwater fishes from potentially contaminated sites, mercury levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.5 microg Hg x g(-1). The highest mercury concentrations (3.13 and 4.26 microg x g(-1)) were found in two piranhas S. rhombeus from the hydroelectric reservoir Lake Brokopondo. The high mercury levels in fishes from Lake Brokopondo were to some extent related to gold mining because fishes collected at eastern sites (i.e., close to the gold fields) showed significantly higher mercury concentrations than fishes from western localities. In the estuaries, mercury levels in ariid catfish (0.22 microg x g(-1)) and croakers (0.04-0.33 microg x g(-1)) were distinctly lower than those in piscivorous fishes from contaminated freshwater sites. In the isolated Bigi Pan Lagoon, the piscivores snook Centropomus undecimalis (0.04 microg x g(-1)) and tarpon Megalops atlanticus (0.03 microg x g(-1)) showed low mercury levels. Mercury levels were significantly higher in marine fishes than in estuarine fishes, even with the Bigi Pan fishes excluded. High mercury concentrations were found in the shark Mustelus higmani (0.71 microg x g(-1)), the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (1.17 microg x g(-1)), and the barracuda Sphyraena guachancho (0.39 microg x g(-1)), but also in nonpiscivorous species such as Calamus bajonado (0.54 microg x g(-1)), Haemulon plumieri (0.47 microg x g(-1)), and Isopisthus parvipinnis (0.48 microg x g(-1)). Mercury levels were positively correlated with the length of the fish in populations of the freshwater piscivores S. rhombeus, Hoplias malabaricus, and Plagioscion squamosissimus, in estuarine species (Arius couma, Cynoscion virescens, and Macrodon ancylodon), and in S. guachancho from the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:11437465

Mol, J H; Ramlal, J S; Lietar, C; Verloo, M

2001-06-01

242

New class azaphilone produced by a marine fish-derived Chaetomium globosum. The stereochemistry and biological activities.  

PubMed

Four new metabolites, chaetomugilins P-R and 11-epi-chaetomugilin I, were isolated from a strain of Chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marine fish Mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and various chemical transformations. Particularly, the skeleton of chaetomugilin P is different from that of other azaphilones isolated from this fungal strain to date. In addition, these compounds significantly inhibited the growth of cultured P388, HL-60, L1210 and KB cell lines. PMID:21640594

Yamada, Takeshi; Muroga, Yasuhide; Jinno, Masaaki; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Usami, Yoshihide; Numata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Reiko

2011-07-01

243

Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.  

PubMed

There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field. PMID:22579710

Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2012-09-15

244

Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae).  

PubMed

The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37-66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. PMID:23636803

Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

2013-09-01

245

Gender-Specific Associations of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption with 10-Year Incidence of Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on incident stroke in a population-based study in the Netherlands. Methods We prospectively followed 20,069 men and women, aged 20–65 years, without cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Habitual diet was assessed with a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of stroke was assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results During 8–13 years of follow-up, 221 strokes occurred. In women, an inverse dose-response relation (P-trend?=?0.02) was observed between EPA-DHA intake and incident stroke, with an HR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27–0.91) in the top quartile of EPA-DHA (median 225 mg/d) as compared to the bottom quartile (median 36 mg/d). In men, the HR (95%CI) for the top quartile of EPA-DHA intake was 0.87 (0.51–1.48) (P-trend?=?0.36). Similar results were observed for fish consumption and stroke incidence. Conclusion A higher EPA-DHA and fish intake is related to a lower stroke risk in women, while for men an inverse association could not be demonstrated.

de Goede, Janette; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

2012-01-01

246

Essential Fish Habitat: New Marine Fish Habitat Conservation Mandate for Federal Agencies. A Primer for Federal Agencies. Essential Fish Habitat Consultation Guidance. Version 1.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1996 amendments to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act set forth a number of new mandates for the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), regional fishery management councils, and other federal agencies to identify and prote...

1998-01-01

247

Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Monaco, M. E.; Friedlander, A. M.; Caldow, C.; Christensen, J. D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, R.

2007-01-01

248

Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide  

PubMed Central

Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north–south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial–temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales.

Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K.; Wake, Bronwyn D.; Snow, Joseph T.; Honey, David J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Moore, C. Mark

2014-01-01

249

Seasonal ITCZ migration dynamically controls the location of the (sub)tropical Atlantic biogeochemical divide.  

PubMed

Inorganic nitrogen depletion restricts productivity in much of the low-latitude oceans, generating a selective advantage for diazotrophic organisms capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). However, the abundance and activity of diazotrophs can in turn be controlled by the availability of other potentially limiting nutrients, including phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe). Here we present high-resolution data (?0.3°) for dissolved iron, aluminum, and inorganic phosphorus that confirm the existence of a sharp north-south biogeochemical boundary in the surface nutrient concentrations of the (sub)tropical Atlantic Ocean. Combining satellite-based precipitation data with results from a previous study, we here demonstrate that wet deposition in the region of the intertropical convergence zone acts as the major dissolved iron source to surface waters. Moreover, corresponding observations of N2 fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic Trichodesmium spp. indicate that movement in the region of elevated dissolved iron as a result of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone drives a shift in the latitudinal distribution of diazotrophy and corresponding dissolved inorganic phosphorus depletion. These conclusions are consistent with the results of an idealized numerical model of the system. The boundary between the distinct biogeochemical systems of the (sub)tropical Atlantic thus appears to be defined by the diazotrophic response to spatial-temporal variability in external Fe inputs. Consequently, in addition to demonstrating a unique seasonal cycle forced by atmospheric nutrient inputs, we suggest that the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms would likely characterize the response of oligotrophic systems to altered environmental forcing over longer timescales. PMID:24367112

Schlosser, Christian; Klar, Jessica K; Wake, Bronwyn D; Snow, Joseph T; Honey, David J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Lohan, Maeve C; Achterberg, Eric P; Moore, C Mark

2014-01-28

250

Tree structure, regeneration and woody biomass removal in a sub-tropical forest of Mamlay watershed in the Sikkim Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the tree structure, tree dimension relationships and woody biomass production and removal of a sub-tropical natural forest in the Mamlay watershed of the Sikkim Himalaya. The forest provides fuel, fodder and timber to four villages. Only 11 tree species were found growing in the tree stratum despite the high diversity in the stand (32 tree species).

R. C. Sundriyal; E. Sharma; L. K. Rai; S. C. Rai

1994-01-01

251

CARBON AND NITROGEN ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE SUB-TROPICAL SEAGRASS THALASSIA TESTUDINUM AND THE TEMPERATE SEAGRASS ZOSTER MARINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Our understanding of seagrass physiology is based on crude estimates of production and biomass. To better understand the complex physiological relationships between the plants and the environment we developed a model of carbon and nitrogen allocation in the sub-tropical seagrass ...

252

Effects of a single intensive harvest event on fish populations inside a customary marine closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2008, the villagers of Kia Island, Fiji, opened their customary managed closure (Cakaulevu tabu) to fishing for a fundraiser that lasted for 5 weeks. We report on opportunistic before-after-control-impact surveys describing changes to coral reef communities both 4 weeks into the harvest and 1 year later compared with pre-harvest conditions. Prior to the harvest, there was a gradient in mean fish abundance and biomass per transect, with highest levels in the north of the closure (250 fish transect-1, 8,145.8 kg ha-1), intermediate levels in the south of the closure (159 fish transect-1, 4,672.1 kg ha-1) and lowest levels in the control area open to fishing (109 fish transect-1, 594.0 kg ha-1). During the harvest, there were extensive depletions in large-bodied, primary targeted fish species, with significant loss in biomass of Acanthuridae and Carangidae in the north and Lutjanidae and Serranidae in the south. We also observed significant increases in Acanthuridae, Lethrinidae and Scaridae in the control, suggesting a "bail-out" effect whereby fish left the closure in response to a rapid increase in fishing pressure. These changes were coupled with a large increase in turf algal cover at all survey areas, despite a large numerical increase in small, roving acanthurids (e.g., Ctenochaetus striatus) and scarids (e.g., Chlorurus sordidus). By 1 year later, fish biomass was significantly lower within the closure than before the harvest, while values in the control returned to pre-harvest levels, suggesting non-compliance with the reinstated fishing ban. We use the lessons learned from this event to suggest recommendations for promoting effective management of periodically harvested customary closures that are a common feature across much of Oceania.

Jupiter, S. D.; Weeks, R.; Jenkins, A. P.; Egli, D. P.; Cakacaka, A.

2012-06-01

253

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

254

Evidence of Segregated Spawning in a Single Marine Fish Stock: Sympatric Divergence of Ecotypes in Icelandic Cod?  

PubMed Central

There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ?1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

Grabowski, Timothy B.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; McAdam, Bruce J.; Marteinsdottir, Gu?run

2011-01-01

255

Evidence of segregated spawning in a single marine fish stock: Sympatric divergence of ecotypes in icelandic cod?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is increasing recognition of intraspecific diversity and population structure within marine fish species, yet there is little direct evidence of the isolating mechanisms that maintain it or documentation of its ecological extent. We analyzed depth and temperature histories collected by electronic data storage tags retrieved from 104 Atlantic cod at liberty ???1 year to evaluate a possible isolating mechanisms maintaining population structure within the Icelandic cod stock. This stock consists of two distinct behavioral types, resident coastal cod and migratory frontal cod, each occurring within two geographically distinct populations. Despite being captured together on the same spawning grounds, we show the behavioral types seem reproductively isolated by fine-scale differences in spawning habitat selection, primarily depth. Additionally, the different groups occupied distinct seasonal thermal and bathymetric niches that generally demonstrated low levels of overlap throughout the year. Our results indicate that isolating mechanisms, such as differential habitat selection during spawning, might contribute to maintaining diversity and fine-scale population structure in broadcast-spawning marine fishes.

Grabowski, T. B.; Thorsteinsson, V.; McAdam, B. J.; Marteinsdottir, G.

2011-01-01

256

Marine trophic diversity in an anadromous fish is linked to its life-history variation in fresh water  

PubMed Central

We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from muscle tissues accrued in the ocean to examine whether marine foraging tactics in anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are linked to their ultimate freshwater life history as adults. Adults from large-bodied populations spawning in deep freshwater habitats had more enriched ?15N than individuals from small-bodied populations from shallow streams. Within populations, earlier maturing individuals had higher ?15N than older fish. These differences in ?15N suggest that the fish with different life histories or spawning habitats in freshwater either fed at different trophic positions or in different habitats in the ocean. We propose that, nested within interspecific diversity in the ecological attributes of salmon, population and life-history diversity in spawning adults is associated with variation in marine foraging tactics. These results further indicate that the trophic diversity of sockeye salmon in the ocean may be linked to trade-offs in ecological and evolutionary constraints they eventually experience as adults in freshwater ecosystems.

Johnson, Susan P.; Schindler, Daniel E.

2013-01-01

257

Observations of migrant exchange and mixing in a coral reef fish metapopulation link scales of marine population connectivity.  

PubMed

Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757

Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

258

Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland

Eliassen

1988-01-01

259

Evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.  

PubMed

The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. Phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological water quality and disease-causing bacteria were followed in a marine aquaculture system of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the water samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments indicates that the bacterial community structure varied seasonally, showing a higher complexity during the warm season. The diversity of the main fish pathogenic bacteria, assessed by DGGE targeting the Vibrio genus, showed lower seasonal variation, with new dominating populations appearing mainly in the spring. Bacterial indicators, faecal coliforms and enterococci, enumerated by the filter-membrane method, also varied seasonally. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that the specific groups of bacteria varied during the study period and that the non-indigenous Enterobactereaceae family was the most abundant group followed by Vibrio and Aeromonas. The seasonal variation detected in terms of density and structure of total and pathogenic bacterial communities demonstrates the need for a careful monitoring of water through the year in order to select the suitable phages to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. The spring season seems to be the critical time period when phage therapy should be applied. PMID:21344093

Pereira, Carla; Salvador, Sara; Arrojado, Cátia; Silva, Yolanda; Santos, Ana L; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Gomes, Newton; Almeida, Adelaide

2011-04-01

260

First Evidence of Validity of the Fin-Ray Method of Age Determination for Marine Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978, tagged lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) were injected with oxytetracycline to produce a time mark in the fin rays. Four fish were recovered after being at liberty for approximately 2 or .3 years and all had an oxytetracycline mark. Three of the four fish had formed a number of annual growth zones equivalent to the number of years at liberty,

ALAN J. CASS; RICHARD J. BEAMISH

1983-01-01

261

Distribution of neoplasms and other diseases in marine fishes relative to the discharge of waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was based on an examination of approximately 290,000 fishes that comprised 151 species collected from southern California coastal waters, 1969 to 1976. Approximately 5 percent of the fishes were affected with external signs of disease, such as fin erosion, tumors, color anomalies, and attached macroparasites. Fin erosion diseases were reported in the greatest number of species and occurred

Alan J. Mearns; Marjorie J. Sherwood

1977-01-01

262

FIFTY YEARS OF MARINE FISH SYSTEMATICS AT THE J.L.B. SMITH INSTITUTE OF ICHTHYOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1946 Rhodes University created the Department of Ichthyology with J.L.B. Smith at the helm. Smith's research centred on the fishes of South Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. In his 22 years at the Department he produced the Sea Fishes of Southern Africa (SFSA) and revised numerous taxa based on material collected during his frequent trips to various parts

Ofer Gon

1996-01-01

263

Amending reduced fish-meal feeds with marine lecithin, but not soy lecithin, improves the growth of juvenile cobia and may attenuate heightened responses to stress challenge.  

PubMed

Sparing of marine resources in aquafeeds can be environmentally and economically advantageous; however, fish meal (FM) replacement can affect the production performance and physiological competence. Phospholipids are increasingly understood to be involved in maintaining growth and vigour in fish and may be deficient in reduced FM formulations. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth and stress tolerance of juvenile cobia fed typical (50% FM) or reduced FM feeds (12% FM) with or without phospholipid amendment [1% marine lecithin (12% FM?+?Marine PL) or soy lecithin (12% FM?+?Soy PL)] for 6?weeks in triplicate tanks (N?=?3) in a recirculation aquaculture system. The 50% FM feed yielded significantly superior growth and growth efficiency in comparison with the 12% FM and 12% FM+ Soy PL feeds, but the 12% FM+ Marine PL feed yielded comparable results to 50% FM feed. A low-water stress challenge induced elevated plasma glucose, cortisol and lactate levels in all treatments. However, a significant interaction (diet?×?stress) effect suggested a lesser cortisol response among fish fed the 12% FM+ Marine PL and 50% FM diets. These findings demonstrate that growth performance and, perhaps, resilience of cobia raised on reduced FM feeds may be improved by the addition of marine-origin phospholipid to the diet. PMID:22106957

Trushenski, J; Schwarz, M; Pessoa, W V N; Mulligan, B; Crouse, C; Gause, B; Yamamoto, F; Delbos, B

2013-02-01

264

A new fish haemogregarine from South Africa and its suspected dual transmission with trypanosomes by a marine leech.  

PubMed

Twenty two percent (22/98) of intertidal fishes of 10 species captured in South Africa at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve (south coast) and Mouille Point, Cape Town (west coast), harboured single or combined infections of haemogregarines, trypanosomes and an intraerythrocytic parasite resembling a Haemohormidium sp. The haemogregarines included the known species Haemogregarina (sensu lato) bigemina (Laveran et Mesnil, 1901) Siddall, 1995 and Haemogregarina (sensu lato) koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001, while Haemogregarina (sensu lato) curvata sp. n. was observed in Clinus cottoides Valenciennes and Parablennius cornutus (L.) at Koppie Alleen. This last haemogregarine is characterised particularly by its distinctly curved gamonts. Also at Koppie Alleen, squash and histological preparations of 9/10 leeches, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis De Silva, 1963, taken from infected C. cottoides and P. cornutus contained developmental stages of H. curvata and/or trypanosomes, but these were absent from haematophagous gnathiid isopods (Gnathia africana Barnard, 1914) taken from infected fishes. It is suspected that Z. arugamensis transmits the haemogregarine and trypanosomes simultaneously between fishes, a double event unreported previously from the marine environment. PMID:17252920

Hayes, Polly M; Smit, Nico J; Seddon, Alan M; Wertheim, David F; Davies, Angela J

2006-12-01

265

Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE) are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host-pathogen interactions and evolutionary history of immunogenetics from fish to mammals.

2010-01-01

266

75 FR 29984 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PBR for this stock (see Allen and Angliss, 2010 Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports (SAR), 2009, NOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-AFSC-206.), NMFS also acknowledged in the SAR and in the negligible impact determination for this permit that...

2010-05-28

267

C-Banding of Chromosomes from Three Established Marine Fish Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic ...

P. E. Gregory P. N. Howard-Peebles R. D. Ellender B. J. Martin

1980-01-01

268

C-BANDING OF CHROMOSOMES FROM THREE ESTABLISHED MARINE FISH CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many fish karyotypes possess a large group of morphologically similar chromosomes. The authors describe a technique developed through modification of a C-banding procedure that produces distinct bands and thus allows identification of the heterochromatic regions of individuals pa...

269

Distribution and Sighting Frequency of Reef Fishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzed species richness, distribution, and sighting frequency of selected reef fishes to describe species assemblage composition, abundance, and spatial distribution patterns among sites and regions (Upper Keys, Middle Keys, Lower Keys, and D...

C. Pattengill-Semmens C. F. G. Jeffrey M. E. Monaco S. Gittings

2001-01-01

270

Catch-and-Release Fishing: A Comparison of Intended and Actual Behavior of Marine Anglers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on catch-and-release fishing has typically relied on stated or observed preferences, with few applications that incorporate both data types. Further, most models ignore the effects of species on the release decision. We present a discrete-choice model estimated from stated preference data in which conservation release is a function of the species caught and angler characteristics that include fishing avidity,

Kristy Wallmo; Brad Gentner

2008-01-01

271

Evapotranspiration from subsurface horizontal flow wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

The balance between evapotranspiration (ET) loss and rainfall ingress in treatment wetlands (TWs) can affect their suitability for certain applications. The aim of this paper was to investigate the water balance and seasonal dynamics in ET of subsurface horizontal flow (HF) TWs in a sub-tropical climate. Monthly water balances were compiled for four pilot-scale HF TWs receiving horticultural runoff over a two year period (Sep. 1999-Aug. 2001) on the sub-tropical east-coast of Australia. The mean annual wetland ET rate increased from 7.0 mm/day in the first year to 10.6 mm/day in the second, in response to the development of the reed (Phragmites australis) population. Consequently, the annual crop coefficients (ratio of wetland ET to pan evaporation) increased from 1.9 in the first year to 2.6 in the second. The mean monthly ET rates were generally greater and more variable than the Class-A pan evaporation rates, indicating that transpiration is an important contributor to ET in HF TWs. Evapotranspiration rates were generally highest in the summer and autumn months, and corresponded with the times of peak standing biomass of P. australis. It is likely that ET from the relatively small 1 m wide by 4 m long HF TWs was enhanced by advection through so-called "clothesline" and "oasis" effects, which contributed to the high crop coefficients. For the second year, when the reed population was well established, the annual net loss to the atmosphere (taking into account rainfall inputs) accounted for 6.1-9.6 % of the influent hydraulic load, which is considered negligible. However, the net loss is likely to be higher in arid regions with lower rainfall. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of the wetlands in the second year of operation was 1.3 g of above-ground biomass produced per kilogram of water consumed, which is low compared to agricultural crops. It is proposed that system level WUE provides a useful metric for selecting wetland plant species and TW design alternatives to use in arid regions where excessive water loss from constructed wetlands can be problematic. Further research is needed to accrue long-term HF TW water balance data especially in arid climatic zones. PMID:22127043

Headley, T R; Davison, L; Huett, D O; Müller, R

2012-02-01

272

Validation and Extension of a Rapid Method of Dioxin Screening in Marine and Freshwater Fish through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Fatty Acid Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 95% of human exposure to dioxin is through ingestion of animal fats. Studies have identified both freshwater and marine fish, from wild and farmed stocks, as a significant source of human exposure to dioxins (Alcock and others 1998; Turyk and others, in press; Rawn and othe...

273

Predator size-prey size relationships of marine fish predators: interspecific variation and effects of ontogeny and body size on trophic-niche breadth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilized a long-term data base collected over a broad geographic range to examine predator size - prey size relationships for 18 species of marine fish predators from continental shelf waters off the northeast US coast. Regression analysis was used to illustrate interspecific variation in ontogenetic patterns of prey size use, gape allometries, and ratio-based trophic niche breadths. Size- based

Frederick S. Scharf; Francis Juanes; Rodney A. Rountree

2000-01-01

274

Microsatellite multiplex panels for genetic studies of three species of marine fishes: red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), red snapper ( Lutjanus campechanus), and cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiplex panels of nuclear-encoded microsatellites were developed for three species of marine fishes of interest to both public and private aquaculture ventures: red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), and cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The multiplex panels will be useful in a variety of applications, including strain and hybrid identification, parentage assignment, pedigree reconstruction, estimating genetic diversity and\\/or inbreeding, mapping

Mark A. Renshaw; Eric Saillant; S. Coleen Bradfield; John R. Gold

2006-01-01

275

Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in wild marine fish: implications for the origins of salmon pancreas disease in aquaculture.  

PubMed

Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the aetiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (SPD) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sleeping disease (SD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture. SAV is horizontally transmitted and the virus can survive for extended periods in seawater. A lack of convincing evidence for vertical transmission coupled to the fact that the SPD virus (SPDV) occurs in historically infected sites irrespective of fallow period duration suggests that a substantial reservoir of infection exists in the marine environment. We used a highly sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting a region of the SAV nsP1 gene to screen wild marine fish species for the presence of SAV in an attempt to identify such a potential reservoir. Screened fish species were caught in the vicinity of aquaculture activity in an area with a previous history of SAV infection (Shetland Isles, Scotland). SAV RNA was detected in internal organs (kidney and heart) from the flatfish species common dab Limanda limanda, long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Based on these findings, sampling was extended to an area remote from aquaculture activity (Stonehaven Bay, NE coast of Scotland) from where heart tissues obtained from common dab also tested positive. While no virus could be cultivated from these samples, qPCR detections were shown to be SAV-specific by sequencing of an alternative gene region (E2) to that targeted by the qPCR assay. Analysis of these nucleotide sequences revealed minor differences to those previously obtained from farmed salmon, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of an E2 dataset demonstrated a subtype V-like sequence. PMID:21133318

Snow, M; Black, J; Matejusova, I; McIntosh, R; Baretto, E; Wallace, I S; Bruno, D W

2010-09-17

276

Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1?mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ? - 3/? - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2013-01-01

277

Influence of redox potential on phosphate-uptake by sediments in two sub-tropical eutrophic lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeochemical reactions in shallow eutrophic lakes areaffected bythe changes in redox potential (Eh) as bottom sedimentsundergotemporal resuspension and settling. The stability of varioussediment P fractions and kinetics of P-uptake were evaluatedfortwo sub-tropical lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee,Florida)using sediment suspensions in closed systems maintained atvariousEh levels ranging from -235 to 555 mV. Redox potential hadminimal effect on the stability of

O. G. Olila; K. R. Reddy

1997-01-01

278

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

279

Understanding origins of present-day genetic structure in marine fish: biologically or historically driven patterns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the origin of genetic structure is of wide interest because of its use in stock discrimination in marine organisms. Schematically, genetic differentiation can result from historical patterns maintained over geological time or from present-day isolation attributable to biological characteristics of the species. We used a comparative approach to population genetic analysis based on allozyme polymorphism to determine the impact

C. Fauvelot; S. Planes

2002-01-01

280

Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps  

PubMed Central

Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment.

Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

281

Monitoring biological effects of contamination in marine fish along French coasts by measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity.  

PubMed

The use of bioindicators to evaluate exposure to the biological effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms constitutes a new tool in the monitoring field. The establishment of a North Sea monitoring network in 1991, involving such international organizations as the North Sea Task Force, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, and the Intergovernmental Oceanography Commission, led French researchers to develop an enzymatic biomarker to monitor biological effects within the National Observation Network. The biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), dependent on the CP450 system, has been monitored biannually since 1992 in several species of fish (Callionymus lyra, Limanda limanda, Serranus sp., Mullus barbatus) in two coastal sites particularly exposed to industrial and domestic pollution. A rapid method is used to assay EROD enzymatic activity determined along a pollution gradient, and results are interpreted on a microplate reader. The strategy of this approach is to assess the effects on the marine ecosystem during prolonged exposure to specific pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. PMID:7533706

Burgeot, T; Bocquené, G; Pingray, G; Godefroy, D; Legrand, J; Dimeet, J; Marco, F; Vincent, F; Henocque, Y; Jeanneret, H O

1994-11-01

282

Determination of simple bromophenols in marine fishes by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).  

PubMed

Brominated phenols 2- and 4-bromophenol (2-BP and 4-BP); 2,4- and 2,6-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) have been identified as key flavor compounds found in seafoods. Depending on their concentrations, they were responsible for marine or ocean flavor (shrimp/crab/fish/sea salt-like) or for phenolic/iodine/iodoform-like off-flavor. In this work a new analytical methodology was developed to determine, simultaneously, such bromophenols in fish meats, based on reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatographic separation (RP-HPLC). The separation of bromophenols was made onto a Lichrospher 100 RP-18 column using water:acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1), using absorbance detection at 286nm, were the 2-BP, 4-BP, 2,4- and 2,6-DBP show significant absorbtivity values and at 297nm for 2,4,6-TBP. They were separated in 20min with a good chromatographic resolution (Rs) for the isomeric compounds: 2- and 4-BP, Rs=1.23; 2,4- and 2,6-DBP, Rs=1.63. The calibration curves were linear in the bromophenols concentration range of 200.0-1000ngmL(-1). Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method was 127ngmL(-1) for 2-BP; 179ngmL(-1) for 4-BP; 89.0ngmL(-1) for 2,4-DBP; 269ngmL(-1) for 2,6-DBP and 232ngmL(-1) for 2,4,6-TBP. This method has been applied in determination of bromophenols, isolated by combined steam distillation-solvent extraction with 2mL of pentane/diethyl ether (6:4), from Brazilian fishes samples, collected on the Atlantic coast of Bahia (13 degrees 01'S and 38 degrees 31'W), Brazil. The concentration range determined were 0.20ngg(-1) (2-BP) to 299ngg(-1) (2,4,6-TBP). The method proposed here is rapid and suitable for simultaneous quantification of simple bromophenols in fish meat. As long as we know, it is the first analytical methodology, using RP-HPLC/UV, which was developed to determine simple bromophenols in fish meat. PMID:18970325

da Silva, Vilma Mota; da Cunha Veloso, Márcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Aline S; Santos, Gislaine Vieira; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Andrade, Jailson B

2005-12-15

283

Histopathologic Effects in Marine Fish Treated with Estrogens or an Aromatase Inhibitor  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as the estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) , have been reported to affect fish reproduction. Androstatrienedione (ATD) is a known aromatase inhibitor which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. The intent of thi...

284

Anisakis infestation in marine fish and cephalopods from Galician waters: an updated perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 2,673 fresh specimens of cephalopod and fish representing 35 species were obtained from commercial local fisheries in Galician waters (NW Spain). They were examined for anisakid nematodes by digestion of the muscle and elution of the viscera and whole body cavity. All larval nematodes recovered were identified by light microscopy and multilocus electrophoresis as belonging to the

E. Abollo; C. Gestal; S. Pascual

2001-01-01

285

On the spot: the absence of predators reveals eyespot plasticity in a marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyespots have long been thought to confer protection against predators, but empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of these markings and their survival value in the wild is limited. Using a mark--recapture experiment, I examined the functional significance of the eyespot on the dorsal fin of a juvenile tropical fish to its survival on coral reefs. None of the juveniles recaptured

Monica Gagliano

2008-01-01

286

Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths  

PubMed Central

No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400–11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000–8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group.

Yancey, Paul H.; Gerringer, Mackenzie E.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Jamieson, Alan

2014-01-01

287

Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

1996-10-01

288

Marine fish may be biochemically constrained from inhabiting the deepest ocean depths.  

PubMed

No fish have been found in the deepest 25% of the ocean (8,400-11,000 m). This apparent absence has been attributed to hydrostatic pressure, although direct evidence is wanting because of the lack of deepest-living species to study. The common osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins against pressure and increases with depth, going from 40 to 261 mmol/kg in teleost fishes from 0 to 4,850 m. TMAO accumulation with depth results in increasing internal osmolality (typically 350 mOsmol/kg in shallow species compared with seawater's 1,100 mOsmol/kg). Preliminary extrapolation of osmolalities of predicted isosmotic state at 8,000-8,500 m may indicate a possible physiological limit, as greater depths would require reversal of osmotic gradients and, thus, osmoregulatory systems. We tested this prediction by capturing five of the second-deepest known fish, the hadal snailfish (Notoliparis kermadecensis; Liparidae), from 7,000 m in the Kermadec Trench. We found their muscles to have a TMAO content of 386 ± 18 mmol/kg and osmolality of 991 ± 22 mOsmol/kg. These data fit previous extrapolations and, combined with new osmolalities from bathyal and abyssal fishes, predict isosmotic state at 8,200 m. This is previously unidentified evidence that biochemistry could constrain the depth of a large, complex taxonomic group. PMID:24591588

Yancey, Paul H; Gerringer, Mackenzie E; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Rowden, Ashley A; Jamieson, Alan

2014-03-25

289

The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summation of current understanding of the biology of 8 major families (30 species) of fishes that are of primary importance to the aquarium industry and which are collected in the Florida Keys is presented. A description of the collection industry and p...

D. Hess J. Stevely

1981-01-01

290

Frequency and intensity of productivity regime shifts in marine fish stocks.  

PubMed

Fish stocks fluctuate both in abundance and productivity (net population increase), and there are many examples demonstrating that productivity increased or decreased due to changes in abundance caused by fishing and, alternatively, where productivity shifted between low and high regimes, entirely unrelated to abundance. Although shifts in productivity regimes have been described, their frequency and intensity have not previously been assessed. We use a database of trends in harvest and abundance of 230 fish stocks to evaluate the proportion of fish stocks in which productivity is primarily related to abundance vs. those that appear to manifest regimes of high or low productivity. We evaluated the statistical support for four hypotheses: (i) the abundance hypothesis, where production is always related to population abundance; (ii) the regimes hypothesis, where production shifts irregularly between regimes that are unrelated to abundance; (iii) the mixed hypothesis, where even though production is related to population abundance, there are irregular changes in this relationship; and (iv) the random hypothesis, where production is random from year to year. We found that the abundance hypothesis best explains 18.3% of stocks, the regimes hypothesis 38.6%, the mixed hypothesis 30.5%, and the random hypothesis 12.6%. Fisheries management agencies need to recognize that irregular changes in productivity are common and that harvest regulation and management targets may need to be adjusted whenever productivity changes. PMID:23322735

Vert-pre, Katyana A; Amoroso, Ricardo O; Jensen, Olaf P; Hilborn, Ray

2013-01-29

291

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the numberofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When theoretical patterns in life histories were investigated in terms of rand K selection and compared with actual trends in life history characteristics of fishes, the agreement between observed and predicted trends was significant. The

PETER B. ADAMS

292

A highly efficient microencapsulated food for rearing early larvae of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process of elaboration and the characteristics of an inert microencapsulated diet which provides much improved growth and development in the rearing of gilthead seabream larvae. The microencapsulated diet was composed of casein, fish protein hydrolysate, octopus meal, dextrin, emulsified lipids and a vitamin mixture. Following 4 days feeding on rotifers, three rearing treatments were used from

M Yúfera; E Pascual; C Fernández-D??az

1999-01-01

293

Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

2013-03-31

294

Effect of Marine Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Methylmercury-Induced Toxicity in Fish and Mammalian Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant which bioaccumulates in marine biota. Fish constitute an important part of a balanced human diet contributing with health beneficial nutrients but may also contain contaminants such as MeHg. Interactions between the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) with MeHg-induced toxicity were investigated. Different toxic and metabolic responses were studied in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cell line and the mammalian kidney-derived HEK293 cell line. Both cell lines were preincubated with DHA or EPA prior to MeHg-exposure, and cell toxicity was assessed differently in the cell lines by MeHg-uptake in cells (ASK and HEK293), proliferation (HEK293 and ASK), apoptosis (ASK), oxidation of the red-ox probe roGFP (HEK293), and regulation of selected toxicological and metabolic transcriptional markers (ASK). DHA was observed to decrease the uptake of MeHg in HEK293, but not in ASK cells. DHA also increased, while EPA decreased, MeHg-induced apoptosis in ASK. MeHg exposure induced changes in selected metabolic and known MeHg biomarkers in ASK cells. Both DHA and MeHg, but not EPA, oxidized roGFP in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate MeHg toxicity, either by decreasing apoptosis (EPA) or by reducing MeHg uptake (DHA). However, DHA can also augment MeHg toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis when combined with MeHg.

N?stbakken, O. J.; Bredal, I. L.; Olsvik, P. A.; Huang, T. S.; Torstensen, B. E.

2012-01-01

295

Quantitative detection of a marine fish iridovirus isolated from large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, using a molecular beacon.  

PubMed

A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay utilizing a molecular beacon for the quantitative detection of a marine fish iridovirus isolated from large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (LYCIV), was developed, which involved the amplification of a 122bp DNA fragment from a conserved region of LYCIV ATPase gene. The specific probe consisting of two short arm and a central loop sequences complementary to the target amplicon was characterized with respect to its efficiency of quenching (E(ff)), and signal to background ratio by spectrofluorometric analysis of its hybridization with the complementary oligonucleotide target. The positive control plasmid pFHT-ATPase containing the target sequence was quantified to make the standard curve for sample detection after serial 10-fold dilution. Linear coefficient correlations between cycle threshold (C(T)) value and logarithmic positive plasmid concentration were close to one (r(2)=0.998) and the detection limit of the assay was 70 copies of positive plasmid/assay. The specificity of this real-time PCR was also demonstrated by using the genomic DNA templates from the healthy fish, white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSSV), and epizootic heamatopietic necrosis virus (EHNV), respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the assay ranged from 1.16 to 4.42%, depending on the concentration of the positive plasmid. The quantitative detection of different tissues from LYCIV-infected fish showed that the spleen and kidney contained the largest number of viral particles (6.86 x 10(6) and 4.62 x 10(6) viral genome copies/mg tissue, respectively) while no viral DNA was detected in the muscular tissue. These results suggested that the real-time PCR assay reported here could be used for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of LYCIV infection. PMID:16310867

Wang, Xiao-Wen; Ao, Jing-Qun; Li, Qing-Ge; Chen, Xin-Hua

2006-04-01

296

Seasonal fluctuation of the prevalence of cymothoids representing the genus Nerocila (Crustacea, Isopoda), parasitizing commercially exploited marine fishes from the Malabar Coast, India.  

PubMed

The presently reported study investigated seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence in four species of Nerocila infesting commercially exploited marine fishes representing the families Engraulidae, Clupeidae and Ambassidae, from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India). Seven of 56 fish species belonging to 23 families were infested by either one or two species of Nerocila. All the collected Nerocila species showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the prevalence of infestation, reaching maximum from October through April and minimum (or total absence of the parasites) from May through September. Such fluctuations were analyzed based on environmental parameters. Body surface, postero-ventral side of the head and the lateral line of the host fish form the major infestation site for the recovered Nerocila species. Skin lesion and hemorrhages were observed on the fish parasitized with these cymothoids. PMID:23377916

Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Arshad, Keethadath; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

2013-03-01

297

Uptake and effects of nitrite in the marine teleost fish Platichthys flesus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The route of NO2? uptake and subsequent physiological effects were examined in the marine teleost, European flounder (Platichthys flesus), during exposure to 1 mM ambient NO2? for up to 11 days. Drinking of seawater resulted in a similar nitrite concentration in the anterior part of the intestine as in the ambient water. The NO2? concentration decreased along the gastro-intestinal tract,

M. Grosell; F. B. Jensen

2000-01-01

298

DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

³²P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of

B. Kurelec; M. Checko; S. Krca; A. Garg; R. C. Gupta

1988-01-01

299

A review of the larviculture of cobia Rachycentron canadum, a warm water marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobia Rachycentron canadum is a marine finfish species with emerging global potential for mariculture. Positive culture attributes include capacity for natural and induced tank spawning, growth rates in excess of 6 kg\\/year, high disease resistance, high survival rates (post-larviculture stage) in tanks and net pens, adaptability to commercially available extruded diets, and high-quality fillets suitable for the sashimi as well as

G. Joan Holt; Cynthia K. Faulk; Michael H. Schwarz

2007-01-01

300

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

2013-08-01

301

Luminous Enteric Bacteria of Marine Fishes: a Study of Their Distribution, Densities, and Dispersion †  

PubMed Central

Three taxa of luminous bacteria (Photobacterium fischeri, P. phosphoreum, and Beneckea spp.) were found in the enteric microbial populations of 22 species of surface- and midwater-dwelling fishes. These bacteria often occurred in concentrations ranging between 105 and 107 colony-forming units per ml of enteric contents. By using a genetically marked strain, it was determined that luminous cells entering the fish during ingestion of seawater or contaminated particles traversed the alimentary tract and survived the digestive processes. After excretion, luminous bacteria proliferated extensively on the fecal material and became distributed into the surrounding seawater. Thus, this enteric habitat may serve as an enrichment of viable cells entering the planktonic luminous population.

Ruby, E. G.; Morin, J. G.

1979-01-01

302

Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China*  

PubMed Central

Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features—color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61 t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. This is the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

Hao, Yan-ru; Peng, Shao-lin; Mo, Jiang-ming; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Zhuo-quan; Zhou, Kai; Wu, Jin-rong

2006-01-01

303

Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no artificial feed formulation is yet available to completely substitute for Artemia, feeding live prey to young fish larvae still remains essential in commercial hatchery operations. The nutritional quality of commercially available Artemia strains being relatively poor in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), it is essential and common practice to enrich these live prey

P Sorgeloos; P Dhert; P Candreva

2001-01-01

304

Thermal energy and the rate of genetic evolution in marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slower genetic evolution in microbial thermophiles has been attributed to internal mutation control mechanisms in very high\\u000a temperatures, whereas the tempo of plant microevolution has been positively correlated to ambient thermal conditions. Here,\\u000a using a global dataset of 136 teleost fish species, contrasting warm and cool water species, and controlling for any differences\\u000a between species in mutation control mechanisms, we

Shane D. WrightHoward; Howard A. Ross; D. Jeanette Keeling; Paul McBride; Len N. Gillman

2011-01-01

305

Influence of marine reserves on reef fish recruitment in the upper Florida Keys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper Florida Keys was monitored monthly for 7 years (2003-2009) to establish a baseline and test whether recruitment varied between reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruits <30 days old were surveyed in two primary habitat types (reef and rubble) in each of two replicate reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruitment of all fish species peaked in the summer and early fall; winter recruitment was consistently low. Some interannual recruitment patterns were roughly similar among species, with recruitment generally lower in 2004 for several taxa, possibly reflecting a system-wide process. During 7 peak recruitment months each year, overall recruitment to reef habitat was significantly higher in non-reserve sites in 2 of 7 years. In contrast, recruitment to rubble habitat was significantly higher in reserves in 3 of 7 years. Specific fish taxa had variable patterns of recruitment to reserves and non-reserves: Despite high interannual variation in recruitment magnitude, Scaridae (parrotfish) densities were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves. Densities of two abundant goby taxa ( Gnatholepis thompsoni and Coryphopterus spp.) were also higher in reserves than in non-reserves, but the magnitude varied among years. Recruitment of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, did not differ consistently between reserves and non-reserves. Densities of Thalassoma bifasciatum had an opposite trend relative to other taxa, with densities typically higher in non-reserves than in reserves (in 6 of 7 years; significant in only 2 years). Higher recruit densities (scarids, gobies, and all rubble taxa together) within reserves were coupled with significantly lower densities of intermediate-sized piscivores and significantly greater cover of Dictyota spp. macroalgae and turfs relative to non-reserves. Reserves may be areas of relative refuge from predation for some fish recruits due to a combination of reduced predator abundance and enhanced small-scale structural habitat.

Sponaugle, S.; Walter, K. D.; Grorud-Colvert, K.; Paddack, M. J.

2012-09-01

306

Fish protein hydrolysis by a psychrotrophic marine bacterium isolated from the gut of hake (Merluccius hubbsi).  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify a psychrotrophic bacterium, strain CR41, producing a cold adapted protease during growth at low temperatures and to evaluate the ability of the cells to hydrolyze hake fish protein. The strain was isolated from the intestinal tract of hake collected from the San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) and it was identified as Pseudoalteromonas. Growth and fish protein hydrolysis were determined using an aerated simple mineral medium plus 10% fish protein concentrate. Proteolytic activity was measured at 7 and 22 degrees C during culture in the concentrate. Protease production started in the exponential growth phase and reached a maximum during stationary phase. Protease activity at 7 degrees C was lower than at 22 degrees C. After 8 h of incubation, the percentage of hydrolyzed protein was 84% at 7 degrees C and 95% at 22 degrees C. Electrophoresis detection showed that degradation of muscle hake proteins was complete at both temperatures, and in gelatin zymograms extracellular activity showed two proteolytic bands with apparent molecular masses of approximately 31.6 and 62 kDa. PMID:17473897

Belchior, Silvia G Estevao; Vacca, Gabriela

2006-12-01

307

Anisakidae larvae found in marine fishes and squids from the Gulf of Tongking, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

Marine fishes and squids caught in the Gulf of Tongking, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea were dissected, and many Anisakidae larvae were found in them. The larvae of Anisakis simplex (Anisakis Type I larvae), the most important causative agent of anisakiasis, was found in about 30% of fishes and squids caught in the Gulf of Tongking and in about 60% of those caught in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Larvae belonging to three other genera than Anisakis--Raphidascaris or Raphidascaroides, Hysterothylacium, and Terranova (Cannon Type I)--were also detected. PMID:1784084

Sun, S Z; Koyama, T; Kagei, N

1991-06-01

308

Konoritsu gyorui seisan no tame no suishitsu joka gijutsu no kaihatsu. 6. Kaiyosei shoka saikin no koteika to sono yukosei. (Development of water purification technologies for intensive fish culture. 6. Seawater treatment with immobilized marine nitrifying bacteria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper studied the immobilizing technology of marine bacteria which can apply to the seawater treatment system for closed recirculating fish culture. Three kinds of natural polymer and seven kinds of synthetic polymer were used as immobilizing materia...

H. Uemoto K. Kikuchi M. Kiyono

1991-01-01

309

Complete nucleotide sequence of the hirame rhabdovirus, a pathogen of marine fish.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed for the hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) CA-9703 strain from Korea, and the DNA was sequenced. The 3'-end of genomic RNA was cloned by poly(A)-tailing of the genomic RNA before reverse transcription, and the 5'-end of the genome was cloned by poly(G)- or poly(C)-tailing of the first strand, followed by PCR. The remainder of the genomic DNA was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers that were based on the published rhabdovirus sequences. The complete genome of HIRRV CA-9703 strain comprises 11,034 nucleotides and encodes six genes in the order of: 3'-leader, N, P, M, G, NV, L, and 5'-trailer. These genes are separated by conserved sequences or gene junctions, with one-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 16 of the 19 nucleotides at the ends of the HIRRV genome are complementary, and the first four nucleotides at the 3'-ends of the HIRRV, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) genomes are identical. The HIRRV proteins share the highest amino acid sequence homology (ranging from 72% to 92%) with the proteins of IHNV, of all the known fish rhabdoviruses, and the highest sequence homology with respect to the L protein was shared among HIRRV, IHNV, VHSV, and SHRV. Although there were differences in the degrees of relatedness, phylogenetic trees that were derived from multiple sequence alignments of the rhabdovirus proteins showed similar patterns of relationship among these viruses, in which fish Novirhabdoviruses formed a separate clade from spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), unassigned fish rhabdovirus that was closer to mammalian rhabdoviruses. PMID:15567027

Kim, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hae-Keun; Eou, Joung-Im; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Koo; Oh, Myung-Joo; Nam, Soo-Wan; Choi, Tae-Jin

2005-01-01

310

Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.  

PubMed

Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

Colorni, A; Diamant, A

2005-06-01

311

Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

1993-10-01

312

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained  

PubMed Central

A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

2011-01-01

313

Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

2013-01-01

314

Effects of cooking and subcellular distribution on the bioaccessibility of trace elements in two marine fish species.  

PubMed

In current human health risk assessment, the maximum acceptable concentrations of contaminants in food are mostly based on the total concentrations. However, the total concentration of contaminants may not always reflect the available amount. Bioaccessibility determination is thus required to improve the risk assessment of contaminants. This study used an in vitro digestion model to assess the bioaccessibility of several trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn) in the muscles of two farmed marine fish species (seabass Lateolabrax japonicus and red seabream Pagrosomus major ) of different body sizes. The total concentrations and subcellular distributions of these trace elements in fish muscles were also determined. Bioaccessibility of these trace elements was generally high (>45%), and the lowest bioaccessibility was observed for Fe. Cooking processes, including boiling, steaming, frying, and grilling, generally decreased the bioaccessibility of these trace elements, especially for Cu and Zn. The influences of frying and grilling were greater than those of boiling and steaming. The relationship of bioaccessibility and total concentration varied with the elements. A positive correlation was found for As and Cu and a negative correlation for Fe, whereas no correlation was found for Cd, Se, and Zn. A significant positive relationship was demonstrated between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in the heat stable protein fraction and in the trophically available fraction, and a negative correlation was observed between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in metal-rich granule fraction. Subcellular distribution may thus affect the bioaccessibility of metals and should be considered in the risk assessment for seafood safety. PMID:20192204

He, Mei; Ke, Cai-Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2010-03-24

315

On four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam, including the description of three new species and a key to the species of Gorgorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of echinorhynchid acanthocephalans were collected from marine fish off Cat Ba Island, Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin,\\u000a Vietnam, in the spring of 2009. Acanthocephalus halongensis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae) from the redtail scad, Decapterus kurroides Bleeker 1855 (Carangidae), has a unique proboscis armature with a spiniform basal hook with lateral root and an incomplete\\u000a receptacle wall posteriorly. Gorgorhynchus tonkinensis

Omar M. Amin; Nguyen Van Ha

316

Intestinal HCO3? secretion in marine teleost fish: evidence for an apical rather than a basolateral Cl?\\/HCO3? exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal fluid was collected from 11 marine teleost fish from the Baltic sea and the Pacific ocean. The anterior, mid and posterior segments of the intestine contained 33–110 mM of HCO3- equivalents (with exception of the Atlantic cod which contained only 5–15 mM). Considering literature values of transepithelial potentials and concentration gradients, these high levels of HCO3- equivalents are probably the result

M. Grosell; C. N. Laliberte; S. Wood; F. B. Jensen; C. M. Wood

2001-01-01

317

Genetic Effective Size Is Three Orders of Magnitude Smaller Than Adult Census Size in an Abundant, Estuarine-Dependent Marine Fish (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (Ne) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio Ne\\/N , where short-term variance Ne was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where

Thomas F. Turner; John P. Wares; John R. Gold

2002-01-01

318

Taxometric analysis of helminthes of marine fishes. 1. Pedunculacetabulum spinatum n.sp., from Chorinemus mandetta and Wenyonia rhincodonti n.sp., from Rhincodon typus.  

PubMed

The investigations include report of two new worms from marine fishes of Central West Coast of Goa in Arabian Sea. A trematode, Pedunculacetabulum spinatum n.sp. from Chorinemusmandetta and Wenyonia rhincodoni n.sp. from sharks, Rhincodon typus have been described and compared with closer species. The systematics of genus Pedunculacetabulum Yamaguti (Japan J Zool 6:1-112, 1934) has been discussed with detailed evidence of taxometric significance to reinstate this genus. PMID:23024510

Malhotra, Anshu; Jaiswal, Neeshma; Singh, H R; Capoor, V N; Malhotra, Sandeep K

2011-10-01

319

Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

2013-12-01

320

Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1?, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N(2) fixation in the North Atlantic. PMID:22174940

Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

2011-01-01

321

Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven-month measurement period spanning a dry-to-inundated transition in the marsh, methane flux was negligible during non-inundated periods, but was substantial (averaging 80 g C/m2/yr) during wet periods. The results of this study suggest that water level is a critical control on atmospheric carbon exchanges at this peat marsh with implications for water management and strategic planning under potentially drier conditions that might occur in response to climate change.

Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

2012-12-01

322

Environmental Forcing of Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Tropical and Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 106 L?1 nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 105 L?1 nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 104 L?1 nifH gene copies. N2 fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032–1.28 nmol N L?1 d?1 with a mean of 0.30±0.29 nmol N L?1 d?1 (1?, n?=?65). CO2-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2±3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N2 fixation rates contributed only 0.55±0.87% (range 0.03–5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N2 fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N2 fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the consequences of climate warming for N2 fixation in the North Atlantic.

Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.; Mills, Matthew M.; Patey, Matthew D.; Hill, Polly G.; Nielsdottir, Maria C.; Compton, Tanya J.; LaRoche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P.

2011-01-01

323

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).  

PubMed

The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006. PMID:23859426

Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

2013-09-01

324

Two New Trematodes of Family Acanthocolpidae Luhe, 1906 From Marine Fish Leiognathus daura (Cuvier) from the Coast of Puri, Orissa, India  

PubMed Central

Background Genus Acanthocolpus (Trematoda: Acanthocolpiidae) is one of the most important zoonotic digenean with wide geographic distribution in the world. The purpose of the present study was to describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of Acanthocolpus species, currently prevalent in marine fish fauna of Puri coast, Orissa, India. Methods Gastro-intestinal organs of Leiognathus daura (Cuvier) in Puri coast, Orissa, India, were examined for infectivity with digenean trematode species. For examination and measurements of helminthes, acetoalum carmine staining was performed, followed by camera Lucida drawings of morphological characters and measurements of morphometrical criteria with a calibrated microscope. Using valid trematode systematic keys, almost all the parasites were identified at the level of species. Results Overall, 36 marine fishes were found infected with at least one species of Acanthocolpus. Considering morphological characteristics of Acanthocolpus, two species were identified as new species including Acanthocolpus durghai sp.nov. and Acanthocolpus amrawatai sp.nov. Conclusion During the survey of helminth parasites, collected six different species of the genus Acanthocolpus, out of these two are new species, another is redescribed to show certain variation, the new parasite was obtain from the intestine of marine fish Leiognathus daura (Cuvier)

MISHRA, Sushma; CHANDRA, Satish; SAXENA, Anand Murari

2013-01-01

325

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

326

Two anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from Nemipterus furcosus.  

PubMed

One new and one known species of the ascaridoid family Anisakidae are reported from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia: Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nemipteri n. sp. from the intestine of the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae, Perciformes) and Hysterothylacium cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) from the intestine of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Istiophoridae, Perciformes). R. nemipteri is characterised mainly by the shape (wider than long) of the lips, the length of the spicules (225-399 microm, which represent 2.7-4.2% of the body length), the number (22-33) of caudal pre-anal papillae, the position of the vulva (at 16-20% of the body length), and the presence of cuticular spines on the tip of the female tail. Specimens of H. cenaticum from New Caledonia generally exhibited smaller body measurements than those originally described from Australian waters; the deirids and eggs are described for the first time. Maricostula Bruce and Cannon, 1989 is considered a junior synonym of Hysterothylacium, to which three species are transferred as H. cenaticum (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb., H. makairi (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce and Cannon, 1989) n. comb. PMID:16167119

Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

2005-10-01

327

Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry  

PubMed Central

Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology.

Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

2012-01-01

328

Risk and benefit assessment of potential neurodevelopmental effect resulting from consumption of marine fish from a coastal archipelago in china.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess net neurodevelopmental effect via maternal consumption of marine fish. A total of thirty-one species were collected from Zhoushan, China. The net IQ point gain was assessed by FAO/WHO deterministic approach and probabilistic computation (if necessary). Results of the deterministic assessment of two samples belonging to Scoliodon sorrakowah showed negative IQ point gain in both common and extreme consumption scenarios (175 and 450 g/week, respectively); the net IQ gain caused by both consumption scenarios of other species were positive. Both consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah showed beneficial neurodevelopmental effect according to probabilistic computation (95% CI for mean of net IQ gain: 0.0536-0.0554 and 0.1377-0.1425, respectively). Except for Scoliodon sorrakowah, this study indicates that both consumption scenarios of other studied species would be recommended according to the FAO/WHO approach. There would be no recommendation of consumption scenarios of Scoliodon sorrakowah for the reason for carefulness. PMID:24823317

Gao, Yi-Xiong; Zhang, Hongxia; Yu, Xinwei; He, Jia-Lu; Shang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

2014-06-01

329

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats.  

PubMed

The accumulation of plastic debris in pelagic habitats of the subtropical gyres is a global phenomenon of growing concern, particularly with regard to wildlife. When animals ingest plastic debris that is associated with chemical contaminants, they are at risk of bioaccumulating hazardous pollutants. We examined the relationship between the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals in myctophid fish associated with plastic debris and plastic contamination in remote and previously unmonitored pelagic habitats in the South Atlantic Ocean. Using a published model, we defined three sampling zones where accumulated densities of plastic debris were predicted to differ. Contrary to model predictions, we found variable levels of plastic debris density across all stations within the sampling zones. Mesopelagic lanternfishes, sampled from each station and analyzed for bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), exhibited variability in contaminant levels, but this variability was not related to plastic debris density for most of the targeted compounds with the exception of PBDEs. We found that myctophid sampled at stations with greater plastic densities did have significantly larger concentrations of BDE#s 183 -209 in their tissues suggesting that higher brominated congeners of PBDEs, added to plastics as flame-retardants, are indicative of plastic contamination in the marine environment. Our results provide data on a previously unsampled pelagic gyre and highlight the challenges associated with characterizing plastic debris accumulation and associated risks to wildlife. PMID:24496035

Rochman, Chelsea M; Lewison, Rebecca L; Eriksen, Marcus; Allen, Harry; Cook, Anna-Marie; Teh, Swee J

2014-04-01

330

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.3.1.1 Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report,

Dana L. Woodruff; Irvin R. Schultz; Kathryn E. Marshall; Jeffrey A. Ward; Valerie I. Cullinan

2012-01-01

331

Delta-8 desaturation activity varies among fatty acyl desaturases of teleost fish: high activity in delta-6 desaturases of marine species.  

PubMed

The benefits of dietary fish and fish oil are derived from n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) that have beneficial effects in a range of human diseases and pathologies such as cardiovascular and other inflammatory disorders, neural development and neurological pathologies. The precursor of n-3 LC-PUFA, 18:3n-3 does not have the same beneficial effects prompting interest in the pathways of endogenous synthesis of LC-PUFA in vertebrates. The LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway classically involves ?6 and ?5 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad), but it was recently shown that ?6 Fad in mammals also displayed ?8 activity demonstrating a possible alternative "?8-pathway" for the synthesis of LC-PUFA. Our primary hypothesis was that ?8 desaturase activity would be a common feature of vertebrate ?6 Fads, and so the aim of the present study was to determine the ability of teleostei Fads for ?8 desaturation activity. To this end, cDNAs for Fads from a range of freshwater, diadromous and marine teleost fish species were assayed for ?8 activity in the heterologous yeast expression system. In summary, the present study has demonstrated that ?8 desaturation activity was also a characteristic of fish orthologs, although the activity varied notably between freshwater/diadromous and marine fish species, with the latter possessing Fads2-like proteins with ?8 activity far higher than mammalian FADS2. The data showed that, generally, the fish Fad are technically ?-3 desaturases, with new double bonds introduced 3C beyond a pre-existing double bond. However, the ability of zebrafish and rabbitfish Fads, previously characterised as ?6/?5 bifunctional desaturases, to introduce non-methylene interrupted double bonds in 20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6 suggested that a novel combination of regioselectivity modes operates within these enzymes. PMID:21571087

Monroig, Oscar; Li, Yuanyou; Tocher, Douglas R

2011-08-01

332

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

333

Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment  

SciTech Connect

An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual ``theoretical`` ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a ``switch`` occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

Cowan, J.H. Jr. [University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Marine Sciences; Houde, E.D. [Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.; Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-11-01

334

Size-dependent vulnerability of marine fish larvae to predation: An individual-based numerical experiment  

SciTech Connect

An individual-based predation model permitted 20-d simulations to be initiated with populations of individual theoretical'' ctenophore-, medusae-, and planktivorous fish-like predators and larvae prey that varied in size, growth rate, and swimming speed similarly to populations in the field. Results of predation experiments in 3.2 M{sup 3} mesocosms were used to estimate parameters in a Gerritsen-Strickler type encounter model which is embedded into the individual-based framework. Larval susceptibility with size also was estimated for each predator. Model simulations indicate that the relationship between larval size and vulnerability to predation, and ultimately cohort survival rate, depends upon attributes both of individual predators and larval prey and that bigger or faster growing larvae within a cohort are not always most likely to survive. Despite the finding that cohort-specific mortality generally decreased as the mean size (length) of the members of the cohort increased, mean size or growth rate of individual surviving larvae each day was lower or not significantly different from those that died in most simulations until larvae reached a size threshold when susceptibility decreased more rapidly with larval size than encounter rate increased. After the size threshold was reached, a switch'' occurred whereby predation began to select for survivors of longer mean length. The time necessary to reach the threshold depends on growth rate of the larvae, size of the predators and the variance structure of these parameters.

Cowan, J.H. Jr. (University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Marine Sciences); Houde, E.D. (Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01

335

Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W. N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J. R.; Dopazo, C. P.

2004-01-01

336

Oceanographic drivers of offspring abundance may increase or decrease reproductive variance in a temperate marine fish.  

PubMed

In species that reproduce into uncertain environments, the relationship between mean reproductive success (the abundance of new recruits) and the variance in reproductive success (whether adults contribute disproportionally more offspring) may not be straightforward because of stochastic environmental processes that create high variance in reproductive success among adults. In this study, we investigated the relationships between oceanography, reproductive success and reproductive variance in the black rockfish, Sebastes melanops, a long-lived temperate reef fish with pelagic larvae. We quantified black rockfish recruitment, genetic diversity and growth rates from otolith microstructure over 5 years (2005-2009) during which oceanographic conditions differed. We used cross-correlations to determine windows of time during which oceanographic variables were significantly correlated with the resulting abundance or genetic diversity of recruits. We found that warmer ocean temperatures were positively correlated with the abundance of recruits, as well as the effective number of breeders. In contrast, the strength of coastal upwelling during settlement was positively correlated with the annual abundance of new recruits, but was negatively correlated with the effective number of breeders. Larval growth rates were explained substantially more by temperature than by upwelling and suggested that temperature affected survival through growth, while upwelling affected survival through transport. Our results indicated that cold ocean temperatures and intense upwelling caused sweepstakes-like processes to operate on black rockfish populations, despite high abundances of recruits. We propose that a decoupling of the mean and variance in reproductive success may be characteristic of organisms that reproduce into uncertain environments. PMID:22978484

Lotterhos, Katie E; Markel, Russell W

2012-10-01

337

Yaquina Bay Marine Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines fishing, recreational and commercial, from catch to market; also retail facilities including marine repair and supply, marine oriented industrial development, and transportation related to marine oriented facilities. Phases I and II are...

1972-01-01

338

Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits. PMID:21250601

Bera, Rabindranath; Dhara, Tushar K; Bhadra, Ranjan; Majumder, Gopal C; Sen, Parimal C

2010-12-01

339

The influence of environmental characteristics on fish larvae spatial patterns related to a marine protected area: The Medes islands (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed the linkages between environmental variables and the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of larval abundance of coastal fish assemblages within and outside the Medes Islands marine protected area (MPA; NW Mediterranean) to explore possible fisheries effects such as larvae export of the latter. We analyzed small-scale fish larvae distribution of 28 representative taxa from the rocky fish assemblage and combined the former in different groups with the help of cluster analysis. Further we assessed the influence of selected abiotic variables on group and species distributions using Generalized Additive Models (GAM's). We found a high level of variability in the response of larvae groups and species to environmental variables over the two studied periods (spring and summer); depth and habitat of the adults being the most important factors. In addition, distance to the MPA was found as an important variable in defining the location of larvae of strictly coastal species. Our results provided evidence of larval export of three commercial species affected by the MPA ( Epinephelus marginatus, Pagellus erythrinus and Scorpaena porcus). Thus our study contributes to the few empirical assessments of larvae export from MPAs and adds to the understanding of the functioning of MPAs as fisheries management tools. Nevertheless, in the future integrated assessments of fisheries effects of MPAs are required that measure the effect of larvae and biomass export on increased fishing yield while taking into account fishing effort dynamics.

López-Sanz, Àngel; Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Sabatés, Ana

2011-05-01

340

A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the aquarium for…

Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

341

Kudoa iwatai and two novel Kudoa spp., K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), from daily consumed marine fish in western Japan.  

PubMed

Infection of marine fish by certain myxosporean species of the genus Kudoa results in unsightly cyst formation in the trunk muscle or post-mortem myoliquefaction, causing a great economic loss to aquaculture industries, capture fisheries, and fish dealers. In addition, consumers encountering unsightly Kudoa cysts in fish fillets believe them to be unknown foreign materials acquired during processing. To identify prevalent Kudoa spp. encountered in daily life by the Japanese population, fresh fish slices (sashimi) or fish fillets with whitish spots were collected during a 7-month period (May to December 2008) at local markets in the city of Yamaguchi, western Japan. Kudoa cysts were found in three Japanese seaperches (Lateolabrax japonicus), two black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), two Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and one albacore (Thunnus alalunga). Kudoa iwatai was identified in all the examined Japanese seaperch and black sea bream from Japan's Inland Sea, as assessed by morphology and genetic analysis of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Kudoa trachuri n. sp. from two Japanese jack mackerel fished in the Japanese Sea off Nagasaki and Kudoa thunni n. sp. from one albacore fished in the Pacific Ocean had a spore, which was semiquadrate in shape in apical views and ovoid in lateral views, with four equal shell valves and drop-like polar capsules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these three Kudoa species had different types of small projections at the apex of each valve. The 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of K. trachuri n. sp. and K. thunni n. sp. were found to be closely related to those of Kudoa crumena; however, these sequences were distinct in each of the species, which additionally exhibited different morphological features. PMID:21053015

Matsukane, Yuuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2011-04-01

342

Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

2010-10-01

343

Influence of the freshness grade of raw fish on the formation of volatile and biogenic amines during the manufacture and storage of vinegar-marinated anchovies.  

PubMed

Volatile and biogenic amines from three batches of anchovies, marinated in vinegar, were studied. The anchovies had been vacuum-packed and kept in refrigerated storage for 3 months. Trimethylamine and total volatile basic nitrogen levels were very low and constant throughout marinating and storage process: less than 1 and 10 mg/100 g, respectively. Certain amine levels, mainly those of tyramine and serotonin, increased slightly, particularly during storage. However, even the highest recorded levels were much lower than those considered to be hazardous for human consumption. To study the influence of raw material freshness in the amine profile, two laboratory trials using fresh and spoiled anchovies and simulating the industry standard marinating process were carried out. Levels for both volatile and biogenic amines were dependent on raw material quality, proving consistently higher in those deriving from nonfresh fish. Vinegar marinating leads to a decrease in the accumulation of amines in anchovy while their concentration in the vinegar solution increases due to the vinegar effect as solvent extractor. PMID:16248557

Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, Sofía; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen; Mariné-Font, Abel; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa

2005-11-01

344

Metals in marine environment (mollusc Patella sp., fish Labrus bergylta, crustacean Cancer pagurus, beach sand) in a nuclear area, the North Cotentin (France).  

PubMed

The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites. PMID:19452254

Connan, Olivier; Tack, Karine

2010-06-01

345

Redescription of the male and first description of the female of Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a parasite of the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus.  

PubMed

A redescription of the male and the first description of the female of the intestinal nematode Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 are presented on the basis of specimens collected from the type host, the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Tetraodontoidei), from the Lagoon of Yucalpetén in the northern coast of Yucatan (Gulf of Mexico), Mexico. This species is characterized by a well-sclerotized spicule and by the presence of two large ventrolateral lobe-like papillae on the male caudal end and, therefore, is assigned to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987. C. carioca is reported from Mexico for the first time. PMID:8570582

Moravec, F; Vargas Vázquez, J; Mendoza Franco, E; Vivas Rodríguez, C

1995-01-01

346

Sensitivity of bacterioplankton nitrogen metabolism to eutrophication in sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida.  

PubMed

Expression of intracellular ammonium assimilation enzymes were used to assess the response of nitrogen (N) metabolism in bacterioplankton to N-loading of sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida. Specific activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and total glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHT) were measured on the bacterial size fraction (<0.8 microm) to assess N-deplete versus N-replete metabolic states, respectively. Enzyme results were compared to concentrations of dissolved organic matter and nutrients and to the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), dissolved organic N (DON), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) positively correlated with specific activities of GDHT and negatively correlated with that of GS. Total dissolved N (TDN) concentration explained 81% of variance in bacterioplankton GDHT:GS activity ratio. The GDHT:GS ratio, TDN, DOC, and bacterial parameters decreased in magnitude along a tidally dynamic trophic gradient from north of Key West to south at the reef tract, which is consistent with the combined effects of localized coastal eutrophication and tidal exchange of seawater from the Southwest Florida Shelf and Florida Strait. The N-replete bacterioplankton north of Key West can regenerate ammonium which sustains primary production transported south to the reef. The range in GDHT:GS ratios was 5-30 times greater than that for commonly used indicators of planktonic eutrophication, which emphasizes the sensitivity of bacterioplankton N-metabolism to changes in N-bioavailability caused by nutrient pollution in sub-tropical coastal waters and utility of GDHT:GS ratio as an bioindicator of N-replete conditions. PMID:18331746

Hoch, Matthew P; Dillon, Kevin S; Coffin, Richard B; Cifuentes, Luis A

2008-05-01

347

Identification of Shewanella baltica as the Most Important H2S-Producing Species during Iced Storage of Danish Marine Fish  

PubMed Central

Shewanella putrefaciens has been considered the main spoilage bacteria of low-temperature stored marine seafood. However, psychrotropic Shewanella have been reclassified during recent years, and the purpose of the present study was to determine whether any of the new Shewanella species are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present on newly caught fish. During the warm summer months the mesophilic human pathogenic S. algae dominated the H2S-producing bacterial population. After iced storage, a shift in the Shewanella species was found, and most of the H2S-producing strains were identified as S. baltica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these two major groups. Several isolates could only be identified to the genus Shewanella level and were separated into two subgroups with low (44%) and high (47%) G+C mol%. The low G+C% group was isolated during winter months, whereas the high G+C% group was isolated on fish caught during summer and only during the first few days of iced storage. Phenotypically, these strains were different from the type strains of S.?putrefaciens, S. oneidensis, S. colwelliana, and S. affinis, but the high G+C% group clustered close to S. colwelliana by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The low G+C% group may constitute a new species. S. baltica, and the low G+C% group of Shewanella spp. strains grew well in cod juice at 0°C, but three high G+C Shewanella spp. were unable to grow at 0°C. In conclusion, the spoilage reactions of iced Danish marine fish remain unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica.

Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Satomi, Masataka; Gram, Lone

2005-01-01

348

Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.  

PubMed

Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal effects on metabolic-rate-dependent mutation and on generation times have been proposed to drive differences in speciation rates, which result in modern latitudinal biodiversity patterns over time. Clearly, this thermal mechanism alone cannot explain bathymetric patterns since temperature generally decreases with depth. We hypothesise that demonstrated physiological effects of high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature at bathyal depths, acting on shallow-water taxa invading the deep sea, may invoke a stress-evolution mechanism by increasing mutagenic activity in germ cells, by inactivating canalisation during embryonic or larval development, by releasing hidden variation or mutagenic activity, or by activating or releasing transposable elements in larvae or adults. In this scenario, increased variation at a physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths results in elevated speciation rate. Adaptation that increases tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature allows colonisation of abyssal depths and reduces the stress-evolution response, consequently returning speciation of deeper taxa to the background rate. Over time this mechanism could contribute to the unimodal diversity-depth pattern. PMID:24118851

Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

2014-05-01

349

Normalization strategies for gene expression studies by real-time PCR in a marine fish species, Scophthalmus maximus.  

PubMed

Thorough evaluation of normalization approaches is a fundamental aspect in real-time quantitative RT-PCR experiments to avoid artificial introduced intergroup variations. In our study, we tested three normalization strategies in an experimental data set derived from a toxicological exposure of Scophthalmus maximus to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonist WY-14643. Juvenile turbots were exposed by repeated injections to 5 mg or 50 mg WY-14643/kg, and liver samples were taken at day 1, 7 and 21. Specifically, the mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (prdx5) was normalized to the cDNA content, to the mRNA expression of single reference genes (b-actin, b-act; elongation factor 1 ?, ef1a; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gapdh; ribosomal protein L8, rpl8; tata-box binding protein, tbp; tubulin beta 2C chain, tubb2c; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3, ub2l3) or to a combination of multiple reference genes using geNorm, BestKeeper or NormFinder algorithms. Four single reference genes (ef1a, rpl8, tubb2c, tbp) did not show any significant differences between the treatment groups over time, while significant intergroup variations were observed for cDNA content, gapdh, b-act and ub2l3. The normalization of prdx5 to the valid (not altered) single reference genes led to significant up-regulated (prdx5/rpl8), not-regulated (prdx5/ef1a; prdx5/tbp) or down-regulated (prdx5/tubb2c) mRNA expression pattern. The multiple reference gene approaches resulted in different rankings and combinations of the most stable expressed reference genes (geNorm: ef1a>rpl8>b-act; BestKeeper: ub2l3>gapdh>ef1a; NormFinder: b-act>ef1a). However, the normalization with the three multiple reference gene procedures demonstrated consistent expression pattern with a significant up-regulation of prdx5 in response to the higher concentration after 21 days. Concluding, even if not yet established as "gold" standard for expression profiling in environmental toxicology or physiology using freshwater or marine fish models, the multiple reference gene approach is recommended, since it eliminates any biased results, which represented the major flaw of single reference genes. PMID:23517768

Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

2013-06-01

350

Potential interactions between diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance and the electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments.  

PubMed

The considerable extent of construction and operation of marine renewable energy developments (MRED) within U.K. and adjacent waters will lead, among other things, to the emission of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and subsea sounds into the marine environment. Migratory fishes that respond to natural environmental cues, such as the Earth's geomagnetic field or underwater sounds, move through the same waters that the MRED occupy, thereby raising the question of whether there are any effects of MRED on migratory fishes. Diadromous species, such as the Salmonidae and Anguillidae, which undertake large-scale migrations through coastal and offshore waters, are already significantly affected by other human activities leading to national and international conservation efforts to manage any existing threats and to minimize future concerns, including the potential effect of MRED. Here, the current state of knowledge with regard to the potential for diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance to be affected by MRED is reviewed. The information on which to base the review was found to be limited with respect to all aspects of these fishes' migratory behaviour and activity, especially with regards to MRED deployment, making it difficult to establish cause and effect relationships. The main findings, however, were that diadromous species can use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and direction finding during migrations. Juveniles of anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta and close relatives of S. trutta respond to both the Earth's magnetic field and artificial magnetic fields. Current knowledge suggests that EMFs from subsea cables may interact with migrating Anguilla sp. (and possibly other diadromous fishes) if their movement routes take them over the cables, particularly in shallow water (<20 m). The only known effect is a temporary change in swimming direction. Whether this will represent a biologically significant effect, for example delayed migration, cannot yet be determined. Diadromous fishes are likely to encounter EMFs from subsea cables either during the adult movement phases of life or their early life stages during migration within shallow, coastal waters adjacent to natal rivers. The underwater sound from MRED devices has not been fully characterized to determine its acoustic properties and propagation through the coastal waters. MRED that require pile driving during construction appear to be the most relevant to consider. In the absence of a clear understanding of their response to underwater sound, the specific effects on migratory species of conservation concern remain very difficult to determine in relation to MRED. Based on the studies reviewed, it is suggested that fishes that receive high intensity sound in close proximity to construction may be physiologically affected to some degree, whereas those at farther distances, potentially up to several km, may exhibit behaviour responses; the effect of which is unknown and will be dependent on the properties of the received sound and receptor characteristics and condition. Whether there are behavioural effects on the fishes during operation is unknown but any change to the environment and subsequent response by the fishes would need to be considered over the lifetime of the MRED. It is not yet possible to determine if effects relating to sound exposure are biologically significant. The current assumptions of limited effects are built on an incomplete understanding of how the species move around their environment and interact with natural and anthropogenic EMFs and subsea sound. A number of important knowledge gaps exist, principally whether migratory fish species on the whole respond to the EMF and the sound associated with MRED. Future research should address the principal gaps before assuming that any effect on diadromous species results in a biological effect. PMID:22803729

Gill, A B; Bartlett, M; Thomsen, F

2012-07-01

351

Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.  

PubMed

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 µm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. PMID:25079814

Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

2014-09-01

352

Supplemental information concerning a survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).

Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

1993-10-01

353

Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: a case study of the live reef fish food trade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ecological footprint analyses of coral reef fish fisheries and, in particular, the live reef fish food trade (FT), indicate many countries' current consumption exceeds estimated sustainable per capita global, regional and local coral reef production levels. Hong Kong appropriates 25% of SE Asia's annual reef fish production of 135 260-286 560 tonnes (t) through its FT demand, exceeding regional biocapacity by 8.3 times; reef fish fisheries demand out-paces sustainable production in the Indo-Pacific and SE Asia by 2.5 and 6 times. In contrast, most Pacific islands live within their own reef fisheries means with local demand at < 20% of total capacity in Oceania. The FT annually requisitions up to 40% of SE Asia's estimated reef fish and virtually all of its estimated grouper yields. Our results underscore the unsustainable nature of the FT and the urgent need for regional management and conservation of coral reef fisheries in the Indo-Pacific.

Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley; Sadovy, Yvonne; Cesar, Herman

2003-01-01

354

Freshwater and Marine Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Freshwater and Marine Image Bank is an ongoing digital collection of images related to freshwater and marine topics, in all their diversity. It includes images of fish, shellfish, and marine mammals, pictures of fish hatcheries and dams and vessels, materials related to polar exploration, regional and traditional fisheries, and limnological (freshwater) subjects. Its scope is global.

Washington, University O.

2010-02-16

355

USE OF MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION (TIE) METHODS IN DETERMINING CAUSES OF TOXICITY TO FISH IN A MARINE AQUARIUM FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We obtained a water sample containing broken pieces of a tropical coral reef decor that was suspected of causing fish toxicity in a major aquarium. A toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) was performed using three species: a mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia; inland silvers...

356

Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems. Proceedings of the Lowell Wakefield Fisheries International Symposium on the Role of Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems. Held in Anchorage, Alaska on November 13-16, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Prey Resource Partitioning Among Several Species of Forage Fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska; Bioenergetics Estimation of Juvenile Pollock Food Consumption in the Gulf of Alaska; Winter Dormancy in the Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes ...

1996-01-01

357

Imprints from genetic drift and mutation imply relative divergence times across marine transition zones in a pan-European small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)  

PubMed Central

Geographic distributions of most temperate marine fishes are affected by postglacial recolonisation events, which have left complex genetic imprints on populations of marine species. This study investigated population structure and demographic history of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by combining inference from both mtDNA and microsatellite genetic markers throughout the species' distribution. We compared effects from genetic drift and mutation for both genetic markers in shaping genetic differentiation across four transition zones. Microsatellite markers revealed significant isolation by distance and a complex population structure across the species? distribution (overall ?ST=0.038, P<0.01). Across transition zones markers indicated larger effects of genetic drift over mutations in the northern distribution of sprat contrasting a stronger relative impact of mutation in the species' southern distribution in the Mediterranean region. These results were interpreted to reflect more recent divergence times between northern populations in accordance with previous findings. This study demonstrates the usefulness of comparing inference from different markers and estimators of divergence for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in species with weak genetic structure, as is the case in many marine species.

Limborg, M T; Hanel, R; Debes, P V; Ring, A K; Andre, C; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Bekkevold, D

2012-01-01

358

Structure and seasonal variability of fish food webs in an estuarine tropical marine protected area (Senegal): Evidence from stable isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West African tropical estuaries play an important role in the growth and survival of many commercially exploited fish species and enable the sustainability of considerable artisanal fishery yields. However, their trophic functioning remains poorly understood. In the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal), a marine protected area (MPAs) was designated in 2003 to manage fisheries resources. The present study aimed to determine the structure, trophic functioning and seasonal patterns of the fish assemblages in this MPA. Throughout the study, 28 fish species were collected, with higher values of biomass (3826 kg km -2) recorded during the wet season and lower values during the dry season (1228 kg km -2). Fish assemblages in both seasons were dominated by species with marine affinity, which accounted for 87% of the total biomass in the wet season and 70% in the dry season, with their abundance varying from 83% to 57%, respectively. Based on stable isotopic composition (? 13C and ? 15N), species were combined into trophic groups. Primary consumers were partitioned into suspensivores (pelagic copepods, oysters and mussels), which fed mainly on particulate organic matter, and intermediate consumers, feeding on freshly deposited organic matter and benthic microalgae ( Sarotherodon melanotheron and Arca senilis). Secondary consumers were divided into three groups. The first group included mullet, which fed by grazing on benthic microalgae (benthic affinity feeders). The second group, pelagic affinity feeders, was the most heterogeneous and fed mainly on pelagic components. The last secondary consumer group termed the intermediate group, included piscivores and benthic and pelagic invertebrate feeders, which dominated the top of the food web. The food chain in October was lengthened due to the occurrence of tertiary consumers. Food webs were dominated by secondary consumers, which constituted 89% of total biomass in the dry season and 71% in the wet season. The fish food web varied largely with season in faunal composition and food chain length. This study highlighted the need to take into account the seasonal dynamic of the food web both in terms of composition and structure to assess carbon fluxes in tropical estuaries.

Faye, Djibril; Tito de Morais, Luis; Raffray, Jean; Sadio, Oumar; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Le Loc'h, François

2011-05-01

359

Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies.

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

360

Variation in Planning Unit-Size and Patterns of Fish Diversity: Implications for Design of Marine Protected Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have commonly been used to conserve or protect communities and habitats sensitive to disturbance, provide refuge for juveniles and spawning adults of exploited species, and serve as a hedge against management miscalculations ...

C. Y. Kuo J. Parent P. J. Auster

2010-01-01

361

[Effects of reforestation on soil chemical properties and microbial communities in a severely degraded sub-tropical red soil region].  

PubMed

Taking the long-term reforestation experimental base established in a severely degraded sub-tropical hilly red soil region in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province in 1991 as the object, this paper studied the changes of soil nutrients and microbial communities after 19 years reforestation of Pinus elliottii forest, Liquidambarformosana forest, and P. elliotti-L. formosana forest, with the naturally restored grassland as the control. The soil organic carbon content in the L. formosana and P. elliottii-L. formosana forests (15.16+/-3.53 and 16.42+/-0.49 g kg-1, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the control (9.30+/-1.13 g kg-1), the soil total phosphorus content was in the order of the control (0.30+/-0.02 g kg-1) > P. elliottii-L. formosana forest (0.22+/-0.04 g kg-1 ) > L. formosana forest (0.14+/-0.01 g kg-1 ), while the soil available phosphorus content was 1.66+/-0.02 mg kg-1 in L. formosana forest, 2.47+/-0. 27 mg kg- in P. elliottii-L. formosana forest, and 1. 15+/-0.71 mg kg-1 in P. elliottii forest, being significantly higher than that in the control (0.01+/-0.00 mg kg-1). The total amounts of soil microbes, the amount and percentage of soil bacteria, and the amount of inorganic and organic phosphate-solubilizing microbes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were all significantly higher than those in P. elliottii forest and the control, while the amount and percentage of soil fungi and the percentage of soil actinomycetes in L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest were significantly lower than those in the control. The soil organic carbon content was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of soil bactera, but negatively correlated with the percentage of soil fungi and actinomycetes, while the soil available phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with the amount of organic phosphate-solubilizing microes, but not with the amount of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing microbes. It was suggested that L. formosana forest and P. elliottii-L. formosana forest could be the recommended reforestation models in sub-tropical degraded red soil region. PMID:23898670

Gong, Xia; Niu, De-kui; Zhao, Xiao-rui; Lu, Sun-bao; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Wei, Xiao-hua; Guo, Xiao-min

2013-04-01

362

Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata. In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

Desborough, George A.; Poole, F. G.; Hose, R. K.; Radtke, A. S.

1979-01-01

363

Marine Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

364

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

365

Government Reorganization: Potential Benefits and Drawbacks of Merging the National Marine Fisheries Service into the Fish and Wildlife Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NMFS and FWS have primary federal responsibility for managing fish and wildlife. The missions of NMFS and FWS have some broad similarities, which have prompted long-standing questions about whether merging the agencies would improve the efficiency or effe...

2013-01-01

366

Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

367

RNA–DNA ratio and other nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition of marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid analysis has provided useful tools to study recent growth and mortality of young fishes and their responses to environmental variability. The ratio of RNA–DNA (R\\/D) has been shown to respond to changes in feeding conditions and growth after periods as short as 1–3 days in a variety of fish species. The earliest studies used primarily UV-based methods, but

L. Buckley; E. Caldarone; T.-L. Ong

1999-01-01

368

Complete Sequence of Virulence Plasmid pJM1 from the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Strain 775  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence plasmid pJM1 enables the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a gram-negative polarly flagel- lated comma-shaped rod bacterium, to cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic septicemic disease in salmonids and other fishes, leading to epizootics throughout the world. The pJM1 plasmid 65,009-nucleotide sequence, with an overall GC content of 42.6%, revealed genes and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding iron transporters, nonribosomal

Manuela Di Lorenzo; Michiel Stork; Marcelo E. Tolmasky; Luis A. Actis; David Farrell; Timothy J. Welch; Lidia M. Crosa; Anne M. Wertheimer; Qian Chen; Patricia Salinas; Lillian Waldbeser; Jorge H. Crosa

2003-01-01

369

Strong genetic divergence among populations of a marine fish with limited dispersal, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, within the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea.  

PubMed

Acanthochromis polyacanthus is an unusual tropical marine damselfish that uniquely lacks pelagic larvae and has lost the capacity for broad-scale dispersal among coral reefs. On the modern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), three color morphs meet and hydridize at two zones of secondary contact. Allozyme electrophoreses revealed strong differences between morphs from the southern zone but few differences between morphs from the northern counterpart, thus suggesting different contact histories. We explore the phylogeography of Acanthochromis polyacanthus with mitochondrial cytochrome b region sequences (alignment of 565 positions) obtained from 126 individuals representing seven to 12 fish from 13 sites distributed over 12 reefs of the GBR and the Coral Sea. The samples revealed three major clades: (1) black fish collected from the southern GBR; (2) bicolored fish collected from the GBR and one reef (Osprey) from the northern Coral Sea; (3) black and white monomorphs collected from six reefs in the Coral Sea. All three clades were well supported (72-100%) by bootstrap analyses. Sequence divergences were very high between the major clades (mean = 7.6%) as well as within them (2.0-3.6%). Within clades, most reefs segregated as monophyletic assemblages. This was revealed both by phylogenetic analyses and AMOVAs that showed that 72-90% of the variance originated from differences among groups, whereas only 5-13% originated within populations. These patterns are discussed in relation to the known geological history of coral reefs of the GBR and the Coral Sea. Finally, we ask whether the monospecific status of Acanthochromis should be revisited because the sequence divergences found among our samples is substantially greater than those recorded among well-recognized species in other reef fishes. PMID:11794786

Planes, S; Doherty, P J; Bernardi, G

2001-11-11

370

New particle formation and growth at a remote, sub-tropical coastal location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted in March/April 2007 at Agnes Water, a remote coastal site just south of the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Particle and ion size distributions were continuously measured during the campaign. Coastal nucleation events were observed in clean, marine air masses coming from the south-east on 65% of the days. The events usually began at ~10:00 local time and lasted for 1-4 h. They were characterised by the appearance of a nucleation mode with a peak diameter of ~10 nm. The freshly nucleated particles grew within 1-4 h up to sizes of 20-50 nm. The events occurred when solar intensity was high (~1000 W m-2) and RH was low (~60%). Interestingly, the events were not related to tide height. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of freshly nucleated particles (17-22.5 nm), simultaneously measured with a volatility-hygroscopicity-tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA), were used to infer chemical composition. The majority of the volume of these particles was attributed to internally mixed sulphate and organic components. After ruling out coagulation as a source of significant particle growth, we conclude that the condensation of sulphate and/or organic vapours was most likely responsible for driving particle growth during the nucleation events. We cannot make any direct conclusions regarding the chemical species that participated in the initial particle nucleation. However, we suggest that nucleation may have resulted from the photo-oxidation products of unknown sulphur or organic vapours emitted from the waters of Hervey Bay, or from the formation of DMS-derived sulphate clusters over the open ocean that were activated to observable particles by condensable vapours emitted from the nutrient rich waters around Fraser Island or Hervey Bay. Furthermore, a unique and particularly strong nucleation event was observed during northerly wind. The event began early one morning (08:00) and lasted almost the entire day resulting in the production of a large number of ~80 nm particles (average modal concentration during the event was 3200 cm-3). The Great Barrier Reef was the most likely source of precursor vapours responsible for this event.

Modini, R. L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Johnson, G. R.; He, C.; Surawski, N.; Morawska, L.; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.

2009-05-01

371

Phylogeny of Neoparamoeba strains isolated from marine fish and invertebrates as inferred from SSU rDNA sequences.  

PubMed

We characterised 9 strains selected from primary isolates referable to Paramoeba/Neoparamoeba spp. Based on ultrastructural study, 5 strains isolated from fish (amoebic gill disease [AGD]-affected Atlantic salmon and dead southern bluefin tuna), 1 strain from netting of a floating sea cage and 3 strains isolated from invertebrates (sea urchins and crab) were assigned to the genus Neoparamoeba Page, 1987. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences revealed affiliations of newly introduced and previously analysed Neoparamoeba strains. Three strains from the invertebrates and 2 out of 3 strains from gills of southern bluefin tunas were members of the N. branchiphila clade, while the remaining, fish-isolated strains, as well as the fish cage strain, clustered within the clade of N. pemaquidensis. These findings and previous reports point to the possibility that N. pemaquidensis and N. branchiphila can affect both fish and invertebrates. A new potential fish host, southern bluefin tuna, was included in the list of farmed fish endangered by N. branchiphila. The sequence of P. eilhardi (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa [CCAP] strain 1560/2) appeared in all analyses among sequences of strain representatives of Neoparamoeba species, in a position well supported by bootstrap value, Bremer index and Bayesian posterior probability. Our research shows that isolation of additional strains from invertebrates and further analyses of relations between molecular data and morphological characters of the genera Paramoeba and Neoparamoeba are required. This complexity needs to be considered when attempting to define molecular markers for identification of Paramoeba/Neoparamoeba species in tissues of fish and invertebrates. PMID:17425264

Dyková, Iva; Nowak, Barbara; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Crosbie, Philip; Dvoráková, Helena

2007-02-01

372

Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.  

PubMed

Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis proved to be a valuable tool in these toxicity assessments, and is recommended for use in tropical marine toxicity assessments for northern Australia. PMID:23932510

Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

2013-11-01

373

Marine Aquaculture: Opportunities for Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal farming and ocean ranching of marine fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and seaweed are a major and growing industry worldwide. In the US, freshwater aquaculture is rapidly becoming a significant commercial activity; however, marine aquaculture has lag...

1992-01-01

374

Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of the genus Raphidascaris (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes from the South China Sea.  

PubMed

A new anisakid nematode, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) longispicula sp. nov., is described from the intestine and stomach of the marine fish Uroconger lepturus (Richardson) (Anguilliformes: Congridae) from the South China Sea (Guangdong and Hainan Province, respectively). The new species differs from all congeners in the subgenus Ichthyascaris by the short ventricular appendix (0.36-0.49 mm long), the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (25-28 pairs of preanal, 1-2 pairs of paranal, and 6-8 pairs of postanal), and the very long spicules (1.13-1.32 mm long, representing 9.34-10.3% of body length). The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA of R. (I.) longispicula sp. nov. are analyzed and compared with the closely related nematode sequences. Molecular analyses seem to support the validity of this new nematode species based on morphological observation. PMID:21987101

Li, Liang; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Bao-Chen; Zhang, Lu-Ping

2012-04-01

375

Are low but statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation in marine fishes 'biologically meaningful'? A case study of coastal Atlantic cod.  

PubMed

A key question in many genetic studies on marine organisms is how to interpret a low but statistically significant level of genetic differentiation. Do such observations reflect a real phenomenon, or are they caused by confounding factors such as unrepresentative sampling or selective forces acting on the marker loci? Further, are low levels of differentiation biologically trivial, or can they represent a meaningful and perhaps important finding? We explored these issues in an empirical study on coastal Atlantic cod, combining temporally replicated genetic samples over a 10-year period with an extensive capture-mark-recapture study of individual mobility and population size. The genetic analyses revealed a pattern of differentiation between the inner part of the fjord and the open skerries area at the fjord entrance. Overall, genetic differentiation was weak (average F(ST) ?=?0.0037), but nevertheless highly statistical significant and did not depend on particular loci that could be subject to selection. This spatial component dominated over temporal change, and temporal replicates clustered together throughout the 10-year period. Consistent with genetic results, the majority of the recaptured fish were found close to the point of release, with <1% of recaptured individuals dispersing between the inner fjord and outer skerries. We conclude that low levels of genetic differentiation in this marine fish can indeed be biologically meaningful, corresponding to separate, temporally persistent, local populations. We estimated the genetically effective sizes (N(e) ) of the two coastal cod populations to 198 and 542 and found a N(e) /N (spawner) ratio of 0.14. PMID:21199035

Knutsen, H; Olsen, E M; Jorde, P E; Espeland, S H; André, C; Stenseth, N C

2011-02-01

376

Identification and quantification of polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives and other halogenated natural products in commercial fish and other marine samples.  

PubMed

During routine analysis of commercial fish on halogenated pollutants, an unknown tribromo component (TriBHD) was initially detected as an abundant peak in sample extracts from the Mediterranean Sea. The molecular formula was established to be C16H19Br3O by gas chromatography with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/EI-HRMS). GC/EI-MS data were virtually identical with a polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivative (PBHD) previously isolated from an Australian sponge species known to occur in the Mediterranean Sea as well. A tetrabromo isomer (TetraBHD) was also found in the fish samples. The concentrations of TriBHD and other halogenated compounds in commercial fish (sea bass, gilt head bream, anchovy, sardine, and salmon) were estimated with GC/electron capture detection (ECD). Using the ECD response of trans-nonachlor, the concentration of TriBHD reached up to 90 ng/g lipid weight and accounted for up to >90% of the concentration of p,p'-DDE, which was the most abundant peak in the most samples investigated. On the basis of the GC/ECD response, TetraBHD amounted for approximately 1/7 of TriBHD in all fish samples investigated. The sample with the highest content was a green-lipped mussel from New Zealand (236 ng/g lipid weight). The halogenated natural products TBA, Q1, and MHC-1 were also present in most of the samples. We assume that the bulk of the residues in fish from aquaculture may originate from algae and sponges living in proximity of the fish farms. Detection of TriBHD and TetraBHD in blubber of a monk seal (Monachus monachus) suggests that both HNPs may reach the top predators of food webs and thus also humans. PMID:16569057

Hiebl, Josef; Melcher, Joachim; Gundersen, Hans; Schlabach, Martin; Vetter, Walter

2006-04-01

377

Ecosystem effects of marine fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fisheries literature avoids speaking about ecosystem impacts of fishing, either because impacts are not demonstrated or because a causal relationship between impacts and fishing cannot be formally established with the available information. However, there is mounting evidence that fishing has undesired effects in the marine ecosystems. This overview examines the wide ecosystem effects of fishing, describing and illustrating the

R Goñi

1998-01-01

378

Protective effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) extract against DNA damage induced by mercury chloride in marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine organisms are continuously exposed to agents, both exogenous and endogenous, that damage DNA. Consequently, it is important to determine the ability of compounds to provide protection against damaging chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-genotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyceae), collected from the Southeast coast of India. The present study focused

A. K. Kumaraguru

2012-01-01

379

Protective effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) extract against DNA damage induced by mercury chloride in marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine organisms are continuously exposed to agents, both exogenous and endogenous, that damage DNA. Consequently, it is important to determine the ability of compounds to provide protection against damaging chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-genotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyceae), collected from the Southeast coast of India. This study focused on

N. Nagarani; V. JanakiDevi; M. YokeshBabu; A. K. Kumaraguru

2012-01-01

380

Low-Cost Bathymetric Mapping for Tropical Marine Conservation—A Focus on Reef Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine conservation scientists and managers working in the tropics need bathymetric data, yet there exists no relatively simple and inexpensive system to derive them. We designed a system to produce bathymetric maps in 0–1,000 m water depth in less time, with less cost, and with less effort than any other system available. The system uses Landsat TM imagery to guide

William D. Heyman; Jean-Louis B. Ecochard; Frank B. Biasi

2007-01-01

381

Prevention of surface death of marine fish larvae by the addition of egg white into rearing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the seed production of several marine teleosts, large numbers of dead larvae are frequently observed on the water surface around the time of first feeding. We tried to prevent such “surface death” by the addition of chicken egg white (EW) into the rearing water. In the first experiment, larvae of striped bonito, Sarda orientalis, at the first feeding stage

Tatsuya Kaji; Masaaki Kodama; Hiroshi Arai; Masaru Tanaka; Masatomo Tagawa

2003-01-01

382

Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops)  

PubMed Central

One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (FST ?=?0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species’ need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

2013-01-01

383

Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s.  

PubMed

A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) and natural radionculides ((40)K, (210)Pb and (226)Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of (90)Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg(-1) and (137)Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average (137)Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in (210)Pb, (40)K, and (226)Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total (210)Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported (210)Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess (210)Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, (137)Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, (210)Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, (40)K and (226)Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to (90)Sr and (137)Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 ?SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. PMID:21774963

Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

2011-09-01

384

Morphological and molecular characterization of Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) lophii (Wu, 1949) (Nematoda, Anisakidae) from marine fishes from China, with a key to the species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris.  

PubMed

The little known ascaridoid nematode Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) lophii (Wu, 1949) is redescribed and illustrated based on newly collected specimens from the five different marine fishes: Lophius litulon (Jordan) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Lophiomus setigerus (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Antennarius hispidus (Bloch et Schneider) (Lophiiformes: Antennaridae), Zeus faber Linnaeus (Zeiformes: Zeidae) and Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier) (Beryciformes: Holocentridae) from the East and South China Sea. This species differs from all congeners in the subgenus Ichthyascaris by the length of the ventricular appendix (0.52-0.98 mm long), the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (26-32 pairs of precloacal, 3-4 pairs of paracloacal and 8-11 pairs of postcloacal) and the length of the spicules (0.49-0.88 mm long, representing 3.08-4.70% of body length). In addition, nematodes collected from these five different fishes have been characterized using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA. No variation in size and nucleotide polymorphisms is detected within the target sequence among all samples analysed. These data contribute to facilitate an accurate diagnosis of this poorly known nematode. An identification key to the species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris is also provided. PMID:22875681

Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Liu, Bao-Chen; Li, Liang

2012-09-01

385

Nitric oxide synthase sequences in the marine fish Stenotomus chrysops and the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata, and phylogenetic analysis of nitric oxide synthase calmodulin-binding domains.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic distribution and structural diversity of the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) remain important and issues that are little understood. We present sequence information, as well as phylogenetic analysis, for three NOS cDNAs identified in two non-mammalian species: the vertebrate marine teleost fish Stenotomus chrysops (scup) and the invertebrate echinoderm Arbacia punctulata (sea urchin). Partial gene sequences containing the well-conserved calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain were amplified by RT-PCR. Identical 375-bp cDNAs were amplified from scup brain, heart, liver and spleen; this sequence shares 82% nucleic acid and 91% predicted amino acid identity with the corresponding region of human neuronal NOS. A 387-bp cDNA was amplified from sea urchin ovary and testes; this sequence shares 72% nucleic acid identity and 65% deduced amino acid identity with human neuronal NOS. A second cDNA of 381 bp was amplified from sea urchin ovary and it shares 66% nucleic acid and 57% deduced amino acid identity with the first sea urchin sequence. Together with earlier reports of neuronal and inducible NOS sequences in fish, these data indicate that multiple NOS isoforms exist in non-mammalian species. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences confirms the conserved nature of NOS, particularly of the calmodulin-binding domains. PMID:11691625

Cox, R L; Mariano, T; Heck, D E; Laskin, J D; Stegeman, J J

2001-12-01

386

Designing an integrated environmental monitoring plan for land-based marine fish farms located at exposed and hard bottom coastal areas.  

PubMed

The increase in aquaculture activities in the last few decades has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in environmental controls and regulations. In this context, the application of environmental monitoring plans (EMPs) has become necessary to assess the environmental impact associated with fish farming wastes. The objective of this review paper is to evaluate the suitability of experimental and analytical procedures as monitoring tools for inclusion in EMPs for intensive land-based marine fish farms (LBMFFs). The strong hydrodynamics and, in particular, the lack of sediment on the rocky coasts where LBMFFs are usually located, greatly limit the monitoring tools that can be used. We propose EMPs that employ a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate: contamination, trophic and toxic effects, and ecological integrity. Laboratory tests, in situ bioassays and field surveys of local species are presented as key tools for assessing the impact of LBMFFs on ecosystems. The ?(15)N signal along a spatial gradient is proposed for evaluating exposure to contaminants. Trophic effects can be determined by growth of transplanted macro- and microalgae. Toxic effects can be evaluated by responses at different levels of biological organization, including biochemical and histological changes, physiological alterations and survival, in species from different trophic levels. Fouling tests and analysis of community structures are recommended for assessing ecological integrity. This review contributes to the development of environmental controls for intensive LBMFFs, and for other activities that discharge wastewater to rocky shores. PMID:22441808

Carballeira, C; Ramos-Gómez, J; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A; Carballeira, A

2012-05-01

387

Integration of consumer-targeted microalgal production with marine fish effluent biofiltration – a strategy for mariculture sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU regulations recommend effluent treatment and nutrient recycling for aquaculture sustainability, so a study was undertaken to provide base-line data for the integration of commercial fish-farm effluents with the production of microalgae. The project relates to a specific bivalve consumer (Tapes decussatus) and biofiltration. Effluent inorganic nutrient composition was assessed and evaluated as culture media for Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tetraselmis suecica

Maria-Teresa Borges; Patrícia Silva; Lídia Moreira; Rosa Soares

2005-01-01

388

A fully integrated GIS-based model of particulate waste distribution from marine fish-cage sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Geographical Information System (GIS) offers a powerful modelling environment capable of handling large databases. It is a very suitable environment in which to develop a suite of tools designed for environmental management of aquaculture sites, including carrying capacity prediction, land–water interactions and multi-site effects. One such tool, presented here, is a fully integrated and validated particulate fish waste dispersion

R. A. Corner; A. J. Brooker; T. C. Telfer; L. G. Ross

2006-01-01

389

The biogeography of polyphenolic compounds in marine macroalgae: temperate brown algal defenses deter feeding by tropical herbivorous fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tropical brown algae have low levels of polyphenolic compounds and are readily consumed by herbivorous fish. In contrast, temperate brown algae often produce large quantities of phenolic compounds causing them to be distasteful to herbivorous gastropods and sea urchins. We hypothesized that tropical brown algae do not use phenolic compounds as antiherbivore defenses because these compounds are not effective

Kathryn L. Van Alstyne; Valerie J. Paul

1990-01-01

390

Rapid speciation analysis of mercury in seawater and marine fish by cation exchange chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, a hybrid method for the rapid speciation of mercury compounds by cation exchange chromatographic separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is reported. Effective separation of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg) and phenylmercury (PhHg) within 2-2.5min was achieved on two consecutive 12.5-mm strong cation exchange guard columns with 2.0mM l-cysteine or thiourea (pH 2.0) as the mobile phase. This separation met the requirements of green analytical chemistry such as the prevention of toxic waste, safer HPLC mobile phases, and short separation times to reduce operating costs. The detection limits for Hg(2+), MeHg, EtHg and PhHg were 0.019, 0.027, 0.031 and 0.022?gL(-1), each, and the repeatabilities of peak height and peak area (5.0?gL(-1) for each Hg species) were all lower than 3%. Contents of Hg species and total mercury in certified reference materials of seawater (GBW(E) 080042) and fish tissue (GBW 10029) were in good accordance with the certified values, and satisfactory recoveries (96-102% for GBW(E) 080042 and 94-101% for GBW 10029) validated the developed method. The developed method was applied for the speciation of mercury in five seawater sample and five marine fish samples. The concentrations of mercury species in all analyzed fish samples did not exceed the permissible levels of the National Standard of China. PMID:24063982

Chen, Xiaopan; Han, Chao; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Hu, Lei

2013-11-01

391

Three Potential Sources of Microfungi in a Treated Municipal Water Supply System in Sub-Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system.

Sammon, Noel B.; Harrower, Keith M.; Fabbro, Larelle D.; Reed, Rob H.

2011-01-01

392

Three potential sources of microfungi in a treated municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia.  

PubMed

Some microfungi are known to be opportunistic human pathogens, and there is a body of scientific opinion that one of their routes of infection may be water aerosols. Others have been implicated as causative agents of odours and off-tastes in drinking water. This study was undertaken to investigate three potential sources of microfungi in a treated, oligotrophic municipal water supply system in sub-tropical Australia. Formation of the microfungal component of developing biofilm on hard surfaces in water storage reservoirs was also assessed. Inside and outside air samples were collected from two reservoirs using two types of Burkard air samplers. Biofilm and soft sediment samples were collected from the inner surfaces of asbestos cement water pipes and from pipe dead ends respectively. These were analysed for microfungal growth and sporulation using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy. Artificial coupons of glass, PVC and concrete were immersed in two reservoirs to assess microfungal biofilm formation. This was analysed periodically using Calcofluor White stain and epifluorescent microscopy, cultures of coupon swabs and scanning electron microscopy. Fungal spores were recovered from all air samples. The number of colonies and the genera were similar for both inside and outside air. Microfungal filaments and sporulating structures were recovered from most of the pipe inner surface biofilm and dead end sediment samples, but were sparser in the biofilm than in the sediment samples. No recognisable, vegetative filamentous fungi were found in the slowly developing biofilm on coupons. This study indicates that airborne spores are an important potential source of microfungi found in water storage reservoirs. It has also demonstrated conclusively that filamentous microfungi grow and sporulate on water pipe inner surfaces and in soft sediments within the water distribution system. PMID:21556175

Sammon, Noel B; Harrower, Keith M; Fabbro, Larelle D; Reed, Rob H

2011-03-01

393

Identification of seagrasses in the gut of a marine herbivorous fish using DNA barcoding and visual inspection techniques.  

PubMed

Traditional visual diet analysis techniques were compared with DNA barcoding in juvenile herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens collected in Moreton Bay, Australia, where at least six species of seagrass occur. The intergenic spacer trnH-psbA, suggested as the optimal gene for barcoding angiosperms, was used for the first time to identify the seagrass in fish guts. Four seagrass species and one alga were identified visually from gut contents; however, there was considerable uncertainty in visual identification with 38 of 40 fish having unidentifiable plant fragments in their gut. PCR and single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) were able to discriminate three seagrass families from visually cryptic gut contents. While effective in identifying cryptic gut content to family level, this novel method is likely to be most efficient when paired with visual identification techniques. PMID:21722114

Chelsky Budarf, A; Burfeind, D D; Loh, W K W; Tibbetts, I R

2011-07-01

394

Effect of magnesium peroxide biostimulation of fish feed-loaded marine sediments on changes in the bacterial community.  

PubMed

The effect of an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) magnesium peroxide (MgO(2)) on the changes in the bacterial community in organically polluted sediment of aquaculture farms was tested in a microcosm experiment. The sediment, to which fish feed was added, was treated with 1% or 5% MgO(2). The addition of fish feed induced a highly reduced environment with low redox potential, high total sulfides, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) . Although the sediment remained highly reduced at 1% MgO(2), there was a significant reduction of total sulfides, increase of redox potential, and resultant reduction of SRB. The bacterial community clearly changed with the treatments according to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) . Aerobes disappeared in the fish feed-added sediment, and some SRB emerged in place of these aerobes. On the other hand, the SRB disappeared in the ORC-amended sediment due to its highly oxic condition. This study revealed the bacterial community in the sediments was affected mainly by the redox potential and resultant sulfides produced by SRB, but total organic carbon and nitrogen were not determinants of the microbial population. PMID:23538850

Santander-De Leon, Sheila Mae S; Okunishi, Suguru; Kihira, Masaki; Nakano, Miyo; Nuñal, Sharon N; Hidaka, Masayasu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Maeda, Hiroto

2013-01-01

395

Food control by applied biochemistry of marine organisms: Comparison of proteins and metabolites from fish and invertebrate muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most fishery products consist of muscle tissue from fish and invertebrates. Differences in the molecular structure and in metabolism of muscles can be utilized to characterize and identify various seafood. Creatine and arginine were found to be useful for the differentiation between imitation crab/shrimp meat and real crustacean meat. Octopine served as an indicator for the meat of cephalopods and mussels. In order to identify the animal species of a fishery product, several electrophoretic methods were used. It depended on the type of product, whether sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar proteins were better suited. Raw products were best analysed by isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins. Two types of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumins of fish and soluble calcium-binding proteins of invertebrates, were especially useful for species identification. Due to their thermal stability, these proteins gave species-specific patterns for cooked products, too. Two other techniques were also investigated: urea gel isoelectric focusing, and sodium dodecyl sulphate — polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These methods were applied in the analysis of products where the sarcoplasmic proteins had been removed by washing steps, i.e. imitation crab meat made from surimi, and of other raw and cooked products. The myosin light chains gave protein patterns that were characteristic for many species. Paramyosin, which is absent from vertebrate muscle, indicated the presence of mollusc muscle. It was shown that the determination, of arginine kinase activity enabled differentiation between raw fish muscle and invertebrate muscles.

Rehbein, H.

1995-03-01

396

Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Background Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a ?2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by ?150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM) in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated ?0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at ?0.78 my. Main Conclusions/Significance Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversificati